7-2Review of the Week Did anyone redo their goals or help their people to redo goals? Did anyone use any new influence techniques? Did anyone interview someone and use behavior based/situational questioning?
7-3End of Last Week BuildSocial Networks-to get things done, to build influence, go beyond organization and industry Mistakes-taking credit, not meeting commitments, using power to show who’s in charge, not asking for help,
7-4Leadership Run Amok What happens when a leader has a strong achievement drive, but a weak or neutral drive for power and affiliation? Why do you think achievement drive has gone up? Where do you see power and affiliation going in the future?
Introduction Leadership Who said, Leadership is “taking people in a direction they would not go otherwise”? Does anyone have another leadership quote to share? 7-5
7-6What are some LeadershipMyths that you have heardor dealt with?
7-7Myths of Leaders What is the Great Man theory? Leaders are born, not made? Leaders need to be Charismatic? Others???
7-8Leadership Matters People are hungry for ways to learn about how to more effectively lead and improve their organizations There are so many models, it is hard to know what is really associated with leadership effectiveness
7-9Important Personal Traits inLeadership Intelligence Dominance Sociability Self-monitoring High energy level or drive Self-confidence Tolerance for ambiguity
7-10Discussion Question?What characteristic do people most admire in a leader?A. CharismaB. Forward-lookingC. InspiringD. Competent
7-11Lessons in Leadership Traits Leadership traits are always good predictors of leadership effectiveness?? The same leader is not always the right leader?? Wonderful diversity in the types of people who have the propensity to be effective leaders?
7-12Lessons in Leadership Traits What about the type of leader that we like?? Are we biased? Did you ever meet someone you didn’t particularly admire who was a good leader?
7-13Transactional Leadership“Doing”vs .”Being”What is the difference?Why is a “doing” leader sometimes better when there is a task at hand?When is a being leader more necessary?
7-14Situational LeadershipApproach1. Understanding the difference between supportive and directive behavior2. How those two different types of leader behavior combine to form the four different leadership styles3. The four potential developmental levels of followers4. How to match style to developmental level
7-15Directive and SupportiveBehaviors Directive behavior extent to which a leader engages in one- way communication Tells the follower what to do, where, when, and how to do it Structure, control, supervise
7-16Directive and SupportiveBehaviors Supportive behavior extent to which a leader engages in two- way communication Provides support and encouragement Facilitates interaction Involves the follower in decision-making Praise, listen, facilitate
7-18Using the Four BehavioralStyles Development level Competence and Commitment of followers to perform a particular task without supervision Factor that determines which of the four styles should be used
7-19When, if ever, is a Directivestyle better? Why Why Not? Are most women good at directive styles? Why or why not?
7-20Question?Which leadership style is high in supportive behavior and low in directive behavior?A. SupportingB. CoachingC. DelegatingD. Directing
7-25Transformational LeaderBehaviors Transformational Leader Behaviors “seek to arouse and satisfy higher needs, to engage the full person of the follower”
7-26Transformational LeaderBehaviors Articulating a vision Providing an appropriate model Fostering the acceptance of group goals High performance expectations Providing individualized support Intellectual stimulation
7-27You have been appointed Tell us your vision? How do you articulate it? What story would you share?
7-28Transformational Leadership Organizational citizenship behaviors discretionary behaviors that are beneficial to the organization but are not explicitly recognized by the formal reward system
7-30Articulate a Vision Increase your eye contact Vary the speed and volume of your voice Repeat the vision often Explain the significance of the vision Appeal to your audience’s values
7-31Articulate a Vision Use metaphors Use emotional appeals Speak in positive terms Use the term “we” instead of “I”
7-32Providing an AppropriateModel What specific behaviors do you feel are important to role-model? Role modeling sets an environmental cue in the mind of a person that this behavior is important and that it should be emulated
7-33Providing an AppropriateModel DWYSYWD – Do what you say you will do
7-34Question?What is leader behavior that challenges followers to re-examine assumptions about their work ?A. Fostering the Acceptance of Group GoalsB. High performance expectationsC. Providing individualized supportD. Intellectual stimulation
7-35Transformational LeaderBehaviors Fostering the Acceptance of Group Goals “Behavior on the part of the leader aimed at promoting cooperation among employees and getting them to work together toward a common goal”
7-36Transformational LeaderBehaviors High performance expectations behavior that demonstrates the leader’s expectations for excellence, quality, and/or high performance on the part of followers
7-37“Pygmalion Effect” What is it? How do leaders exhibit it? For good? For bad?
7-38Transformational LeaderBehaviors Providing individualized support leader behavior indicating that he respects followers and is concerned about their personal feelings and needs Examples??
7-39Transformational LeaderBehaviors Intellectual stimulation leader behavior that challenges followers to re-examine assumptions about their work and rethink how it can be performed Examples??
7-40Common Ways of ShowingIntellectual Stimulation Encouraging the imagination of employees Challenging the old ways of doing things Looking for better ways to do things Willing to take risks Making it acceptable to fail
7-41Becoming a Leader Startwith assessment Actively engage in leadership opportunities wherever they might present themselves Be willing to lead people in a new direction
What is Your Leadership Style? Takea leadership questionnaire at www.nwlink.com to determine your leadership style. 7-42
8-43 Myths of Teamwork1. What are some of the myths of teamwork?
