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Ontology and the Austrian tradition
Ontology and the Austrian tradition
Ontology and the Austrian tradition
Ontology and the Austrian tradition
Ontology and the Austrian tradition
Ontology and the Austrian tradition
Ontology and the Austrian tradition
Ontology and the Austrian tradition
Ontology and the Austrian tradition
Ontology and the Austrian tradition
Ontology and the Austrian tradition
Ontology and the Austrian tradition
Ontology and the Austrian tradition
Ontology and the Austrian tradition
Ontology and the Austrian tradition
Ontology and the Austrian tradition
Ontology and the Austrian tradition
Ontology and the Austrian tradition
Ontology and the Austrian tradition
Ontology and the Austrian tradition
Ontology and the Austrian tradition
Ontology and the Austrian tradition
Ontology and the Austrian tradition
Ontology and the Austrian tradition
Ontology and the Austrian tradition
Ontology and the Austrian tradition
Ontology and the Austrian tradition
Ontology and the Austrian tradition
Ontology and the Austrian tradition
Ontology and the Austrian tradition
Ontology and the Austrian tradition
Ontology and the Austrian tradition
Ontology and the Austrian tradition
Ontology and the Austrian tradition
Ontology and the Austrian tradition
Ontology and the Austrian tradition
Ontology and the Austrian tradition
Ontology and the Austrian tradition
Ontology and the Austrian tradition
Ontology and the Austrian tradition
Ontology and the Austrian tradition
Ontology and the Austrian tradition
Ontology and the Austrian tradition
Ontology and the Austrian tradition
Ontology and the Austrian tradition
Ontology and the Austrian tradition
Ontology and the Austrian tradition
Ontology and the Austrian tradition
Ontology and the Austrian tradition
Ontology and the Austrian tradition
Ontology and the Austrian tradition
Ontology and the Austrian tradition
Ontology and the Austrian tradition
Ontology and the Austrian tradition
Ontology and the Austrian tradition
Ontology and the Austrian tradition
Ontology and the Austrian tradition
Ontology and the Austrian tradition
Ontology and the Austrian tradition
Ontology and the Austrian tradition
Ontology and the Austrian tradition
Ontology and the Austrian tradition
Ontology and the Austrian tradition
Ontology and the Austrian tradition
Ontology and the Austrian tradition
Ontology and the Austrian tradition
Ontology and the Austrian tradition
Ontology and the Austrian tradition
Ontology and the Austrian tradition
Ontology and the Austrian tradition
Ontology and the Austrian tradition
Ontology and the Austrian tradition
Ontology and the Austrian tradition
Ontology and the Austrian tradition
Ontology and the Austrian tradition
Ontology and the Austrian tradition
Ontology and the Austrian tradition
Ontology and the Austrian tradition
Ontology and the Austrian tradition
Ontology and the Austrian tradition
Ontology and the Austrian tradition
Ontology and the Austrian tradition
Ontology and the Austrian tradition
Ontology and the Austrian tradition
Ontology and the Austrian tradition
Ontology and the Austrian tradition
Ontology and the Austrian tradition
Ontology and the Austrian tradition
Ontology and the Austrian tradition
Ontology and the Austrian tradition
Ontology and the Austrian tradition
Ontology and the Austrian tradition
Ontology and the Austrian tradition
Ontology and the Austrian tradition
Ontology and the Austrian tradition
Ontology and the Austrian tradition
Ontology and the Austrian tradition
Ontology and the Austrian tradition
Ontology and the Austrian tradition
Ontology and the Austrian tradition
Ontology and the Austrian tradition
Ontology and the Austrian tradition
Ontology and the Austrian tradition
Ontology and the Austrian tradition
Ontology and the Austrian tradition
Ontology and the Austrian tradition
Ontology and the Austrian tradition
Ontology and the Austrian tradition
Ontology and the Austrian tradition
Ontology and the Austrian tradition
Ontology and the Austrian tradition
Ontology and the Austrian tradition
Ontology and the Austrian tradition
Ontology and the Austrian tradition
Ontology and the Austrian tradition
Ontology and the Austrian tradition
Ontology and the Austrian tradition
Ontology and the Austrian tradition
Ontology and the Austrian tradition
Ontology and the Austrian tradition
Ontology and the Austrian tradition
Ontology and the Austrian tradition
Ontology and the Austrian tradition
Ontology and the Austrian tradition
Ontology and the Austrian tradition
Ontology and the Austrian tradition
Ontology and the Austrian tradition
Ontology and the Austrian tradition
Ontology and the Austrian tradition
Ontology and the Austrian tradition
Ontology and the Austrian tradition
Ontology and the Austrian tradition
Ontology and the Austrian tradition
Ontology and the Austrian tradition
Ontology and the Austrian tradition
Ontology and the Austrian tradition
Ontology and the Austrian tradition
Ontology and the Austrian tradition
Ontology and the Austrian tradition
Ontology and the Austrian tradition
Ontology and the Austrian tradition
Ontology and the Austrian tradition
Ontology and the Austrian tradition
Ontology and the Austrian tradition
Ontology and the Austrian tradition
Ontology and the Austrian tradition
Ontology and the Austrian tradition
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Ontology and the Austrian tradition

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  • Wolenski, From Intentionality to Formal Semantics, http://www.springerlink.com/content/tygwru81rpvlbdj6/
  • http://www.flickr.com/photos/yahtsek/
  • Jan Wolenski, http://www.springerlink.com/content/tygwru81rpvlbdj6/
  • http://ontology.buffalo.edu/smith/articles/logsvh.html
  • http://jeremylent.files.wordpress.com/2010/08/hungry-dog.jpg?w=263&h=196; http://pfctyranny.com/tag/social-intelligence/
  • http://hillofbees.com/category/alexius-meinong/
  • http://hillofbees.com/category/alexius-meinong/
  • Jan Wolenski, http://www.springerlink.com/content/tygwru81rpvlbdj6/
  • Jan Wolenski, http://www.springerlink.com/content/tygwru81rpvlbdj6/
  • http://hillofbees.com/category/alexius-meinong/
  • http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/viewer.fcgi?db=nuccore&id=116006492sequence of X chromosome in baker’s yeast
  • http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/viewer.fcgi?db=nuccore&id=116006492sequence of X chromosome in baker’s yeast
  • http://ehealthadvice.info/what-is-crohns-disease/
  • http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/viewer.fcgi?db=nuccore&id=116006492
  • http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/viewer.fcgi?db=nuccore&id=116006492
  • http://www.topnews.in/health/why-schizophrenia-patients-may-have-trouble-reading-social-cues-212138
  • Mental functioning related anatomical structure: an anatomical structure in which there inheres the disposition to be the agent of a mental processBehaviour inducing state: a bodily quality inhering in a mental functioning related anatomical structure which leads to behaviour of some sortAffective representation: a cognitive representation sustained by an organism about its own emotionsCognitive representation: a representation which specifically depends on an anatomical structure in the cognitive system of an organismMental process: a bodily process which brings into being, sustains or modifies a cognitive representation or a behaviour inducing state
  • Mental functioning related anatomical structure: an anatomical structure in which there inheres the disposition to be the agent of a mental processBehaviour inducing state: a bodily quality inhering in a mental functioning related anatomical structure which leads to behaviour of some sortAffective representation: a cognitive representation sustained by an organism about its own emotionsCognitive representation: a representation which specifically depends on an anatomical structure in the cognitive system of an organismMental process: a bodily process which brings into being, sustains or modifies a cognitive representation or a behaviour inducing state
  • Mental functioning related anatomical structure: an anatomical structure in which there inheres the disposition to be the agent of a mental processBehaviour inducing state: a bodily quality inhering in a mental functioning related anatomical structure which leads to behaviour of some sortAffective representation: a cognitive representation sustained by an organism about its own emotionsCognitive representation: a representation which specifically depends on an anatomical structure in the cognitive system of an organismMental process: a bodily process which brings into being, sustains or modifies a cognitive representation or a behaviour inducing state
  • This is, of course, just one tiny part of the story. The overall story would have to be built up out of many, many cross-ontology links.
