Trans fatty acids


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  • How is the molecular structure changed in the hydrogenation process? Let’s look at our 18-carbon fatty acids again. Stearic acid is fully saturated, with 2 hydrogen atoms attached to every carbon atom. Each pair of hydrogen atoms forms an electron cloud. Oleic acid has two hydrogen atoms on the same side at the bend of the double bond. This is called the cis configuration; the two hydrogen atoms are next to each other and form an electron cloud. During the hydrogenation process, one of the hydrogen atoms is moved to the other side so that the hydrogen atoms are now across from each other—this is called the trans configuration ( trans means across) and this is what is meant by a trans fatty acid. With the 2 hydrogen atoms on opposite sides, the molecule straightens out and now has many of the same qualities as a saturate. It will be solid at room temperature and can be used as a shortening in baked goods. However, in our cell membranes, the trans fat has very different characteristics from a saturated fat or monounsaturated fat. Your body makes chemical reactions where there are electron clouds, but it cannot do this when the cell membrane contains lots of trans fatty acids. With a trans fatty acid, instead of an electron cloud, there is a dead spot. The more partially hydrogenated oils containing trans fatty acids that you eat, the more trans fats you will have in your cell membranes and the more chaos you will have at the cellular level.
  • The problem with damaged polyunsaturated fatty acids is that they are very reactive, and start to cause undesirable changes in the tissues, including the arteries. Saturated fats do not cause these changes. Make no mistake: it is not saturated fats that contribute to heart disease, and not monounsaturated fatty acids, but the rancid and processed polyunsaturated vegetable oils.
  • Trans fatty acids

    1. 1. 1 TRANS FATTY ACIDS AND CARDIOVASCULAR DISEASES Pradeep Chaminda Weerathunga BFST 2101 Seminar in Food Science & Technology
    2. 2. 2
    3. 3. 3
    4. 4. 4 79% Artificial 21% Naturally Occurring Trans Fatty Acids
    5. 5.  Manufacture through a chemical process- Hydrogenation.  Found in partially hydrogenated vegetable oil.  Margarines, shortenings, baked good , packaged foods etc contain TFAs. 5
    6. 6.  Present in dairy products and in meat.  Taken from ruminants.  Produced by bacteria in ruminants’ stomachs.  Smaller amounts. 6
    7. 7. It raises the risk of heart diseases. 7 How does it do? It increases bad (LDL) cholesterol It lowers good (HDL) cholesterol It increases the ratio of total cholesterol to HDL cholesterol
    8. 8. 8 Stroke Congenital heart defects Heart failure Rheumatic heart disease Coronary heart disease (CHD)
    9. 9. 9 Good artery - smooth, elastic and pink. Saturated and mono- unsaturated fats do not react or harm arteries. Damaged arteries - crusty and yellowish. Damage caused by Trans Fatty acids.
    10. 10. 10
    11. 11. 11 Major Food Sources of Artificial Trans Fat for American Adults Household Shortening 5%Potato Chips, Corn Chips, Popcorn 6% Fried Potatoes 10% Margarine 22% Other 6% Cakes, Cookies, Crackers, Pies, Bread, etc. 51% Major Food Sources of Artificial Trans Fatty Acids
    12. 12.  Long shelf life  Stability during deep-frying  Semi solidity  Ability to enhance the palatability of food products 12
    13. 13. TFAs  Contain double bonds  Rise LDL level less than SFs do  Reduce HDL level  Estimated consumption- 2.6% of total calorie intake Saturated Fats  No double bonds  Rise LDL level more than TFAs do  Rise HDL level  Estimated consumption- 20.6% of total calorie intake 13
    14. 14. Look the ingredients list 14 “partially hydrogenated,” “shortening,” “margarine”? If “No”-Use Step 1 Step 2
    15. 15. 15 Check the Nutrition Facts panel TFAs 0.5g per serving If less-Use Refuse Ask from manufacturer Step 2 Step 3
    16. 16.  Mainly due to the trend of McDonald’s and KFC restaurant chains.  Especially focuses on middle and upper classes of people.  Use of vegetable oils in cooking.  Consumption of fried food such as wade,thosa etc 16
    17. 17.  Cis unsaturated fatty acids  Saturated fatty acids  Fully hydrogenated vegetable oils  Addition of antioxidants to un- hydrogenated oils 17
    18. 18.  No nutritional benefit of TFAs  Has considerable potential for harm  Better to seek for substitutes  Consumers should recognize & avoid TFAs  Can avert thousands of CHDs by avoiding TFAs 18
    19. 19.  Read the labels of processed foods.  Stick to coconut oil,- containing no added fats.  Purchase fresh meat.  Go for fresh vegetables.  Educate through the mass media on this topics. 19
    20. 20. 20