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  • An Orchestra's layout – as Corporate structure diagram - diagram:
  • An Orchestra's layout – as Corporate structure diagram - diagram:
  •, Great City by Adrian Smith + Gordon Gill Architecture
  •, Great City by Adrian Smith + Gordon Gill Architecture
  •, Great City by Adrian Smith + Gordon Gill Architecture
  • 449-50, trans. Ben Fowkes, as cited by Shapiro, op. cit.
  • also: what is the Holy Roman Empire? what is the Swedish language?
  • in M. Vargas and G. Yaffe, eds., Rational and Social Agency: Essays on the Philosophy of Michael Bratman (New York: Oxford University Press)
  • Adaptedfrom Titus Stahl. Beyond Plans and Practices: Law as Collective Intentional Institutions
  • “Rakkasan” Commander Col. Luong issues an opening statement at the start of a sand table briefing.

Massively Shared Planned Action Massively Shared Planned Action Presentation Transcript

  • Massively SharedPlanned ActionBarry Smith 20, 20131
  • law
  • Eric Whitacre’s Virtual Choir3
  • • Eric Whitacre’s Virtual Choir 2.0, over 2,000participants from 58 countries4
  • • Eric Whitacre’s Virtual Choir 2.0, over 2,000participants from 58 countries5
  • The meshing of actions of over 2000people in 58 different countries• in such a way as to give rise to a commonenduring product to which they all make theirown contributions• is made possible by law6
  • Eric Whitacre Virtual Choir 3TERMS & CONDITIONSThank you for planning to be part of Eric Whitacres Virtual Choir 3, Water Night, recorded via Any recording you upload through this site (your Performance) issubject to these Terms and Conditions (Terms) so please read them carefully. By recording and uploading your video (your Performance) you are stating that you have read,understood and agree to be bound by the Terms below. Your agreement is with the Producers, Music Productions Ltd (c/o Pinewood Studios, Pinewood Road, Iver Heath, Bucks SL00NH UK) on behalf of Eric Whitacre Inc., in respect of Virtual Choir 3 (the Recording).You confirm that you have made and submitted video footage of your audio visual performance of the composition, Water Night by Eric Whitacre. You hereby give all requisiteconsents under the Copyright Designs and Patents Act of 1988 (or any re-enactments or amendments thereof) to enable the Producers to edit your Performance together with audiovisual material made by third parties to create a new composite Recording as part of the Virtual Choir series.The Producers hereby confirm that your Performance will not be used in any other way, except as part of the Virtual Choir Recording, without prior consent.You are responsible for maintaining your equipment and services required to access the recording and upload process for Virtual Choir 3. The data collected about you through sign-inas part of this process will not be shared with any third party for any purpose at all. You agree that any information provided is accurate, current and true, and that you will notimpersonate any other person.As part of this process you agree not to violate any local or international laws, nor transmit any inappropriate, libellous, obscene or non-Virtual Choir related material. In considerationof the Producers agreeing to edit and create the Recording, incorporating your Recording at their sole expense which you acknowledge is a good and valuable consideration, youconfirm that the Producers shall be entitled in perpetuity throughout the world and without payment or liability to you, to alter and exploit the Recording in any manner and in allmedia worldwide. This Recording will be seen on the world wide web, in media coverage of all types (broadcast and other), and as part of installations in visitor centres, galleries and atother public events.The performer copyright in your Performance remains yours and is not owned by the Producers. The Producers retain the right to remove or refuse any submissions as deemednecessary, with copyright law or other international laws in mind.The Producers retain the right to change these Terms if necessary, and these will be posted on the Virtual Choir webpage on as necessary. If you object to thesechanges you will need to contact Music Productions Ltd. Continued use of the site indicates your acknowledgement of such changes and agreement to be bound by the terms andconditions.You are solely responsible for the security of your password and the confidentiality of the account through which you logged in to the Recording process for Virtual Choir 3.You expressly agree that uploading a Recording is at your sole risk. You agree that your audio and video files will be stored at a destination secured by the Producers, pending andfollowing editing and publication. The Producers are not responsible to you for the loss of any data or any unavailability caused by the Producers or any third party.By agreeing to these terms and conditions, you understand that to the extent permitted under applicable law, under no circumstances will any of the officers, directors, employees,agents or licensors be liable under any theory of liability for any incidental, indirect or exemplary damages of any known type without limitation. You agree to indemnify and defendthese officers, directors, employees and consultants from any claims, liabilities, damages, losses, costs, expenses or fees arising from your (or anyone using your accounts) violation ofthese Terms.The content you upload, your Recording, is protected by international copyright laws without limitation. These Terms and the relationship between you and the Producers aregoverned by British law. These Terms remain in full force and effect in perpetuity.You warrant that you are entitled to give the above consents, are 14 or more years of age, and thereby agree to grant the rights herein.7