  • http://www.vialattea.net/esperti/php/risposta.php?num=1908
  • Canonical fear also involves an action tendency to fight-or-flight, a bad (powerless, negative, anxious) feeling, a behavioural response to the emotion that includes a characteristic fearful facial expression
  • Canonical fear also involves an action tendency to fight-or-flight, a bad (powerless, negative, anxious) feeling, a behavioural response to the emotion that includes a characteristic fearful facial expression
  • Project goal: Analysis and integration of EEG data from studies of learning, language, and memoryHow is information about a word’s meaning activated in memory?How are new vocabulary items learned?What are the neurocog mechanisms of language comprehension?Traditionally, diff paradigms have been used to address these questions. However, neurocog mechanisms are likely to be shared across related domains. To date no way to make meaningful, valid comparisons of ERP results acros differen expts. This is what NEMO is trying to address through the dev’t of ERP ontologies and tools for ERP data analysis and classification that are linked to onto.
  • Mental functioning related anatomical structure: an anatomical structure in which there inheres the disposition to be the agent of a mental processBehaviour inducing state: a bodily quality inhering in a mental functioning related anatomical structure which leads to behaviour of some sortAffective representation: a cognitive representation sustained by an organism about its own emotionsCognitive representation: a representation which specifically depends on an anatomical structure in the cognitive system of an organismMental process: a bodily process which brings into being, sustains or modifies a cognitive representation or a behaviour inducing state
  • Mental functioning related anatomical structure: an anatomical structure in which there inheres the disposition to be the agent of a mental processBehaviour inducing state: a bodily quality inhering in a mental functioning related anatomical structure which leads to behaviour of some sortAffective representation: a cognitive representation sustained by an organism about its own emotionsCognitive representation: a representation which specifically depends on an anatomical structure in the cognitive system of an organismMental process: a bodily process which brings into being, sustains or modifies a cognitive representation or a behaviour inducing state
  • Project goal: Analysis and integration of EEG data from studies of learning, language, and memoryHow is information about a word’s meaning activated in memory?How are new vocabulary items learned?What are the neurocog mechanisms of language comprehension?Traditionally, diff paradigms have been used to address these questions. However, neurocog mechanisms are likely to be shared across related domains. To date no way to make meaningful, valid comparisons of ERP results acros differen expts. This is what NEMO is trying to address through the dev’t of ERP ontologies and tools for ERP data analysis and classification that are linked to onto.
  • Project goal: Analysis and integration of EEG data from studies of learning, language, and memoryHow is information about a word’s meaning activated in memory?How are new vocabulary items learned?What are the neurocog mechanisms of language comprehension?Traditionally, diff paradigms have been used to address these questions. However, neurocog mechanisms are likely to be shared across related domains. To date no way to make meaningful, valid comparisons of ERP results acros differen expts. This is what NEMO is trying to address through the dev’t of ERP ontologies and tools for ERP data analysis and classification that are linked to onto.
  • Project goal: Analysis and integration of EEG data from studies of learning, language, and memoryHow is information about a word’s meaning activated in memory?How are new vocabulary items learned?What are the neurocog mechanisms of language comprehension?Traditionally, diff paradigms have been used to address these questions. However, neurocog mechanisms are likely to be shared across related domains. To date no way to make meaningful, valid comparisons of ERP results acros differen expts. This is what NEMO is trying to address through the dev’t of ERP ontologies and tools for ERP data analysis and classification that are linked to onto.
  • Project goal: Analysis and integration of EEG data from studies of learning, language, and memoryHow is information about a word’s meaning activated in memory?How are new vocabulary items learned?What are the neurocog mechanisms of language comprehension?Traditionally, diff paradigms have been used to address these questions. However, neurocog mechanisms are likely to be shared across related domains. To date no way to make meaningful, valid comparisons of ERP results acros differen expts. This is what NEMO is trying to address through the dev’t of ERP ontologies and tools for ERP data analysis and classification that are linked to onto.
  • Project goal: Analysis and integration of EEG data from studies of learning, language, and memoryHow is information about a word’s meaning activated in memory?How are new vocabulary items learned?What are the neurocog mechanisms of language comprehension?Traditionally, diff paradigms have been used to address these questions. However, neurocog mechanisms are likely to be shared across related domains. To date no way to make meaningful, valid comparisons of ERP results acros differen expts. This is what NEMO is trying to address through the dev’t of ERP ontologies and tools for ERP data analysis and classification that are linked to onto.
  • Project goal: Analysis and integration of EEG data from studies of learning, language, and memoryHow is information about a word’s meaning activated in memory?How are new vocabulary items learned?What are the neurocog mechanisms of language comprehension?Traditionally, diff paradigms have been used to address these questions. However, neurocog mechanisms are likely to be shared across related domains. To date no way to make meaningful, valid comparisons of ERP results acros differen expts. This is what NEMO is trying to address through the dev’t of ERP ontologies and tools for ERP data analysis and classification that are linked to onto.
