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General Maintenance Standards V0.6

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This report is an overview of available standards (IEC, ISO, EN and other standards) applicable within physical asset and maintenance management projects. …

This report is an overview of available standards (IEC, ISO, EN and other standards) applicable within physical asset and maintenance management projects.

The standards are not described in detail, purpose of this document is to list a set of standards (including a short description) relevant for asset, engineering and maintenance management projects. The interested reader should check the details in the standard(s) itself.

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  • 1. Stork Asset Management Solutions GENERAL STANDARDS IN PHYSICAL ASSET MANAGEMENT Date June 2009 Place Antwerp (Belgium) Version 0.6 (draft) Author B. Den Tijn File name General maintenance standards_V0.6.doc PREFACE This report is an overview of available standards (IEC, ISO, EN and other standards) applicable within physical asset and maintenance management projects. The standards are not described in detail, purpose of this document is to list a set of standards (including a short description) relevant for asset, engineering and maintenance management projects. The interested reader should check the details in the standard(s) itself. 'The nice thing about standards is that there are so many to choose from.' (Andrew Stuart Tanenbaum) "How can something "standard" contribute to something as creative as "engineering" ? Page 1 of 54
  • 2. Stork Asset Management Solutions Table of content: 1 Standardization organizations ........................................................................................ 8 2 Standards and the organization ...................................................................................... 9 3 IEC Standards .................................................................................................................11 3.1 IEC as a standardization organization:................................................................11 3.2 CENELEC and IEC: ..............................................................................................11 3.3 How the IEC defines a standard: .........................................................................11 3.4 IEC 60079: Electrical apparatus for explosive gas atmospheres .....................11 3.4.1 Part 17: Inspection and maintenance in hazardous areas (other than mines) ...............................................................................................................12 3.5 IEC 60300: Dependability management: ............................................................12 3.5.1 Part 1: Dependability management systems ................................................12 3.5.2 Part 2: Guidelines for dependability management .......................................12 3.5.3 Part 3-1: Application guide - Analysis techniques for dependability - Guide on methodology ...............................................................................................12 3.5.4 Part 3-2: Application guide - Collection of dependability data from the field ...........................................................................................................................12 3.5.5 Part 3-3: Application guide - Life cycle costing .............................................12 3.5.6 Part 3-9: Application guide - Risk analysis of technological systems .........13 3.5.7 Part 3-10: Application guide - Maintainability ................................................13 3.5.8 Part 3-11: Application guide - Reliability centred maintenance ...................13 3.5.9 Part 3-14: Application guide - Maintenance and maintenance support......13 3.5.10 Part 3-16: Application guide - Guideline for the specification of maintenance support services ........................................................................13 3.6 IEC 60706: Maintainability of equipment: ...........................................................13 3.6.1 Part 1: Introduction, requirements and maintainability programme ............13 3.6.2 Part 2: Maintainability requirements and studies during the design and development phase..........................................................................................14 3.6.3 Part 3: Verification and collection, analysis and presentation of data ........14 3.6.4 Part 4: Maintenance and maintenance support planning ............................14 3.6.5 Part 5: Testability and diagnostic testing .......................................................14 3.6.6 Part 6: Statistical methods in maintainability evaluation ..............................14 3.7 IEC 60812: Analysis techniques for system reliability - Procedure for failure mode and effects analysis (FMEA) ......................................................................14 3.8 IEC 61025: Fault tree analysis (FTA) ..................................................................15 3.9 IEC 61070: Compliance test procedures for steady-state availability ..............15 3.10 IEC 61078: Analysis techniques for dependability - Reliability block diagram and boolean methods............................................................................................15 3.11 IEC 61164: Reliability growth - Statistical test and estimation methods ..........15 3.12 IEC 61346: Industrial systems, installations and equipment and industrial products: Structuring principles and reference designations ............................16 3.12.1 Part 1: Basic rules............................................................................................16 3.12.2 Part 2: Classification objects and codes for classes ....................................16 3.12.3 Part 4: Discussion of concepts .......................................................................16 3.13 IEC 61355: Classification and designation of documents for plants, systems and equipment .......................................................................................................16 3.14 IEC 61508: Functional safety of electrical/electronic/ programmable electronic safety-related systems ..........................................................................................16 Page 2 of 54
  • 3. Stork Asset Management Solutions 3.14.1 Part 1: General requirements .........................................................................17 3.14.2 Part 2: Requirements for electrical/electronic/programmable electronic safety-related systems ....................................................................................17 3.14.3 Part 3: Software requirements ........................................................................17 3.14.4 Part 4: Definitions and abbreviations .............................................................17 3.14.5 Part 5: Examples of methods for the determination of safety integrity levels ...........................................................................................................................17 3.14.6 Part 6: Guidelines on the application of IEC 61508-2 and IEC 61508-3 ....17 3.14.7 Part 7: Overview of techniques and measures .............................................17 3.15 IEC 61666: Industrial systems, installations and equipment and industrial products - Identification of terminals within a system ........................................17 3.16 IEC 61703:Mathematical expressions for reliability, availability, maintainability and maintenance support terms ..........................................................................17 3.17 IEC 61882: Hazard and operability studies (HAZOP studies) - Application guide .......................................................................................................................17 3.18 IEC 62023: Structuring of technical information and documentation ...............17 3.19 IEC 62027: Preparation of parts lists ...................................................................17 3.20 IEC 62061: Safety of machinery – Functional safety of safety-related electrical, electronic and programmable electronic control systems ................17 3.21 IEC 62079: Preparation of instructions – Structuring, content and presentation .................................................................................................................................18 3.22 IEC 62198: Project risk management - Application guidelines .........................18 3.23 IEC 62308: Equipment reliability – Reliability assessment methods...............18 3.24 IEC 62508: Guidance on human factors engineering for system life cycle applications ............................................................................................................18 3.25 IEC 82045: Document management ...................................................................18 3.25.1 Part 1: Principles and methods ......................................................................19 3.25.2 Part 2: Reference collection of metadata and reference models ................19 4 ISO Standards .................................................................................................................20 4.1 ISO as an organization: ........................................................................................20 4.2 ISO 13374: Condition monitoring and diagnostics of machines – Data processing, communication and presentation ....................................................20 4.2.1 Part 1: General guidelines ..............................................................................20 4.2.2 Part 2: Data processing...................................................................................20 4.3 ISO 13849: Safety of machinery – Safety-related parts of control systems ....20 4.4 ISO 14121: Safety of machinery – Risk assessment .........................................20 4.4.1 Part 1: Principles ..............................................................................................20 4.4.2 Part 2: Practical guidance and examples of methods ..................................21 4.5 ISO 14224: Petroleum, petrochemical and natural gas industries - Collection and exchange of reliability and maintenance data for equipment: ..................21 4.6 ISO 15489: Information and documentation - Records management ..............22 4.6.1 Part 1: General .................................................................................................22 4.6.2 Part 2: Guidelines ............................................................................................22 4.7 ISO 18436: Condition monitoring and diagnostics of machines - Requirements for training and certification of personnel ............................................................22 4.7.1 Part 1: Requirements of certifying bodies and the certification process ....22 4.7.2 Part 2: Vibration condition monitoring and diagnostics ................................22 4.8 ISO 20815: Petroleum, petrochemical and natural gas industries - Production assurance and reliability management ................................................................23 Page 3 of 54
  • 4. Stork Asset Management Solutions 5 MIL Standards .................................................................................................................24 5.1 Defence and military standards............................................................................24 5.2 MIL-HDBK-189: Reliability growth management ................................................24 5.3 MIL-STD-721C: Definitions of terms for reliability and maintainability .............24 5.4 MIL-STD-1629A: Procedures for performing a failure mode, effects and criticality analysis ...................................................................................................24 5.5 MIL-STD-2074: Failure classification for reliability testing.................................24 5.6 MIL-STD-2173: Reliability centred maintenance requirements for naval aircraft, weapons systems and support equipment ............................................25 5.7 MIL-P-24534A: Planned maintenance system – Development of maintenance requirement cards, maintenance index pages and associated documentation . .................................................................................................................................25 6 EN / CEN Standards .......................................................................................................26 6.1 CEN as an organization ........................................................................................26 6.2 EN 1050: Safety of machinery - Principles of risk assessment ........................26 6.3 EN 13269: Maintenance - Guideline on preparation of maintenance contracts 26 6.4 EN 13306: Maintenance terminology ..................................................................27 6.5 EN 13460: Maintenance - Documents for maintenance ....................................27 6.6 EN 13849: Safety of machinery – Safety-related parts of control systems .....28 6.6.1 Part 1: General principles for design .............................................................28 6.6.2 Part 2: Validation .............................................................................................28 6.7 EN 14121: Safety of machinery – Risk assessment ..........................................28 6.8 EN 15341: Maintenance - Maintenance key performance indicators...............28 6.9 EN 20815: Petroleum, petrochemical and natural gas industries - Production assurance and reliability management ................................................................28 6.10 EN 60079: Electrical apparatus for explosive gas atmospheres ......................28 6.11 EN 60300: Dependability management ..............................................................28 6.12 EN 61078: Analysis techniques for dependability - Reliability block diagram and boolean methods............................................................................................28 6.13 EN 61703: Mathematical expressions for reliability, availability, maintainability and maintenance support terms ..........................................................................29 6.14 CEN/TR 15628: Qualification of maintenance personnel ..................................29 7 BSI Standards .................................................................................................................30 7.1 British Standards Institute .....................................................................................30 7.2 BS 14224: Petroleum, petrochemical and natural gas industries - Collection and exchange of reliability and maintenance data for equipment: ..................30 7.3 BS 6548: Maintainability of equipment ................................................................30 7.3.1 Part 1: Guide to specifying and contracting for maintainability ...................30 7.3.2 Part 2: Guide to maintainability studies during the design phase ...............30 7.3.3 Part 3: Guide to maintainability, verification and the collection, analysis and presentation of maintainability data ........................................................30 7.3.4 Part 4: Guide to the planning of maintenance and maintenance support ..30 7.3.5 Part 5: Guide to diagnostic testing .................................................................30 7.3.6 Part 6: Guide to statistical methods in maintainability evaluation ...............30 7.4 BS 61703: Mathematical expressions for reliability, availability, maintainability and maintenance support terms ..........................................................................31 8 AFNOR Standards ..........................................................................................................32 8.1 Association française de normalisation ...............................................................32 Page 4 of 54
