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Publication impact factors and your scientific career
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As a young scientist, your career depends on the impact of your publications. More ...

As a young scientist, your career depends on the impact of your publications. More
in-depth knowledge on the IF calculation, as well as the Hirsch Factor, SNIP and other citation measures can make a crucial difference to how you proceed and shape the future of science.

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Publication impact factors and your scientific career Document Transcript

  • 1. Heidelberg, October 2012 Impact Factors... ...and Science Careers Dr. Barbara Janssens www.wordle.net www.slideshare.comSCIENTIFIC ...IMPACT<-> ...CAREER○  A career in science ○  Editor ○  Career○  About publishing and impact○  The Impact Factor ○  Web of Knowledge○  How to improve your impact ○  Title ○  Marketing http://www.slideshare.net/Barbaja/ 1
  • 2. WHAT SCIENTISTS WRITEž  Papersž  Curriculum vitaež  Grantsž  Reportsž  Proposalsž  Web pagesž  Conferencesž  Lecturesž  Meetingsž  Postersž  ...WHY SCIENTISTS WRITEž  „Your research is not complete until you publish it“ (Ibn al Haytham, 1021) —  Make a permanent and accessible record of your findings —  Avoid others repeat unnecessarilyž  Publish or perish....ž  Publico ergo sum!ž  Stuff your CV (you need papers to get grants) —  More papers = more eminent scientist (Hirsch factor) 2
  • 3. WHERE DO YOU FIND ARTICLES?Ò  Journals/scope, readership: who reads/cites?Ò  Who is your audience?Ò  Search sites ×  PubMed/Medline ×  Google (Scholar) ×  Scopus (Elsevier) ×  CrossRef ×  BioMed experts ×  Open Access journals ×  ISI Web of Science (Thomson) – IFÒ  Downloads vs citations 3
  • 4. MOST ACCESSED – MOST CITEDDOWNLOADS AND CITATIONSÒ  Most downloaded É  Fast evaluation of interest É  Clickthrough via search engines É  Marketing and visibilityÒ  Most cited É  Picked up by many colleagues É  Considered as reference workÒ  Often but not always correlated É  Most downloaded not cited? Ð  Data not believed Ð  Review or conclusions too broad or too specific Ð  Redundant with other publications Ð  Interesting but not to be cited (opinion, ethics,,,) É  Poorly downloaded highly cited Ð  It was cited in a reference work or Review article Ð  It was later found to be relevant work Ð  Accessible to community 4
  • 5. GoogleologyÒ  Influence small portion of google algorithm (2%) Use of search words in body text:  How often  In which context Keywords and other metadata ignored by Google, Excite and Lycos (but not Yahoo)Ò  Semantic searches É  IMPACT FACTOR (IF) Devised by Eugene Gar field, founder of ISI (Chairman Emeritus of Thomson Scientific) 1955  Slide byMatteo Cavalleri 5
  • 6. IMPACT FACTOR (IF)IF = average number of times articles from the journal publishedin the past two years have been cited in the JCR year.www.webofknowledge.com Citations   C12   published   Articles   A1   A2   time   published   Year  1   Year  2   Year  3   IF (Year 3) = C12 /(A1+A2) Slide adapted from Matteo CavalleriCITATION LIFETIME 6
  • 7. ALL CITATIONS FROM ALL PUBLICATIONS?Ò  NoÒ  WOS is selective on coverage É  covers 12,000 journals… É  É  Coverage depends on topic ×  Ecology 65% ×  Geology 55% ×  Nursing 45% ×  Information sciences 33% ×  History 9% ×  Molecular Biology/Biochemistry (80)% FT Krell, Eur J Sci Editing 2012, 38 (1). www.ease.org.ukCITES PER PAPER IN 2 YEARS?Ò Ò  Eigenfactor É  Citations to 5 years É  Considers from which journals cites come É Ò  Article Influence É  = Eigenfactor /(# articles in 5 years) É  Average (mean) AI = 1.00 7
