Mental Functioning Ontologyand the ICFBarry SmithOctober 1, 2012
Basic Formal Ontology2BFO:EntityBFO:Continuant BFO:OccurrentBFO:ProcessBFO:IndependentContinuantBFOBFO:DependentContinuant...
Basic Formal Ontologyand Mental Functioning Ontology (MFO)3BFO:EntityBFO:Continuant BFO:OccurrentBFO:ProcessOrganismBFO:In...
Basic Formal Ontologyand Mental Functioning Ontology (MFO)4BFO:EntityBFO:Continuant BFO:OccurrentBFO:ProcessOrganismBFO:In...
Functions vs. FunctioningsContinuants vs. Occurrents55BFO:EntityBFO:Continuant BFO:OccurrentBFO:ProcessOrganismBFO:Indepen...
Aboutness (‘Intentionality’)6BFO:EntityBFO:Continuant BFO:OccurrentBFO:ProcessOrganismBFO:IndependentContinuantBFOMFOBFO:D...
Mental Functioning Ontology (MF)7
Linguistic Functioning Ontology(1. Speech and hearing)88BFO:EntityBFO:Continuant BFO:OccurrentBFO:ProcessBFO:IndependentCo...
Linguistic Functioning Ontology(2. Reading and writing)99BFO:EntityBFO:Continuant BFO:OccurrentBFO:ProcessBFO:IndependentC...
Linguistic Functioning Ontology(the whole thing)1010BFO:EntityBFO:Continuant BFO:OccurrentBFO:ProcessBFO:IndependentContin...
How to build MF±LanguageFirst idea:Along what dimensions human beingscan depart from normal (‘canonical’)mental and lingui...
http://bioportal.bioontology.org/ontologies/45578/12from WHO | World Health Organization
For ICD mental function is a subtype ofbody functionICD definition of ‘Body functions’:Body functions are the physiologica...
http://bioportal.bioontology.org/ontologies/45578/14
http://bioportal.bioontology.org/ontologies/45578/15
Definition of ‘Mental Functions’Definitions: This chapter is about thefunctions of the brain: both globalmental functions,...
17
18
Quality ≠ Function19
20
21
Dreaming?22
http://apps.who.int/classifications/icd10/browse/2010/en#/F44.823
http://bioportal.bioontology.org/ontologies/45578/24
http://bioportal.bioontology.org/ontologies/45578/25
26
Ontological traffic rule:always use singular nouns 27
28
29
Mental Functioning Ontology (MF)30
Mental Functioning Ontology (MF)31
Definitions: Specific mental functionsof focusing on an external stimulus orinternal experience for the requiredperiod of ...
33
Mental Functioning Ontology (MF)34braininendocrinegland
35
Mental Functioning Ontology (MF)36
Mental Functioning Ontology (MF)37braininolfactorysystem
38
Mental Functioning Ontology (MF)39braininolfactorysystem
Again, confusion of function and quality40
41
Integrative language functionsDefinitions: Mental functions that organize semanticand symbolic meaning, grammatical struct...
WHO ICF ProPerforms an amazingly difficult task of unifyingpublic data across the planet (Versions in 5different languages...
44http://cirrie.buffalo.edu/icf/
WHO ICF ConUse of ‘other’ and other features make it is notfuture proof (will not evolve gracefully withadvances in neuros...
