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Intro to UX

Intro to UX



Presentation given to a History of Communications class at Endicott College.

Presentation given to a History of Communications class at Endicott College.



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    Intro to UX Intro to UX Presentation Transcript

    • Introduction to User Experience Research
      Human Factors, Usability, and Neuromarketing
      Prepared by:
      Daniel Berlin – Experience Research Director
      March 29, 2011
      Endicott College
    • Today’s Presentation
      • What the heck is a Human Factor?
      • How can you measure usability?
      • Usability Research
      • Eye Tracking
      • Neuromarketing – that’s right, we can read your mind
      • Biofeedback and Neurofeedback
      • Ok, but how does this affect me?
    • Hi! I’m Dan Berlin
      • BA in psychology from Brandeis U.
      • MBA and MS in Human Factors in Information Design from Bentley U.
      • Seven years in technical support
      • Sat as a participant for a usability study for a product I was working on
      • Realized that user experience (UX) work is the perfect combination of computers and psychology
      • Quit my job and enrolled in Bentley’s two year full-time program
      • Two years at an interactive agency performing usability and neuromarketing research
      • Then did some freelance UX consulting for about a year
      • Am now an Experience Research Director at Mad*Pow
    • What the heck is a Human Factor?
    • What the heck is a Human Factor?
      Stand up
    • What the heck is a Human Factor?
      Hop up and down a few times, then stop
    • What the heck is a Human Factor?
      Lift one foot off of the floor
    • What the heck is a Human Factor?
      Wait for it…
    • What the heck is a Human Factor?
      Now hop up and down a few times on one foot*, then stop
      *Please don’t hurt yourself, or others around you
    • What the heck is a Human Factor?
      A little harder on one foot, eh?
    • What the heck is a Human Factor?
      That’s a Human Factor
      (you can sit down now)
    • What the heck is a Human Factor?
      • Humans are good at some things, but not all
      • We are better walkers than we are swimmers
      • Can see better in the day then we can at night
      • Human Factors are what makes us tick: cognitively and physically
      • How we perceive, think, and move
      • UX practitioners apply knowledge of Human Factors when designing and evaluating software and websites
      • Ergonomics for the mind
    • Find the red circle
    • Find the red circle
    • Find the red circle
    • Don’t make me think
      No thinking
      Some thinking
      • An interaction is intuitive when the user does not have to think
      • We can guide them via visual and interaction design
    • What the heck is a Human Factor?
      • To the right: elementary perceptual tasks
      • Good at: position, length, direction
      • Bad at: area (of a circle), volume, saturation
      • This is why you will see line or bar graphs to convey data
      • You will never (well, shouldn’t) see a graph that uses color saturation to convey data (i.e. using different shades of orange)
    • What the heck is a Human Factor?
      Gestalt Principles
      • Designers build affordances into their work to take advantage of our strengths and to bolster our weaknesses
      • Term coined by James Gibson, a Gestalt psychologist
    • 19
      Dark blue bar separates the navigation from the rest of the page.
      The most important text on the page has the biggest font size.
      Vertical lines divide the blue bar into buttons.
      White space separates the news articles.
      Alternating gray and white rows create separation.
      • We do not have to think about what these design elements mean – we just know
    • How can you measure usability?
    • How can you measure usability?
      • First off, what does ‘usability’ really mean?
      • ISO 9241: “The effectiveness, efficiency, and satisfaction with which specified users achieve specified goals in particular environments.”
      • Effectiveness: Do people make mistakes?
      • Efficiency: Can they accomplish the task in a reasonable amount of time?
      • Satisfaction: Does the interaction drive people crazy?
    • How can you measure usability?
      • Well… there is no way to accurately measure usability
      • But there are ways to understand users and learn how they expect to interact with an interface
      • Discovery interviews
      • Paper prototypes
      • Card sorting
      • Focus groups
      • And there are ways to learn how an existing interface performs
      • Usability studies
      • Expert/heuristic reviews
      • KLM/GOMS
    • What is a usability study?
      • In a usability study, 5-15 participants are asked to perform tasks on an interface
      • A moderator sits next to the participant to observe and ask questions
      • Usability moderators are like computer psychologists
      • Instead of asking how people feel about their mothers, we ask about how they feel about the interactions
      • Yes, this is a ‘study’ but no, there are typically no numbers to crunch
      • We gather mostly qualitative data
      • Not cost-efficient to have enough participants to get statistical significance
      • 5-8 participants will catch a majority of the problems
    • Eye Tracking
      • Eye tracking has been around since the late 19th century
      • Infrared light bounces off of your retina and back to sensors in the monitor/headset
    • Eye Tracking
      Heat Map
      Gaze Plot
      • # of fixations for all participants
      • Order of fixations for one participant
    • Eye Tracking
    • Eye Tracking
      Areas of Interest
      • Break the page up into separate “areas of interest” or AOIs
      • Compare the fixation data between important areas and less important ones
      • If people are staring at the navigation, they may be having a hard time finding a link
      • Are people looking at the call to action?
      • Call to action = the link on the page that the business wants the users to click (the ‘buy’ button)
    • Eye Tracking
      Area 3
      Area 4
      Area 5
      Area 6
      Area 1
      Area 2
      • Participants looked at “Area 1” almost two seconds longer in the second design
    • Neuromarketing – that’s right, we can read your mind
    • Neuromarketing – that’s right, we can right your mind
      • Okay, not really
      • But we have the technology to try
      Blood oxygenation
      Brain waves
    • Neuromarketing – okay, we can’t read your mind…
      • Galvanic skin response, heart rate, breathing rate, and skin temperature can be measure to determine ‘fight or flight’ response
      • Is the participant calm and cool, or anxious?
      • These have been used for decades as a measure of internal state
      GSR mouse
      Bioharness Output
    • Neuromarketing –… but we can try
      • Daimler-Chrysler fMRI study
      • ‘Attractive’ cars light up the facial recognition area of the brain
      • Campbell’s Soup label
    • Neuromarketing – there is no ‘buy’ button in the brain
      • Researchers won’t find an fMRI pattern or brain wave that will accurately predict if a person is going to buy something (or sign up for a newsletter, etc.)
      • What they will find are patterns that indicate favorable or negative responses to an interaction
      • We know as much about the brain as when doctors were using leeches, possibly less
    • Okay, but how does this affect me?
      • You interact with interfaces all day long
      • Careers in user experience
      • Information architect
      • Usability specialist
      • Visual designer
      • Experience designer
      • Grad school
      • Bentley University – MS Human Factors
      • George Mason – MA Graphic Design
      • Tufts – MS Human Factors Engineering
      • U. of Maryland – MS Systems Engineering
      • U. of Michigan – MS Computer Science
      • Carnegie Mellon – MS Human Computer Interaction
      • Your future career WILL involve user experience
      • The product your company sells
      • How your company interacts with customers
      • How you collaborate with your coworkers
    • Thank you!