‘Future Challenges/Ancient Knowledge’ Conference, USP, Suva, 2010<br />Making the case for sail-powered sea transport as a...
 New approaches/solutions needed for Oceania.<br />Ever increasing demand for resources/services in an ocean dominated by ...
Ships are to Oceania as horses, roads, cars, rail and trucks are to continents.<br />globally, 90% of goods/resources tran...
Projected emissions up to 2050 under four different technology scenarios that vary the sulphur content of ship fuels show ...
Sail-powered sea-transport:	<br /> intellectual property legacy of the Pacific <br /> issue that links all of Oceania<br /...
It’s a wind generator Jim, just not as we know it!!!<br />
My name is Peter Nuttall<br />kiwi geographer <br />For the past decade my home has been a  sailing ship in the Pacific.<b...
Today’s presentation<br />Lessons Learned<br />Sailing – an Oceanic Legacy<br />Southampton Uni<br />Na Mataisau<br />Shin...
Today’s presentation<br />Fiji focussed but much is applicable across the region<br />
Sailing – An Oceanic Legacy<br />Over past 3-5,000 yrs, Pacific Sailors explored & populated the Pacific Ocean, 1/3 globe ...
With sticks, stones and grass, a sail technology was perfected that wasn’t rivalled again until aerodynamics was used for ...
The ships & sails were the pinnacle of sailing technology – fast, big and  manoeuvrable.<br />If the America’s Cup had bee...
Fijian Vesi was at the centre of a trading network that covered much of central Oceania, complex networks of island and vi...
a failure to balance vaka vanua and cultural principles with modern business  imperatives</li></ul>Not<br /><ul><li>Poor s...
Any inability to understand western commerce</li></li></ul><li>In only a few decades, much of this indigenous technology a...
Surely the case for sail has been exhaustively examined before now?<br />Unfortunately no.  With cheap oil, motor propulsi...
Na Mataisau (1984)<br />6 yr old, 300 ton passenger/cargo ship used for island work in Fiji.<br />Retrofitted with auxilia...
17 Jan 1985 Na Mataisau was caught in a developing cyclone<br />Her engines failed.<br />Under sail alone she made the saf...
The research from Southampton  University  collected comprehensive wind and route data for all Fiji which is all still rel...
The results from these experiments provide compelling arguments for sail use on most common Fiji shipping routes <br />
Also in the 1980s the Japanese fitted small oil tankers with fixed wing sails.<br />These were high tech, computer control...
<ul><li>Overall fuel savings of up to 30%
The sails replaced the need for stabilisers – the roll and pitch of the boat was greatly reduced.  Energy demand decreased...
Increased stability meant vessel could operate in stronger weather than conventional ships
Engine wear dramatically reduced
Vessel maximum cruising speed increased from 12-14kts
Vessel could be sailed without motors in emergencies</li></li></ul><li>More recently focus has shifted to the potential fo...
In the 1980’s FAO investigated and trialled a range of artisanal fishing craft in a number of Pacific Island countries.<br...
Although the uptake was low, the design work is still relevant today<br />One of the critical lessons learned was that cul...
Pacific Voyaging Revival<br />In the past 30 yrs there has been a sustained revival and relearning of Oceanic sailing heri...
Propulsion Options for  Sea-Transport Vessels <br /> 0%<br />50%<br />Fuel<br />Propul.<br />100 %          <br />100%<br ...
4 case –studies using both motor and sail vessels have been considered for Fiji<br /> 0%<br />50%<br />Fuel<br />Propul.<b...
Case study 1<br />Sailing for Sustainability <br />                 in Solodamu, Kadavu, Fiji<br />Can one small village s...
.<br />
 A number of core issues are facing the village associated with the need to generate a sustainable cash income for the vil...
The village had operated a small launch for many years but the vessel is now beached and in very poor repair. <br />1n 200...
<br />Research over the past 3 years has shown such an operation is viably commercially & will produce multi-benefits to t...