  • 5. Stork Asset Management Solutions 8.2 FD X60-000: Industrial maintenance – The maintenance function ..................32 8.3 NF X60-010: Maintenance - Concepts and definitions of maintenance activities ..................................................................................................................32 8.4 NF X60-020: Maintenance indicators ..................................................................33 8.5 NF X60-090: Maintenance - Criteria of choice of the maintenance contract - Means contracts - Results contracts ...................................................................34 8.6 NF X60-200: Maintenance - Technical documentations associated with an item throughout its life cycle .................................................................................34 8.7 NF X60-212: Maintenance - Handbook of instructions maintenance - Definitions and general principles for the wording and layout...........................34 8.8 NF X60-250: Maintenance - Function "User technical documentation" - Recommendations for its introduction or organization within manufacturers of equipment ...............................................................................................................34 8.9 NF X60-317: Maintenance – Documents for maintenance ...............................34 8.10 NF X60-318: Maintenance – Guideline on preparation of maintenance contracts .................................................................................................................35 8.11 NF X60-319: Maintenance – Maintenance terminology ....................................35 8.12 NF X60-500: Terminology relating to reliability, maintainability and availability . .................................................................................................................................35 8.13 NF X60-503: Initiation into availability .................................................................35 8.14 NF E60-182: Manufacturing systems - Performance indicators .......................35 8.15 NF 13269: Maintenance - Guideline on preparation of maintenance contracts . .................................................................................................................................35 8.16 NF 13306: Maintenance terminology...................................................................35 8.17 NF 13460: Maintenance - Documents for maintenance ....................................36 9 NORSOK Standards .......................................................................................................37 9.1 Norsk Sokkels Konkuranseposisjon ....................................................................37 9.1 S-005: Machinery – Working environment analysis and documentation .........37 9.2 Z-006: Preservation ...............................................................................................37 9.3 Z-008: Criticality analysis for maintenance purposes ........................................37 9.4 Z-013: Risk and emergency preparedness analysis (EPA) ..............................38 9.5 Z-016: Regularity management & reliability technology ....................................38 10 VDI Standards .............................................................................................................39 10.1 Verein Deutscher Ingenieure................................................................................39 10.2 VDI 2246: Designing maintainable engineered products ..................................39 10.2.1 Part 1: Basic principles ....................................................................................39 10.2.2 Part 2: Requirements catalogue .....................................................................39 10.3 VDI 2884: Purchase, operating and maintenance of production equipment using Life Cycle Costing .......................................................................................39 10.4 VDI 2885: Standardized data for maintenance planning and determination of maintenance costs - Data and data determination ............................................40 10.5 VDI 2886: Benchmarking applied to maintenance .............................................40 10.6 VDI 2887: Quality management of maintenance ...............................................40 10.7 VDI 2888: Maintenance condition monitoring .....................................................40 10.8 VDI 2889: Methods and systems for condition and process monitoring in maintenance ..........................................................................................................41 10.9 VDI 2890: Planned maintenance; guide for the drawing up of maintenance lists ..........................................................................................................................41 10.10 VDI 2891: Maintenance relevant criteria for purchase of machines .................41 Page 5 of 54
  • 6. Stork Asset Management Solutions 10.11 VDI 2892: Management of maintenance spare parts ........................................41 10.12 VDI 2893: Selection and formation of indicators for maintenance ...................41 10.13 VDI 2895: Organisation of maintenance - Maintenance as a task of management ..........................................................................................................42 10.14 VDI 2896: Controlling of maintenance within plant management .....................42 10.15 VDI 2898: Utilisation of EDP for maintenance - Requirements and criteria ....42 10.16 VDI 2899: Maintenance service - Procedure for deciding whether in-house or external supply .......................................................................................................43 10.17 VDI 3423: Technical availability of machines and production lines ..................43 10.18 VDI 3822: Failure analysis ....................................................................................43 10.18.1 Part 1: Fundamentals, terms, definitions - Procedure of failure analyses 44 10.18.2 Part 2: Failures caused by mechanical working conditions .....................44 10.18.3 Part 3: Failures caused by corrosion in electrolytes .................................44 10.18.4 Part 4: Failures caused by thermal loading ...............................................44 10.18.5 Part 5: Failures caused by tribology working conditions ..........................44 10.18.6 Part 6: Compilation and evaluation of failure analysis .............................44 11 DIN Standards .............................................................................................................45 11.1 Deutsches Institut für Normung............................................................................45 11.2 DIN 6789: Systematic arrangement of documents ............................................45 11.2.1 Part 1: Arrangement of technical product documentation ...........................45 11.2.2 Part 2: Sets of documents of technical product documentation ..................45 11.2.3 Part 3: Revisions of documents and items - General requirements ...........45 11.2.4 Part 4: Structure of contents of technical product documentation ..............45 11.2.5 Part 5: Release of technical product documentation....................................45 11.2.6 Part 6: Protection against falsification of digital technical documentation..45 11.2.7 Part 7: Quality criteria for the release process of digital product data ........45 11.3 DIN 13269: Maintenance - Guideline on preparation of maintenance contracts .................................................................................................................................45 11.4 DIN 13306: Maintenance terminology .................................................................45 11.5 DIN 13460: Maintenance - Documents for maintenance ..................................45 11.6 DIN 15341: Maintenance - Maintenance key performance indicators .............45 11.7 DIN 20815: Petroleum, petrochemical and natural gas industries - Production assurance and reliability management ................................................................45 11.8 DIN 25419: Event tree analysis - Method, graphical symbols and evaluation 46 11.9 DIN 25424: Fault tree analysis .............................................................................46 11.9.1 Part 1: Method and graphical symbols ..........................................................46 11.9.2 Part 2: Manual calculation procedures for the evaluation of a fault tree ....46 11.10 DIN 25448: Failure mode analysis .......................................................................46 11.11 DIN 31051: Fundamentals of maintenance ........................................................46 11.12 DIN 60812: Analysis techniques for system reliability - Procedure for failure mode and effects analysis (FMEA) ......................................................................46 11.13 DIN 61025: Fault tree analysis (FTA) ..................................................................46 11.14 DIN 61078: Analysis techniques for dependability – Reliability block diagram and Boolean methods ...........................................................................................46 11.15 DIN 66232: Structure and contents of a data documentation ...........................46 12 SAE Standards ............................................................................................................47 12.1 Society of Automotive (and Aeronautical) Engineers ........................................47 Page 6 of 54
  • 7. Stork Asset Management Solutions 12.2 SAE AS9110: Quality Maintenance Systems - Aerospace - Requirements for Maintenance Organizations ..................................................................................47 12.3 SAE JA1010-1: Maintainability Program Standard Implementation Guide ......47 12.4 SAE JA1011: Evaluation criteria for Reliability Centred Maintenance (RCM) processes ...............................................................................................................47 12.5 SAE JA1012: A guide to the Reliability Centred Maintenance (RCM) standard .................................................................................................................................47 12.6 SAE J1739: Potential Failure Mode and Effects Analysis in Design (Design FMEA), Potential Failure Mode and Effects Analysis in Manufacturing and Assembly Processes (Process FMEA), and Potential Failure Mode and Effects Analysis for Machinery (Machinery FMEA) ............................................48 13 ASTM Standards .........................................................................................................49 13.1 American Society for Testing and Materials .......................................................49 13.2 E2135-07: Standard terminology for property and asset management ...........49 13.3 F2446-04: Standard classification for hierarchy of equipment identifiers and boundaries for reliability, availability and maintainability (RAM) performance data exchange .......................................................................................................49 14 ASQ Standards............................................................................................................50 14.1 American Society for Quality ................................................................................50 14.2 ASQ Q10015: Quality management - Guidelines for training ..........................50 14.3 ASQ E2-1996: Guide to inspection planning ......................................................50 14.4 ASQ D60300-3-1: Application guide - Analysis techniques for dependability - Guide on methodology ..........................................................................................50 14.5 ASQ D60300-3-2: Application guide - Collection of dependability data from the field .........................................................................................................................50 15 API Standards .............................................................................................................51 15.1 American Petroleum Institute ...............................................................................51 15.2 API RP 580: Risk-based inspection .....................................................................51 15.3 API RP 581: Risk-based inspection - Base resource document ......................51 15.4 API STD 689: Collection and exchange of reliability and maintenance data for equipment ...............................................................................................................52 16 IEEE Standards ...........................................................................................................53 16.1 The Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers .........................................53 16.2 IEEE 516 - Guide for Maintenance Methods on Energized Power Lines ........53 16.3 IEEE 902 - Maintenance, Operation and Safety of Power Systems ................53 16.4 Institute of Asset Management .............................................................................54 16.5 PAS 55: Asset management ................................................................................54 16.5.1 Part 1: Specification for the optimised management of physical infrastructure assets ........................................................................................54 16.5.2 Part 2: Guidelines for the application of PAS 55-1 .......................................54 16.6 PAS 62508: Guidance on human factors engineering for system life cycle applications ............................................................................................................54 Page 7 of 54
  • 8. Stork Asset Management Solutions 1 Standardization organizations There are several standardization organizations in the world and they can be divided into three groups (from the European point of view): International level IEC: International Electrotechnical Commission ISO: International Organization for Standardization European level CEN: Comité Européen de Normalisation (European Commitee for Standardization) CENELEC: Comité Européen de Normalisation Electrotechnique (European Committee for Electrotechnical Standardization) National level ÖN: Österreichisches Normungsinstitut (Austria) BIN : Belgisch Instituut voor Normalisatie (Belgium) DS : Dansk Standard (Denmark) SFS: Finnish Standards Association (Finland) AFNOR : Association Française de NORmalisation (France) DIN : Deutsches Institut für Normung (Germany) ELOT Hellenic Organization for Standardization (Greece) NSAI: National Standards Authority of Ireland (Ireland) UNI: Ente Nazionale Italiano di Unificazione (Italy) SEE: Service de l'Energie de l'Etat (Luxemburg) NNI: Nederlands Normalisiate Instituut (Netherlands) NSF: Norges StandardiseringsForbund (Norway) IPQ: Instituto Português da Qualidade (Portugal) AENOR: Asociación Española de Normalización (Spain) SIS: Standardiseringen i Sverige (Sweden) SNV: Schweizerische Normen Vereinigung (Switzerland) BSI: British Standards Institution (UK) ANSI: American National Standards Institute (USA) Other ASTM: American Society for Testing and Materials IAM: Institute of Asset Management MIL: U.S. Department of Defence (Military) SAE: Society of Automotive (and Aeronautical) Engineers VDI: Verein Deutscher Ingenieure Page 8 of 54
  • 9. Stork Asset Management Solutions 2 Standards and the organization Many maintenance organizations and especially maintenance and availability engineers, have a "love/hate" relationship with standards. Most engineers realize that standards contain a wealth of helpful information and that working to certain standards is wise and often mandatory. However, there is a simple dichotomy between the words "engineer" and "standard" - How can something "standard" contribute to something as creative as “engineering" ? Also, with the plethora of standards available - corporate, industry, national, regional, international, government - finding all of the right, most useful standards can be a daunting task that many engineers would rather not pursue. Successful organizations know how to find the right standards and use them as the foundation for maintenance that is innovative, socially responsible, and cost-effective. Each of the disciplines underneath benefits in different ways from the standards. Research, Design and Development Manufacturing and Operations Quality Control Sales and Marketing Maintenance and Repair Research, Design and Development The initial stages of any product lifecycle represent both a vital investment for long-term business success and a constant challenge to minimize that investment. Time is one of the greatest factors in minimizing R&D costs and maximizing return on investment (ROI). Manufacturing Operations When the designed product is handed off to manufacturing, the challenge of minimizing time to market and maximizing ROI remain in place, though the standards-related strategies for meeting those challenges differ. The discipline of manufacturing builds on the R&D process by further incorporating Product Data Management (PDM), Product Lifecycle Management (PLM), and Enterprise Resource Planning (ERP) systems, all while monitoring the engineering process for standards compliance. In manufacturing, maximizing ROI means avoiding engineering change orders, redesigns, and production downtime, which is often a function of having a centralized information management solution that integrates and accommodates all the various documents and applications inherent to the manufacturing process. Quality Control Throughout the processes of manufacturing, maintenance and repair, the discipline of quality control acts to limit your company's product liability and maximize ROI, all while relying on documents such as specifications, industry regulations, safety codes, reports and tracking, and more. Page 9 of 54
  • 10. Stork Asset Management Solutions Quality products and services are invariably built upon quality information and standards. As the amount of information your quality control team has at its manageable disposal increases, the results are: superior testing reports faster decision-making better quality products increased productivity Sales and Marketing While standards may not be traditionally associated with the disciplines of sales and marketing, any good salesperson will tell you how important it is to know your market. Any salesperson, regardless of their engineering status, will generate more sales and company profitability when armed with: a thorough technical understanding of your product documentation on industry standards or regulations that ensure customers of product compliance valuable intelligence on competitors' manufacturing processes and products potential leads in the form of companies that may need your products or components Maintenance and Repair Standards guide both successful companies and products from beginning to end. In the case of products, the end of the lifecycle is best represented by maintenance and repair, which comes with its own standards-related challenges, such as: accessing detailed parts information and historical specs and standards identifying and procuring replacement parts, whether common or hard to find, new or old researching alternatives for obsolete parts and finding stocking vendors In each of these cases, the issue of compliance remains front and centre. Working confidently with a combination of replacement and historical standards as well as alternative parts is possible with the help of up-to-date, verified industry document resources. Page 10 of 54
