Class 6: Developing Management


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  • The correct answer is “D” – environmental. See slide 9-13.
  • Environmental
  • There is no one best answer. All stages are important. See previous slide.
  • The correct answer is “B” – mediator. See next slide.
  • The correct answer is “A” – unfreezing. See next slide.
  • The correct answer is “B” – social and human resource factors. See next slide.
  • There is no one best answer. All are common reasons.
  • Class 6: Developing Management

    1. 1. Developing Management Skills Class 6, Chapter 9 and10 Conflict & Negotiation Making Change Barbara Fowler at bfowler@chiefoutsiders.comMcGraw-Hill/Irwin Copyright © 2008 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved.
    2. 2. Introduction• All conflict is not the same• There is much evidence regarding different styles of conflict resolution• There are few more un-nerving events for a new manager than to be thrust into conflict situations and being asked to mediate between parties 9-2
    3. 3. Objectives• Differentiate between task and Relationship conflict• Determine Cause of Conflict• Identify Your Preferred Style• Specify Situations that need Specific Resolution Style• Facilitate Resolution of Conflict 9-3
    4. 4. The US Education System• As we go through the class today, let’s try to use examples of conflict, negotiation and change from some of the issues facing our education system. 9-4
    5. 5. Introduction• All conflict is not the same• There is much evidence regarding different styles of conflict resolution• There are few more un-nerving events for a new manager than to be thrust into conflict situations and being asked to mediate between parties 9-5
    6. 6. Conflict can get Ugly 9-6
    7. 7. Conflict & Negotiation• Is Conflict dysfunctional?• Is it generally a “personality” problem?• In Negotiation, is there a winner and a loser? 9-7
    8. 8. Identifying Types of Conflict and Their Effects• What is a Task conflict?• conflict about tasks, ideas, and issues• What is a Relationship conflict?• personalized and threatening 9-8
    9. 9. Examples?• Think about a Relationship conflict in Education. Write one down• What about a Task Conflict? Write Down an Example 9-9
    10. 10. Positive and Negative Effects of Conflict 9-10
    11. 11. Sources of Conflict• Relationship-centered disputes – Can they stem from the past? – How does the person make you feel? – Can they always be solved? 9-11
    12. 12. Relationship-centered disputes• When was a time you had a relationship- centered dispute with a co-worker?• What sets you off? 9-12
    13. 13. Sources of Conflict• Task-centered disputes – debates over competing ideas, proposals, interests, or resources 9-13
    14. 14. Task-centered disputes• When was a time you had a task-centered dispute with someone you worked with? 9-14
    15. 15. Diagnosing Conflict Sources• After making the first diagnosis between a task-centered dispute and a relationship based dispute, one must determine what the further source of conflict is. 9-15
    16. 16. Sources of Conflict• Informational factors – come into play when people have developed their point of view on the basis of a different set of facts 9-16
    17. 17. Sources of Conflict• Perceptual factors – exert their influence when people have different images or interpretations of the same thing – each person selects the data that supports their point of view – tends to devalue information that does not support it 9-17
    18. 18. Sources of Conflict• Role factors – people believe that their roles within an organization are somehow in conflict – “turf” associated with their position is being usurped – What are some turf wars in education? 9-18
    19. 19. Sources of Conflict• Environmental factors – scarce resources, uncertainty, degree to which competition is present• Mixed-motive situation – employees are placed in scenarios where they are rewarded if they compete aggressively but told that they should work toward the department’s overall outcome as a whole 9-19
    20. 20. Sources of Conflict• Personal factors – incompatible personal values – different personalities – differing long and short-term goals 9-20
    21. 21. Conflict Example• Turn to page 294 of your book and look at the “Manage What?” section.• What types of conflict do you see in example 1?• How would you go about handling this? 9-21
