The Emotion Ontology
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The Emotion Ontology

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The Emotion Ontology
Barry Smith and Janna Hastings
January 2012, Aarhus, Denmark

More in: Education , Spiritual
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  • 1. The Emotion Ontology*Swiss Centre for Affective Sciences, University of Geneva, Switzerland andCheminformatics and Metabolism Team, European Bioinformatics InstituteBarry Smith and Janna Hastings*
  • 2. Preamble: What “Ontology”?
  • 3. 3Google hits Jan. 2004ontology + Heidegger 58Kontology + Aristotle 77Kontology + philosophy 327K
  • 4. 4Google hits Jan. 2004ontology + Heidegger 58Kontology + Aristotle 77Kontology + philosophy 327Kontology + software 468Kontology + database 594Kontology + information systems 702K
  • 5. 5Comparison 2004/2012ontology + Heidegger 58K 1.91Montology + Aristotle 77K 1.66Montology + philosophy 327K 4.91Montology + software 468K 7.80Montology + database 594K 10.20Montology +information systems 702K 5.14M
  • 6. 6http://bioontology.orgRoadmap Center of the National Institutes of HealthStanford University School of MedicineThe Mayo ClinicUniversity at Buffalo Department of Philosophy
  • 7. Examples of Ontology Projects fundedby National Institutes of HealthNIH / NHGRI GO: Gene OntologyNIH / NIGMS PRO: Protein OntologyNIH / NIAID IDO: Infectious Disease OntologyNIH / NIAID Major Histocompatilibity Complex(MHC) OntologyNIH / NHGRI SO: Sequence OntologyNIH / NLM FMA: Foundational Model ofAnatomyNIH / NHGRI CL: Cell Ontology7
  • 8. Some questionsHow to find data?How to understand data when you find it?How to use data in hypothesis-checking and reasoning?How to integrate with other data?Idea: sound logic, definitions, principles of classificationhelp8
  • 9. 9
  • 10. 10/24
  • 11. a shortmovement of onelower legcrossing theother leg with thefoot pointingoutwardon right: WernerCeusters
  • 12. same overt physical movement;different behavioral context andunderlying (neuro)physiologypart of a mannequin’s step on the catwalkan epileptic jerkthe kicking of a ball by a soccer playera signal (“Get out!”) issued in heatedconversationa “half cut” in Irish Sean-nós dancing12
  • 13. 13/FoundationalModel ofAnatomy(fragment)
  • 14. Affective scienceThe interdisciplinary study of: emotional functioning, regulation,expression, and physiological markers affective disorders such as bipolar,depression and schizoaffective disorderFriday, May 24, 2013 14
  • 15. Friday, May 24, 2013 15Clinical observationsSelf-reportsNeuroimagingPhysiologicalmonitoringQuestionnairesMany different types of dataBehavioralmonitoring
  • 16. Data aggregation (e.g. NIF)Friday, May 24, 2013 16Neuroscience Information Framework
  • 17. New York StateCenter of Excellence inBioinformatics & Life SciencesR T U New York StateCenter of Excellence inBioinformatics & Life SciencesR T U
  • 18. CONTINUANT OCCURRENTINDEPENDENT DEPENDENTORGAN ANDORGANISMOrganism(NCBITaxonomy)AnatomicalEntity(FMA,CARO)OrganFunction(FMP, CPRO) PhenotypicQuality(PaTO)Organism-LevelProcess(GO)CELL ANDCELLULARCOMPONENTCell(CL)CellularComponent(FMA, GO)CellularFunction(GO)Cellular Process(GO)MOLECULEMolecule(ChEBI, SO,RnaO, PrO)Molecular Function(GO)MolecularProcess(GO)initial OBO Foundry coverage, ontologiesautomatically semantically coupledGRANULARITYRELATION TO TIME18
  • 19. Anatomy Ontology(FMA*, CARO)EnvironmentOntology(EnvO)InfectiousDiseaseOntology(IDO*)BiologicalProcessOntology (GO*)CellOntology(CL)CellularComponentOntology(FMA*, GO*) PhenotypicQualityOntology(PaTO)Subcellular Anatomy Ontology (SAO)Sequence Ontology(SO*) MolecularFunction(GO*)Protein Ontology(PRO*)Extension Strategy + Modular Organization 19top levelmid-leveldomainlevelInformation ArtifactOntology(IAO)Ontology forBiomedicalInvestigations(OBI)Spatial Ontology(BSPO)Basic Formal Ontology (BFO)
  • 20. Basic Formal OntologyFriday, May 24, 2013 20BFO:EntityBFO:Continuant BFO:OccurrentBFO:ProcessBFO:IndependentContinuantBFOBFO:DependentContinuantBFO:Disposition