  • 11. Stork Asset Management Solutions 3 IEC Standards 3.1 IEC as a standardization organization: The International Electrotechnical Commission is the international standards and conformity assessment body for all fields of electrotechnology. Founded in 1906, the International Electrotechnical Commission (IEC) is the global organization that prepares and publishes international standards for all electrical, electronic and related technologies. The IEC was founded as a result of a resolution passed at the International Electrical Congress held in St. Louis (USA) in 1904. The membership consists of more than 60 participating countries, including all the world's major trading nations and a growing number of industrializing countries. 3.2 CENELEC and IEC: CENELEC and the International Electrotechnical Commission operate at two different levels but it is self-evident that their actions have a strong mutual impact since they are the most important standardization bodies in the electrotechnical field. Collaboration has always been felt necessary. Co-operation between CENELEC and the IEC is described in what is known as "the Dresden Agreement" since it was approved and signed by both partners in the German city in September 1996.This agreement (which relates to common planning of new work and parallel CENELEC/IEC voting) intends: to expedite the publication and common adoption of International Standards; to ensure rational use of available resources and therefore should full technical consideration of the content of the standard preferably take place at international level; to accelerate the standards preparation process in response to market demands. 3.3 How the IEC defines a standard: A standard (as defined in IEC/ISO Guide 2) is a document, established by consensus and approved by a recognized body, that provides, for common and repeated use, rules, guidelines or characteristics for activities or their results, aimed at the achievement of the optimum degree of order in a given context. An international standard is a standard adopted by an international standardizing/standards organization and made available to the public. The definition given in all IEC standards reads: "A normative document, developed according to consensus procedures, which has been approved by the IEC National Committee members of the responsible committee in accordance with Part 1 of the ISO/IEC Directives as a committee draft for vote and as a final draft International Standard and which has been published by the IEC Central Office." 3.4 IEC 60079: Electrical apparatus for explosive gas atmospheres Electrical installations in hazardous areas possess features specially designed to render them suitable for operation in such atmospheres. It is essential, for reasons of safety in those areas, that, throughout the life of such installations, the integrity of those special features is preserved; they therefore require initial inspection and either regular periodic inspections thereafter, or continuous supervision by skilled personnel Page 11 of 54
  • 12. Stork Asset Management Solutions in accordance with this standard and, when necessary, maintenance. 3.4.1 Part 17: Inspection and maintenance in hazardous areas (other than mines) This part of IEC 60079 is intended to be applied by users, and covers factors directly related to the inspection and maintenance of electrical installations within hazardous areas only. It does not include conventional requirements for electrical installations, nor the testing and certification of electrical apparatus. 3.5 IEC 60300: Dependability management: 3.5.1 Part 1: Dependability management systems Describes the concepts and principles of dependability management systems. Identifies the generic processes in dependability for planning, resource allocation, control, and tailoring necessary to meet dependability objectives. Deals with the dependability performance issues in the product life-cycle phases concerning planning, design, measurements, analysis and improvement. Dependability includes availability performance and its influencing factors: reliability performance, maintainability performance, and maintenance support performance. Aims at facilitating co-operation by all parties concerned (supplier, organization and customer) and fostering understanding of the dependability needs and value to achieve the overall dependability objectives. 3.5.2 Part 2: Guidelines for dependability management Provides guidelines for dependability management of product design, development, evaluation and process enhancements. Life cycle models are used to describe product development or project phases. Applicable for detailed planning and implementation of a dependability programme to meet specific product needs. 3.5.3 Part 3-1: Application guide - Analysis techniques for dependability - Guide on methodology Gives a general overview of commonly used dependability analysis techniques. It describes the usual methodologies, their advantages and disadvantages, data input and other conditions for using various techniques. It is an introduction to selected methodologies and is intended to provide the necessary information for choosing the most appropriate analysis methods. 3.5.4 Part 3-2: Application guide - Collection of dependability data from the field This part of IEC 60300 provides guidelines for the collection of data relating to reliability, maintainability, availability and maintenance support performance of items operating in the field. It deals in general terms with the practical aspects of data collection and presentation and briefly explores the related topics of data analysis and presentation of results. Emphasis is made on the need to incorporate the return of experience from the field in the dependability process as a main activity. 3.5.5 Part 3-3: Application guide - Life cycle costing This part of IEC 60300 provides a general introduction to the concept of life cycle costing and covers all applications. This standard is intended for general application by both customers (users) and suppliers of products. It explains the purpose and value of life cycle costing and outlines the general approaches involved. It also identifies typical life cycle cost elements to facilitate project and programme planning. Page 12 of 54
  • 13. Stork Asset Management Solutions 3.5.6 Part 3-9: Application guide - Risk analysis of technological systems Provides guidelines for selecting and implementing risk analysis techniques. The objective of this standard is to ensure quality and consistency in the planning and execution of risk analyses and the presentation of results and conclusions. 3.5.7 Part 3-10: Application guide - Maintainability The application guide can be used to implement a maintainability programme covering the initiation, development and in-service phases of a product, which form part of the tasks in IEC 60300-2. It provides guidance on how the maintenance aspects of the tasks should be considered in order to achieve optimum maintainability. It uses other IEC standards, notably IEC 60706, as reference documents or tools as to how a task should be undertaken. 3.5.8 Part 3-11: Application guide - Reliability centred maintenance Provides guidelines for the development of an initial preventive maintenance programme for equipment and structures using reliability centred maintenance (RCM) analysis techniques. RCM analysis can be applied to items such as ground vehicle, ship, power station, aircraft, etc, which are made up of equipment and structure, e.g. a building, airframe or ship's hull. Typically an equipment comprises a number of electrical , mechanical, instrumentation or control systems and subsystems which can be further broken down into progressively smaller groupings, as required. 3.5.9 Part 3-14: Application guide - Maintenance and maintenance support Describes a framework for maintenance and maintenance support and the various minimal common practices that should be undertaken. Outlines in a generic manner, management, processes and techniques related to maintenance and maintenance support that are necessary to achieve adequate dependability to meet the operational needs of the customer. Applicable to items, which include all types of products, equipment and systems (hardware and associated software). Most of these require a certain level of maintenance to ensure that their required functionality, dependability, capability, economic, safety and regulatory requirements are achieved. 3.5.10 Part 3-16: Application guide - Guideline for the specification of maintenance support services This IEC standard describes a framework for the specification of services related to the maintenance support of products, systems and equipment that are carried out during the operation and maintenance phase. The purpose of this standard is to outline, in a generic manner, the development of agreements for maintenance support services as well as guidelines for the management and monitoring of these agreements by both the company and the service provider. 3.6 IEC 60706: Maintainability of equipment: 3.6.1 Part 1: Introduction, requirements and maintainability programme This standard is intended to make recommendations for maintainability practices, and to simulate ideas in the maintainability field. Organizations acquiring items will find the standard useful in assisting them in defining maintainability requirements and associated programmes. Page 13 of 54
  • 14. Stork Asset Management Solutions Item suppliers will benefit from use of the standard, gaining an understanding of the requirements for achieving and verifying maintainability objectives. 3.6.2 Part 2: Maintainability requirements and studies during the design and development phase This part of IEC 60706 examines the maintainability requirements and related design and use parameter, and discusses some activities necessary to achieve the required maintainability characteristics and their relationship to planning of maintenance. It describes the general approach in reaching these objectives and shows how maintainability characteristics should be specified in a requirements document or contract. It is not intended to be a complete guide on how to specify or to contract for maintainability. Its purpose is to define the range of considerations when maintainability characteristics are included as requirements for the development or the acquisition of an item. 3.6.3 Part 3: Verification and collection, analysis and presentation of data This part of IEC 60706 describes the various aspects of verification necessary to ensure that the specified maintainability requirements of an item have been met and provides suitable procedures and test methods. This standard also addresses the collection, analysis and presentation of maintainability related data, which may be required during, and at the completion of, design and during item production and operation. 3.6.4 Part 4: Maintenance and maintenance support planning This section of the guide describes the tasks required for planning of maintenance and maintenance support. They should be performed during the system acquisition phase in order to meet the availability objectives in the operational phase. The interfaces between reliability, maintainability and the maintenance support planning programme and their tasks are also described. 3.6.5 Part 5: Testability and diagnostic testing This guide has for purpose to provide guidance for the early consideration of testability aspects in design and development, and to assist in determining effective test procedures as an integral part of operation and maintenance. This second edition constitutes a technical revision. It expands and provides more detail on the techniques and systems broadly outlined in the first edition. 3.6.6 Part 6: Statistical methods in maintainability evaluation The part of IEC 60706 is applicable to the tasks of maintainability, allocation, maintainability demonstration and maintainability data evaluation, as described in sections five, six and seven, respectively of the guide. 3.7 IEC 60812: Analysis techniques for system reliability - Procedure for failure mode and effects analysis (FMEA) This International Standard describes Failure Mode and Effects Analysis (FMEA) and Failure Mode, Effects and Criticality Analysis (FMECA), and gives guidance as to how they may be applied to achieve various objectives by: providing the procedural steps necessary to perform analysis; identifying appropriate terms; defining basic principles; providing examples of the necessary worksheets or other tabular forms. Page 14 of 54
  • 15. Stork Asset Management Solutions 3.8 IEC 61025: Fault tree analysis (FTA) This International Standard describes fault tree analysis and provides guidance on its application as follows: definition of basic principles; describing and explaining the associated mathematical modelling; explaining the relationships of FTA to other reliability modelling techniques; description of the steps involved in performing the FTA; identification of appropriate assumptions, events and failure modes; identification and description of commonly used symbols. 3.9 IEC 61070: Compliance test procedures for steady-state availability This International Standard specifies techniques for availability performance testing of frequently maintained items when the availability performance measure used is either steady-state availability or steady-state unavailability. It is applicable to compliance testing of the steady-state availability of items attaining only two states, up-state and down-state, under the following conditions: One single repaired item. All up times have the same exponential distribution. Preventive maintenance time is not included in down time although it is recognized as having possible impact on availability performance. All contributors to down time need to be explicitly stated in the requirement or test specification. Very reliable items may require an extremely long test time to determine compliance. The compliance test procedures use the complementary measure steady-state unavailability. 3.10 IEC 61078: Analysis techniques for dependability - Reliability block diagram and boolean methods This International Standard describes procedures for modelling the dependability of a system and for using the model in order to calculate reliability and availability measures. The RBD (Reliability Block Diagram) modelling technique is intended to be applied primarily to systems without repair and where the order in which failures occur does not matter. For systems where the order of failures is to be taken into account or where repairs are to be carried out, other modelling techniques, such as Markov analysis, are more suitable. It should be noted that although the word “repair” is frequently used in this standard, the word “restore” is equally applicable. Note also that the words “item” and “block” are used extensively throughout this standard: in most instances interchangeably. 3.11 IEC 61164: Reliability growth - Statistical test and estimation methods This International Standard gives models and numerical methods for reliability growth assessments based on failure data, which were generated in a reliability improvement programme. These procedures deal with growth, estimation, confidence intervals for product reliability and goodness-of-fit tests. Page 15 of 54