    22. 22. ReviewWhat source of conflict involves scarce resources, uncertainty, degree to which competition is present?A. InformationalB. PerceptualC. RoleD. Environmental 9-22
    23. 23. Matching Conflict Styles with Situations• Accommodating• Avoiding• Compromising• Competing• Collaborating 9-23
    24. 24. Kilman’s Conflict Resolution Grid 9-24
    25. 25. Ineffective Conflict Management Techniques 9-25
    26. 26. Competition• Dominant and non-supportive• Individuals pursue their own concerns aggressively at the expense of others 9-26
    27. 27. CompetitionWhen is competition and effective strategy?When should it be used? 9-27
    28. 28. Accommodation• Supportive and submissive, unassertive and cooperative• Individuals neglect their own concerns to satisfy the concerns of others 9-28
    29. 29. Accommodation• When is it an appropriate strategy? 9-29
    30. 30. Using Accommodation Effectively• Acknowledge the accommodation• Have a rationale 9-30
    31. 31. Avoiding• Submissive and non-supportive, unassertive and uncooperative• People do not immediately pursue their own concerns or those of others 9-31
    32. 32. Avoiding• What are some guidelines when using an avoiding strategy ? 9-32
    33. 33. Compromising• People want to find some expedient, mutually acceptable solution that partially satisfies everyone involved• Splitting the difference, exchanging concessions 9-33
    34. 34. Compromising• When is it an appropriate strategy? 9-34
    35. 35. Collaborating• Dominant and supportive, assertive and collaborative• Involves attempting to work with the other person to find some solution that fully satisfies the concerns of both people 9-35
    36. 36. Collaborating• When is it appropriate? 9-36
    37. 37. Seeking Superordinate Goals• Superordinate Goals – objective that is so valuable to both parties that it transcends the dispute 9-37
    38. 38. Collaborating Example• Look to page 306 in the book to the example “The Robbers Cave and the Superordinate Goal” 9-38
    39. 39. Effective Negotiations• Preparation• Execution• Evaluation 9-39
    40. 40. To Negotiate or Not?• Important to question whether an issue that appears to be non-negotiable truly is• If there is no way to create added value for yourself, you should not be negotiating 9-40
    41. 41. Outcomes of an Ideal Negotiation1. All parties believe they made a good deal2. The relationship is maintained or even improved3. Each negotiator’s constituents are satisfied with the agreement 9-41
    42. 42. Integrative (Win-Win) Negotiation• Focused on cooperative problem solving• Treat conflict as being separate from the relationship and that we work to seek a solution to the conflict that is mutually acceptable 9-42
    43. 43. Win-Win Negotiation“You say it’s a win-win, but what if you’rewrong-wrong and it all goes bad-bad?” 9-43
    44. 44. Characteristics of Win-Win Negotiation 9-44
    45. 45. The Stages of Negotiation• Preparation• Understand needs• List and discuss options• Process tactics• Ending• Evaluation 9-45
    46. 46. Discussion Question?Which stage of negotiation is most important in solving conflict the quickest?A. PreparationB. List and discuss optionsC. Process tacticsD. Ending 9-46
    47. 47. Negotiation Preparation• Organizing the issues• Talk to other people who have information you need• Analyze the parties you’ll be negotiating with• Consider your BATNA (best alternative to a negotiated agreement) 9-47
    48. 48. Negotiation Preparation • Understanding the needs of other parties • List and discuss possible options 9-48
    49. 49. Talk to Other People• Seek out other people you know who have conducted similar negotiations• Talk to your constituents• Talk beforehand to the other parties 9-49
    50. 50. Some Difficult Negotiators 9-50
    51. 51. Some Common Forms of Leverage• Legitimacy• Timing• Limited authority 9-51
    52. 52. Bluffing Carries a Risk• Heavy-handed bluffing can strain relationships• If the bluff fails, the negotiation can be over 9-52
    53. 53. Actions of Superior Negotiators 9-53
    54. 54. Question?What is an outside party who specializes in helping people in conflict reach an amicable agreement?A. NegotiatorB. MediatorC. ArbitratorD. Moderator 9-54