  • To participate in a choral performancewith Eric Whitacre you need:• Score• Performance instructions• Recording instructions• Contact form (filled out)• Choral survey (filled out)• Video or audio files recording 2-3 selections fromwithin the last calendar year uploaded throughYouSendIt dropbox or by email toSingwithEric@DCINY.orgBy uploading video or audio files you agree to8
  • … give all requisite consents under the Copyright Designs andPatents Act of 1988 (or any re-enactments or amendmentsthereof) to enable the Producers to edit your Performancetogether with audio visual material made by third parties tocreate a new composite Recording as part of the Virtual Choirseries.… The performer copyright in your Performance remains yoursand is not owned by the Producers. The Producers retain theright to remove or refuse any submissions as deemed necessary,with copyright law or other international laws in mind.… The content you upload, your Recording, is protected byinternational copyright laws without limitation. These Termsand the relationship between you and the Producers aregoverned by British law. These Terms remain in full force andeffect in perpetuity.9
  • 10
  • 11
  • 12• Documents such as these create anintermeshing of obligations between theparticipants involved in massively shared agency• Create an expectation of the existence of suchintermeshed obligations (somethings inperpetuity)• Justifying investment of ever more significantresources in the creation of ever more elaborateplans
  • The meshing of actions of largenumbers of people in musicalperformances• is made possible not only by legal documentsof the more familiar sort13
  • 14
  • The actions of the players in anorchestral performance• are intermeshed through the sets ofintermeshed documents we call orchestralscores• scores are sets of instructions for playing• scores generate intermeshed obligations toplay in a certain way15
  • Scores bring it about that specific obligation series aredistributed across large groups16
  • Orchestalscore withstaves17
  • 18Hector Berlioz, Le corsaire, Overture, H 101
  • players actions are coordinated and steeredthrough time through intermeshed documents19
  • scores and subscoresplans and subplanssets of instructions, which also allow training20
  • 21Modularity of score reflects modularity oforchestra
  • 22Massive shared agency presupposes modularity
  • How to do things with documents• An orchestral musical work (assomething that can be rehearsed,performed and re-performed)–could not exist without a score–could not be rehearsed without scores andsubscores–could not be performed without (either)scores or rehearsal24
  • How to do things with scores1. the author authors the score, thereby creates a possibilityof performance, and thereby creates the work2. conductor and orchestra use the score to form a plan(including subplans) and commit themselves to itsexecution3. they use the score as a set of instructions to rehearse theexecution of their plan (develop score-coordinatedexpertise through drill)4. they schedule a concert, thereby making a commitment toa prospective audience to perform that work5. they perform the work25
  • Laws• systems of intermeshed obligations• systems of intermeshed plans• systems of intermeshed instructionsallow• conception of ever more complex intermeshedplans through reliance on shared commitmentsand on development of intermeshed expertise• excution of these plans through shared agency26
  • musical scores are inert, unless their usershave the sort of expertise needed tointerpret themModular coordination of action presupposesdrilling of the members of each module in therequisite kinds of skill30
  • documents hold together the executionsof horizontally and vertically meshedsubplansthrough drill31
  • training in how to execute diagrams32
  • The role of shared practiceThis sort of coordinated activity is impossiblewithout shared expertise, developed– through training and individual practice– through practice and rehearsal in small group,yielding– reusable, recombinable expertise modules33
  • Searle: Directions of fit• world-to-mind: a plan is formulated tochange the world (to make it conform tothe mind of the planner …)• mind-to-world: an assertion is aboutsomething in the world• automatic mind-to-world-and-world-to-mind: I say “I promise to pay you $100dollars” and thereby make it true that Ipromise to pay you $100 dollars34