  • 8. ARTICLE CITE VS JOURNAL IF http://www.bmj.com/cgi/content/full/314/7079/497CITATION DISTRIBUTION 8
  • 9. THE H FACTOR A scientist has index h if h of [his/her] Np papers have at least h citations each, and the other (Np - h) papers have at most h citations each.THE SNIP Since 2010 SNIP = Source Normalized Impact per Paper SNIP (Journal)= RIP/CP RIP = Raw Impact per Paper CP = Citation Potential (average number of references in the articles that cite a given journal)Ò  Only cited references from articles in the census period, and which refer to articles within the target period are countedÒ  Only cited references indexed in the Scopus database are countedÒ  www.scopus.com 9
  • 10. JOURNALMETRICS.COMBIBLIOMETRICS.... Web of Knowledge http://isiwebofknowledge.com Scopus http://www.scopus.com Faculty of 1000 (post-publication peer review) http://f1000.com/ Australian journal ranking A*, A, B, C http://www.arc.gov.au/era               10
  • 11. HOW MANY ARTICLES WHERE?WEB OF KNOWLEDGE 11
  • 12. JCR JOURNAL CITATION REPORTS 12
  • 13. PLOS ONEÒ  “Each submission will be assessed by a member of the PLOS peer review will concentrate on technical rather than subjective concerns and may involve discussion with other members of the Editorial Board and/or the solicitation of formal reports from independent referees. If published, papers will be made open peer review involving online annotation, discussion, and rating” 13
  • 14. PLOS ONEÒ  How many articles? É  2009 4,403 É  2010 6,722 É  2011 13,781Ò  How many cites? É  Highest (2009): 163 É  É  É  3300 articles < 4 É  600 articles: 0 citations 14
  • 15. NATUREÒ  How many articles? É  10,000 items É  5,000 articlesÒ  How many cites? É  Most cited: 1,621 É  600 zero cites (magazine)COMPARE Items… 15
  • 16. NEW JOURNALSÒ  AfterPLOS ONEÒ  Nature Scientific ReportsÒ  Biology Open (Company of Biologists)Ò  Open Biology (Royal Society)ENERGY EDUC SCI TECH 16
  • 17. IF WITHOUT SELF-CITES 17
  • 18. EDITORS AND THE IFÒ  BibliometricsÒ  Predictthe IF in March (published by Thomson Reuters on WOS in June)Ò  Monitor citations on the go É  É  Cite in magazine or editorialsÒ  É  Review articles in middle of year rather than end É  dec rather than jan 18
  • 19. PREDICT IF ON WOSÒ  Search for articles É  in Publication name É Ò  Limit Document types to articles and reviewsÒ Ò Ò  Calculate C/AÒ  Rough UNDERESTIMATION!SEARCH 19
  • 20. CITATION REPORTTHE AUTHOR AND THE IF1.  Chose the target journal and priorities2.  Optimize title and keywords3.  Market the article, not just the journal 20
  • 21. CHOSE TARGET JOURNAL Journal XXX XXX Publishes similar work? Scope/recent content? Quality/impact? Fast publication? Charges for pages, color, open access? Article format/length?TITLEž  The first impression counts...ž  A strong title will attract readers/citationsž  Keep it short: 15 wordsž  Clear, informative, raise curiosityž  Main message of the paperž  Key wordsž  Start with a „quick go“, remodel during writing process and rethink for some days when the whole manuscript is readyÒ  Test: http://www.lulu.com/titlescorer 21
  • 22. EXAMPLES: COMPAREÒ  ray crystal structure of the complex formed between a recognition domain on a sensor histidine kinase (CheA) and its cognate (CheY) reveals insights into the mechanism of signal transduction in bacterial chemotaxis.”Ò  “Structure of the domain of histidine kinase CheA in complex with CheY.”TITLES TO AVOIDÓ  Vague titlesÓ  Titles starting with Ó  „Studies on..“ „Implications of…“ Ó  „Characterization of...“ „Involvement of…“ Ó  „Observations on...“ „Evidence for…“ Ó  „Investigations into...“ „Insights in…“ Ó  “The involvement of this in that” —  This does that in signal transduction pathway xx“Ó  Titles with jargon or abbreviationsÓ  Titles with „new“ and „novel“ (all research is new) 22