  • 16. Stork Asset Management Solutions 3.12 IEC 61346: Industrial systems, installations and equipment and industrial products: Structuring principles and reference designations 3.12.1 Part 1: Basic rules This part of IEC 61346 establishes general principles for describing the structure of information about systems and of the systems themselves. Based on these principles, rules and guidance are given for the formulation of unambiguous reference designations for objects in any system. The reference designation identifies objects for the purpose of correlating information about an object among different kinds of documents and the products implementing the system. For manufacturing, installation and maintenance purposes, the reference designation or part of it may also be shown on or near the physical part corresponding to the object. The principles laid down are general and are intended to be applicable to all technical areas. They can be used for systems based on different technologies or for systems combining several technologies. It should be noted that this standard provides a number of possibilities for the construction of reference designations. For most applications, however, only a subset of the possibilities given need be used. 3.12.2 Part 2: Classification objects and codes for classes This part of IEC 61346 defines object classes and associated letter codes for these classes to be used in reference designations. The classification schemes are applicable for objects in all technical areas and may be applied at any position in a tree-like structure set up in accordance with IEC 61346-1. 3.12.3 Part 4: Discussion of concepts This Technical Report discusses the concepts used in IEC 61346 Structuring principles and reference designation, with a life cycle story of an "object" as a basis. 3.13 IEC 61355: Classification and designation of documents for plants, systems and equipment This International Standard provides rules and guidelines for the classification and designation of documents. It serves as a basis for agreements about the preparation of a structured documentation, primarily required for larger installations, for example plants with their systems and equipment. It covers all technical areas and is open for further development of documentation and documentation systems. Guidance is also given for applications such as communication in the field of documentation and for document identification. Documents from non-technical areas are included to the extent required for and during the engineering process. One aim of this standard is to establish a method for better communication and understanding between parties involved in document interchange. Another aim of this standard is to set up rules for relating documents to the objects they describe. For this purpose a document designation system is provided, linking the document kind designation to the object designation used within the plant , system or equipment. 3.14 IEC 61508: Functional safety of electrical/electronic/ programmable electronic safety- related systems This International Standard sets out a generic approach for all safety lifecycle activities for systems comprised of electrical and/or electronic and/or programmable electronic components Page 16 of 54
  • 17. Stork Asset Management Solutions (electrical/electronic/programmable electronic systems (E/E/PESs)) that are used to perform safety functions. This unified approach has been adopted in order that a rational and consistent technical policy be developed for all electrically-based safety-related systems. A major objective is to facilitate the development of application sector standards. 3.14.1 Part 1: General requirements 3.14.2 Part 2: Requirements for electrical/electronic/programmable electronic safety-related systems 3.14.3 Part 3: Software requirements 3.14.4 Part 4: Definitions and abbreviations 3.14.5 Part 5: Examples of methods for the determination of safety integrity levels 3.14.6 Part 6: Guidelines on the application of IEC 61508-2 and IEC 61508-3 3.14.7 Part 7: Overview of techniques and measures 3.15 IEC 61666: Industrial systems, installations and equipment and industrial products - Identification of terminals within a system This International Standard provides rules for the designation of terminals of objects within a system. The principles laid down are primarily intended for use in the electrotechnical and related areas, but are general and applicable to all technical areas. They can be used for systems based on different technologies or for systems combining several technologies. 3.16 IEC 61703:Mathematical expressions for reliability, availability, maintainability and maintenance support terms Provides mathematical expressions for reliability, availability, maintainability and maintenance support measures. Non-repaired items and repaired items with zero and non-zero time to restoration are considered separately in this standard. 3.17 IEC 61882: Hazard and operability studies (HAZOP studies) - Application guide Provides a guide for HAZOP studies of systems utilizing the specific set of guide words defined in this standard. Also gives guidance on application of the technique and on the HAZOP study procedure, including definition, preparation, examination sessions and resulting documentation and follow-up. 3.18 IEC 62023: Structuring of technical information and documentation This International Standard provides rules for the structuring of technical information and documentation, based on the use of a main document (leading document) for the keeping together of information for each object. 3.19 IEC 62027: Preparation of parts lists This International Standard provides rules for the preparation of parts lists. This standard is applicable to parts lists used in the design and engineering process intended to be supplied with the documentation. The role of parts lists as a main document in structured documentation is described in IEC 62023. 3.20 IEC 62061: Safety of machinery – Functional safety of safety-related electrical, electronic and programmable electronic control systems Page 17 of 54
  • 18. Stork Asset Management Solutions This International Standard specifies requirements and makes recommendations for the design, integration and validation of safety-related electrical, electronic and programmable electronic control systems (SRECS) for machines. It is applicable to control systems used, either singly or in combination, to carry out safety-related control functions on machines that are not portable. 3.21 IEC 62079: Preparation of instructions – Structuring, content and presentation This standard provides general principles and detailed requirements for the design and formulation of all types of instructions that will be necessary or helpful for products of all kinds ranging from small, simple ones, such as a tin of paint, to large or highly complex ones, such as a large industrial installation. It is intended for application by product manufacturers, technical writers, technical illustrators, software designers, translators or other people engaged in the work of conceiving and drafting such instructions; authorized representatives of the product manufacturer in the country of product installation and/or usage. It will also be helpful in contract negotiations between product supplier and customer. This standard does not establish a fixed amount of documentation that has to be delivered together with a product. This would obviously not be possible because this standard has to be valid for all kind of products but the amount of documentation very much depends on the complexity of the product. Therefore this standard lists all possible kinds of instructions one can think of. What this standard does aim to standardize is how such instructions are to be prepared. No general standard can provide comprehensive information covering each special case. This International Standard, therefore is to be used in conjunction with the requirements of specific product standards or, where no such standards exist, with the relevant requirements of standards for similar products. 3.22 IEC 62198: Project risk management - Application guidelines Applicable to any project with a technological content. Provides a general introduction to project risk management, its subprocesses and influencing factors. Guidelines are provided on the organizational requirements for implementing the process of risk management appropriate to the various phases of a project. 3.23 IEC 62308: Equipment reliability – Reliability assessment methods This International Standard describes early reliability assessment methods for items based on field data and test data for components and modules. It is applicable to mission, safety and business critical, high integrity and complex items. It contains information on why early reliability estimates are required and how and where the assessment would be used. 3.24 IEC 62508: Guidance on human factors engineering for system life cycle applications This IEC standard describes the process on human factors (HF) influencing system dependability design and provides HF methods and practices applicable to system life-cycle implementation to achieve dependability performance. 3.25 IEC 82045: Document management Page 18 of 54
  • 19. Stork Asset Management Solutions 3.25.1 Part 1: Principles and methods Specifies principles, methods and information models to define metadata for the management of documents associated with objects throughout their life cycle; this cycle generally covers a range from the conceptual idea of a document to its deletion. The established principles and methods are basic for all document management systems. Is intended as a general basic standard in all application fields and provides the framework applicable for part 2. Is primarily intended as a resource for use in computerised systems such as Electronic Document Management Systems (EDMS) or Product Data Management Systems (PDMS) for the management, retrieval, storage and selection and archiving of documents, and as a basis for the exchange of documents. 3.25.2 Part 2: Reference collection of metadata and reference models Provides a comprehensive set of standardized metadata elements for document management. Includes a standardized EXPRESS-based information reference model. Provides a standardized framework for data exchange and a basis for the implementation of a document management system. Also provides a standardized DTD based on the XML language for document exchange. Page 19 of 54
  • 20. Stork Asset Management Solutions 4 ISO Standards 4.1 ISO as an organization: ISO (the International Organization for Standardization) is a worldwide federation of national standards bodies (ISO member bodies) from more than 140 countries, one from each country. The work of preparing International Standards is normally carried out through ISO technical committees. Each member body interested in a subject for whom a technical committee has been established has the right to be represented on that committee. International organizations, governmental and non-governmental, in liaison with ISO, also take part in the work. ISO collaborates closely with the International Electrotechnical Commission (IEC) on all matters of electrotechnical standardization. International Standards are drafted in accordance with the rules given in the ISO/IEC Directives, Part 2. The main task of technical committees is to prepare International Standards. Draft International Standards adopted by the technical committees are circulated to the member bodies for voting. Publication as an International Standard requires approval by at least 75 % of the member bodies casting a vote. 4.2 ISO 13374: Condition monitoring and diagnostics of machines – Data processing, communication and presentation 4.2.1 Part 1: General guidelines ISO 13374-1 establishes general guidelines for software specifications related to data processing, communication, and presentation of machine condition monitoring and diagnostic information. 4.2.2 Part 2: Data processing ISO 13374-2 details the requirements for a reference information model and a reference processing model to which an open condition monitoring and diagnostics (CM&D) architecture needs to conform. Software design professionals require both an information model and a processing model to adequately describe all data processing requirements. ISO 13374-2 facilitates the interoperability of CM&D systems. 4.3 ISO 13849: Safety of machinery – Safety-related parts of control systems See EN 13849. 4.4 ISO 14121: Safety of machinery – Risk assessment 4.4.1 Part 1: Principles ISO 14121-1 establishes general principles intended to be used to meet the risk reduction objectives established in ISO 12100-1, Clause 5. These principles of risk assessment bring together knowledge and experience of the design, use, incidents, accidents and harm related to machinery in order to assess the risks posed during the relevant phases of the life cycle of a machine. ISO 14121-1 provides guidance on the information that will be required to enable risk assessment to be carried out. Procedures are described for identifying hazards and estimating Page 20 of 54
  • 21. Stork Asset Management Solutions and evaluating risk. It also gives guidance on the making of decisions relating to the safety of machinery and on the type of documentation required to verify the risk assessment carried out. 4.4.2 Part 2: Practical guidance and examples of methods ISO/TR 14121-2 gives practical guidance on the conducting of risk assessments for machinery in accordance with ISO 14121-1 and describes various methods and tools for each step in the process. It also provides practical guidance on risk reduction (in accordance with ISO 12100) for machinery, giving additional guidance on the selection of appropriate protective measures for achieving safety. The intended users of ISO/TR 14121-2 are those involved in the integration of safety into the design, installation or modification of machinery (e.g. designers, technicians, safety specialists). 4.5 ISO 14224: Petroleum, petrochemical and natural gas industries - Collection and exchange of reliability and maintenance data for equipment: This international standard focuses on the two main issues: Data requirements for the type of data to be collected for use in various analysis methodologies Standardised data format to facilitate the exchange of reliability and maintenance data between plants, owners, manufacturers and contractors The main areas where such data are being used are: Reliability, e.g. failure events and failure mechanisms Availability/efficiency, e.g. equipment availability, system availability, plant production availability Maintenance, e.g. corrective and preventive maintenance, maintenance supportability Safety and environment, e.g. equipment failures with adverse consequences for safety and/or environment The following main categories of data are to be collected: 1. Equipment data, e.g. equipment taxonomy, equipment attributes 2. Failure data, e.g. failure cause, failure consequence 3. Maintenance data, e.g. maintenance action, resources used, maintenance consequence, down time Standardisation of data collection practices facilitates the exchange of information between relevant parties e.g. plants, owners, manufacturers and contractors throughout the world. This standard establishes requirements that any in-house or commercially available RM data system shall meet when designed for RM data exchange. Examples/guidelines/principles for how to exchange and merge such RM data is addressed. The data collection principles and associated terms & definitions defined in this standard do also constitute a "reliability language" which can be useful for communicating operational experience. The failure modes defined in the normative part of this International Standard is meant to be a "Reliability thesaurus" for various quantitative as well as qualitative applications. Page 21 of 54
  • 22. Stork Asset Management Solutions 4.6 ISO 15489: Information and documentation - Records management 4.6.1 Part 1: General This part of ISO 15489 provides guidance on managing records of originating organizations, public or private, for internal and external clients. All the elements outlined in this part of ISO 15489 are recommended to ensure that adequate records are created, captured and managed. Procedures that help to ensure the management of records according to the principles and elements outlined in this part of ISO 15489 are provided in ISO/TR 15489-2. This part of ISO 15489: Applies to the management of records, in all formats or media, created or received by any public or private organization in the conduct of its activities, or any individual with a duty to create and maintain records; Provides guidance on determining the responsibilities of organizations for records and records policies, procedures, systems and processes ; Provides guidance on records management in support of a quality process framework to comply with ISO 9001 and ISO 14001; Provides guidance on the design and implementation of a records system, but does not include the management of archival records within archival institutions. This part of ISO 15489 is intended for use by: Managers of organizations; Records, information and technology management professionals; All other personnel in organizations and other individuals with a duty to create and maintain records. 4.6.2 Part 2: Guidelines This part of ISO 15489 is an implementation guide to ISO 15489-1 for use by record management professionals and those charged with managing records in their organizations. It provides one methodology that will facilitate the implementation of ISO 15489-1 in all organizations that have a need to manage their records. It gives an overview of the processes and factors to consider in organizations wishing to comply with ISO 15489-1. 4.7 ISO 18436: Condition monitoring and diagnostics of machines - Requirements for training and certification of personnel 4.7.1 Part 1: Requirements of certifying bodies and the certification process ISO 18436-1 defines the requirements for bodies operating certification systems for personnel who perform machinery condition monitoring, identify machine faults, and recommend corrective action. Procedures for the certification of condition monitoring and diagnostic personnel are specified. 4.7.2 Part 2: Vibration condition monitoring and diagnostics This part specifies the general requirements for vibration analysis personnel who perform machinery condition monitoring and diagnostics of machines. Certification to this standard will provide recognition of the qualifications and competence of individuals to perform machinery Page 22 of 54