  • 35what begins as a plan,ends as a record
  • Directions of fit• world-to-score: the score tells the world howto shape itself to create a performance that isin conformance with the score• score-to-world: the score, when theperformance is completed, serves as a recordof the performance• automatic score-to-world-and-world-to-score: Berlioz completes the score andthereby brings into being a work that isprecisely in conformance to the score37
  • 39what begins as a plan,ends as a recordwhat makes the recordtrue is:the journey you took
  • Blueprintwhat begins as aplanends as a record• of process• of product40
  • Plans will be modified along the wayphysical changes to thebuilding to meetbuilding codeschanges inmaterials/supplierschanges in allowedphysical processeschanges in administrative(approval) processes42
  • 43Plans will involve subplans
  • 44Documents enable complex processes extendingover ever larger regions of space and time
  • 45codes include subcodes include sub-sub-codes …
  •;jsessionid=A42A2A8A30688E3FB47B35748BFAF7B3, public health officials, and social workers -
  • spontaneous order vs. planningbiology47biology military operationmarket concert performancelanguage election
  • document templates• As Alfred Whitehead has said in anotherconnection, "It is a profoundly erroneoustruism, repeated by all copy-books and byeminent people when they are makingspeeches, that we should cultivate the habitof thinking what we are doing. The preciseopposite is the case. Civilization advances byextending the number of importantoperations which we can perform withoutthinking about them."48
  • price system• We must look at the price system as such a mechanism for communicatinginformation if we want to understand its real function—a function which, ofcourse, it fulfils less perfectly as prices grow more rigid. (Even when quoted priceshave become quite rigid, however, the forces which would operate throughchanges in price still operate to a considerable extent through changes in the otherterms of the contract.) The most significant fact about this system is the economyof knowledge with which it operates, or how little the individual participants needto know in order to be able to take the right action. In abbreviated form, by a kindof symbol, only the most essential information is passed on and passed on only tothose concerned. It is more than a metaphor to describe the price system as a kindof machinery for registering change, or a system of telecommunications whichenables individual producers to watch merely the movement of a few pointers, asan engineer might watch the hands of a few dials, in order to adjust their activitiesto changes of which they may never know more than is reflected in the pricemovement.• Hayek: The Uses of Knowledge in Society49
  • Wikipedia• Wales cites Austrian School economist Friedrich Hayeks essay "The Use ofKnowledge in Society", which he read as an undergraduate,[16] as "central" to histhinking about "how to manage the Wikipedia project".[11] Hayek arguedthat information is decentralized – that each individual only knows a small fractionof what is known collectively – and that as a result, decisions are best made bythose with local knowledge rather than by a central authority.[11] Walesreconsidered Hayeks essay in the 1990s, while reading about the open sourcemovement (which advocated that software be free and distributed). He wasmoved in particular by "The Cathedral and the Bazaar", an essay and later book byone of the founders of the movement, Eric S. Raymond, which "opened [his] eyesto the possibilities of mass collaboration."[16] From his background in finance andworking as a futures and options trader, Wales developed an interest in gametheory and the effect of incentives on human collaborative activity, a fascination towhich he credits enabling much of his effort with Wikipedia.[84] He has rejected thenotion that his role in promoting Wikipedia is altruistic, which he defines as"sacrificing your own values for others", stating "[t]hat participating in abenevolent effort to share information is somehow destroying your own valuesmakes no sense to me".[54]50
  • Wikipedia cheats• Climategate: the corruption of Wikipedia• By James Delingpole Politics Last updated:December 22nd, 200951
  • Agglomerations52
  • Book of Common Prayer• Textual deference53
  • • a massive change –moving to drive on right• abolishing units of measure• a massive meta-change – introducing a newcurrency54
  • • Amish barn raisingUnderground railroad documentsGangs)Driving on the rightEast GermanyPounds shillingsMoon launches55
  • Internet-scale activities on the internet56• MMOGs = massively multiplayer online gamescapable of supporting hundreds or thousands ofplayers simultaneously.– real financial markets for virtual game items– real careers for traders of virtual game items– real courts passing judgments on crimes involvingtheft of virtual game items• MMWGs agent-based wargame simulations tosupport joint military training