  • 21. Basic Formal Ontologyand Mental Functioning Ontology (MFO)Friday, May 24, 2013 21BFO:EntityBFO:Continuant BFO:OccurrentBFO:ProcessOrganismBFO:IndependentContinuantBFOMFOBFO:DependentContinuantBehaviourinducing stateMental FunctioningRelated AnatomicalStructureCognitiveRepresentationBFO:QualityAffectiveRepresentationMental ProcessBodily ProcessBFO:Disposition
  • 22. BFO:EntityBFO:Continuant BFO:OccurrentBFO:ProcessBFO:IndependentContinuantBFOMFOBFO:DependentContinuantCognitiveRepresentationAffectiveRepresentationMental ProcessBodily ProcessBFO:DispositionMFO-EMEmotion OccurrentOrganismEmotional ActionTendenciesAppraisalSubjectiveEmotional FeelingPhysiologicalResponse toEmotion Processinheres_inis_output_ofEmotionalBehavioural ProcessAppraisalProcesshas_partagent_ofFoundational entities in theEmotion Ontology
  • 23. Ongoing work using the EmotionOntologyEmotional responses in modelorganisms (mouse, zebrafish …)Department of Genetics, Cambridge; EuropeanBioinformatics InstituteFriday, May 24, 2013 23
  • 24. Cognitive Neuroscience of EmotionsFriday, May 24, 2013 24Task Classification in MFO/MFOEMRecognition of gender in emotional facialexpressionsVisual perception of emotional facialexpressions (subClassOf perception)Recall of personal emotional memorieswith instructions to try re-create feelingMemory of emotional episodes(subClassOf memory)Listening to emotional sounds (e.g. gruntsof disgust)Auditory perception of emotional stimuli(subClassOf perception)Viewing emotional film extracts Visual and auditory perception ofemotional stimuli (subClassOf perception)Paradigms selected based on study of random sample of 15papers from BrainMap database. Conclusion…Cognitive Neuroscience does not usually study canonicalemotions! The link from perception of emotional fear in facialexpressions to canonical fear is subject to empirical research
  • 25. Studies of the biochemical basis ofemotionEmotions are effected in part byneurotransmitters such as dopamine, tryptophanFriday, May 24, 2013 25dopamine(CHEBI:25375)molecular entity(CHEBI:25375)biological role(CHEBI:24432)neurotransmitter(CHEBI:25512)has roleneurotransmitterreceptor activity(GO:0030594)Molecular function(GO:0003674)realized inhappiness(MFOEM:42)part ofemotion(MFOEM:1)subtype
  • 26. Emotion occurrentAn emotion occurrent is a processual emotion inwhich a person participates over a specific timeperiodA person undergoes or is the subject of theemotion; he emotesThis terminology leaves open what the personfeels or is aware ofFriday, May 24, 2013 26
  • 27. Emotional personality traitAn emotional personality trait is a stableenduring characteristic of a personwhich involves a predisposition (i.e. adisposition which gives rise to an increased risk)to undergo emotions of a particular sort, bothoccurrents and dispositions.Friday, May 24, 2013 27
  • 28. Friday, May 24, 2013 28Mary’sbehaviourhurt meAppraisal(CNS)Physiological response(CNS, NES, ANS)I feelANGRYSubjectivefeeling (CNS)Behaviour (SNS)An emotion occurrent is a mental processthat is a synchronized complex of constituent mental and physicalprocesses including an appraisal process as part, and which gives rise toan action tendency. At least one appraisal precedes the othercomponents of the emotion, while it or others continue throughout theemotion occurrent and guide the process.I want toPUNCHsomethingActiontendencies(CNS)
  • 29. ProcessesAn appraisal process is a mental process that givesrise to an appraisalA physiological response to emotion process is abodily process which encompasses all theneurophysiological changes caused by the emotionAn emotional behavioural process is the behaviourof the organism in response to the emotion,including the characteristic facial expressions forparticular emotion typesFriday, May 24, 2013 29
  • 30. Mental representationsAn appraisal is a cognitive representation whichrepresents an evaluation of the relevance ofsome triggering object or event to the organismThe subjective emotional feeling is an affectiverepresentation that the organism has about itsown affectFriday, May 24, 2013 30