  • 23. Stork Asset Management Solutions vibration measurements and analysis using portable and permanently installed sensors and equipment. ISO 18436-2 covers a four-category certification programme that is based on the technical areas discussed herein. 4.8 ISO 20815: Petroleum, petrochemical and natural gas industries - Production assurance and reliability management ISO 20815 provides processes and activities, requirements and guidelines for systematic management, effective planning, execution and use of production assurance and reliability technology. This is to achieve cost-effective solutions over the life cycle of an asset- development project structured around the following main elements: production-assurance management for optimum economy of the facility through all of its life-cycle phases, while also considering constraints arising from health, safety, environment, quality and human factors; planning, execution and implementation of reliability technology; application of reliability and maintenance data; and reliability-based design and operation improvement. ISO 20815 designates 12 processes, of which seven are defined as core production-assurance processes and addressed in this standard. The remaining five processes are denoted as interacting processes and are outside the scope. The interaction of the core production- assurance processes with these interacting processes, however, is within the scope of ISO 20815 as the information flow to and from these latter processes is required to ensure that production-assurance requirements can be fulfilled. Page 23 of 54
  • 24. Stork Asset Management Solutions 5 MIL Standards 5.1 Defence and military standards A United States Defence Standard, often called a military standard, "MIL-STD", or "MIL-SPEC", is used to help achieve standardization objectives by the U.S. Department of Defence. Standardization is beneficial in achieving interoperability, ensuring products meet certain requirements, commonality, reliability, total cost of ownership, compatibility with logistics systems, and similar defence-related objectives. Defence Standards are also used by other non-Defence government organizations, technical organizations, and industry. This article discusses definitions, history, and usage of Defence Standards. Related documents, such as Defence Handbooks and Defence Specifications are also addressed. 5.2 MIL-HDBK-189: Reliability growth management This handbook provides procuring activities and development contractors with an understanding of the concepts and principles of reliability growth, advantages of managing reliability growth, and guidelines and procedures to be used in managing reliability growth. It should be noted that this handbook is not intended to serve as a reliability growth plan to be applied to a program without any tailoring. This handbook, when used in conjunction with knowledge of the system and its development program, will allow the development of a reliability growth management plan that will aid in developing a final system that meets its requirements and lowers the life cycle cost of the fielded systems. This handbook is intended for use on systems / equipments during their development phase by both internal and external personnel. 5.3 MIL-STD-721C: Definitions of terms for reliability and maintainability This Standard defines words and terms most commonly used which are associated with Reliability and Maintainability (R&M). It is intended to be used as a common base for R&M definitions and to reduce the possibility of conflicts, duplications, and incorrect interpretations either expressed or implied elsewhere in documentation. The definitions address the intent and policy of Department of Defence Directive 5000-40. Statistical and mathematical terms which have gained wide acceptance are not defined in this standard since they are included in other documents. 5.4 MIL-STD-1629A: Procedures for performing a failure mode, effects and criticality analysis This standard establishes requirements and procedures for performing a failure mode, effects, and criticality analysis (FMECA) to systematically evaluate and document, by item failure mode analysis, the potential impact of each functional or hardware failure on mission success, personnel and system safety, system performance, maintainability, and maintenance requirements. Each potential failure is ranked by the severity of its effect in order that appropriate corrective actions may be taken to eliminate or control the high risk items. 5.5 MIL-STD-2074: Failure classification for reliability testing This Standard contains criteria for classification of failures during reliability testing. Failures are classified as either relevant or non-relevant. Information on reclassification of failures, failure analysis and failure reports is also provided. Page 24 of 54
  • 25. Stork Asset Management Solutions 5.6 MIL-STD-2173: Reliability centred maintenance requirements for naval aircraft, weapons systems and support equipment The purpose of this standard is to provide the procedures for a reliability centred maintenance (RCM) analysis for naval aircraft, weapons systems and support equipment. The goals of this standard are to provide organisational focus and systematic procedures to accomplish the following: Analyse the maintenance requirements for each type / model aircraft; Objectively justify every maintenance requirement; Enforce the performance of only the justified maintenance actions. This standard is to be used by contractors during development of new systems and equipment and by analysts and auditors within the Naval Air Systems Command for determining preventive maintenance requirements and developing age exploration requirements. The tasks shall also be used to update the initial reliability centred maintenance analysis and analyse newly discovered failure modes. 5.7 MIL-P-24534A: Planned maintenance system – Development of maintenance requirement cards, maintenance index pages and associated documentation This specification identifies the requirements and standards for the development and production of Maintenance Requirement Cards (MRCs), Maintenance Index Pages (MIPs), and other associated documentation used with the Navy Maintenance and Material Management (3-M) Systems and Planned Maintenance System (PMS). This specification implements Reliability Centered Maintenance (RCM) methodology for the determination of maintenance requirements and applies to all levels of system or equipment grouping and to all scheduled maintenance, whether equipment is in use, ready for use or in standby or lay up condition. This specification addresses the total scheduled maintenance program for a ship, irrespective of the maintenance echelon possessing the capability to perform the maintenance; that is, organisational, intermediate and depot level scheduled maintenance tasks are considered. This specification provides procedures for development of unscheduled maintenance within the PMS program. Planned maintenance system documentation shall be developed in accordance with this specification. This specification is intended for use by PMS development activities and by activities which manage, monitor or coordinate that development. Page 25 of 54
  • 26. Stork Asset Management Solutions 6 EN / CEN Standards 6.1 CEN as an organization CEN (= Comité Européen de Normalisation / European Committee for Standardization) is one of the two components of the Joint European Standards Institution CEN/CENELEC. CEN constitutes a "European forum" in the field of non-electrotechnical standardization, facilitating and organizing contacts with all interested parties: governments, public bodies, producers, users, consumers, trade unions, etc... The aim of CEN may be realized in any way, and in particular by the following means: Harmonization of national standards published by CEN members; Promotion of uniform implementation of International Organization for Standardization (ISO) and other international standards or recommendations by CEN members; Preparation of reports on the state of harmonization of standards of CEN members; Preparation of European Standards (EN) 'de novo' when justified by requirements in Western Europe where no appropriate international or other standard exists for use as a reference document; Provision of procedures for the mutual recognition of test results and certification systems on the European level; Support for world-wide standardization in the International Organization for Standardization (ISO); Co-operation with the European Communities, the European Free Trade Association (EFTA) and other international governmental organizations so that European Standards (EN) and Harmonization Documents (HD) can be referred to in their directives or other instruments; Co-operation with other international governmental, economic, professional and scientific organizations on questions linked with standardization; Co-operation with the European Committee for Electrotechnical Standardization (CENELEC), the other component of the Joint European Standards Institution. 6.2 EN 1050: Safety of machinery - Principles of risk assessment This standard establishes general principles for the procedure known as risk assessment by which the knowledge and experience of the design, use, incidents, accidents and harm related to machinery is brought together in order to assess the risks during all phases of the life of the machinery. This standard gives guidance on the information required to allow risk assessment to be carried out. Procedures are described for identifying hazards and estimating and evaluating risk. The purpose of the standard is to provide advice for decisions to be made on the safety of machinery and the type of documentation required to verify the risk assessment carried out. This standard is not intended to provide a detailed account of methods for analysing hazards and estimating risk as this is dealt with elsewhere. A summary of some of these methods is given for information only. Replaced by ISO EN 14121. 6.3 EN 13269: Maintenance - Guideline on preparation of maintenance contracts Page 26 of 54
  • 27. Stork Asset Management Solutions In addition, as technical and economic developments increase, the demand for contracted maintenance services both nationally and across borders also increases. It is therefore important that maintenance contracts are approached in a structured and careful manner. The purpose of this Standard is to: promote cross-border company/maintenance contractor relationships and to produce a clear interface between the company and the maintenance contractor for maintenance services; improve the quality of maintenance contracts so that disputes and adjustments are minimized; draw attention to the scope of maintenance services and to identify options for their provision; give assistance in, and advice on, the drafting and negotiation of maintenance contracts and in specifying arrangements in the case of dispute; identify types of maintenance contracts and to make recommendations for the attribution of rights and obligations between the parties of the contract including risks; simplify comparison between maintenance contracts. The standard also could facilitate in specifying the required output of maintenance activities. 6.4 EN 13306: Maintenance terminology The purpose of this European standard is to define the generic terms used for all types of maintenance and maintenance management irrespective of the type of item considered except software. It is the responsibility of any maintenance management to define its maintenance strategy according to three main criteria: to ensure the availability of the item for the required function, often at optimum costs; to consider the safety requirements associated with the item for both maintenance and user personnel, and, where necessary, any impact on the environment; to uphold the durability of the item and/or the quality of the product or service provided considering, where necessary, costs. The terms contained in this standard indicate that maintenance is not confined to the technical actions but includes all the activities such as planning, documentation handling and many others. The standard IEC 60050 (191) has been used as a basis for the preparation of this standard but some terms have been modified and some terms have been added. Not all terms specified in IEC 60050 (191) are included in this European standard. 6.5 EN 13460: Maintenance - Documents for maintenance This standards specifies the general guidelines for: the technical documentation to be supplied with an item, at the latest before it is ready to be put into service, in order to support its maintenance. the documentation of information to be established within the operational phase of an item, in order to support the maintenance requirements. Page 27 of 54
  • 28. Stork Asset Management Solutions 6.6 EN 13849: Safety of machinery – Safety-related parts of control systems 6.6.1 Part 1: General principles for design EN 13849-1 provides safety requirements and guidance on the principles for the design and integration of safety-related parts of control systems (SRP/CS), including the design of software. For these parts of SRP/CS, it specifies characteristics that include the performance level required for carrying out safety functions. It applies to SRP/CS, regardless of the type of technology and energy used (electrical, hydraulic, pneumatic, mechanical, etc.), for all kinds of machinery. It does not specify the safety functions or performance levels that are to be used in a particular case. 6.6.2 Part 2: Validation EN 13849-2 specifies the procedures and conditions to be followed for the validation by analysis and testing of: the safety functions provided and the category achieved For the safety-related parts of the control system in compliance with EN 954-1 (EN 13849-1), using the design rationale provided by the designer. 6.7 EN 14121: Safety of machinery – Risk assessment See ISO 14121. 6.8 EN 15341: Maintenance - Maintenance key performance indicators This European standard describes a system for management of Key Performance Indicators to measure maintenance performance in the framework of the influencing factors such as the economical, technical and organizational aspects, to appraise and to improve efficiency and effectiveness in order to achieve a excellence in maintenance of Technical Assets. 6.9 EN 20815: Petroleum, petrochemical and natural gas industries - Production assurance and reliability management See ISO 20815. 6.10 EN 60079: Electrical apparatus for explosive gas atmospheres See IEC 60079. 6.11 EN 60300: Dependability management See IEC 60300. 6.12 EN 61078: Analysis techniques for dependability - Reliability block diagram and boolean methods See IEC 61078. Page 28 of 54
  • 29. Stork Asset Management Solutions 6.13 EN 61703: Mathematical expressions for reliability, availability, maintainability and maintenance support terms See IEC 61703. 6.14 CEN/TR 15628: Qualification of maintenance personnel The scope of this document is to report about the current situation for defining the competence levels for personnel operating in maintenance and the knowledge levels required to be addressed to carry out those competencies. It defines three competence and knowledge levels and how to achieve a structured qualification program for maintenance personnel. Page 29 of 54
  • 30. Stork Asset Management Solutions 7 BSI Standards 7.1 British Standards Institute Since its foundation in 1901 as the Engineering Standards Committee, BSI Group has grown into a leading global independent business services organization. The Group now operates globally through its three divisions: BSI British Standards, BSI Management Systems and BSI Product Services. The BSI Group: Certifies management systems and products Provides product testing services Develops private, national and international standards Provides training and information on standards and international trade and Provides performance management software solutions BSI British Standards is the National Standards Body of the UK, with a globally recognized reputation for independence, integrity and innovation in the production of standards that promote best practice. It develops and sells standards and standardization solutions to meet the needs of business and society. 7.2 BS 14224: Petroleum, petrochemical and natural gas industries - Collection and exchange of reliability and maintenance data for equipment: See ISO 14224. 7.3 BS 6548: Maintainability of equipment 7.3.1 Part 1: Guide to specifying and contracting for maintainability See IEC 60706-1. 7.3.2 Part 2: Guide to maintainability studies during the design phase See IEC 60706-2. 7.3.3 Part 3: Guide to maintainability, verification and the collection, analysis and presentation of maintainability data See IEC 60706-3. 7.3.4 Part 4: Guide to the planning of maintenance and maintenance support See IEC 60706-4. 7.3.5 Part 5: Guide to diagnostic testing See IEC 60706-5. 7.3.6 Part 6: Guide to statistical methods in maintainability evaluation See IEC 60706-6. Page 30 of 54
  • 31. Stork Asset Management Solutions 7.4 BS 61703: Mathematical expressions for reliability, availability, maintainability and maintenance support terms See IEC 61703. Page 31 of 54