  • Project goal: Analysis and integration of EEG data from studies of learning, language, and memoryHow is information about a word’s meaning activated in memory?How are new vocabulary items learned?What are the neurocog mechanisms of language comprehension?Traditionally, diff paradigms have been used to address these questions. However, neurocog mechanisms are likely to be shared across related domains. To date no way to make meaningful, valid comparisons of ERP results acros differen expts. This is what NEMO is trying to address through the dev’t of ERP ontologies and tools for ERP data analysis and classification that are linked to onto.
  • Project goal: Analysis and integration of EEG data from studies of learning, language, and memoryHow is information about a word’s meaning activated in memory?How are new vocabulary items learned?What are the neurocog mechanisms of language comprehension?Traditionally, diff paradigms have been used to address these questions. However, neurocog mechanisms are likely to be shared across related domains. To date no way to make meaningful, valid comparisons of ERP results acros differen expts. This is what NEMO is trying to address through the dev’t of ERP ontologies and tools for ERP data analysis and classification that are linked to onto.
  • http://ontology.buffalo.edu/smith/articles/Acts_1983.PDF
  • http://ontology.buffalo.edu/smith/articles/cognition_of_states_of_affairs.pdf
  • http://ontology.buffalo.edu/smith/articles/cognition_of_states_of_affairs.pdf
  • http://ontology.buffalo.edu/smith/articles/cognition_of_states_of_affairs.pdf
  • http://ontology.buffalo.edu/smith/articles/cognition_of_states_of_affairs.pdf
  • http://ontology.buffalo.edu/smith/articles/cognition_of_states_of_affairs.pdf
  • http://ontology.buffalo.edu/smith/articles/brentano/soulpart2.pdf
  • http://www.heartmathstore.com/cgi-bin/category.cgi?category=sciencebehind
  • http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Cardiac_cycle
  • http://www.heartmathstore.com/cgi-bin/category.cgi?category=sciencebehind
  • Visualizing Today's Deja Vu Last Second 60,000 E-Mini Contract Wipe Outhttp://www.zerohedge.com/news/visualizing-todays-last-second-60000-e-mini-contract-wipe-out
  • http://www.zerohedge.com/news/how-two-trades-half-hour-make-market-go-boom-and-unboom
  • http://www.zerohedge.com/news/how-two-trades-half-hour-make-market-go-boom-and-unboom
  • http://emu.sourceforge.net/new_manual/ch03.html
  • http://emu.sourceforge.net/new_manual/ch03.html
  • http://www.phonetik.uni-muenchen.de/forschung/publikationen/harrington/pasc/videotut-files/vid02.swf
  • http://www.phonetik.uni-muenchen.de/forschung/publikationen/harrington/pasc/videotut-files/vid02.swf
  • http://io9.com/5880618/breakthrough-the-first-sound-recordings-based-on-reading-peoples-minds
  • http://io9.com/5880618/breakthrough-the-first-sound-recordings-based-on-reading-peoples-minds
  • http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S1364661307001519
  • http://citeseerx.ist.psu.edu/viewdoc/download?doi=10.1.1.88.4444&rep=rep1&type=pdf
  • http://psycnet.apa.org/journals/xlm/24/4/922/
  • http://ontology.buffalo.edu/smith/articles/hloa.html
  • http://ontology.buffalo.edu/smith/articles/hloa.html
  • http://ontology.buffalo.edu/smith/articles/hloa.html
  • http://hillofbees.com/category/alexius-meinong/
  • Transcript

    • 1. Ontology and the AustrianTraditionBarry Smith
    • 2. Brentano and his studentsBrentanob. Marienberg am Rhein1838Meinongb. Lemberg1853Ehrenfelsb. Rodaun1859Husserlb. Proβnitz1859Twardowskib. Vienna1866
    • 3. Brentano revolutionizes psychologyBrentanopublished Psychologyfrom an EmpiricalStandpoint, 1874Meinong Ehrenfelsfounder of Gestaltpsychology, 1890Husserl Twardowski
    • 4. Brentanists revolutionize ontologyBrentanoMeinongOn the TheoryofObjects, 1904EhrenfelsHusserlfirst formalmereology, 1902______first use of‘formal ontology’~1905;TwardowskiLeśniewskilogicalformalizationofmereology, 1916
    • 5. Brentanists revolutionize our understandingof the relations between psychology andontologyIn 1874 Brentano (re-)introduces intophilosophy the idea of intentionaldirectedness (aboutness)Meinong Ehrenfels Husserl Twardowskihow can we think about what does not exist?
    • 6. 7the arrow of intentionality
    • 7. Brentanists introduce the problem ofunderstanding the relation betweenintentionality and languageBrentanoMeinong Ehrenfels Husserlcategorialgrammar, 1901TwardowskiLeśniewskifounder offormalmereologyTarski inventsformalsemantics
    • 8. The Logicians: Leśniewski, Tarski, Łukasiewicz, TwardowskiMain Library of the University of Warsaw
    • 9. “From Intentionality to Formal Semantics”BrentanoHusserl TwardowskiLeśniewskiformalmereologyTarskiformalsemanticsJoseph WoodgerAxiomatic Method inBiology
    • 10. 11the arrow of intentionality
    • 11. The varieties of aboutnessBrentanoMeinong EhrenfelsHusserlsimpleperceptually filledveridicalrelationalmediated by languageTwardowski
    • 12. ± simplemental process content (putative) targetpresenting actcontent of presentation“apple”object of presentationjudging actjudgment-content“the apple over there isripe”state of affairs(Objektive)evaluating actemotional actappraisal…“it is good that the appleover there is ripe”?