    55. 55. Mediation• Mediator – outside party who specializes in helping people in conflict reach an amicable agreement 9-55
    56. 56. Guidelines for Mediation• Choose a comfortable, neutral space away from any party’s “turf.”• Shorter is better—schedule short meetings and be involved for as short of a time as possible.• Listen with an open mind and do not say much.• Be respectful and express only positive opinions of the parties involved. 9-56
    57. 57. Guidelines for Mediation• Emphasize a desire to help. Do not pick sides.• Assure parties that all conversations are held in strict confidence.• Be a role model and build a strong reputation for staying on task and doing what you say. 9-57
    58. 58. Effective Mediator• Is dogged in learning and applying facts• Frames the disputed claims into the real issues• Maintains neutrality• Seeks to understand the underlying interests of each party 9-58
    59. 59. Objectives• Learn to Use Models• Structure Problems to create Change Initiative• Collect Feedback to Improve/Readiness• Implement Interventions• Evaluate• Create Environment 9-59
    60. 60. Introduction to Making Changes• The key element in change is people• Getting people to buy into a new way of doing anything is difficult• It inevitably involves resistance• Continue with our Education Example 10-60
    61. 61. Myths of Making Change• Crisis is a guarantee of change• Change is best motivated by fear• Compelling facts are the key to change• Old dogs can’t learn new tricks 10-61
    62. 62. General Models of the Change Process• Lewin’s Unfreeze-Move-Refreeze Model• Bridges Model of Transitions• Kotter’s Eight Stages of Change• A Practical Model of Planned Change 10-62
    63. 63. Lewin’s Forcefield Analysis 10-63
    64. 64. Lewin’s Unfreeze-Move-Refreeze Model• Unfreezing• Moving• Refreezing 10-64
    65. 65. Question?Which stage of Lewin’s change model involves overcoming inertia and breaking down existing ways of thinking?A. UnfreezingB. MovingC. RefreezingD. Unthawing 10-65
    66. 66. Lewin’s Unfreeze-Move-Refreeze Model• Unfreezing – involves overcoming inertia and breaking down existing ways of thinking 10-66
    67. 67. Lewin’s Unfreeze-Move-Refreeze Model• Moving – Refers to when the change intervention is started and outgoing – Period of anxiety and tension 10-67
    68. 68. Lewin’s Unfreeze-Move-Refreeze Model• Refreezing – New mindset and behavioral pattern is created for those involved – Change yields positive benefits for the organization 10-68
    69. 69. Important Questions for Change1. What is keeping people from change and why have they not changed up to now?2. What actions might induce them to change?3. How will we sustain new behaviors? 10-69
    70. 70. Bridges Model of Transition 10-70
    71. 71. Bridges Model of Transition• Failure to identify and prepare for the inevitable human psychological transitions that change produces is the largest problem with change initiatives 10-71
    72. 72. Kotter’s Eight Stages of Change• Increase urgency – get people out of the bunker and ready to move• Create a guiding coalition – need a group of influential, effective champions• Get the vision right – construct a relevant vision that will help people visualize possible futures 10-72
    73. 73. Kotter’s Eight Stages of Change• Communicate for buy-in – sending clear and credible messages about the direction and progress of change• Empower action – bolster confidence that the job can be done – recognize and reward in ways that inspire, promote optimism, and build self-confidence 10-73
    74. 74. Kotter’s Eight Stages of Change• Create short-term wins – nourish faith in the change effort – emotionally reward the hard workers – keep the critics at bay – build momentum• Consolidate gains and don’t let up – follow-up regularly to ensure that the new change remains supported 10-74
    75. 75. Kotter’s Eight Stages of Change• Anchor change in your culture – successful efforts build on the momentum from one change to stimulate other needed changes and initiatives 10-75
    76. 76. A Practical Model of Planned Change1. Problem structuring and contracting2. Data collection and feedback3. Implementing interventions4. Evaluating and sustaining the change 10-76
    77. 77. Structuring a Problem• Who is the customer of the change?• What is the scope of the change?• MECE – mutually exclusive and collectively exhaustive 10-77