  • 31. DispositionsEmotional action tendencies are dispositions tobehaviour which inhere in an organismby virtue of the physical changes brought aboutby an emotion processEven satisfaction at completing some task isassociated with (future-directed) actiontendencies such as: to adopt a satisfied facialexpression, to relax muscles which had beentensed …Friday, May 24, 2013 31
  • 32. Valence: classification ofpositive/negative emotionsFriday, May 24, 2013 32What are the positive emotions?PositiveEmotion ⊑  has_valence. PositiveValenceWhat are the negative emotions?NegativeEmotion ⊑  has_valence. NegativeValencehappiness PositiveValenceHas_valencePositiveSurprise ⊑  has_valence. PositiveValenceNegativeSurprise ⊑  has_valence. NegativeValenceSurprise is not specific to one valence:
  • 33. http://bioportal.bioontology.org/ontologies/1666Friday, May 24, 2013 33The Emotion Ontology
  • 34. Types of emotionFriday, May 24, 2013 34http://bioportal.bioontology.org/ontologies/1666
  • 35. Types of emotionFriday, May 24, 2013 35
  • 36. Types of appraisalFriday, May 24, 2013 36
  • 37. Types of appraisalFriday, May 24, 2013 37
  • 38. Types of feelingFriday, May 24, 2013 38
  • 39. Physiological response to emotionFriday, May 24, 2013 39The Emotion Ontology
  • 40. Friday, May 24, 2013 40The Emotion OntologyPhysiological response to emotion
  • 41. To define the characteristics of differentemotions start with canonical emotionsFriday, May 24, 2013 41Emotion types (such as fear) show enormous variance across instancesJust as do anatomical types, e.g. human bodiesOntology expresses what is always true… But aims to saysomething useful for representation of domain knowledge.Solution: encode knowledge in ‘canonical’ typescanonicalfearappraisalprocessAppraisal ofdangerousnessHas part Has outputCanonical fear results from an appraisal of dangerousness
  • 42. Canonical fearFriday, May 24, 2013 42The Emotion OntologycanonicalfearfearEMOTION COMPONENT CHARACTERISTIC FOR FEARAction tendency Fight-or-flightSubjective emotional feeling Negative, tense, powerlessBehavioural response Characteristic fearful facialexpressionCharacteristic appraisal Something is dangerous to mesubtype
  • 43. Canonical and non-canonical fearCanonical fear gives rise to action tendenciesthat are conformant to the perceived dangerPhobias = dispositions giving rise to non-canonical fearFrom laridaphobia to(people taking pleasure in watching)horror filmsFriday, May 24, 2013 43The Emotion Ontology
  • 44. Disorders of affectSome mental diseases involve altered emotionalfunctioning. (E.g. depression, bipolar disorder)Friday, May 24, 2013 44emotionnon-canonicalsadnessProcessDispositiondepressionmentaldiseaserealized indown-regulationof dopaminergicsystem(GO:0032227)has partbiological processMechanism ofaction:complexdisturbances inunderlyingsystems
  • 45. Proposal to define grief as a disorderFriday, May 24, 2013 45The Emotion Ontology
  • 46. Friday, May 24, 2013 46The Emotion Ontology
  • 47. PAINInternational Association for the Study of Pain(IASP)pain =def. an unpleasant sensory and emotionalexperience associated with actual or potentialtissue damage, or described in terms of suchdamage.Merskey H, et al: Pain terms: A list with definitions andnotes on usage. Recommended by the IASP Subcommitteeon Taxonomy. Pain 1979; 6:249-252.Friday, May 24, 2013 47The Emotion Ontology
  • 48. Canonical pain & variantsPCT: pain with concordant tissue damage: thepatient experiences pain of the evolutionarily mostbasic sort = pain in response to concordant tissuedamageVariant painPNT: pain with peripheral trauma but discordant(elevated) relative to tissue damage: there isperipheral trauma, but the patient is experiencingpain of an intensity that is discordant therewith;NN: neuropathic nociception: no peripheraltrauma, but the patient is experiencing pain inresult of a neuropathic disorder in the nociceptivesystem.Friday, May 24, 2013 49The Emotion Ontology
  • 49. Pain-related phenomena without painPBWP: pain behavior without pain: there is acry or report of pain, but no pain is beingexperienced (a fact which may or may not bedetectable by an external observer)TWP: Tissue-damage without pain: tissuedamage normally of the sort to cause pain doesnot activate the pain system.Friday, May 24, 2013 50The Emotion Ontology