    • 13. mental process content targetyou see an apple “apple” an apple• you are in physical contact with target― cf. Russell’s knowledge by acquaintance;J. J. Gibson’s ecological theory of perception± relational intentionality
    • 14. mental process content (putative) targetpresenting actsensory content object of presentationobjectexistsobject doesnot existobjectpresentobjectabsent± perceptually filledordinary perception
    • 15. mental process content (putative) targetpresenting actsensory content object of presentationobjectexistsobject doesnot existobjectpresentobjectabsentperceptually filled does not implyveridicalhallucination
    • 16. mental process content (putative) targetpresenting act content of presentation“apple” + sensationoriginating causally attargetobject of presentationobjectexistsobject doesnot existobjectpresentobjectabsentthe evolutionarily most basic caseordinary perception
    • 17. mental process content (putative) targetpresenting act content of presentation“apple” + sensationoriginating causally attargetobject of presentationobjectexistsobject doesnot existobjectpresentobjectabsentrelational implies veridicalordinary perception
    • 18. mental process content (putative) targetpresenting act content of presentation“apple”object of presentationobjectexistsobject doesnot existobjectpresentobjectabsentveridical does not imply relationalveridical thinking about
    • 19. mental process content (putative) targetpresenting act content of presentation“apple”object of presentationobject existsobjectpresentobjectabsent± content match
    • 20. content match“apple”
    • 21. content match“food”
    • 22. mental process content (putative) targetpresenting act content of presentation“apple”object of presentationobject existsobjectpresentobjectabsentveridical does not imply content match
    • 23. content mismatch“poison”
    • 24. content mismatch“apple”content here not just a matte of language
    • 25. mental process content targetyou see an apple “apple” an apple± linguistically mediatedA cat can see a king
    • 26. 28the primacy of language (Sellars …)mental experiences are about objects becausewords have meaningword / meaning
    • 27. 29the primacy of the intentional(Brentano, Husserl, …):linguistic expressions have meanings because thereare („animating‟) mental experiences which haveaboutness
    • 28. dimension of content / belief prior todimension of language
    • 29. language comes later than mentalaboutness31
    • 30. to create a general theoryof aboutness not markedby the prejudice in favorof veridical intentionalitynon-veridical intentionality
    • 31. Investigations onthe Theory ofObjects andPsychology
    • 32. “From Intentionality to Formal Ontology”BrentanoHusserl TwardowskiLeśniewskiformalmereologyTarskiformalsemanticsJoseph WoodgerThe Axiomatic Method inBiology (1937)with Appendix by Tarski
    • 33. “From Intentionality to Formal Ontology”BrentanoHusserl TwardowskiLeśniewskiformalmereologyTarskiformalsemanticsJoseph Woodger AxiomaticMethod in BiologyPatrick Hayes“Ontology of Liquids” (1985)…formal ontologies ininformation systems
    • 34. 38Google hits Jan. 2004ontology + Heidegger 58Kontology + Aristotle 77Kontology + philosophy 327K
    • 35. 39Google hits Jan. 2004ontology + Heidegger 58Kontology + Aristotle 77Kontology + philosophy 327Kontology + software 468Kontology + database 594Kontology + information systems 702K
    • 36. 40Comparison 2004/2012ontology + Heidegger 58K 0.99Montology + Aristotle 77K 1.35Montology + philosophy 327K 4.84Montology + software 468K 7.68Montology + database 594K 8.15Montology +information systems 702K 5.99M
    • 37. Investigations onthe Theory ofObjects andPsychologywith support fromthe Imperial-RoyalMinister of Cultureand Education inVienna, 1904
    • 38. Examples of Ontology Projects fundedby National Institutes of HealthNIH / NHGRI* GO: Gene OntologyNIH / NIGMS PRO: Protein OntologyNIH / NIAID IDO: Infectious Disease OntologyNIH / NIAID Major Histocompatilibity Complex(MHC) OntologyNIH / NHGRI SO: Sequence OntologyNIH / NLM FMA: Foundational Model ofAnatomyNIH / NHGRI CL: Cell Ontology*National Human Genome Research Institute42
    • 39. 43http://bioontology.orgNIH National Center for Biomedical ComputingUS Consortium Partners:Stanford University School of MedicineThe Mayo ClinicUniversity at Buffalo Department of Philosophy
    • 40. Distributed Common Ground System–Army (DCGS-A)SemanticEnhancement ofthe Dataspaceon the CloudIntelligence and Information WarfareDirectorateResearch, Development and Engineering Command
    • 41. Old biology data45/