  • 23. KEYWORDSÒ  Donot repeat title words – these come up anyhowÒ  Most cited versus never cited...Ò  Try out in Medline: É  possibly your keywords should be obvious and short but bring less hits (and rather your than a competitor‘s article!)HAVE A LOOK AT TITLES Reviews Reviews + Yoghurt fermentation at elevated temperatures by Essential fatty acids: Biochemistry, physiology and - strains of Streptococcus thermophilus pathology + Metagenomics: An inexhaustible access to nature‘s diversity Streptococcus thermophilus - carotene production in Blakeslea trispora Production of biopharmaceuticals and vaccines in plants via the chloroplast genome +/- +/- Research Ar ticles Separation of catechin compounds from different Application of inkjet printing to tissue engineering + teas +/- Production and characterization of theromstable Research Ar ticles α stearothermophilus Geobacillus Arenicola marina extracullar hemoglobin: A new promising blood substitute +/- - Molecular characteriazation of rpoB gene Mycobacterium tuberculosis strains isolated + - from TB patients in Belarus +/- Investigating pH and Cu(II) effects on lipase activity and enantioselectivity via kinetic electrified jets - and spectroscopic methods producing microorganisms Haematococcus pluvialis and Phaffia rhodozyma in the pure A rapid, high content, in vivo model of +/- and mixed cultures Never cited...........well cited 23
  • 24. MORE TITLES FROM JCSÒ  Suppression of synaptotagmin II restrains phorbolester Ò  Secreted antagonists of the Wnt induced downregulation of protein kinase C alpha by diver ting signalling pathway the kinase from a degradative pathway to the recycling Ò  PKB/Akt: a key mediator of cell endocytic compar tment proliferation, survival and insulinÒ  Identification of an alpha tubulin mutant of fission yeast from responses? gamma tubulin interacting protein screening: genetic evidence Ò  Metalloproteinase inhibitors: biological for alpha /gamma tubulin interaction actions and therapeutic oppor tunitiesÒ  Genetic and molecular interactions of the Erv41p Erv46p Ò  Clonal mesenchymal progenitors from complex involved in transpor t between the endoplasmic human bone marrow differentiate in vitro reticulum and Golgi complex according to a hierarchical modelÒ  A large complex containing patched and smoothened initiates Ò  SH3 domains: complexity in moderation hedgehog signaling in Drosophila Ò  Cell adhesion and motility depend onÒ  Kendrin/pericentrin B, a centrosome protein with homology to nanoscale RGD clustering pericentrin that complexes with PCM 1 Ò  Mechanisms of capacitative calciumÒ  Regulatory mechanisms governing the oocyte specific entry synthesis of the karyoskeletal protein NO145 Ò  Release of an invasion promoter EÒ  Association of human ubiquitin conjugating enzyme CDC34 cadherin fragment by matrilysin and with the mitotic spindle in anaphase stromelysin 1Ò  Inactivation of MAPK in mature oocytes triggers progression into mitosis via a Ca2+ dependent pathway but without completion of S phaseÒ  Repression of Wnt 5a impairs DDR1 phosphorylation and modifies adhesion and migration of mammary cellsWHEN YOU CITE... -> REFERENCESÒ  The references must comply to house styleÒ  Ensure that they are cited in numerical order and that every reference is citedÒ  The work cited should be fair and balancedÒ  Ensure that credit is given to the original discoveries, including to publicationsÒ  Use a reference manager (e.g. Endnote) and correctly format the citations and ref listÒ  Do you read before you cite? É  misprint distribution in citations -> 20% copied� É  http://arxiv.org/pdf/cond-mat/0401529.pdf 24