  • 50. Pain Ontology (PN) branch of MFO-EMLyingabout pain
  • 51. Symptoms Signs Physical Basis ExamplesCanonical PainPCT: Pain withconcordanttissue damagePain Manifestation of tissue damageSignals sent to nociceptive systemPeripheral tissue damageIntact nociceptivesystemPrimary sunburnPain from strained musclePulpitisVariant PainPNT: noconcordanttissue damagePain Manifestation of some disorder inpatientSignals sent to nociceptive system +activation of emotion-generatingbrain centersPhysical disorder ofamplitude controlmechanismsMyofascial pain disorderTension-type headacheChronic back painNN: neuro-pathicnociceptionPain Test confirms nerve damage Disorder in thenociceptive systemTrigeminal neuralgiaPost-herpetic neuralgiaDiabetic neuropathyCentral painPRP: Pain-Related Phenomena Without PainPBWP: painbehaviorwithout pain? Report of painSick role behaviors accompanied bynormal clinical examinationGrossly exaggerated pain behaviorsIdentified external incentivesMental states such asanxiety, Disorderedemotional or cognitivesystems misinter-preting sensory signalsFactitious painMalingeringAnxiety-induced painreportTWP: tissue-damagewithout painNo pain Manifestation of tissue damagenormally of the sort to cause painSuppression of painsystem by one or othermechanismStress associated withsudden emergency.Damping of pain processcaused by endorphins.Genetic insensitivity topain
  • 52. Canonical painFriday, May 24, 2013 53The Emotion OntologycanonicalpainpainEMOTION COMPONENT CHARACTERISTIC FOR PAINAction tendency WithdrawalSubjective emotional feeling Negative, tense, powerlessBehavioural response Characteristic painful facialexpressionCharacteristic appraisal Something is dangerous to me
  • 53. Canonical pain (PCT)(1) a bodily process in an organism S involving two integrated levels:(1a) activation of the nociceptive system including the pain-associated emotion-generating brain components of S, and(1b) a simultaneous sensory and aversive experience on the part of Sthat is(2) caused by damage to tissue located in a region R of the body of thesubject S,(3) experienced by S as being caused by this damage,(4) such as to involve an aversive reaction on the part of S directedtowards that which is presumed by S to be causing this damage,(5) concordant with the tissue damage on both levels (1a) and (1b),and also(6) such that the sensory experience is sufficiently intense tocommunicate the presence of tissue damage to the subject.Friday, May 24, 2013 54The Emotion Ontology
  • 54. Aversive experience of xAn experience of x that involves both1. a feeling with negative salience2. a disposition to withdraw from or avoid xFriday, May 24, 2013 55The Emotion Ontology
  • 55. Modified Pain(1) a bodily process in an organism S involving two integratedlevels:(1a) activation of the nociceptive system including the pain-associated emotion-generating brain components of S, and(1b) a simultaneous sensory and modified aversive experienceon the part of SModified aversive experience of xAn experience of x that involves a feeling with that isphenomenologically identical to that of an aversiveexperience, but because of the known absence of x, iswithout a disposition to withdraw from or avoidFriday, May 24, 2013 56The Emotion Ontology
  • 56. Modified aversive experience(cf. Meinong, Ernstgefühle vs. Scheingefühle)Friday, May 24, 2013 57The Emotion Ontology
  • 57. Aesthetic Pain(1) a bodily process in an organism S involving twointegrated levels:(1a) activation of the nociceptive system including thepain-associated emotion-generating braincomponents of S, and(1b) a simultaneous sensory and modified aversiveexperience on the part of Sthat is(2) caused by a visual or auditory stimulus,(3) experienced by S as being caused by this stimulus,(4) experienced by S with positive valenceFriday, May 24, 2013 58The Emotion Ontology
  • 58. Aesthetic painBrucknerian pain (empathy with Isolde on thedeath of Tristan)Friday, May 24, 2013 59The Emotion Ontology
  • 59. Friday, May 24, 2013 60The Emotion Ontology