    • 42. MKVSDRRKFEKANFDEFESALNNKNDLVHCPSITLFESIPTEVRSFYEDEKSGLIKVVKFRTGAMDRKRSFEKVVISVMVGKNVKKFLTFVEDEPDFQGGPISKYLIPKKINLMVYTLFQVHTLKFNRKDYDTLSLFYLNRGYYNELSFRVLERCHEIASARPNDSSTMRTFTDFVSGAPIVRSLQKSTIRKYGYNLAPYMFLLLHVDELSIFSAYQASLPGEKKVDTERLKRDLCPRKPIEIKYFSQICNDMMNKKDRLGDILHIILRACALNFGAGPRGGAGDEEDRSITNEEPIIPSVDEHGLKVCKLRSPNTPRRLRKTLDAVKALLVSSCACTARDLDIFDDNNGVAMWKWIKILYHEVAQETTLKDSYRITLVPSSDGISLLAFAGPQRNVYVDDTTRRIQLYTDYNKNGSSEPRLKTLDGLTSDYVFYFVTVLRQMQICALGNSYDAFNHDPWMDVVGFEDPNQVTNRDISRIVLYSYMFLNTAKGCLVEYATFRQYMRELPKNAPQKLNFREMRQGLIALGRHCVGSRFETDLYESATSELMANHSVQTGRNIYGVDFSLTSVSGTTATLLQERASERWIQWLGLESDYHCSFSSTRNAEDVDISRIVLYSYMFLNTAKGCLVEYATFRQYMRELPKNAPQKLNFREMRQGLIALGRHCVGSRFETDLYESATSELMANHSVQTGRNIYGVDFSLTSVSGTTATLLQERASERWINew biology data46
    • 43. next generation genomics47
    • 44. How to do biology across the genome?MKVSDRRKFEKANFDEFESALNNKNDLVHCPSITLFESIPTEVRSFYEDEKSGLIKVVKFRTGAMDRKRSFEKVVISVMVGKNVKKFLTFVEDEPDFQGGPISKYLIPKKINLMVYTLFQVHTLKFNRKDYDTLSLFYLNRGYYNELSFRVLERCHEIASARPNDSSTMRTFTDFVSGAPIVRSLQKSTIRKYGYNLAPYMFLLLHVDELSIFSAYQASLPGEKKVDTERLKRDLCPRKPIEIKYFSQICNDMMNKKDRLGDILHIILRACALNFGAGPRGGAGDEEDRSITNEEPIIPSVDEHGLKVCKLRSPNTPRRLRKTLDAVKALLVSSCACTARDLDIFDDNNGVAMWKWIKILYHEVAQETTLKDSYRITLVPSSDGISLLAFAGPQRNVYVDDTTRRIQLYTDYNKNGSSEPRLKTLDGLTSDYVFYFVTVLRQMQICALGNSYDAFNHDPWMDVVGFEDPNQVTNRDISRIVLYSYMFLNTAKGCLVEYATFRQYMRELPKNAPQKLNFREMRQGLIALGRHCVGSRFETDLYESATSELMANHSVQTGRNIYGVDFSLTSVSGTTATLLQERASERWIQWLGLESDYHCSFSSTRNAEDVMKVSDRRKFEKANFDEFESALNNKNDLVHCPSITLFESIPTEVRSFYEDEKSGLIKVVKFRTGAMDRKRSFEKVVISVMVGKNVKKFLTFVEDEPDFQGGPISKYLIPKKINLMVYTLFQVHTLKFNRKDYDTLSLFYLNRGYYNELSFRVLERCHEIASARPNDSSTMRTFTDFVSGAPIVRSLQKSTIRKYGYNLAPYMFLLLHVDELSIFSAYQASLPGEKKVDTERLKRDLCPRKPIEIKYFSQICNDMMNKKDRLGDILHIILRACALNFGAGPRGGAGDEEDRSITNEEPIIPSVDEHGLKVCKLRSPNTPRRLRKTLDAVKALLVSSCACTARDLDIFDDNNGVAMWKWIKILYHEVAQETTLKDSYRITLVPSSDGISLLAFAGPQRNVYVDDTTRRIQLYTDYNKNGSSEPRLKTLDGLTSDYVFYFVTVLRQMQICALGNSYDAFNHDPWMDVVGFEDPNQVTNRDISRIVLYSYMFLNTAKGCLVEYATFRQYMRELPKNAPQKLNFREMRQGLIALGRHCVGSRFETDLYESATSELMANHSVQTGRNIYGVDFSLTSVSGTTATLLQERASERWIQWLGLESDYHCSFSSTRNAEDVMKVSDRRKFEKANFDEFESALNNKNDLVHCPSITLFESIPTEVRSFYEDEKSGLIKVVKFRTGAMDRKRSFEKVVISVMVGKNVKKFLTFVEDEPDFQGGPISKYLIPKKINLMVYTLFQVHTLKFNRKDYDTLSLFYLNRGYYNELSFRVLERCHEIASARPNDSSTMRTFTDFVSGAPIVRSLQKSTIRKYGYNLAPYMFLLLHVDELSIFSAYQASLPGEKKVDTERLKRDLCPRKPIEIKYFSQICNDMMNKKDRLGDILHIILRACALNFGAGPRGGAGDEEDRSITNEEPIIPSVDEHGLKVCKLRSPNTPRRLRKTLDAVKALLVSSCACTARDLDIFDDNNGVAMWKWIKILYHEVAQETTLKDSYRITLVPSSDGISLLAFAGPQRNVYVDDTTRRIQLYTDYNKNGSSEPRLKTLDGLTSDYVFYFVTVLRQMQICALGNSYDAFNHDPWMDVVGFEDPNQVTNRDISRIVLYSYMFLNTAKGCLVEYATFRQYMRELPKNAPQKLNFREMRQGLIALGRHCVGSRFETDLYESATSELMANHSVQTGRNIYGVDFSLTSVSGTTATLLQERASERWIQWLGLESDYHCSFSSTRNAEDVMKVSDRRKFEKANFDEFESALNNKNDLVHCPSITLFESIPTEVRSFYEDEKSGLIKVVKFRTGAMDRKRSFEKVVISVMVGKNVKKFLTFVEDEPDFQGGPISKYLIPKKINLMVYTLFQVHTLKFNRKDYDTLSLFYLNRGYYNELSFRVLERCHEIASARPNDSSTMRTFTDFVSGAPIVRSLQKSTIRKYGYNLAPYMFLLLHVDELSIFSAYQASLPGEKKVDTERLKR48
    • 45. how to link the kinds of phenomenarepresented here49
    • 46. or here50
    • 47. MKVSDRRKFEKANFDEFESALNNKNDLVHCPSITLFESIPTEVRSFYEDEKSGLIKVVKFRTGAMDRKRSFEKVVISVMVGKNVKKFLTFVEDEPDFQGGPIPSKYLIPKKINLMVYTLFQVHTLKFNRKDYDTLSLFYLNRGYYNELSFRVLERCHEIASARPNDSSTMRTFTDFVSGAPIVRSLQKSTIRKYGYNLAPYMFLLLHVDELSIFSAYQASLPGEKKVDTERLKRDLCPRKPIEIKYFSQICNDMMNKKDRLGDILHIILRACALNFGAGPRGGAGDEEDRSITNEEPIIPSVDEHGLKVCKLRSPNTPRRLRKTLDAVKALLVSSCACTARDLDIFDDNNGVAMWKWIKILYHEVAQETTLKDSYRITLVPSSDGISLLAFAGPQRNVYVDDTTRRIQLYTDYNKNGSSEPRLKTLDGLTSDYVFYFVTVLRQMQICALGNSYDAFNHDPWMDVVGFEDPNQVTNRDISRIVLYSYMFLNTAKGCLVEYATFRQYMRELPKNAPQKLNFREMRQGLIALGRHCVGSRFETDLYESATSELMANHSVQTGRNIYGVDSFSLTSVSGTTATLLQERASERWIQWLGLESDYHCSFSSTRNAEDVVAGEAASSNHHQKISRVTRKRPREPKSTNDILVAGQKLFGSSFEFRDLHQLRLCYEIYMADTPSVAVQAPPGYGKTELFHLPLIALASKGDVEYVSFLFVPYTVLLANCMIRLGRRGCLNVAPVRNFIEEGYDGVTDLYVGIYDDLASTNFTDRIAAWENIVECTFRTNNVKLGYLIVDEFHNFETEVYRQSQFGGITNLDFDAFEKAIFLSGTAPEAVADAALQRIGLTGLAKKSMDINELKRSEDLSRGLSSYPTRMFNLIKEKSEVPLGHVHKIRKKVESQPEEALKLLLALFESEPESKAIVVASTTNEVEELACSWRKYFRVVWIHGKLGAAEKVSRTKEFVTDGSMQVLIGTKLVTEGIDIKQLMMVIMLDNRLNIIELIQGVGRLRDGGLCYLLSRKNSWAARNRKGELPPKEGCITEQVREFYGLESKKGKKGQHVGCCGSRTDLSADTVELIERMDRLAEKQATASMSIVALPSSFQESNSSDRYRKYCSSDEDSNTCIHGSANASTNASTNAITTASTNVRTNATTNASTNATTNASTNASTNATTNASTNATTNSSTNATTTASTNVRTSATTTASINVRTSATTTESTNSSTNATTTESTNSSTNATTTESTNSNTSATTTASINVRTSATTTESTNSSTSATTTASINVRTSATTTKSINSSTNATTTESTNSNTNATTTESTNSSTNATTTESTNSSTNATTTESTNSNTSAATTESTNSNTSATTTESTNASAKEDANKDGNAEDNRFHPVTDINKESYKRKGSQMVLLERKKLKAQFPNTSENMNVLQFLGFRSDEIKHLFLYGIDIYFCPEGVFTQYGLCKGCQKMFELCVCWAGQKVSYRRIAWEALAVERMLRNDEEYKEYLEDIEPYHGDPVGYLKYFSVKRREIYSQIQRNYAWYLAITRRRETISVLDSTRGKQGSQVFRMSGRQIKELYFKVWSNLRESKTEVLQYFLNWDEKKCQEEWEAKDDTVVVEALEKGGVFQRLRSMTSAGLQGPQYVKLQFSRHHRQLRSRYELSLGMHLRDQIALGVTPSKVPHWTAFLSMLIGLFYNKTFRQKLEYLLEQISEVWLLPHWLDLANVEVLAADDTRVPLYMLMVAVHKELDSDDVPDGRFDILLCRDSSREVGELIGLFYNKTFRQKLEYLLEQISEVWLLPHWLDLANVEVLAADDTRVPLYMLMVAVHKELDSDDVPDGRFDILLCRDSSREVGELIGLFYNKTFRQKLEYLLEQISEVWLLPHWLDLANVEVLAADDTRVPLYMLMVAVHKELDSDDVPDG51to this?