OBJECTIVE<br />A SUSTAINABLE SOLODAMU SAIL TRADING ENTERPRISE<br /><br />For additional info on this initiative: www.saili...
Case study 2<br />A Fleet of Ships<br />
Uto Ni Yalo has proved the viability of a 70+’ blue water, double hulled sailing vessel.<br />It is a “”Rolls Royce”  mach...
The M.V. Lau  Trader is the latest ferry to service the Lau group.  However, the vessel size means that numerous small sto...
Other logical targets for deployment of such vessels includes:<br />Gau/Koro<br />Rabi<br />Taveuni<br />Rotuma (70’ versi...
Case study 3<br />A Sail Training Ship<br />
The Drua is one of Fiji’s most recognisable icons – on coins, stamps, phone boxes, coats of arms, letterheads, adverts, t-...
Leadership training
Outward Bound
Iconic national flagship</li></li></ul><li>A new “Ra Marama” would be powerful statement<br />
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Sticks, stones, grass and a little sharkskin

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Making the case for sail-powered sea transport as a practical adaption to the challenges faced by tomorrow’s Oceania. A presentation by Peter Nuttall.

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Sticks, stones, grass and a little sharkskin

  1. 1.
  2. 2. ‘Future Challenges/Ancient Knowledge’ Conference, USP, Suva, 2010<br />Making the case for sail-powered sea transport as a practical adaption to the challenges faced by tomorrow’s Oceania.<br />Toward the future with sticks, stones, grass and a little sharkskin<br />
  3. 3. New approaches/solutions needed for Oceania.<br />Ever increasing demand for resources/services in an ocean dominated by sea transport.<br />Climate change/environmental degradation/acid oceans<br />Decreasing supplies and increasing demand for fossil fuels = increasing exposure to price and security of supply<br />The uniqueness of Island Oceania means challenges and opportunities are not necessarily the same as for Continental Earth.<br />Oceania has a successful historical record of continuous adaption and innovation excellence in sea-transport.<br />
  4. 4. Ships are to Oceania as horses, roads, cars, rail and trucks are to continents.<br />globally, 90% of goods/resources transported by sea<br />costs more to ship a container by road 100km than it does to move by sea from China to Europe<br />Sea transport produces more CO2 than Germany<br />produces more sulphur dioxide than all global cars and lorries.<br />generates 27 per cent of the world’s nitrogen oxide emissions <br />Oceania is more reliant on imported fossil fuel than any other part of the world – 95% (99% if PNG/Fiji excluded)<br />Fiji Govt target is reduce imported fuel by $100m<br />
  5. 5. Projected emissions up to 2050 under four different technology scenarios that vary the sulphur content of ship fuels show a strong increasing trend, with the steepest increase between 2010 and 2030. Source: IPCC, 2007<br />Transport Energy Consumption. Source: IPCC 2007<br />
  6. 6. Sail-powered sea-transport: <br /> intellectual property legacy of the Pacific <br /> issue that links all of Oceania<br />Appropriate<br />Available<br />Accessible<br />Affordable<br />Adaptable<br />Sustainable<br />Renewable<br />
  7. 7. It’s a wind generator Jim, just not as we know it!!!<br />
  8. 8. My name is Peter Nuttall<br />kiwi geographer <br />For the past decade my home has been a sailing ship in the Pacific.<br />We learnt to live, travel, work and play on a fossil fuel budget of less than 1 litre a day for a family of 5.<br />2 litres of fuel to travel from NZ to Fiji.<br />We use solar, wind & tow–behind generators to provide all electricity - advances in technology - LED lights, Ni-cad rechargeable batteries help.<br />These are adaptations that are all available to village Oceania<br />
  9. 9. Today’s presentation<br />Lessons Learned<br />Sailing – an Oceanic Legacy<br />Southampton Uni<br />Na Mataisau<br />Shin AitokuMaru<br />FAO<br />Uto Ni Yalo<br />Five Scenarios:<br />Solodamu – a single village response<br />FLMMA – ships for programmes<br />A Fleet of Ships<br />A Sail Training Ship<br />Sailing Barges<br />Next Steps<br />
  10. 10. Today’s presentation<br />Fiji focussed but much is applicable across the region<br />
  11. 11. Sailing – An Oceanic Legacy<br />Over past 3-5,000 yrs, Pacific Sailors explored & populated the Pacific Ocean, 1/3 globe on planned voyages aboard fast, seaworthy double hulled sailing ships. <br />For most of this time the continental world couldn’t sail out of sight of land. <br />Some believed the earth was flat.<br />
  12. 12. With sticks, stones and grass, a sail technology was perfected that wasn’t rivalled again until aerodynamics was used for flying.<br />The engineering and physics required were remarkable aero & hydrodynamically<br />NB: the sailboat was the first machine to achieve powered motion without rotating parts? And that to sail to windward (upwind) you sail on a wind that doesn't actually exist but is only apparent?<br />
  13. 13.