Strategy for MF Ontology• Ensure that the ontology is developed inconformity with basic biology ontologies suchas the Gene...
http://bioportal.bioontology.org/ontologies/49078/47Examples fromMF-Emotion Ontology
48‘emotionprocess’
need link to a physiology ontology 49‘physiological response to emotion’
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Mental functioning ontology and the International Classification of Functions and Disabilities

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  • Mental functioning related anatomical structure: an anatomical structure in which there inheres the disposition to be the agent of a mental processBehaviour inducing state: a bodily quality inhering in a mental functioning related anatomical structure which leads to behaviour of some sortAffective representation: a cognitive representation sustained by an organism about its own emotionsCognitive representation: a representation which specifically depends on an anatomical structure in the cognitive system of an organismMental process: a bodily process which brings into being, sustains or modifies a cognitive representation or a behaviour inducing state
  • Mental functioning related anatomical structure: an anatomical structure in which there inheres the disposition to be the agent of a mental processBehaviour inducing state: a bodily quality inhering in a mental functioning related anatomical structure which leads to behaviour of some sortAffective representation: a cognitive representation sustained by an organism about its own emotionsCognitive representation: a representation which specifically depends on an anatomical structure in the cognitive system of an organismMental process: a bodily process which brings into being, sustains or modifies a cognitive representation or a behaviour inducing state
  • Mental functioning related anatomical structure: an anatomical structure in which there inheres the disposition to be the agent of a mental processBehaviour inducing state: a bodily quality inhering in a mental functioning related anatomical structure which leads to behaviour of some sortAffective representation: a cognitive representation sustained by an organism about its own emotionsCognitive representation: a representation which specifically depends on an anatomical structure in the cognitive system of an organismMental process: a bodily process which brings into being, sustains or modifies a cognitive representation or a behaviour inducing state
  • Mental functioning related anatomical structure: an anatomical structure in which there inheres the disposition to be the agent of a mental processBehaviour inducing state: a bodily quality inhering in a mental functioning related anatomical structure which leads to behaviour of some sortAffective representation: a cognitive representation sustained by an organism about its own emotionsCognitive representation: a representation which specifically depends on an anatomical structure in the cognitive system of an organismMental process: a bodily process which brings into being, sustains or modifies a cognitive representation or a behaviour inducing state
  • Mental functioning related anatomical structure: an anatomical structure in which there inheres the disposition to be the agent of a mental processBehaviour inducing state: a bodily quality inhering in a mental functioning related anatomical structure which leads to behaviour of some sortAffective representation: a cognitive representation sustained by an organism about its own emotionsCognitive representation: a representation which specifically depends on an anatomical structure in the cognitive system of an organismMental process: a bodily process which brings into being, sustains or modifies a cognitive representation or a behaviour inducing state
  • Mental functioning related anatomical structure: an anatomical structure in which there inheres the disposition to be the agent of a mental processBehaviour inducing state: a bodily quality inhering in a mental functioning related anatomical structure which leads to behaviour of some sortAffective representation: a cognitive representation sustained by an organism about its own emotionsCognitive representation: a representation which specifically depends on an anatomical structure in the cognitive system of an organismMental process: a bodily process which brings into being, sustains or modifies a cognitive representation or a behaviour inducing state