8-44When Do Teams Make Sense? Teams are better when no individual “expert” exists Teams are often superior in stimulating innovation and creativity Teams can help create a context where people feel connected and valued
8-45Question?What is a group of people who are collectively accountable for definable outcomes?A. SquadB. PanelC. TeamD. Band
8-46High Performing Teams Team a group of people who are collectively accountable for definable outcomes
8-47High Performing Teams High performance team One that produces high-quality work but also has members who derive value from being part of the group, and are able to learn from each project in ways that make them able to cooperate even better in the future
8-48The High-Performance TeamScoreboard Production output Member satisfaction Capacity for continued cooperation
7-49Are we a Team? If yes. Why? If no, what would make us a team?
8-50The Disciplines of HighPerforming Teams1. Small size2. Capable and complementary members3. Shared purpose and performance objectives4. Productive norms and working approach5. Mutual accountability
8-51Question?What is the ideal size for a high-performance group?A. 1-2B. 3-5C. 5-8D. 12-15
8-52Small Size High performing groups are rarely more than 10 people Ideally are between 5 and 8 members Bezos – “two pizza group”
8-53KSA Requirements forTeamwork Conflictresolution Collaborative problem solving Communication Goal setting and performance management Planning and task coordination
8-54Common Purpose andPerformance Objectives Outcome-based goals describe the specific outcomes by which success will be determined How would we know success? When would we declare victory? Activity-based goals describe just the activities
8-57 Team Development Forming primary concern is the initial entry of members to a group What is the acceptable behavior? Storming Period of high emotion and tension among the members Hostility and infighting between members Conflict may develop over leadership
8-58Team Development Norming point at which the group begins to come together as a coordinated unit Group will try to regulate behavior Performing see the emergence of a mature, organized and well-functioning team
8-59Discussion Question?Which stage of team development is most important for group success?A. FormingB. StormingC. NormingD. Performing
8-60Productive Norms Prescriptive dictates what should be done Proscriptive dictates behaviors that should be avoided
8-61Mutual AccountabilityTwo types of team rewards Cooperative CompetitiveAppropriateness depends on degree of task, interdependence, culture?
8-62Team Rewards Cooperative rewards are distributed equally among members of the team Competitive members are rewarded for successful performance as individuals in the team
8-63High-Performance TeamChallenge1. Keep the group small2. Focus on complementary skill-sets3. Set clear outcome-based goals4. Enforce productive norms and conflict management5. Match rewards to contributions
8-64Managing Threats to TeamPerformance What is a Risky shift ? Who is an Innocent bystander in a team? Can you give any examples of where a risky shift or an innocent bystander were observed?
8-65Managing Threats to TeamPerformance What is Choking? What is an Escalation of commitment ? Time-Warner Example
8-66Information Processing Threats1. People are remarkably poor at taking the perspective of others2. Left unmanaged, in any team a handful of people will do the majority of talking which leads to uneven communication
8-67Social Loafing Social Loafing situation in which some people do not work as hard in groups as they do individually “Sucker aversion” everyone wants to avoid being taken advantage of so team members hedge their efforts and wait to see what other members will do
8-68Social Pressures to Conform Members strive so hard to maintain harmony and cohesion that they end up avoiding the discomforts of disagreement
8-69Managing Diversity Group functioning is more difficult because diverse people are less likely to see or understand situations in similar ways Diverse teams have the potential to achieve better outcomes
8-70Managing DiversitySuccessful diverse team is one where people: Are aware of important differences Understand how differences might influence team processes Take explicit action to bring the team together
8-71Traps of Diversity Awareness Tendency to romanticize diversity Deny or ignore important differences and the potential for those differences to affect team processes and outcomes People only talk about observable or “surface-level” diversity
8-74UnderstandingMost difficult challenges:1. Managing people from different cultures2. Managing those younger or older than they are3. Communicating with those from the opposite sex
8-75Cultural Differences Power distance Individualism vs. collectivism Achievement vs. nurturing orientation Uncertainty avoidance Long-term vs. short-term orientation
8-76Generational Differences Traditionalist born between 1922 and 1943 Baby boomers born between mid 1940s and early 1960s Generation X born during mid 1960s through about 1980 Millenials born in the early 1980s through the turn of the century
8-78Make a Diverse TeamProductive What are some ways to do this?
8-79 Effective Team Interventions Understanding member profiles Meyer-Briggs Type Indicator Building team cohesion persons in a highly cohesive group value their membership and strive to maintain positive relationships Conducting after action reports and process checks Dealing directly with a free rider
8-80Creative Problem SolvingTechniques Divergent thinking producing multiple or alternative answers from available information Subdivision Usinganalogies Reversing the problem
8-81Virtual Teams and MeetingsElectronic meetings Advantages anonymity, honesty, and speed Disadvantages establishing relationships dealing with sensitive issues persuade a team to commit to a course of action
8-82 Team Effectiveness Assessment Take the Team Effectiveness Assessment from PSA Training and Development to determine your team’s strengths and weaknesses. Team Effectiveness Assessment