  14. 14.
  15. 15. The ships & sails were the pinnacle of sailing technology – fast, big and manoeuvrable.<br />If the America’s Cup had been sailed in 1800 it would have been a race between Drua, Kalia and Va’a.<br />The Pacific was an ocean of sails<br />The primary technology for voyaging, exploration, warfare, communication and trade.<br />
  16. 16. Fijian Vesi was at the centre of a trading network that covered much of central Oceania, complex networks of island and village communities connected by reliable vessels of up to 100’ moving seasonally.<br />After colonisation, as with other Pacific island experience, most local based sea transport ventures failed. <br />This appears to be from <br /><ul><li>The availability of larger ships than a single community/island could operate
  17. 17. a failure to balance vaka vanua and cultural principles with modern business imperatives</li></ul>Not<br /><ul><li>Poor seamanship or asset maintenance, or
  18. 18. Any inability to understand western commerce</li></li></ul><li>In only a few decades, much of this indigenous technology and knowledge was lost. Islanders became reliant on ships owned by “outsiders” and then on fossil fuel powered sea-transport.<br />Sail is now used largely for recreation, sport and tourism<br />
  19. 19. Surely the case for sail has been exhaustively examined before now?<br />Unfortunately no. With cheap oil, motor propulsion has held almost total dominance. <br />Sea transport has a low profile compared with air and land transport issues.<br />There have been some important experiments following the oil crisis in the 1970s, largely abandoned after oil prices fell the next decade. <br />
  20. 20. Na Mataisau (1984)<br />6 yr old, 300 ton passenger/cargo ship used for island work in Fiji.<br />Retrofitted with auxiliary sailing rig -ADB /Southampton University project. <br />Results were impressive:<br />23 % fuel saving<br />Incr stability = incr passenger comfort & safety, reduced engine wear, reduced roll.<br />30% overall engine wear reduction<br />Feathering prop would = additional 30% saving<br />Capable of pure sail <br />
  21. 21. 17 Jan 1985 Na Mataisau was caught in a developing cyclone<br />Her engines failed.<br />Under sail alone she made the safety of Maloa Is.<br />Although she grounded and sank, 16 crew and party of passengers including Fiji PM made it ashore<br />2 crew were drowned.<br />The rig was salvaged and put on “Kapawai” but suffered technical problems.<br />“Cagidonu” was also fitted with sails and achieved up to 30% fuel savings.<br />
  22. 22. The research from Southampton University collected comprehensive wind and route data for all Fiji which is all still relevant today<br />
  23. 23.
  24. 24. The results from these experiments provide compelling arguments for sail use on most common Fiji shipping routes <br />
  25. 25.