  • 32. Stork Asset Management Solutions 8 AFNOR Standards 8.1 Association française de normalisation Within a context of trade globalisation and the pursuit of competitiveness, the AFNOR Group, which brings together the activities of both AFAQ and AFNOR, is the preferred partner of most socio-economic players. The Group has demonstrated its expertise in four complementary activities. Standardisation: AFNOR develops the reference systems required by economic players to promote their strategic and commercial development. As European and International standardisation represents more than 80% of its work, AFNOR is influential in representing French interests within these standardisation authorities. Publication and distribution of information products: AFNOR helps players to access reference systems by providing them with international reference standards and information and assisting companies with setting up documentary databases tailored to their needs. Training: CAP AFNOR, a subsidiary of the Group, helps economic players to apply the reference systems and prepare applications for standardisation, certification and progress initiatives through its wide range of inter/intra company training and information days. Certification: AFAQ AFNOR Certification is now the Group's certification body. It offers a wide range of certifications for management systems, products, services and persons. A dedicated international centre has been set up within the new Group to contribute to an ambitious development programme in the certification, technical cooperation and training fields. It is supported by AFAQ's subsidiaries, partners and counterparts outside France and AFNOR's standardisation and international technical cooperation network. 8.2 FD X60-000: Industrial maintenance – The maintenance function This standard concentrates on the company maintenance process. It concerns: Asset maintenance, from the technical function fulfilled by the asset-equipments or a production system in general (software maintenance is not included in this standard). The industrial companies and their services. It does not concern certain traditional activities reserved for enterprise maintenance services but those activities which do not belong to “maintenance” as described in NF EN 13306 for example third works, safety, environment. This guideline is only available in French. 8.3 NF X60-010: Maintenance - Concepts and definitions of maintenance activities The terms contained in X60-010 indicate that maintenance is not confined to the technical actions but includes activities like: Introduction to the “maintenance” function The role of maintenance and the function of maintenance as a service Maintenance types (corrective, preventive, …) Terms and definitions within maintenance Page 32 of 54
  • 33. Stork Asset Management Solutions Maintenance operations (inspections, checks, repair, …) Levels of maintenance Reliability, availability, maintainability Technical documentation This guideline is only available in French. Replaced by EN 13306. 8.4 NF X60-020: Maintenance indicators The purpose of this standard is to introduce a certain number of indicators typical for maintenance and asset management for the budget, technical, organisational en structural aspects. These indicators are classified in four application domains: The Client-Supplier relations from the point of view to measure de performances of maintenance based on the result obligations defined in the scope definition by contract; The maintenance and the general performances of the company; The political choice in the field of maintenance material and physical asset management, from the budget (=cost analysis) and technical (= analysis of the asset follow-up and maintenance activities) angle; The maintenance people management in the sphere of organisation, qualification, specialisation and education / training. Different factors have a repercussion on the availability of equipments. For the management of the equipments: the conception about the installation; the conception about the equipments; the realisation of equipments; the organisation of production or exploitation; the exploitation conditions in the given environment. For the management of the maintenance: the maintenance strategy; the maintenance organisation. For the management of the maintenance people: the number of people; specialization and qualification; training and education. For the management of the spare parts: the management policy about the stock; strategic stock; stock value; provisioning; origin. This guideline is available in English and French. Page 33 of 54
  • 34. Stork Asset Management Solutions Replaced by EN 15341. 8.5 NF X60-090: Maintenance - Criteria of choice of the maintenance contract - Means contracts - Results contracts NF X60-090 proposes a well-founded method for analysis of relevant criteria which permit an enterprise to choose the type of contract which fits best on the company needs by charging the technical and economical obligations. This guideline is only available in French. 8.6 NF X60-200: Maintenance - Technical documentations associated with an item throughout its life cycle The purpose of this standard is to establish a terminology and general rules for the formulation of technical documents associated with assets, so that the installation conditions, the first engagement, the maintenance servicing and taking out of service of an asset can be described. It handles about the documentation with regard to assets, except special materials from which the documentation makes part of a standard or a specific regulation. This guideline is only available in French. 8.7 NF X60-212: Maintenance - Handbook of instructions maintenance - Definitions and general principles for the wording and layout This document describes the document parts as a reference for the maintenance instructions. It applies to the whole enterprise (the one who gives the order and/or the executor) which structures, organizes or reorganizes his “maintenance function”. The purpose of this document is to help the enterprise (the one who gives the order and/or the executor) set up the constitutive documents which refer to the maintenance instructions. This guideline is only available in French. 8.8 NF X60-250: Maintenance - Function "User technical documentation" - Recommendations for its introduction or organization within manufacturers of equipment The purpose of this guideline is to treat the general organisation principles of the “technical documentation” function and more specific those which are meant for the asset equipment users for professional use or industrial or by a broad public. Designed in the form of a guide, it defines the general organisation principles of this function in accordance with the standards: NF X60-200 for “industrial use” asset equipments; NF X50-050 for “broad public” assets ; This guideline can be used within the whole enterprise, but the prescriptions concerning content need to be adapted corresponding and on the products of each constructor, according to their skills. This guideline is only available in French. 8.9 NF X60-317: Maintenance – Documents for maintenance See EN 13460. Page 34 of 54
  • 35. Stork Asset Management Solutions 8.10 NF X60-318: Maintenance – Guideline on preparation of maintenance contracts See EN 13269. 8.11 NF X60-319: Maintenance – Maintenance terminology See EN 13306. 8.12 NF X60-500: Terminology relating to reliability, maintainability and availability The purpose of this standard is to give an overview of the expressions and definitions used in the areas of reliability, maintainability and availability of assets within the industrial, professional and public applications. Within this standard, the common used expression is “entity”, which gathers all elements, equipments, subsystems, material systems or processes which can be individual considered. A specific collection of entities, for example samples or specimens, can even be considered as an entity. This guideline is only available in French. 8.13 NF X60-503: Initiation into availability The X60-503 gives an introduction into availability. This document addresses itself to all those who are confronted with the problems that availability brings along. The standard describes the concepts, methods, measurements and evaluations of availability. It includes also an availability- study and examples. This guideline is available in English and French. 8.14 NF E60-182: Manufacturing systems - Performance indicators This French standard describes the definitions condition-times (total time, functional time, useful time, …) and the necessary elements to evaluate the performance indicators of production assets in manufacturing industries named: Overall equipment effectiveness (= TRS: Taux de Rendement Synthétique) Global equipment effectiveness (= TRG : Taux de Rendement Global) Economic equipment effectiveness (= TRE : Taux de Rendement Économique) Which purpose is, to allow a reliable follow-up of the production assets. This guideline is only available in French. 8.15 NF 13269: Maintenance - Guideline on preparation of maintenance contracts See EN 13269. 8.16 NF 13306: Maintenance terminology See EN 13306. Page 35 of 54
  • 36. Stork Asset Management Solutions 8.17 NF 13460: Maintenance - Documents for maintenance See EN 13460. Page 36 of 54
  • 37. Stork Asset Management Solutions 9 NORSOK Standards 9.1 Norsk Sokkels Konkuranseposisjon The NORSOK standards are developed by the Norwegian petroleum industry to ensure adequate safety, value adding and cost effectiveness for existing and future petroleum industry developments. The NORSOK standards are prepared to complement available international standards and fill the broad needs of the Norwegian petroleum industry. Where relevant NORSOK standards will be used to provide the Norwegian industry input to the international standardisation process. Subject to development and publication of international standards, the relevant NORSOK standard will be withdrawn. These NORSOK standards are developed according to the consensus principle generally applicable for most standards work and according to established procedures defined in NORSOK A-001. The preparation and publication of the NORSOK standards is supported by OLF (The Norwegian Oil Industry Association) and TBL (Federation of Norwegian Manufacturing Industries). NORSOK standards are administered and issued by NTS (Norwegian Technology Centre). 9.1 S-005: Machinery – Working environment analysis and documentation This NORSOK standard addresses methods for working environment analyses and documentation of machinery according to machinery regulations and the normative references. The methods may also be used for other technical products having similar hazards. This standard describes rational methods for necessary working environment (WE) analyses of machinery design (i.e. risk assessments and design reviews) and documentation of conformity with WE requirements applicable to offshore machinery. The described allocation of responsibilities, review and assessment processes, and formats of documentation addresses the basic regulatory requirements, normative standards, and expectations of major clients in the offshore industry. 9.2 Z-006: Preservation This standard defines the principles and structure to ensure that equipment and systems are kept preserved during all phases of the project, before taken into use. 9.3 Z-008: Criticality analysis for maintenance purposes The purpose of this NORSOK standard is to provide requirements and guidelines for establishing a basis for preparation and optimisation of maintenance programs for new and in service facilities offshore and onshore taking into account risks related to: Personnel Environment Production loss Direct economical cost (everything other than cost of production loss) The result of this NORSOK standard is applicable for different purposes such as: Page 37 of 54
  • 38. Stork Asset Management Solutions Design phase: Establishing initial maintenance manning requirements, identify hidden failures on critical equipment and selection of insurance spare parts. Preparation for operation: Development of initial maintenance programs for implementation into maintenance management systems and selection of ordinary spare parts. Operational phase: Optimisation of existing maintenance programs and as a guide for prioritising work orders. 9.4 Z-013: Risk and emergency preparedness analysis (EPA) This NORSOK standard presents requirements to planning, execution and use of risk and EPA, with an emphasis on providing insight into the process and concise definitions. This NORSOK standard is structured around the following main elements: Establishment of risk acceptance criteria prior to execution of the risk analysis. The relation between the risk and EPA, especially the integration of the two types of analysis into one overall analysis process. Planning and execution of analyses. Further requirements to use of risk and EPA for different activities and life cycle phases. Establishment of requirements based on risk and EPA. This standard covers EPA, establishment of emergency preparedness, while maintenance and further development of emergency preparedness are not covered by the standard. 9.5 Z-016: Regularity management & reliability technology This NORSOK standard covers analysis of reliability and maintenance of the components, systems and operations associated with exploration drilling, exploitation, processing and transport of petroleum resources. The standard focuses on regularity of oil and gas production and associated activities, but also covers system and equipment reliability and maintenance performance in general. The standard presents requirements to planning, execution and use of reliability technology, structured around the following main elements: Regularity management for optimum economy of the facility through all of its life cycle phases, while also considering health, safety, environment, quality and human factors. Planning, execution and implementation of reliability technology. The application of reliability and maintenance data. Reliability based design and operation improvement. Establishment and use of reliability clauses in contracts. Page 38 of 54
  • 39. Stork Asset Management Solutions 10 VDI Standards 10.1 Verein Deutscher Ingenieure The Association of German Engineers is a financially independent and politically unaffiliated, non-profit organization of 132.000 engineers and natural scientists. More than 13.000 of these members work for the VDI in an honorary capacity. Established in 1856, the VDI is today the largest engineering association in Western Europe. In Germany, it is recognized as the representative of engineers both within the profession and in the public arena. As the leading institution for training and technology transfer among experts, it is also a partner at the preliminary stages of the decision-making process in matters of technological policy and for all questions that engineers face in their professional or public lives. 10.2 VDI 2246: Designing maintainable engineered products The guideline VDI 2246 fills information gaps by providing product-neutral notes, recommendations and rules for the designer. It describes the relationship between maintainability and maintenance, reliability, availability, product security, environmental compatibility and financial justification. Economic maintainability is achieved when the product costs over the entire life span are a minimum, in other words when the extra costs for development, design and manufacturing of a maintainable product are balanced by the reduced costs of maintenance over the entire product life cycle. Part 1 (= Basic principles) of the VDI 2246 guideline provides the designer with the necessary knowledge of strategies, concepts and key figures for ‘maintainability’ and maintenance. Part 2 (= Requirements catalogue) presents a check list and working procedure. On the basis of examples it provides, in catalogue form, product-specific requirements for maintainability. 10.2.1 Part 1: Basic principles 10.2.2 Part 2: Requirements catalogue These guidelines are available in English and German. 10.3 VDI 2884: Purchase, operating and maintenance of production equipment using Life Cycle Costing The guideline VDI 2884 makes to the operator available the necessary methodical framework for the procurement decision between alternative production equipment, in order to meet it on the basis of the resulting entire life cycle costs. Also manufacturers can use the method, in order to develop innovative solutions, to reduce by maintenance-fair constructions the returning and subsequent costs. This ensures during the utilization period a high economy to the operator, despite higher purchase costs. Apart from a decision making aid, whether a LCC view is justified, the guideline VDI 2884 offers above all support with the proceeding. This reaches by the definition of the maintenance strategy and the planned service life over the definition of the costs which can be included into the decision up to the evaluation of different alternatives and the decision for the "right" alternative. The collection of the costs and proceeds can take place via tables systematically. In connection with the guideline VDI 2885 the maintenance-relevant operating conditions of production equipment as well as the maintenance expenditures can be specified in the dialogue between operators and manufacturers. This guideline is available in English and German. Page 39 of 54