    78. 78. Contracting With Those Involved in the Change• By encouraging people to develop a shared view of what is wrong or what is needed, an initial commitment to change is more likely to be established and mobilized• Where are we now?• Where do we want to be? 10-78
    79. 79. Externalize the Threat/Enemy• Provide an externally caused need for change• Competitors, market forces, rapid environmental shifts, government and regulation, and higher customer demands 10-79
    80. 80. Define Goals in Terms of Results • Making measurable results the primary, immediate goal of a change project is perhaps the most important element of successful change 10-80
    81. 81. Value of Results-oriented Goals1. Lead to more direct and urgent strategy development2. Lend themselves to more objective and meaningful evaluation and measurement3. Promote accountability and produce a healthy culture of ownership among those involved 10-81
    82. 82. Collecting Data• Interviews• Small groups• Financial or operational data• Customer surveys 10-82
    83. 83. Understand Before You Judge• Find out who benefits from the current situation• Write down everything you do not know• Use appreciative inquiry• Discuss the undiscussables 10-83
    84. 84. Diagnose Change Readiness• Identification of the level of felt need among the people whose approval or cooperation will be essential for success• Level of perceived support from management for the change• Existing cynicism regarding prior change initiatives 10-84
    85. 85. Look for Small Wins• Short-term gains and highly-visible rapid changes will help embed the change and gather momentum 10-85
    86. 86. Question?Which type of intervention deals with training and rewards?A. StrategicB. Social and human resource factorsC. StructuralD. Technology 10-86
    87. 87. Types of Interventions• Strategic – involve organization structure, reporting relationships, target markets and customers• Social and human resource factors – deal with culture, teamwork, selection, performance evaluation, training and rewards 10-87
    88. 88. Types of Interventions• Structural – deals with work area configurations, workflow design, and dividing labor• Technology – deals with tools, equipment and machinery, computing systems 10-88
    89. 89. Framing, Reframing and Selecting Interventions• Structural frame – relates to how to organize and structure groups and teams to get results• Human resource frame – concerns how to tailor organizations to satisfy human needs – improve HR management – build interpersonal and group dynamics 10-89
    90. 90. Framing, Reframing and Selecting Interventions• Political frame – deals with how to cope with power and conflict – build coalitions – hone political skills• Symbolic frame – focused on how to shape a culture that gives purpose and meaning to work – build team spirit 10-90
    91. 91. Communicate What You Are Doing• Think in terms of how you can really reach the targets of your change• Authentically address their most frequently asked questions• Identify and leverage key people who might effectively communicate your message 10-91
    92. 92. Discussion Question?What is the most commonly given reason for resisting change?A. Loss of controlB. Loss of faceC. SurpriseD. More work 10-92
    93. 93. Why People Resist Change• Loss of control • Surprise• Loss of face • More work• Loss of identity • Past resentments• Loss of • Unintended competence consequences• Excessive personal • Real threats uncertainty 10-93
    94. 94. Strategies for Overcoming Resistance• Education and commitment• Participation and involvement• Facilitation and support• Negotiation and agreement• Manipulation and co-optation• Explicit and implicit coercion 10-94
    95. 95. Factors Influencing Strategy• Urgency of the need for change• Degree of opposition or resentment• Power of the individual/group initiating the change• Necessity for information and commitment 10-95
    96. 96. Organizational Cynicism• Cynicism may be entirely rational• Cynicism’s existence will heighten resistance• Cynicism is difficult to overcome if it is prevalent in the leadership of the organization 10-96
    97. 97. We are Finished with Book• Next Week: Pages 1-100• Look at the Study Guide 9-97