  • 25. THE DOIÒ  Cite per DOI (Digital object identifier) ○  = Publisher/MSnumber   http://dx.doi.org   http://doi.wiley.com/10.1002/biot.2009xxxxx   Link refers to abstract – send this instead of / before the PDF!Ò  Market your work! É  Press release É  Higlights/columns É  Talks and presentations É  ... Perception counts more than the IF É  ...“publish or perish“MARKET YOUR ARTICLEÒ  Citedxx timesÒ  Accessed xx timesÒ  Bookmarked xx timesÒ  Discussed on xx blogsÒ  Expert ratingÒ  Covered in news and mediaÒ  … 25
  • 26. PUBLISH OR PERISHPUBLISH OR PERISH HARZING.COMÒ  Based on Google ScholarÒ  FREE software for citation measuresÒ  Especially appropriate for §  Business, Administration, Finance & Economics; §  Engineering, Computer Science & Mathematics; §  Social Sciences, Arts & Humanities. 26
  • 27. YOUR REAL IMPACT FACTORDISCUSSIONÒ  Ameasure is only measureÒ  None is idealÒ  Does it have to be and continue?Ò  Who is to blame for the current situation?Ò  We… 27
  • 28. ALBERT EINSTEINÒ  "Not everything that can be counted counts, and not everything that counts can be counted." Stefano P, Salerno, SlideshareWHAT DID YOU BUY TODAY?○  A career in science ○  Editor ○  Career○  About publishing and impact○  The Impact Factor ○  Web of Science○  How to improve your impact ○  Title ○  Marketing http://www.slideshare.net/Barbaja/ http://www.biotecvisions.com http://www.ease.org.uk 28
  • 29. SCIENTIFIC WRITING TIPSBORING SCIENTIFIC LITERATURE 29
  • 30. WEBSITESÒ  http://www.slideshare.net/secret/oymNwGJBTzqRylpÒ  http://www.wiley.com/authorsÒ  http://www.biotecvisions.comÒ  http://www.writeresearch.com.auÒ  http://www.writing.engr.psu.edu/exercises/Ò  http://www.bioc.cam.ac.uk/teaching/partii/both/ScientificWriting.pdfÒ  http://www.freelancers.co.uk/Ò Ò  http://www.union.edu/PUBLIC/BIODEPT/wicked.htmlÒ  http://www.lib.umich.edu/hsl/resources/writingÒ  http://www.ease.org.ukRECOMMENDED REFERENCESÒ  Shashok, K., Content and communication: How can peer review provide helpful feedback about the writing? BMC Medical Research Methodology 2008, 8:3,Ò  Cargill, M., O’Connor, P., Writing scientific research articles. Blackwell Publishing, ChichesterÒ  Ruben, A., How to Write Like a Scientist. Sciencecareers 2012, March 23, dx.doi.org/10.1126/ science.caredit.a1200033Ò  Seglen PO (1997): Why the impact factor of journals should not be used for evaluating research. BMJ 1997;314(7079):497 (15 February) http://www.bmj.com/cgi/content/full/314/7079/497Ò  http://www.harzing.com Publish or Perish 30
  • 31. FURTHER READING FIVE TOP TIPS FOR YOUR JOB APPLICATIONÒ  1. Imagine YOU are the recruiterÒ  2. Learn to present yourself in an “elevator pitch”Ò  3. Actively networkÒ  4. Most important FIRSTÒ  5. Tell storiesÒ  31
  • 32. MOST IMPORTANT FIRST! Serial position effect Drain needs Recall unblocking!! Mustn’t forget to do the shopping... I’m hungry... t Primacy RecencyDeese and Kaufman, J. Exp. Psychol. 1957, 54, 180-187.�Murdock , J. Exp. Psychol. 1962, 64, 482-488.� © Andrew MooreJOB APPLICATIONS: STRAIGHT TO THE TOP OF THE PILEÒ  http://www.nature.com/naturejobs/science/articles/10. 32
  • 33. QUESTIONS? Contact me: Ò  Barbara.janssens@gmail.com Ò  www.facebook.com/phdcareersLIKE THIS PAGE! WWW.FACEBOOK.COM/PHDCAREERS 33