  • Mental functioning related anatomical structure: an anatomical structure in which there inheres the disposition to be the agent of a mental processBehaviour inducing state: a bodily quality inhering in a mental functioning related anatomical structure which leads to behaviour of some sortAffective representation: a cognitive representation sustained by an organism about its own emotionsCognitive representation: a representation which specifically depends on an anatomical structure in the cognitive system of an organismMental process: a bodily process which brings into being, sustains or modifies a cognitive representation or a behaviour inducing state
  • Mental functioning related anatomical structure: an anatomical structure in which there inheres the disposition to be the agent of a mental processBehaviour inducing state: a bodily quality inhering in a mental functioning related anatomical structure which leads to behaviour of some sortAffective representation: a cognitive representation sustained by an organism about its own emotionsCognitive representation: a representation which specifically depends on an anatomical structure in the cognitive system of an organismMental process: a bodily process which brings into being, sustains or modifies a cognitive representation or a behaviour inducing state
  • Mental functioning related anatomical structure: an anatomical structure in which there inheres the disposition to be the agent of a mental processBehaviour inducing state: a bodily quality inhering in a mental functioning related anatomical structure which leads to behaviour of some sortAffective representation: a cognitive representation sustained by an organism about its own emotionsCognitive representation: a representation which specifically depends on an anatomical structure in the cognitive system of an organismMental process: a bodily process which brings into being, sustains or modifies a cognitive representation or a behaviour inducing state
  • Mental functioning related anatomical structure: an anatomical structure in which there inheres the disposition to be the agent of a mental processBehaviour inducing state: a bodily quality inhering in a mental functioning related anatomical structure which leads to behaviour of some sortAffective representation: a cognitive representation sustained by an organism about its own emotionsCognitive representation: a representation which specifically depends on an anatomical structure in the cognitive system of an organismMental process: a bodily process which brings into being, sustains or modifies a cognitive representation or a behaviour inducing state
  • Mental functioning ontology and the International Classification of Functions and Disabilities

    1. 1. Mental Functioning Ontologyand the ICFBarry SmithOctober 1, 2012
    2. 2. Basic Formal Ontology2BFO:EntityBFO:Continuant BFO:OccurrentBFO:ProcessBFO:IndependentContinuantBFOBFO:DependentContinuantBFO:Disposition
    3. 3. Basic Formal Ontologyand Mental Functioning Ontology (MFO)3BFO:EntityBFO:Continuant BFO:OccurrentBFO:ProcessOrganismBFO:IndependentContinuantBFOMFOBFO:DependentContinuantBehaviourinducing stateMental FunctioningRelated AnatomicalStructureCognitiveRepresentationBFO:QualityAffectiveRepresentationMental ProcessBodily ProcessBFO:Disposition
    4. 4. Basic Formal Ontologyand Mental Functioning Ontology (MFO)4BFO:EntityBFO:Continuant BFO:OccurrentBFO:ProcessOrganismBFO:IndependentContinuantBFOMFOBFO:DependentContinuantBehaviourinducing stateMental FunctioningRelated AnatomicalStructureCognitiveRepresentationBFO:QualityAffectiveRepresentationMental ProcessBodily ProcessBFO:Disposition
    5. 5. Functions vs. FunctioningsContinuants vs. Occurrents55BFO:EntityBFO:Continuant BFO:OccurrentBFO:ProcessOrganismBFO:IndependentContinuantBFOMFOBFO:DependentContinuantMentalFunctionCognitiveRepresentationBFO:QualityMental ProcessBodily ProcessBFO:DispositionMentalFunctioning
    6. 6. Aboutness (‘Intentionality’)6BFO:EntityBFO:Continuant BFO:OccurrentBFO:ProcessOrganismBFO:IndependentContinuantBFOMFOBFO:DependentContinuantMentalFunctionCognitiveRepresentationBFO:QualityMental ProcessBodily ProcessBFO:DispositionMentalFunctioningdoes all mental functioning involve cognitiverepresentation (aboutness)?what is aboutness?