  • Employment Opportunity• Senior Semantic Cloud ScientistSkills: Applying semantic technologies(ontologies) for analysis of internet-scaledata. Developing enterprise solutions forincredibly large, incredibly heterogeneousfederations.57
  • Internet-scale activities on othercomputational platforms58• Credit-card payment systems• Massive on-line choral performances• International currency markets• Airline traffic-management systems• Military communications systems (for satellites,drones, sensors …)
  • All of these internet-scale activitiesgenerate and sustain larger phenomena,which include more than just processesinside computer networks• Games played by people• Journeys made by people• Wars fought by people• Political, legal, artistic, financial activitiesperformed by people… 59
  • The ontology of all of these things• What is the World Cup?• What is the Dow Jones Industrial Average?• What is the Constitution of the United States?• What is Beethoven’s 9th Symphony?• What is a credit card number?Kant did not have answers to questions such as this60
  • Das Kapital[T]he cooperation of the wage-laborers is entirely broughtabout by the capital that employs them. Their unificationinto one single productive body, and the establishment of aconnection between their individual functions, lies outsidetheir competence. These things are not their own act, butthe act of the capital that brings them together andmaintains them in that situation. Hence the interconnectionbetween their various labors confronts them, in the realm ofideas, as a plan drawn up by the capitalist, and, in practice,as his authority, as the powerful will of a being outside them,who subjects their activity to his purpose. (Das Kapital)61
  • Das Kapital• Die Kooperation der Lohnarbeiter ist fernerbloße Wirkung des Kapitals, ... ihre Einheit alsproduktiver Gesamtkörper liegen außer ihnen,im Kapital, das sie zusammenbringt undzusammenhält. Der Zusammenhang ihrerArbeiten tritt ihnen daher ideell als Plan,praktisch als Autorität des Kapitalistengegenüber … (Buch 1, S. 540)62
  • The ontology of all of these things• What is capital?• What is a plan?• What is authority?• What is the internet?• What is a stockmarket crash?and especially of planned activities:• What is a symphony concert?• What is a military operation?63
  • Scott J. Shapiro, “Massively Shared Agency”, 2013*Bratman, Searle …+ ‘are unable to account forthe existence of massively shared agency.they ‘have largely concentrated on analyzingshared activities among highly committedparticipants. The working assumption has beenthat those who sing duets or paint housestogether are all committed to the success of theactivity.’64
  • Searle’s two books on social ontologyThe Construction of Social Reality (1997)Making the Social World (2012)• Sam is a member of the Board (roughly)because: people in the relevant context believethat Sam is a member of the Board• This does not work e.g. for ‘Kashmir is part ofIndia’66
  • The Searle ThesisThrough the performance of speech acts (of promising,marrying, accusing, appointing) we bring into being₋ claims,₋ obligations,₋ relations of authority,₋ relations of membership,…= the entities making up the ontology of the social world.67
  • How do such entities endure throughtime?• in the local case: through memories, fears,desires (e.g. your desire to preserve your goodname)• But what about the global case (where thereis no face-to-face contact)?68
  • Hernando de SotoInstitute for Liberty and Democracy, Lima, PeruBill Clinton:“The most promising anti-poverty initiative in the world”69
  • The de Soto thesis:documents and documentsystems are mechanisms forcreating the institutional ordersof modern societiesThe Mystery of Capital: Why Capitalism Triumphs in the West andFails Everywhere Else,New York: Basic Books, 200070
  • Documents shape society• Tanzanians are producing valid testaments acceptedand enforced on the basis of local communityconsensus.• They have found a way to express their individual willin such a way that it can becomes effective even whenthey no longer exist.• Documents enable them to go beyond the merephysical control of their assets in the here-and-now.They are inventing an abstract order which allowsthem to transcend time.71
  • Extralegal will filled out“in the name of theRepublic of Tanzania”testament72
  • With the invention of documentedclaims and obligations• a new dimension of socio-economic realitycomes into existence:bank accounts, stocks, shares, bonds,mortgages, credit cards• these form enduring social networks –document systems – of entirely new types• debts become information entities analogousto computer software artifacts73
  • How to do things with diagrams78
  • From speech acts to document actsDocuments can be copied, modified, stored …Documents can be aggregated (meshedtogether)Documents can be algorithmically executable(Turbotax …)79
  • Diagram-vehiculated question series80
  • Urban Planning Consent Forms81
  • 82D-Day Landings
  • 83
  • 84
  • Documents made possible(massively shared agency of)organized warfare86