    • 48. 52or this?
    • 49. MouseEcotope GlyProtDiabetInGeneGluChemsphingolipidtransporteractivityannotation using common ontologies allowsnavigation between databases53
    • 50. this allows integration of databasesMouseEcotope GlyProtDiabetInGeneGluChemHolliday junctionhelicase complex54
    • 51. How annotate this55
    • 52. or this?56
    • 53. or this?57
    • 54. Mental Functioning Ontology (Draft)
    • 55. Mental Functioning Ontology (Draft)with thanks to Janna Hastings and Kevin MulliganSwiss Center for Affective Sciences)
    • 56. Basic Formal Ontology60BFO:EntityBFO:Continuant BFO:OccurrentBFO:ProcessBFO:IndependentContinuantBFOBFO:DependentContinuantBFO:Disposition
    • 57. Basic Formal Ontologyand Mental Functioning Ontology (MFO)61BFO:EntityBFO:Continuant BFO:OccurrentBFO:ProcessOrganismBFO:IndependentContinuantBFOMFOBFO:DependentContinuantBehaviourinducing stateMental FunctioningRelated AnatomicalStructureCognitiveRepresentationBFO:QualityAffectiveRepresentationMental ProcessBodily ProcessBFO:Disposition
    • 58. Functions vs. FunctioningsContinuants vs. Occurrents6262BFO:EntityBFO:Continuant BFO:OccurrentBFO:ProcessOrganismBFO:IndependentContinuantBFOMFOBFO:DependentContinuantMentalFunctionCognitiveRepresentationBFO:QualityMental ProcessBodily ProcessBFO:DispositionMentalFunctioning
    • 59. Aboutness (‘Intentionality’)63BFO:EntityBFO:Continuant BFO:OccurrentBFO:ProcessOrganismBFO:IndependentContinuantBFOMFOBFO:DependentContinuantMentalFunctionCognitiveRepresentationBFO:QualityMental ProcessBodily ProcessBFO:DispositionMentalFunctioningdoes all mental functioning involve cognitiverepresentation (aboutness)?what is aboutness?
    • 60. Extending the MFO• to linguistic competence and performance64
    • 61. Linguistic Functioning Ontology(1. Speech and hearing)6565BFO:EntityBFO:Continuant BFO:OccurrentBFO:ProcessBFO:IndependentContinuantBFOMFOBFO:DependentContinuantBehaviourinducing stateCognitiveRepresentationBFO:QualitySpeech-mediatedcognitiverepresentationSpeechprocessBodily ProcessBFO:DispositionLinguisticcompetenceSpeech competence of apopulation= a [spoken] languageSpeech competence ofan individualHearing(registering)process
    • 62. Linguistic Functioning Ontology(2. Reading and writing)6666BFO:EntityBFO:Continuant BFO:OccurrentBFO:ProcessBFO:IndependentContinuantBFOMFOBFO:DependentContinuantBehaviourinducing stateCognitiveRepresentationBFO:QualityWritten-language-mediatedcognitiverepresentationWritingprocessBodily ProcessBFO:DispositionLinguisticcompetenceWritten linguisticcompetence of apopulation= a [written] languageWritten linguisticcompetence of anindividualReading(registering)process
    • 63. Linguistic Functioning Ontology(the whole thing)6767BFO:EntityBFO:Continuant BFO:OccurrentBFO:ProcessBFO:IndependentContinuantBFOMFOBFO:DependentContinuantBehaviourinducing stateCognitiveRepresentationBFO:QualityLanguage-mediatedcognitiverepresentationWritingBodily ProcessBFO:DispositionLinguisticcompetenceLinguistic competenceof a population= a language Linguistic competenceof an individualReadingSpeaking
    • 64. Extending the MFO to mental disease68
    • 65. 69
    • 66. 70
    • 67. Mental Functioning Ontology (MF)71brainendocrinegland
    • 68. http://bioportal.bioontology.org/ontologies/49078/72Extending MFO toEmotions
    • 69. need link to a physiology ontology 73‘physiological response to emotion’
    • 70. 74‘emotionprocess’
    • 71. Using the Emotion Ontologyfor self-report of emotional experiencesObjectives:• Capture emotional experiences in astandardised fashion using the underlyingvocabulary of the Emotion Ontology1. prediction of suicide via aggregation of textmessages2. evaluation of scientific conferences
    • 72. View all presentations for conference
    • 73. Select a presentation
    • 74. Tag options available in tool
    • 75. Studies of the biochemical basis ofemotionEmotions are effected in part byneurotransmitters such as dopamine, tryptophanThursday, May 02, 2013 82dopamine(CHEBI:25375)molecular entity(CHEBI:25375)biological role(CHEBI:24432)neurotransmitter(CHEBI:25512)has roleneurotransmitterreceptor activity(GO:0030594)Molecular function(GO:0003674)realized inhappiness(MFOEM:42)part ofemotion(MFOEM:1)subtype
    • 76. Ontological traffic rule:to build an ontology of the types ofentities in a complex domain, focus firston the canonical instances83
    • 77. Canonical pain & variantsPCT: pain with concordant tissue damage: pain ofthe evolutionarily most basic sort = pain inresponse to concordant tissue damageVariant painPNT: pain with peripheral trauma but discordant(elevated) relative to tissue damage: there isperipheral trauma, but the patient is experiencingpain of much too high an intensityNN: neuropathic nociception: no peripheraltrauma, but the patient is experiencing pain inresult of a neuropathic disorder in the nociceptivesystem.84
    • 78. 85
    • 79. Pain-related phenomena without painPBWP: pain behavior without pain: there is acry or report of pain, but no pain is beingexperienced (a fact which may or may not bedetectable by an external observer)TWP: Tissue-damage without pain: tissuedamage normally of the sort to cause pain doesnot activate the pain system.86
    • 80. Pain Ontology (PN) branch of MF-EMLyingabout pain87
    • 81. Canonical pain89canonicalpainpainEMOTION COMPONENT CHARACTERISTIC FOR PAINAction tendency WithdrawalSubjective emotional feeling Negative, tense, powerlessBehavioural response Characteristic painful facialexpressionCharacteristic appraisal Something is dangerous to me
