OB (Emotions and Attitudes)


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OB (Emotions and Attitudes)

  1. 1. ORGANIZATIONAL BEHAVIOR Chapter # 04 WORKPLACE EMOTIONS & ATTITUDES By:- Barkat Ullah Ishfaq Husain, Asad Aziz, Aun Abbas
  2. 2. Workplace Emotions and Attitudes Example From Practical Life:- SaskTel (a Canadian firm) SaskTel has built a loyal workforce by avoiding layoffs, keeping employees informed, providing exciting job opportunities and demonstrating corporate social responsibility. Chapter # 04 Why?
  3. 3. To Build Positive Work Attitude & Emotions Organizational Performance Customor Loyality Employees Well beings Because it Leads to
  4. 4. After Completing Chapter We Will be able to understand:-
  5. 5. Emotions at Workplace •Emotions Defined • Psychological, behavioral, and physiological episodes experienced toward an object, person, or event that create a state of readiness.
  6. 6. Components of this Definition Episodes or Brief Events Direct Towards Something Psychological Physiological episodes State of Readiness
  7. 7. Types Of Emotions  Six Primary Categories  Fear = anxiety + alarm  Love = affection + care  Surprise = Sudden + Never exp. before  Joy = Event of Happiness + feel free  Anger = Dissatisfied + violation of rules  Sadness = Heart is Broken + no interest
  8. 8. Activation Evaluation Astonished Tranquil CheerfulSad Fearful Elated ContentBored Low activation Positive emotions Low activation Negative emotions High activation Positive emotions High activation Negative emotions PositiveNegative Low High
  9. 9. Attitudes  Definition  Cluster of Believes, assessed feeling and behavioral intentions toward a person, object or event.  Attitude Object  Components of Attitude  Beliefs feelings Behavioral Intentions Established Perception about Attitude Object +ive of -ive Evaluation of Attitude Object Engage in any reaction w.r.t attitude object
  10. 10. Attitudes versus Emotions Attitudes Emotions Judgments about an attitude object Experiences toward an attitude object Usually stable for days or longer Occur briefly, usually lasting minutes Based mainly on rational logic Based on awareness of our senses
  11. 11. Behavior Emotions, Attitudes and Behavior Perceived Environment Attitude Feelings Beliefs Behavioral Intentions Cognitive process Emotional process Emotional Episodes Expectancy- value-model Feeling influence behavioral intentions Behavioral Intentions Predict Behavior
  12. 12. Linking Emotions To Attitudes and Bhavior  Rational Attitude Model would be incomplete without Emotions  Emotions are linked with Attitudes and Behavior  Neuroticism  Emotional Center Process information Much Faster  Rational Center Expectancy value Model  Merger Example  People behavior is also effected by emotions (last arrow from Emotions to Behavior)
  13. 13. Cognitive Dissonance  A state of anxiety that occurs when an individual’s beliefs, feelings and behaviors are inconsistent with one another  Most common when behavior is:  known to others  done voluntarily  can’t be undone
  14. 14. Personality and Emotions  Person’s emotions are also partially determined by Persoanlity.  Positive Affectivity  Negative Affectivity  To what extent personality traits influence emotions and behavior?  Differ in their attendance  Differ in their turnover  Differ in reaction to job satisfaction
  15. 15. Managing Emotions at Workplace  Example of Elbow Room Café  “Go get a coffee by yourself”  “If you are in Hurry than you should have gone to McDonalds”  Its all a performance, more like a theater, enjoy good food, laugh etc.  Café is managing emotions at work place via Emotional Labour.  So, What is Emotional Labour?