  26. 26. Also in the 1980s the Japanese fitted small oil tankers with fixed wing sails.<br />These were high tech, computer controlled rigs.<br />Again the results were impressive. But low fuel costs meant they were discontinued after 3 yrs.<br />Shin AitokuMaru<br />The ships use an evolution of traditional square rigs <br />
  27. 27. <ul><li>Overall fuel savings of up to 30%
  28. 28. The sails replaced the need for stabilisers – the roll and pitch of the boat was greatly reduced. Energy demand decreased by 50%
  29. 29. Increased stability meant vessel could operate in stronger weather than conventional ships
  30. 30. Engine wear dramatically reduced
  31. 31. Vessel maximum cruising speed increased from 12-14kts
  32. 32. Vessel could be sailed without motors in emergencies</li></li></ul><li>More recently focus has shifted to the potential for kite sails. It is predicted that these sails can reduce fuel consumption by between 30 and 50 per cent, depending on the wind conditions. <br />The system could be applied to 60,000 vessels out of the 100,000 listed in the Lloyd’s register including bulk carriers, tankers .<br />
  33. 33. In the 1980’s FAO investigated and trialled a range of artisanal fishing craft in a number of Pacific Island countries.<br />More than 350 vessels were built.<br />These included several sail or sail assisted vessels ranging from one person fishing catamarans to 11 m trimarans.<br />
  34. 34. Although the uptake was low, the design work is still relevant today<br />One of the critical lessons learned was that cultures with a living sailing tradition were much more likely to use sail effectively. <br />A whole sailing culture has to be learnt and used .<br />Sail options need to demonstrate economic viability for broad uptake<br />KIRIBATI – 7.1 Metre Canoe KIB-4<br />
  35. 35. Pacific Voyaging Revival<br />In the past 30 yrs there has been a sustained revival and relearning of Oceanic sailing heritage.<br />There are increasing numbers of traditional (and modern adaptations) of iconic Oceanic sailing craft and increasing interest by Pacific Islanders in their sailing heritage.<br />The most recent fleet, including Uto ni Yalo has led to an unprecedented resurgence in interest in sailing and Drua culture in Fiji.<br />
  36. 36.
  37. 37. Propulsion Options for Sea-Transport Vessels <br /> 0%<br />50%<br />Fuel<br />Propul.<br />100 % <br />100%<br />Wind<br />Propul.<br />50%<br />0 % <br /> fuel<br /> FUEL ENERGY<br />WIND ENERGY<br />wind<br /> Wind-Assisted Motor -Assisted<br />MotorshipMotorship Motor – Wind – Ship Windship<br />
  38. 38. 4 case –studies using both motor and sail vessels have been considered for Fiji<br /> 0%<br />50%<br />Fuel<br />Propul.<br />100 % <br />100%<br />Wind<br />Propul.<br />50%<br />0 % <br /> fuel<br /> FUEL ENERGY<br />WIND ENERGY<br />wind<br /> Wind-Assisted Motor -Assisted<br />MotorshipMotorship Motor – Wind – Ship Windship<br />
  39. 39. Case study 1<br />Sailing for Sustainability <br /> in Solodamu, Kadavu, Fiji<br />Can one small village sustainably operate a sail powered trading catamaran ?<br />
  40. 40. .<br />
  41. 41.
  42. 42. A number of core issues are facing the village associated with the need to generate a sustainable cash income for the village. <br /><ul><li>Kadavu is not on the main tourist routes of </li></ul>Fiji. Although good conservationists (community bush reserve/MPA), opportunities for eco-tourism are poor.<br /><ul><li> The village is located some distance from </li></ul> good gardening areas<br /><ul><li>The costs of transport for people and goods both outgoing from the village (primarily kava and honey) and incoming (basic food, building and fuel supplies) is high & increasing. </li></li></ul><li>Solodamu, like most villages in Fiji is reliant on fibers and ferries for transport of people and goods and for fishing.<br />
  43. 43. The village had operated a small launch for many years but the vessel is now beached and in very poor repair. <br />1n 2008 the village started asking if a sailing vessel replacement was possible.<br />
  44. 44. <br />Research over the past 3 years has shown such an operation is viably commercially & will produce multi-benefits to the village and other Kadavu communities.<br />It could be sustainable - economically, environmentally, socially and culturally. <br />
  45. 45. OBJECTIVE<br />A SUSTAINABLE SOLODAMU SAIL TRADING ENTERPRISE<br /><br />For additional info on this initiative: www.sailingforsustainability.org<br />
  46. 46. Case study 2<br />A Fleet of Ships<br />
  47. 47. Uto Ni Yalo has proved the viability of a 70+’ blue water, double hulled sailing vessel.<br />It is a “”Rolls Royce” machine, built using modern material and techniques in NZ’s premiere boatyard.<br />When fitted with electric/solar power motors, it will be a totally ‘green ship”<br />Asset cost is approx $FJ1m.<br />If this is the Rolls Royce, what would a “carrier truck” version look like? <br />The Solodamu research indicates that 50-55’ catamarans capable of carrying 4 tonne or either cargo/passengers are viable economically. <br />It also indicates there is room for a least 2-3 vessels to operate sustainably for Kadavu<br />
  48. 48. The M.V. Lau Trader is the latest ferry to service the Lau group. However, the vessel size means that numerous small stops to the isolated islands are not an economical use of the asset.<br />But a fleet of island based catamaran servicing 3 - 4 transport nodes looks like a sound proposition <br />
  49. 49.