    7. 7. Mental Functioning Ontology (MF)7
    8. 8. Linguistic Functioning Ontology(1. Speech and hearing)88BFO:EntityBFO:Continuant BFO:OccurrentBFO:ProcessBFO:IndependentContinuantBFOMFOBFO:DependentContinuantBehaviourinducing stateCognitiveRepresentationBFO:QualitySpeech-mediatedcognitiverepresentationSpeechprocessBodily ProcessBFO:DispositionLinguisticcompetenceSpeech competence of apopulation= a [spoken] languageSpeech competence ofan individualHearing(registering)process
    9. 9. Linguistic Functioning Ontology(2. Reading and writing)99BFO:EntityBFO:Continuant BFO:OccurrentBFO:ProcessBFO:IndependentContinuantBFOMFOBFO:DependentContinuantBehaviourinducing stateCognitiveRepresentationBFO:QualityWritten-language-mediatedcognitiverepresentationWritingprocessBodily ProcessBFO:DispositionLinguisticcompetenceWritten linguisticcompetence of apopulation= a [written] languageWritten linguisticcompetence of anindividualReading(registering)process
    10. 10. Linguistic Functioning Ontology(the whole thing)1010BFO:EntityBFO:Continuant BFO:OccurrentBFO:ProcessBFO:IndependentContinuantBFOMFOBFO:DependentContinuantBehaviourinducing stateCognitiveRepresentationBFO:QualityLanguage-mediatedcognitiverepresentationWritingBodily ProcessBFO:DispositionLinguisticcompetenceLinguistic competenceof a population= a language Linguistic competenceof an individualReadingSpeaking
    11. 11. How to build MF±LanguageFirst idea:Along what dimensions human beingscan depart from normal (‘canonical’)mental and linguistic functioning?11
    12. 12. http://bioportal.bioontology.org/ontologies/45578/12from WHO | World Health Organization
    13. 13. For ICD mental function is a subtype ofbody functionICD definition of ‘Body functions’:Body functions are the physiologicalfunctions of body systems (includingpsychological functions).Impairments are problems in bodyfunction or structure as a significantdeviation or loss.13
    14. 14. http://bioportal.bioontology.org/ontologies/45578/14
    15. 15. http://bioportal.bioontology.org/ontologies/45578/15
    16. 16. Definition of ‘Mental Functions’Definitions: This chapter is about thefunctions of the brain: both globalmental functions, such asconsciousness, energy and drive, andspecific mental functions, such asmemory, language and calculationmental functions.16
    17. 17. 17
    18. 18. 18
    19. 19. Quality ≠ Function19
    20. 20. 20
    21. 21. 21
    22. 22. Dreaming?22
    23. 23. http://apps.who.int/classifications/icd10/browse/2010/en#/F44.823
    24. 24. http://bioportal.bioontology.org/ontologies/45578/24
    25. 25. http://bioportal.bioontology.org/ontologies/45578/25
    26. 26. 26
    27. 27. Ontological traffic rule:always use singular nouns 27
    28. 28. 28
    29. 29. 29
    30. 30. Mental Functioning Ontology (MF)30
    31. 31. Mental Functioning Ontology (MF)31
    32. 32. Definitions: Specific mental functionsof focusing on an external stimulus orinternal experience for the requiredperiod of time.32
    33. 33. 33
    34. 34. Mental Functioning Ontology (MF)34braininendocrinegland
    35. 35. 35
    36. 36. Mental Functioning Ontology (MF)36
    37. 37. Mental Functioning Ontology (MF)37braininolfactorysystem
    38. 38. 38
    39. 39. Mental Functioning Ontology (MF)39braininolfactorysystem
    40. 40. Again, confusion of function and quality40
    41. 41. 41
    42. 42. Integrative language functionsDefinitions: Mental functions that organize semanticand symbolic meaning, grammatical structure andideas for the production of messages in spoken,written or other forms of language.42
    43. 43. WHO ICF ProPerforms an amazingly difficult task of unifyingpublic data across the planet (Versions in 5different languages, plus Youth Version)Serves billing task in US43http://apps.who.int/classifications/icfbrowser/
    44. 44. 44http://cirrie.buffalo.edu/icf/
    45. 45. WHO ICF ConUse of ‘other’ and other features make it is notfuture proof (will not evolve gracefully withadvances in neurosciencePoor or absent definitions will meaninconsistent annotation of dataLack of logical definitions would mean poorsupport for computational reasoning with datathat is annotated45
    46. 46. Strategy for MF Ontology• Ensure that the ontology is developed inconformity with basic biology ontologies suchas the Gene Ontology• Provide human-readable definitions for eachterm to ensure consistent annotation• Provide logical definitions to supportreasoning with data46
    47. 47. http://bioportal.bioontology.org/ontologies/49078/47Examples fromMF-Emotion Ontology
    48. 48. 48‘emotionprocess’
    49. 49. need link to a physiology ontology 49‘physiological response to emotion’

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