    • 82. Canonical fear91canonicalfearfearEMOTION COMPONENT CHARACTERISTIC FOR FEARAction tendency Fight-or-flightSubjective emotional feeling Negative, tense, powerlessBehavioural response Characteristic fearful facialexpressionCharacteristic appraisal Something (some real thing) inmy environment is dangerousto mesubtype
    • 83. Canonical and non-canonical fearCanonical fear gives rise to action tendenciesthat are conformant to a perceived dangerPhobias = dispositions giving rise to non-canonical fear, e.g. laridaphobiaAnother case involving non-canonical fear:people taking pleasure in watching horror films92
    • 84. mental process content (putative) targetpresenting act content of presentation“apple”object of presentationobjectexistsobject doesnot existobjectpresentobjectabsentMeinong’s treatment of non-veridicalintentionality goes wrong because ittreats it as canonicalthe presenting act is targeted on anobject of a special kind (namely: thenon-existent kind)
    • 85. mental process content there is no targetpresenting act content of presentation“apple”underlying false beliefnon-veridical intentionality is a untidycollection of non-canonical casesthe presenting act is dependent on anunderlying belief or attitude of one orother deviant types
    • 86. mental process content (putative) targetpresenting act content of presentation“apple”objectpresentobjectabsentnon-veridical intentionalitytype 1. ontological errorhallucination, deception, …the presenting act is dependent on afalse underlying belief
    • 87. mental process content (putative) targetpresenting act content of presentation“apple”objectpresentobjectabsentnon-veridical intentionalitytype 2. fictionthinking-about-Macbeth = thepresenting act is not dependent onan underlying false belief“The Substitution Theory of Art”, Grazer Philosophische Studien, 25/26 (1986)
    • 88. in the Macbeth case we are dealing withthe sort of thing that happens when, toquote Witters, “language goes onholiday”97
    • 89. Brentano revolutionizes psychologyBrentanopublished Psychologyfrom an EmpiricalStandpoint, 1874Meinongfounded first laboratoryof experimentalpsychology in Austria-Hungary in 1897Ehrenfels Husserl Twardowskifounded firstlaboratory of experimentalpsychologyin Poland in 1907
    • 90. Brentano revolutionizes psychologyBrentanopublished Psychologyfrom an EmpiricalStandpoint, 1874Meinongfounded first laboratoryof experimentalpsychology in Austria-Hungary in 1897Ehrenfels Husserl Twardowskifounded firstlaboratory of experimentalpsychologyin Poland in 1907Wundtfirst laboratory ofexperimental psychology,1879
    • 91. Mental Functioning is Neural Functioning:Towards a Unified Ontology ofMind, Brain, and BehaviorGwen A. FrishkoffDepartment of Psychology NeuroInformatics CenterGeorgia State University University of Oregon
    • 92. Outline of Talk• What is a mental process?– A view from cognitive psychology– The Mind–Brain problem and three proposedsolutions (ontology views)• A neurophsysiological framework forunderstanding mental processes– Levels of brain, levels of mind– What are mental representations “about”?(Proposed solution to problems of subjectivity, aboutness)
    • 93. What is a Mental Process?A view from cognitive psychologyShort-term memoryCognitive controlMotor control,ActionSensation,PerceptionLong-term MemoryHabits & Skills
    • 94. How do we know any of this?That is, where did the components of thestandard model come from?
    • 95. • Mental processes cannot be observed.*• They must be inferred based on what we can observe.What can we observe?...*We can revise this assumption later (if Mind = Brain)The mind as a black boxX
    • 96. • Physical processes in body  Behavior(response type, accuracy, reaction time)• Physiological processes in brain Neural activity and correlates of neuralactivity (blood flow to brain regions)What we can observe… and HowA schematic of Helmholtz’s apparatusfor measuring the time course ofmuscle contraction and thepropagation velocity of the nerveimpulse. Source: Bennett, 1999.A 256-channel electrode “net” that is usedto measure brain electrical activity (EEG)CogPO!
    • 97. “A mental process is a neural process.”• Avoids Mind-Body dualism• More precise than other twosolutions• Gives ready framework forcomparative neurophysiology &comparative cognition• Knowledge of brain structure &function informs understandingof mental function (anddysfunction)ARGUMENTS IN FAVOR
    • 98. Mental Functioning Ontology (MF)110braininendocrinegland
    • 99. Aboutness111brain retinaENVIRONMENT
    • 100. Levels of brain, levels of mindMesulam, 1990113Representation, monitoring andcontrol of internal environment(“self”)Representation, monitoring andcontrol of bodily interface toexternal environment(“real world”)
    • 101. Levels of brain, levels of mindMesulam, 1990114Representation, monitoring andcontrol of internal environment(“self”)Representation, monitoring andcontrol of bodily interface toexternal environment(“real world”)Note use of “sneer” quotesaround “real world” and “self”
    • 102. Mental representations: What are they “about”?Peripheral (sensory-motor) parts of the bodyare “mapped” to (represented by) an orderlyset of discrete regions within sensory andmotor cortex.Sensory-motor maps in thebrainThe Hypothalamic-Pituitary-Adrenal (HPA) Axismonitors and controls internal bodily functions, suchas blood circulation, breathing, digestion, stress, andarousal.Maps of the internal milieux
    • 103. 116Perception ofinternal(bodily)environment(“self”)Perception ofexternalenvironment/sensory input(“real world”)
    • 104. 117Shimon Edelman‟sRiddle of Representationtwo humans, a monkey, and a robotare looking at a piece of cheese;what is common to the representationalprocesses in their visual systems?