  50. 50. Other logical targets for deployment of such vessels includes:<br />Gau/Koro<br />Rabi<br />Taveuni<br />Rotuma (70’ version)<br />Fiji has a proven track record of small ship manufacture, support and maintenance infrastructure.<br />The success of Uto ni Yalo means there is a surplus of crew asking to be trained <br />A centrally owned fleet, with vessels leased to village/island trading networks would provide numerous benefits to both villages and a budding boatbuilding/training industry<br />If successful in Fiji, it can be replicated in numerous other parts of Oceania<br />
  51. 51. Case study 3<br />A Sail Training Ship<br />
  52. 52.
  53. 53. The Drua is one of Fiji’s most recognisable icons – on coins, stamps, phone boxes, coats of arms, letterheads, adverts, t-shirts<br />The Drua is arguably the pinnacle of traditional Pacific sailing design – combining Micronesia rig, the Fijian timber and Tongan boatbuilding skill.<br />No full scale Drua has been built for 100+ years<br />A 100’ Drua would make a remarkable sail training vessel for:<br /><ul><li>Sea cadet training
  54. 54. Leadership training
  55. 55. Outward Bound
  56. 56. Iconic national flagship</li></li></ul><li>A new “Ra Marama” would be powerful statement<br />
  57. 57. Case study 4<br />Sailing Barges<br />
  58. 58. Fiji Times reported the 2010 drought cost $1.4m in sea transport of water to the Yasawas and outer islands.<br />A reasonable proportion of that cost will be fuel related<br />The fixed wing sails used by the Japanese tankers are high tech – complex engineering and computerised controls.<br />A much simpler rig could be built at a fraction of the cost for a sailing barge.<br />The route from Lautoka to Yasawas would be maximum wind efficiency for the outward, laden voyage and the barge could be driven back empty under motor.<br />
  59. 59. Fuel efficiencies are potentially as high as 65% on favourable routes. Fuel savings alone would make the IRR extremely favourable<br />Such barges would have application across Fiji – timber transport for pine from Kadavu, copra from Koro, etc<br />
  60. 60. Lessons <br /> Its a bit more complicated than just stick a sail on a boat and sail away. History offers valuable lessons and advice.<br />Sail is a viable alternative BUT its not the whole answer.<br /> A sailing culture needs to be re-learnt; you cant sail into the wind. It takes time.<br />Changes in community over time means changes in boat construction, operation, management, maintenance.<br />No one size fits all.<br />Political reefs sink ships faster than coral or storms<br />Relationships are critical.<br />
  61. 61. Lessons <br /> Sailing vessels and sail technology offer a unique potential to dramatically reduce sea transport fossil fuel use for Fiji and the Pacific.<br />Careful research and coordination amongst a wide range of stakeholders is needed – govt, villages, business, researchers, NGOs<br />The costs of achieving active use of sail at a commercial level are likely to be a small fraction of the overall benefit<br />Fiji has all the skill sets necessary to be a leader in this field<br />

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