  • The Shang Dynasty, 1600-1050 BCThe invention of writing had a profound effecton Shang government and its ability to rule. Itincreased the government’s ability to organizeon a large scale, whether it be to oversee ahierarchical administration; rule the state’s manyterritories; organize the mining of largequantities of ore for bronzework; wage largemilitary campaigns; construct city walls andpalaces; or build elaborate tombs forthemselves.87
  • Genghis KhanThe Mongols established a system of postal-relay horse stations, similar to the systememployed in ancient Persia for fast transfer ofwritten messages … Prior to the invasion ofEurope … sent spies for almost ten years intothe heart of Europe, making maps of the oldRoman roads, …88
  • Today: Intermeshed documents make possiblemore complex processes extending over everlarger regions of social, legal, financial realityExample: The securitization of a mortgage89
  • Standard theories of collectiveaction91Searle, Tuomela, Gilbert, Bratman deal withsimple local interaction of cooperative agentscommunicating by speech“Would you like to dance?”“Let’s lift this table”“Shall we cook dinner together?”“Waiter, bring me a beer!”…
  • Shapiro: To adapt standard theory ofcollective agency to deal with massivelyshared actions we need to add authorityAuthorities are … “meshcreating” mechanisms.When disputes between participants break outwith respect to the proper way to proceed,authorities can create a mesh between thesubplans of the participants by demanding thatboth sides accept a certain solution.Basic for Shapiro’s theory of the nature of law94
  • Hierarchy of courts95
  • 96
  • 97
  • 98
  • Massive shared agency presupposes modularity101
  • Royal Netherlands Army102
  • 103What holds such horizontally andvertically meshed hierarchies together?(Partial) answer: systems of documentsestablish vertical authority relationscreate obligationsestablish horizontal coordinationallow planning of coordinated actionsunfolding in time…
  • Expanding Bratman’s theorythrough the idea of diagrammatically nested• plans• authorities• intentions• obligations• expertise• modules
  • 109Searle: one-off, one-person obligations• I request that you bring me a beer.• By signing this IOU note I commit myselfto paying you $1000 next Tuesday
  • Group obligations110
  • Army uses Big Diagrams115
  • 116US military operations center in Afghanistanand elaborately nested subdiagrams
  • 117US military operations center in Afghanistane-diagrams
  • 118Warfighters’ Information Sharing EnvironmentFireSupportLogisticsAir OperationsIntelligenceCivil-MilitaryOperationsTargetingManeuver&BlueForceTracking
  • military plan (map overlay)
  • Military SymbologySample of Military Standard 2525 Military SymbologySymbols for Military OrganizationsDepict functions/capabilitiesDepict Roles: Friend, Adversary,Neutral
  • Military SymbologySample of Military Standard 2525 Military Symbology
  • Military SymbologySample of Military Standard 2525 Military Symbology
  • Military SymbologySample of Military Standard 2525 Military SymbologyBuildings, Structures, Vehicles,Formations, Geographic Areas, andPeople can all be in a Target_Role for aperiod of timeThese symbols designate Targets on amapA Target_Role is created by way of thetargeting processA Role is a Temporal Property of someentity
  • Military SymbologySample of Military Standard 2525 Military Symbology
  • Military SymbologySample of Military Standard 2525 Military Symbology
  • Map Overlays
  • frgament of D-Day invasion plan
  • Military doctrine128Creates training modules to create expertisemodules and operational modules to be turnedinto operational plans and nested subplansReading and following orders in coordinatedfashion becomes mechanical
  • 129Ontology(ies) that enables interoperability among members of an Operations Centerand other warfighters.
  • Words, words, wordswww.militaryontology.com130
  • diagrams, diagrams, diagramsOntological methods are used in the process ofTask-OrganizingA Task-Organization is the Output (Product) ofTask OrganizingA Task-Organization is a Plan or part of a PlanA Plan is an Information Content EntityTask-Organizing — The act of designing an operatingforce, support staff, or logistic package of specific sizeand composition to meet a unique task or mission.Characteristics to examine when task-organizing theforce include, but are not limited to: training,experience, equipage, sustainability, operatingenvironment, enemy threat, and mobility. (JP 3-05)
  • drill, drill, drillSource: FM 3-0 OperationsMilitary Ontologies help planners and operators “see” andunderstand the relations between Entities and Events in thearea of operations.Military Ontologies are prerequisites of military innovationssuch as Airborne Operations, Combined Fires and JointOperations.Military Ontologies are prerequisites for the creation of effectiveinformation systems.Operational Design — The conception and construction of theframework that underpins a campaign or major operation planand its subsequent execution. See also campaign; majoroperation. (JP 3-0)
  • 133Human beings know how to coordinate massively shared agencyFireSupportLogisticsAir OperationsIntelligenceCivil-MilitaryOperationsTargetingManeuver&BlueForceTracking