    • 105. 118Answer:The cheese, of course
    • 106. 119The real cheese
    • 107. or objects or processesinside the body
    • 108. or objects or processesinside the bodyobjects and processes inside andoutside the body play a role here too
    • 109. external targetsinternal and external features causallyrelevant to perception, nociception, etc.allofthesetogetherformtheenvironment
    • 110. externaltargetsinternal and external features causallyrelevant to perception, nociception, etc.the arrow of aboutness
    • 111. What is a Mental Process?A view from cognitive psychologyShort-term memoryCognitive controlMotor control,ActionSensation,PerceptionLong-term MemoryHabits & SkillsAll of this is present before there is language
    • 112. What does a temperature chartrepresent?147
    • 113. 148606570758085Time 1 Time 2 Time 3What does a chart representing your pulse rate represent?
    • 114. Cardiac Cycle, Left Ventricle149
    • 115. 150606570758085Time 1 Time 2 Time 3What does a chart of changes in your pulse raterepresent?
    • 116. 151139113921393139413951396139713981399What does a chart of changes in the DowJones industrial average represent?time
    • 117. 152activity during thistime interval
    • 118. 153
    • 119. 15413911392139313941395139613971398time
    • 120. 15513911392139313941395139613971398timeWhat this represents is real, and not just “real”
    • 121. coronary heartdiseaseJohn’s coronary heart diseasedisease duringphase ofasymptomatic(‘silent’)infarctiondisease duringphase of earlylesions andsmall fibrousplaquesstableanginadisease duringphase ofsurfacedisruption ofplaqueunstableanginainstantiatesat t1instantiatesat t2instantiatesat t3instantiatesat t4instantiatesat t5time 156What this represents is real, and not just “real”
    • 122. What did your temperature do over the lastmonth, Jim?Jim’s temperature process profile, thetarget of a certain sort of cognitiveselection, or cognitive profiling 157
    • 123. The graph picks out just one dimension ofqualitative change within a much largerconglomerate of processes within JimHence ‘process profile’ 158
    • 124. Compare perception of polyphonicmusic• Cognitive selection of the cello part when youlisten to a string quartet• Picking out a certain sonic partial processwithin a larger body of vibrations• Ignoring sneezes, coughs, …• (or sometimes focusing on sneezes andcoughs for diagnostic purposes)159
    • 125. Compare perception of polyphonicmusic• Cognitive selection of the cello part when youlisten to a string quartet• Picking out a certain sonic partial processwithin a larger body of vibrations• Ignoring sneezes, coughs, …• (or sometimes focusing on sneezes andcoughs for diagnostic purposes)160
    • 126. time-series graph of acousticsignal, spectrogram, formants, jawdisplacement and other speech parameters161
    • 127. adding phonetic, phonemic and syllable levels162
    • 128. g u t e n163
    • 129. add brain164
    • 130. speech is a process profilethe speech process is to the totality of acousticsignal, spectrogram, formants, jawdisplacement, mental and neurologicalprocessesasthe pulse rate process is to the totality ofaortic, ventricular and atrialpressure, ventricular volume, electricalactivity, arterial flow, and other processes in theheart165
    • 131. Breakthrough: First sound recordings based on readinghuman auditory cortex (PLoS Biology, January 2012)166
    • 132. Top: spectrogram of words presented to subject.Middle and bottom: reconstructions of speech based onreadings from electrodes attached to patients brain.167
    • 133. PathwaydiagramPathwayReactionMolecularcollectiveIndividualmoleculeBFO:ProcessBFO:IndependentContinuantBFO:DispositionInformationContent Entityinheres inexplicitlyrepresentsimplicitlyrepresentshas participantBULKMOLECULARhas grainBFO: GDCbiological pathways are process profiles
    • 134. mental processes, too, are process profiles169
    • 135. 177177BFO:EntityBFO:Continuant BFO:OccurrentBFO:ProcessBFO:IndependentContinuantBFOMFOBFO:DependentContinuantBehaviourinducing stateCognitiveRepresentationBFO:QualityLanguage-mediatedcognitiverepresentationWritingBodily ProcessBFO:DispositionLinguisticcompetenceLinguistic competenceof a population= a language Linguistic competenceof an individualReadingSpeakingwhat is a language?something analogous to a biologicalspecies (a population of competences)
    • 136. • Examples of dispositions that are constantlybeing realized:– stock exchange– heart beat– brain activity– social order– language (social)178
    • 137. Investigations onthe Theory ofObjects andPsychologywith support fromthe Imperial-RoyalMinister of Cultureand Education inVienna, 1904
    • 138. Horizontal Integration of WarfighterIntelligence Data180
    • 139. Horizontal Integration• “Horizontally integrating warfighterintelligence data … requires access (includingdiscovery, search, retrieval, and display) tointelligence data among the warfighters andother producers and consumers viastandardized services and architectures.”Chairman of the Joint Chiefs of StaffInstruction J2 CJCSI 3340.02A1 August 2011
    • 140. Horizontal integration=def. multiple heterogeneous data resourcesbecome aligned in such a way that search andanalysis procedures can be applied to theircombined content as if they formed a singleresource
    • 141. UnclassifiedUnclassifiedCommand and Control OntologyArmy Fires PlanArmy Maneuver PlanNaval Fires PlanDefinition: An informationcontent entity that is aspecification of events that areto occur in order to obtain someobjective.183
    • 142. UnclassifiedUnclassifiedCommand and Control OntologySituationalAwarenessSituationalUnderstandingCommander‟s Intent…184
    • 143. Horizontal integration=def. multiple heterogeneous data resourcesbecome aligned through association withcommon ontology terms in such a way thatsearch and analysis procedures can be appliedto their combined content as if they formed asingle resource
    • 144. =def. multiple heterogeneous data resourcesbecome aligned through association withcommon ontology terms in such a way thatsearch and analysis procedures can be appliedto their combined content as if they formed asingle resourceSemantic Technology in Intelligence, Defense and Security, 2012

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