  16. 16. Emotional Labor  Effort, planning and control needed to express organizationally desired emotions during interpersonal transactions.  Emotional labor higher when job requires:  frequent and long duration display of emotions  displaying a variety of emotions  displaying more intense emotions
  17. 17. Emotional Labor Challenges  Difficult to display expected emotions accurately, and to hide true emotions  Emotional dissonance  Conflict between true and required emotions  Potentially stressful with surface acting  Less stress through deep acting
  18. 18. Emotional Labor Across Cultures  Some cultures expect people to display a neutral emotional demeanor, with minimal emotional expression and monotonic voice (e.g. Korea, Japan, Austria)  Other cultures allow or encourage emotional expression, where emotions are revealed through voice and gestures (e.g. Kuwait, Egypt, Spain, Russia)
  19. 19. Emotional Intelligence Defined Ability to perceive and express emotion, assimilate emotion in thought, understand and reason with emotion, and regulate emotion in oneself and others
  20. 20. Social Awareness Self-management Understanding and sensitivity to the feelings, thoughts, and situation of others Controlling or redirecting our internal states, impulses, and resources Self-awareness Understanding your own emotions, strengths, weaknesses, val ues, and motives Relationship Management Managing other people’s emotions Lowest Highest Model of Emotional Intelligence
  21. 21. Emotional Intelligence Competencies Self-awareness Social awareness Self-management Relationship management Self (personal competence) Other (social competence) Recognition of emotions Regulation of emotions
  22. 22. Improving Emotional Intelligence  Emotional intelligence is a set of competencies (aptitudes, skills)  Can be learned, especially through coaching  EI increases with age -- maturity
  23. 23. Job Satisfaction  A person's evaluation of his or her job and work context  A collection of attitudes about specific facets of the job Job Satisfaction Supervisor Job Content Co-workers Working Conditions Career Progress Pay and Benefits
  24. 24. Loyalty Voice Exit Neglect • Leaving the situation • Quitting, transferring • Changing the situation • Problem solving, complaining • Patiently waiting for the situation to improve • Reducing work effort/quality • Increasing absenteeism EVLN: Responses to Dissatisfaction
  25. 25. Job Satisfaction and Performance Happy workers are somewhat more productive workers, but: 1. General attitude is a poor predictor of specific behaviors 2. Job performance affects satisfaction only when rewarded 3. Job satisfaction and motivation have little effect in jobs with little employee control (e.g. assembly lines)
  26. 26. Happy Staff, Happy Customers at Outback Outback Steakhouse is successful in part because it applies the principle that happy employees make happy customers, which result in happy shareholders.
  27. 27. Job Satisfaction and Customers Job satisfaction increases customer satisfaction and profitability because: Job satisfaction affects mood, leading to positive behaviors toward customers Less employee turnover, resulting in more consistent and familiar service
  28. 28. Organizational Commitment Affective commitment Emotional attachment to, identification with, and involvement in an organization Continuance commitment Belief that staying with the organization serves your personal interests
  29. 29. Organizational comprehension Trust Justice & support Employee involvement • Apply humanitarian values • Support employee wellbeing • Employees trust org leaders • Job security supports trust • Know firm’s past/present/future • Open and rapid communication • Employees feel part of company • Involvement demonstrates trust Building Organizational Commitment Shared values • Values congruence
  30. 30. Psychological Contract Defined Beliefs about the terms and conditions of a reciprocal exchange between that person and other party
  31. 31. Transactional v. Relational Contracts Transactional Contracts Relational Contracts Time-frame Open-ended and indefinite Closed-ended and short-term Stability DynamicStatic PervasiveNarrowScope More subjectiveWell-definedTangibility Economic & socioemotional EconomicFocus
  32. 32. Psychological Contract Issues Contracts vary across cultures Example: employees in Canada expect more involvement than do employees in high power distance cultures (e.g. Mexico) Contracts vary across generations Baby boomers -- assume more job security for loyalty Gen-X/ Gen-Y -- assume more employability
  33. 33. From Security To Employability  Picture of Typical White Collar Employees  This Picture portrays:  If you are loyal to organization than it would take care of job security and career development.  This contract is out- dated emerging one is “Employability”
  34. 34. Employability  Employees are responsible for their own career  By developing new competencies  Employees keep their jobs by continuously offering valuable skills and knowledge  Recent Poll (Research)  68 % candidates believe job security is of Past  41 % believe that employer is loyal to them  Hence,  “Environment is shifting from Job Security to Skill Security”
  35. 35. Permanence of Employability  Will Employability again shift to Job Security?  Perhaps it can:-  But Two Factors will likely to preserve 1. Increasing Turbulence in Business environment 2. Global Competition, Deregulation and Information Technology  Organization must keep employability flexible and adaptive.
  36. 36. Summary of Chapter