  • 40. Stork Asset Management Solutions 10.4 VDI 2885: Standardized data for maintenance planning and determination of maintenance costs - Data and data determination The guideline VDI 2885 specifies all the measurable, technical and economical data of a means of production, which are relevant to maintenance throughout its life cycle. This transparent database for the view of Life Cycle Costs allows to objectively compare the maintenance requirement of different machines at the offer stage. Starting from the description of the boundary conditions of the maintenance process, the new approach consists in defining maintenance terms which shall be supported by means of data (number plus scientific or economic unit). To this end, it is the supplier of a means of production, not the customer (e.g. user), who shall first state the extent of all maintenance activities required. The customer will then incorporate these activities into a maintenance schedule, taking into account his particular operating conditions in order to match the requirements with the field conditions. Introducing the term "service logistics", the VDI guideline also gives guidance on all just-in-time activities required in connection with the technical support of a means of production, such as information, procurement and storage activities. In addition to describing the procedure, the guideline lists numerous examples in tables which can serve as a working aid. It thus makes a practical contribution to activating the potentials of maintenance and to improve the communication between the customer and the supplier. This guideline is available in English and German. 10.5 VDI 2886: Benchmarking applied to maintenance This guideline describes the features of successful benchmarking in fields where maintenance activities are performed. Following an introduction, it goes into the specific procedures which lead to a continuous improvement process in maintenance by using reference parameters. The main emphasis is put on practical guidance with respect to the prerequisites and the implementation of benchmarking, particularly in maintenance. For example, the guideline deals with aspects of planning, data collection and analysis, as well as suggestions for realisation, and for checking of the change achieved. As practical working aids, the guideline gives examples of the determination and assessment of benchmarking objects in maintenance, and a collection form for the basic data required. Users of VDI 2886 are enabled to establish, verify and enhance the performance of their own maintenance so as to improve the efficiency and the cost situation purposefully and effectively. This guideline is available in English and German. 10.6 VDI 2887: Quality management of maintenance This guideline is an introduction for employees and staff members, who are involved with the main activities of maintenance and the quality improvement of it. From the point of view of an integrated approach of quality management, the complete cycle of product- and installation is treated. Here is "maintenance" as task seen, within the control and the housekeeping of an installation or machine. This guideline is only available in German. 10.7 VDI 2888: Maintenance condition monitoring This guideline applies to any production plant requiring maintenance to ensure efficient and/or reliable operation. Following the definitions of the relevant terms, the concept of condition- oriented maintenance is explained, its significance for practical application is illustrated, and Page 40 of 54
  • 41. Stork Asset Management Solutions potential users are given guidance on the implementation in their companies. The objective is to make this strategy more acceptable for the industrial practice and to facilitate its use. This guideline is available in English and German. 10.8 VDI 2889: Methods and systems for condition and process monitoring in maintenance Guideline VDI 2889 deals about the input of knowledge-based diagnostic methods and systems within maintenance. It is an amendment to VDI 2888 which approaches maintenance condition monitoring. VDI 2889 acts as a decision guidance following the criteria requirements, cost and added value. Conventional methods as well as failure analysis and diagnosis and also knowledge-based methods as failure tree and expert system are treated. This guideline is only available in German. 10.9 VDI 2890: Planned maintenance; guide for the drawing up of maintenance lists Guideline VDI 2890 gives direction to the preparation of maintenance related machine documentation and business plans. Additionally this guideline contains matrix representations with examples for possible conditions of components respectively assemblies. This guideline is only available in German. 10.10 VDI 2891: Maintenance relevant criteria for purchase of machines The guideline VDI 2891 gives an overview of the cost-driven, investment-dependent criteria of maintenance. Within this guideline the competences of the suppliers and customers are in tables incorporated. VDI 2891 is valid for all domains where means of production are planned, produced, purchased, operated and maintained. It reflects the general criteria of investment asset purchase and is a concentrated summary of the cost-intensive maintenance criteria for those who purchase as well as for the suppliers. This guideline is only available in German. 10.11 VDI 2892: Management of maintenance spare parts This guideline describes the essential practices and tools for planning, control and continuous improvement of the spare parts behaviour for maintenance. It refers to spare parts without auxiliary and raw materials, which are necessary for the maintenance and service of machines and assets. VDI 2892 gives assistance to the responsible employees of maintenance, production, logistics and warehousing during the set-up and the re-organisation of the maintenance spare parts management. The management of spare parts within maintenance or asset management differentiates itself from the conventional materials management and is as cost-effective as possible represented. Beside the goal, responsibilities and conditions describes this standard also the choosing of the spare parts, who need to be provisioned, and mentions practices and methods of storage, accountancy and purchasing. This guideline is available in English and German. 10.12 VDI 2893: Selection and formation of indicators for maintenance Page 41 of 54
  • 42. Stork Asset Management Solutions In this guideline is a large catalogue, with 72 basic indicators and 87 key indicators, integrated. Furthermore are additional practical examples, for the set up of an individual indicator table, included. Today KPI’s are an indispensable tool for planning and control processes within maintenance. As a base for the formation of KPI’s were four different aspects defined and interpreted: finance, customers, processes and employees. The description and the step-by- step set-up of a KPI-system with the conceptualities and definitions are described in this guideline. This guideline is available in English and German. 10.13 VDI 2895: Organisation of maintenance - Maintenance as a task of management Within guideline VDI 2895, maintenance is as a company assignment understood, which needs to be accomplished by employees in different company departments, on a global and economical manner. Starting basis for the companies organisation are the product manufacturing processes and the derived tasks thereof. The existing organisation and especially the classical arrangement of functions to locations and departments, must be considered, but also critically verified. In order that the maintenance cost within economical reasonable margins stays, there is a need to useful technical and organisational answers. At the same time, the organisation can not remain static, but must be understood as an continuous process. The contribution of this VDI-guideline lies in the complete description of the function of maintenance and in the definition of the most important concepts. On top of that, proven and interesting maintenance organisation forms are described. This guideline is only available in German. 10.14 VDI 2896: Controlling of maintenance within plant management VDI 2896 describes the targets and tasks of maintenance controlling. Controlling belongs to the basic management instruments in all areas of activity of a company. In it maintenance- controlling should be integrated. As a supervision tool for the maintenance management, it contains all the necessary methods and practices which involve definitions, discussions and persecutions of the targets. Examples are planning, reports and comparisons, analysis and evaluations. Controlling methods and practices are based on a structural data and information collection about the maintainable objects, resources and the maintenance organisation as well as a comprehensive active information management. This guideline is only available in German. 10.15 VDI 2898: Utilisation of EDP for maintenance - Requirements and criteria This guideline illustrates the requirements, which are necessary for the implementation of a maintenance-planning-system (MPS). Top priorities in this process are the MPS-functions and the set-up of the installation structure. The maintenance business is influenced by big volumes of data and information, which are appropriate and within the prescribed time limit registered, processed and updated. The transparency of these data and information depends on the structuring and quantity. A preparation of this type sets then the foundation for qualified decisions for the company in general as well as for the partitions of it. For this assignment can it be meaningful to consider an installation of electronic data processing (EDP). This guideline is only available in German. Page 42 of 54
  • 43. Stork Asset Management Solutions 10.16 VDI 2899: Maintenance service - Procedure for deciding whether in-house or external supply The industry refocuses the last years more and more on the development, the manufacturing and the sales of their own products, to reduce the vertical range of manufacture and therewith to increase the deployment of the performances of external industries and sectors. The consequence of this, is that more and more the discussion starts about which activities and services will be done single-handedly and which will be done by outsourcing or contracting. Guideline VDI 2899 explains the methods and best practices for the decision-making of in- of outsourcing. It is based on the fact that the production strategy is a part of the company mission. The maintenance strategy is based on the production strategy. Almost in every industrial sector the amount of the maintenance cost has reached a remarkable level in the total cost, that the companies today are thinking about the rationalization of the maintenance business. This guideline is only available in German. 10.17 VDI 3423: Technical availability of machines and production lines The economical use of high-cost production plants within the framework of automated production relies upon the highest possible utilisation, which implies permanent monitoring of utilisation. Downtimes may result from technical as well as organisational causes. These must be identified quickly and positively to allow their elimination within the shortest possible time, and for preventive action. This guideline is intended to specify the necessary definitions, for single machines and system components and for the entire system, as well as to list the criteria for a continuous and traceable record of the operational procedure. This is required to: document occupied times identify downtimes due to organisational or technical problems or to maintenance determine availability, utilisation ratio, and failure rates The data thus determined can be used to: locate weak points furnish proof in case of warranty claims compare different production facilities and their components compare different divisions of a company calculate economic efficiency support investment decisions This guideline is available in English and German. 10.18 VDI 3822: Failure analysis By analysing failures it should be possible to discover the causes of malfunctions in technical systems and components. The knowledge gained through such analyses can provide a basis for developing measures that can rectify or prevent failures. Guideline VDI 3822 is intended to accomplish the following with regard to failure analysis: to determine terminology to provide uniform designations and descriptions for various types of failure to facilitate a systematic approach to ensure that the findings of different institutions can be compared with each other and Page 43 of 54
  • 44. Stork Asset Management Solutions to create the necessary framework for documentation 10.18.1 Part 1: Fundamentals, terms, definitions - Procedure of failure analyses 10.18.2 Part 2: Failures caused by mechanical working conditions 10.18.3 Part 3: Failures caused by corrosion in electrolytes 10.18.4 Part 4: Failures caused by thermal loading 10.18.5 Part 5: Failures caused by tribology working conditions 10.18.6 Part 6: Compilation and evaluation of failure analysis Part 1, 2 and 3 are available in English and German. Part 4, 5 and 6 are only available in German. Page 44 of 54
  • 45. Stork Asset Management Solutions 11 DIN Standards 11.1 Deutsches Institut für Normung DIN, the German Institute for Standardization, develops norms and standards as a service to industry, the state and society as a whole. A registered non-profit association, DIN has been based in Berlin since 1917. DIN's primary task is to work closely with its stakeholders to develop consensus-based standards that meet market requirements. Some 26,000 experts contribute their skills and experience to the standardization process. By agreement with the German Federal Government, DIN is the acknowledged national standards body that represents German interests in European and international standards organizations. Ninety percent of the standards work now carried out by DIN is international in nature. 11.2 DIN 6789: Systematic arrangement of documents DIN 6789 has the goal to describe the formal structure of technical documentation for products. 11.2.1 Part 1: Arrangement of technical product documentation 11.2.2 Part 2: Sets of documents of technical product documentation 11.2.3 Part 3: Revisions of documents and items - General requirements 11.2.4 Part 4: Structure of contents of technical product documentation 11.2.5 Part 5: Release of technical product documentation 11.2.6 Part 6: Protection against falsification of digital technical documentation 11.2.7 Part 7: Quality criteria for the release process of digital product data There exists also a standard DIN EN ISO 6789 (=Assembly tools for screws and nuts - Hand torque tools - Requirements and test methods for design conformance testing, quality conformance testing and recalibration procedure) which has no connection with the standard mentioned in this paragraph. 11.3 DIN 13269: Maintenance - Guideline on preparation of maintenance contracts See EN 13269. 11.4 DIN 13306: Maintenance terminology See EN 13306. 11.5 DIN 13460: Maintenance - Documents for maintenance See EN 13460. 11.6 DIN 15341: Maintenance - Maintenance key performance indicators See EN 15341. 11.7 DIN 20815: Petroleum, petrochemical and natural gas industries - Production assurance and reliability management See ISO 20815. Page 45 of 54
  • 46. Stork Asset Management Solutions 11.8 DIN 25419: Event tree analysis - Method, graphical symbols and evaluation This standard states some methods and graphical symbols in explanation of event flows and methods for the probability evaluation of these flows. In the event tree analysis, occurences are determined, who can be developed out of a predetermined starting event. 11.9 DIN 25424: Fault tree analysis Replaced by IEC 61025. 11.9.1 Part 1: Method and graphical symbols 11.9.2 Part 2: Manual calculation procedures for the evaluation of a fault tree 11.10 DIN 25448: Failure mode analysis Replaced by IEC 60812. 11.11 DIN 31051: Fundamentals of maintenance This standard specifies fundamentals for maintenance. It divides maintenance completely into basic elements and defines terms which, together with the terms of DIN or EN 13306, are necessary to understand the correlations between them. These basic elements are: Preventive maintenance Inspection Corrective maintenance Modification 11.12 DIN 60812: Analysis techniques for system reliability - Procedure for failure mode and effects analysis (FMEA) See IEC 60812. 11.13 DIN 61025: Fault tree analysis (FTA) See IEC 61025. 11.14 DIN 61078: Analysis techniques for dependability – Reliability block diagram and Boolean methods See IEC 61078. 11.15 DIN 66232: Structure and contents of a data documentation DIN 66232 has the goal, constructing to the standards DIN 66230 (Program documentation) and DIN 66231 (Program development documentation), to describe the structure and contents of a data documentation. Page 46 of 54
  • 47. Stork Asset Management Solutions 12 SAE Standards 12.1 Society of Automotive (and Aeronautical) Engineers SAE is a non-profit educational and scientific organization dedicated to advancing mobility technology to better serve humanity. Over 90.000 engineers and scientists, who are SAE members, develop technical information on all forms of self-propelled vehicles including automobiles, trucks and buses, off-highway equipment, aircraft, aerospace vehicles, marine, rail and transit systems. SAE disseminates this information through its meetings, books, technical papers, magazines, standards, reports, professional development programs and electronic databases. 12.2 SAE AS9110: Quality Maintenance Systems - Aerospace - Requirements for Maintenance Organizations This standard includes ISO 9001:2000 quality management system requirements and specifies additional requirements for a quality management system for aerospace maintenance organizations. It is emphasized that the quality management system requirements specified in this standard are complementary (not alternative) to contractual and applicable law and regulatory requirements. This International Standard specifies requirements for a quality management system where an organization: needs to demonstrate its ability to consistently provide product that meets customer and applicable regulatory requirements, and aims to enhance customer satisfaction through the effective application of the system, including processes for continual improvement of the system and the assurance of conformity to customer and applicable regulatory requirements. 12.3 SAE JA1010-1: Maintainability Program Standard Implementation Guide This document provides information to help the reader view maintainability in the context of an overall systems engineering effort. The guide defines maintainability, describes its relationship to other disciplines, addresses the basic elements common to sound maintainability programs, and describes the tasks and activities associated with those elements. 12.4 SAE JA1011: Evaluation criteria for Reliability Centred Maintenance (RCM) processes This SAE Standard for Reliability Centred Maintenance (RCM) is intended for use by any organization that has or makes use of physical assets or systems that it wishes to manage responsibly. RCM is a specific process used to identify the policies which must be implemented to manage the failure modes which could cause the functional failure of any physical asset in a given operating context. This document is intended to be used to evaluate any process that purports to be an RCM process, in order to determine whether it is a true RCM process. This document supports such an evaluation by specifying the minimum criteria that a process must have in order to be an RCM process. 12.5 SAE JA1012: A guide to the Reliability Centred Maintenance (RCM) standard Page 47 of 54
  • 48. Stork Asset Management Solutions This document amplifies and clarified each of the key criteria listed in SAE JA1011, and summarizes additional issues that must be addressed in order to apply RCM successfully. 12.6 SAE J1739: Potential Failure Mode and Effects Analysis in Design (Design FMEA), Potential Failure Mode and Effects Analysis in Manufacturing and Assembly Processes (Process FMEA), and Potential Failure Mode and Effects Analysis for Machinery (Machinery FMEA) This document introduces the topic of potential Failure Mode and Effects Analysis (FMEA) and gives general guidance in the application of the technique. An FMEA can be described as a systemized group of activities intended to: recognize and evaluate the potential failure of a product/process and its effects identify actions which could eliminate or reduce the chance of the potential failure occurring document the process It is complementary to the design process of defining positively what a design must do to satisfy the customer. Page 48 of 54
  • 49. Stork Asset Management Solutions 13 ASTM Standards 13.1 American Society for Testing and Materials ASTM International, originally known as the American Society for Testing and Materials (ASTM), was formed over a century ago, when a forward-thinking group of engineers and scientists got together to address frequent rail breaks in the burgeoning railroad industry. Their work led to standardization on the steel used in rail construction, ultimately improving railroad safety for the public. As the century progressed and new industrial, governmental and environmental developments created new standardization requirements, ASTM answered the call with consensus standards that have made products and services safer, better and more cost- effective. The proud tradition and forward vision that started in 1898 is still the hallmark of ASTM International. ASTM continues to be the standards forum of choice of a diverse range of industries that come together under the ASTM umbrella to solve standardization challenges. In recent years, stakeholders involved in issues ranging from safety in recreational aviation, to fiber optic cable installations in underground utilities, to homeland security, have come together under ASTM to set consensus standards for their industries. 13.2 E2135-07: Standard terminology for property and asset management This practice covers traditional property management definitions and some of the terms introduced in additional asset management standards that are used most often and considered most important. As new ASTM-standards are developed, new terms will be added to this terminology in future revisions. 13.3 F2446-04: Standard classification for hierarchy of equipment identifiers and boundaries for reliability, availability and maintainability (RAM) performance data exchange This classification is to serve as an international standard for marine equipment nomenclature, taxonomy, hierarchical data structure, unique identifiers, and boundary definition for the consistent acquisition and exchange of equipment RAM performance data. The standard addresses the classification of mechanical and software products. RAM in an acronym for Reliability, Availability, & Maintainability where: Reliability is the probability that an item can perform a required function under given conditions for a given time interval. It is generally assumed that the item is in a state to perform this required function at the beginning of the time interval. Availability is the probability that an item is in a state to perform a required function under given conditions at a given instant of time, assuming that the required external resources are provided. Maintainability is the probability that a given active maintenance action, for an item under given conditions of use can be carried out within a stated time interval, when the maintenance is performed under stated conditions and using stated procedures and resources. This standard does not purport to address all of the safety concerns, if any, associated with its use. It is the responsibility of the user of this standard to establish appropriate safety and health practices and determine the applicability of regulatory requirements prior to use. Page 49 of 54
  • 50. Stork Asset Management Solutions 14 ASQ Standards 14.1 American Society for Quality American Society for Quality (ASQ), formerly known as American Society for Quality Control (ASQC), is a knowledge-based global community of quality control experts, dedicated to the promotion and advancement of quality tools, principles, and practices in their workplaces and in their communities. 14.2 ASQ Q10015: Quality management - Guidelines for training This standard provides guidelines to assist organizations and their personnel when addressing issues related to training. It may be applied whenever guidance is required to interpret references to "education" and "training". It also provides guidance that can help an organization to identify and analyze training needs, design and plan the training, provide for the training, evaluate training outcomes, and monitor and improve the training process in order to achieve its objectives. It emphasizes the contribution of training to continual improvement and is intended to help organizations make their training a more effective and efficient investment. 14.3 ASQ E2-1996: Guide to inspection planning This standard provides guidance for an inspection planning system, identifies elements of the inspection planning process, and includes a section which presents techniques for the preparation of inspection plans for specific tasks and projects. 14.4 ASQ D60300-3-1: Application guide - Analysis techniques for dependability - Guide on methodology See IEC 60300-3-1. 14.5 ASQ D60300-3-2: Application guide - Collection of dependability data from the field See IEC 60300-3-2. Page 50 of 54
  • 51. Stork Asset Management Solutions 15 API Standards 15.1 American Petroleum Institute API distributes more than 200,000 publications every year, to every corner of the globe. The publications, technical standards, and electronic and online products they furnish are designed to help the industry improve the efficiency and cost-effectiveness of their operations, comply with legislative and regulatory requirements, safeguard the health and safety of industry employees and the public, and protect the environment. API has developed some 550 equipment and operating standards that are used around the world every day. They are the industry's collective wisdom on everything from drilling equipment to environmental protection. In fact, federal and state laws and regulations have long referenced API Standards, and they are increasingly being adopted by ISO, the International Organization for Standardization, a global federation of more than 100 national standards groups. API works with standards (STD), specifications (SPEC), publications (PUB) , technical reports (TR) and recommended practices (RP). 15.2 API RP 580: Risk-based inspection API RP 580 is to provide users with the basic elements for developing and implementing a risk- based inspection (RBI) program for fixed equipment and piping in the hydrocarbon and chemical process industries. RP 580 is intended to supplement API 510 (Pressure Vessel Inspection Code), API 570 (Piping Inspection Code) and API 653 (Tank Inspection, Repair, Alteration and Reconstruction). These API inspection codes and standards allow an owner/user latitude to plan an inspection strategy and increase or decrease the code designated inspection frequencies based on the results of a RBI assessment. 15.3 API RP 581: Risk-based inspection - Base resource document API has researched and developed an approach to risk-based inspection (RBI). This document details the procedures and methodology of RBI. RBI is an integrated methodology that uses risk as a basis for prioritising and managing an in-service equipment inspection program by combining both the likelihood of failure and the consequence of failure. Utilizing the output of the RBI, the user can design an inspection program that manages or maintains the risk of equipment failures. The following are three major goals of the RBI program: Provide the capability to define and quantify the risk of process equipment failure, creating an effective tool for managing many of the important elements of a process plant. Allow management to review safety, environmental, and business-interruption risks in an integrated, cost-effective manner. Systematically reduce the likelihood and consequence of failure by allocating inspection resources to high risk equipment. The RBI methodology provides the basis for managing risk, by making informed decisions on the inspection method, coverage required and frequency of inspections. In most plants, a large percent of the total unit risk will be concentrated in a relatively small percent of the equipment items. These potential high-risk components may require greater attention, perhaps through a revised inspection plan. With an RBI program in place, inspections will continue to be conducted as defined in existing working documents, but priorities and frequencies will be guided by the RBI procedure. The RBI analysis looks not only at inspection, equipment design, and maintenance records, but also at numerous process safety management issues and all other significant issues that can affect the overall mechanical integrity and safety of a process unit. Page 51 of 54
  • 52. Stork Asset Management Solutions 15.4 API STD 689: Collection and exchange of reliability and maintenance data for equipment See ISO 14224. Page 52 of 54
  • 53. Stork Asset Management Solutions 16 IEEE Standards 16.1 The Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers The IEEE is a non-profit organisation and through its global membership, IEEE is a leading authority on areas ranging from aerospace systems, computers and telecommunications to biomedical engineering, electric power and consumer electronics among others. The IEEE is a leading developer of international standards that underpin many of today's telecommunications, information technology and power generation products and services. 16.2 IEEE 516 - Guide for Maintenance Methods on Energized Power Lines This guide provides general recommendations for performing maintenance work on energized power lines. It is not intended to include all of the proven practical methods and procedures; however, these selected comprehensive recommendations are based on sound engineering principles, engineering safety considerations, and field experience by many utilities. Included are technical explanations as required to cover certain laboratory testing of tools and equipment, in- service inspection, maintenance and care of tools and equipment, and work methods for the maintenance of energized lines and for persons working in the vicinity of energized lines. 16.3 IEEE 902 - Maintenance, Operation and Safety of Power Systems Even with the best design and equipment, the expected safety and reliability performance of a power system is largely dependent on the quality and capability of its operation and maintenance. Optimizing maintenance and operation often can be the most cost-effective approach in improving system performance. The objective of this guide is to provide plant engineers with a reference source for the fundamentals of safe and reliable maintenance and operation of industrial and commercial electric power distribution systems. These fundamentals are independent of system size or complexity. The most effective utilization of the information contained in this guide would be its inclusion in a long-term maintenance and operation strategy that is tailored to the individual needs of each power system. The fundamental elements include Maintenance, operation, and safety considerations in system design; Development of a maintenance and operations strategy to ensure long-term reliability; Development of record-keeping and documentation files; Development and implementation of testing and inspection methods; Development of procedures for auditing maintenance and operation performance; Development of procedures to ensure personnel safety. Page 53 of 54
  • 54. Stork Asset Management Solutions IAM Standards 16.4 Institute of Asset Management The Institute of Asset Management (IAM) is the independent organisation for professionals dedicated to furthering there knowledge and understanding of Asset Management. In particular they seek to spread good practice and develop decision support tools and techniques. The Institute of Asset Management has the following broad aims: To advance the knowledge and understanding of Asset Management To represent and promote asset life-cycle management at national and international levels To provide an international forum for the transfer of Asset Management best practice between Industries, Engineers, Academic Institutions, Consultants, and Vendors To raise the professional standing of IAM members To provide guidance about the relationship between asset management and other company operations, in particular maintenance The IAM seeks to establish the usual range of activities carried out by any Learned Institution. These will include support of the development and training of individuals as well as the setting and promulgation of standards and good practices. PAS 55 (= Publicly Avaliable Specification) was published in May 2004 as the first British Standard for the optimal management of physical assets. 16.5 PAS 55: Asset management 16.5.1 Part 1: Specification for the optimised management of physical infrastructure assets This Publicly Available Specification is intended to cover: The management of physical infrastructure assets and in particular the assets that form the main element of our built environment such as utility networks, power stations, railway systems, oil and gas installations, manufacturing and process plants, buildings, airports, etc. Asset management from an organizational perspective. It is intended to apply in cases where an organization is primarily dependent on the function of its assets in the delivery of services or products and where the success of an organization is significantly influenced by the stewardship of the assets. In such cases, a formal approach to asset management will contribute directly to the business capability and performance of the organization. The objective of asset management in this context is to ensure that the assets deliver the required function and level of performance in terms of service or production (output), in a sustainable manner, at an optimum whole life cost without compromising health, safety, environmental performance or the organization's reputation. 16.5.2 Part 2: Guidelines for the application of PAS 55-1 PAS 55-2 provides guidance to aid the understanding of the intent of the requirements in Part 1. It does not introduce any new requirements. 16.6 PAS 62508: Guidance on human factors engineering for system life cycle applications See IEC 62508. Page 54 of 54