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Eye tracking and neuromarketing primer

Eye tracking and neuromarketing primer



This presentation was given to the Testing and Assessment Methods class (MS in Human Factors in Information Design) at Bentley University.

This presentation was given to the Testing and Assessment Methods class (MS in Human Factors in Information Design) at Bentley University.



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    Eye tracking and neuromarketing primer Eye tracking and neuromarketing primer Presentation Transcript

    • Eye Tracking and Neuromarketing Primer Quantitative to boost the qualitative Dan Berlin, MBA, MSHFID
    • Hi! • Psychology and generally geeky background • Graduated Bentley in 2008 • Two years at One to One Interactive ▫ Usability and neuromarketing studies • Left this past summer to start my own consultancy • dan@berlinconsulting.net • Twitter: @banderlin
    • Agenda • Eye Tracking ▫ Background ▫ Equipment ▫ Methods ▫ The great debate • Neuromarketing ▫ Background ▫ The Players ▫ The debate continues • War Stories • Q&A
    • Eye Tracking – history • Eye tracking has been around since the late 19th century
    • Eye Tracking – equipment • Two main players: & ▫ Tobii  Based in Sweden, offers the same equipment for scientific research, & has assistive technology products ▫ SMI  Based in Germany, offers high-end & integrated equipment for scientific research
    • Eye Tracking – equipment 1750 T60/120 T60 XL X60/120 Tobii Glasses • 1750 & X60: old technology is old • You probably don’t need 120 Hz • T60 & XL: depends on your needs • Tobii studio and Axure wireframes • Glasses: brand new do not play nicely together • depends on IR markers • only 30 Hz • small DVR
    • Eye Tracking – equipment RED iView X HED • RED • 60/120 Hz (also have 250 Hz model) • Germaphobes: gotta clean that hat • Use a screen up to 300” • iView X HED • Software advantage: moving AOIs & • Up to 200 Hz better statistical analysis • Uses a notebook or subcomputer • No IR markers
    • When is Eye Tracking Appropriate? • The age old question… • In usability studies ▫ NOT during think-aloud  It is natural for a participant to look at the moderator  And they will look at parts of the screen that they are talking about ▫ Does retrospective think-aloud alleviate this?  It asks participants to remember what they were unconsciously thinking  More likely: primacy and recency effects (Michael Summers, TrueAction) ▫ Allocate a few tasks to eye tracking where the user does not think- aloud ▫ Avoid bias: make up a story for the calibration
    • When is Eye Tracking Appropriate? • In benchmark studies ▫ Comparing user behavior to different design or interaction concepts ▫ No think-aloud, just explore the site  Can be done with a static composition or a wireframe  Compare, compare, compare – there are no benchmarks ▫ Use metrics to determine if participants are looking at areas of interest  Not all AOIs are equal – some should be more important to the business ▫ Static pages: 10 to 20 second exposure  Otherwise: the big red blob – they look everywhere Eye Tracking is a tool, not a methodology!
    • Eye Tracking Output • The typical outputs from eye tracking: ▫ Fixations & duration ▫ Time to 1st fixation ▫ Gaze plots & heat maps ▫ Areas of interest (AOIs) ▫ Pupil dilation
    • Eye Tracking Metrics • Fixations vs. duration ▫ Basically, they are the same  Both measure levels of active attention and cognition ▫ We will never know if an increased duration indicates confusion or interest ▫ Fixations per second is the traditional measure of active attention • Gaze plots and heat maps ▫ Eye candy and not much else – but clients love them ▫ Bolster your eye candy with data! • Pupil dilation ▫ Impossible to measure accurately – don’t use it
    • Ok, so how should I use eye tracking metrics? • Use areas of interest to compare metrics ▫ How many fixations are in (un)important AOIs?  Will determine if an important AOI needs more emphasis ▫ How do fixations in similar AOIs compare between different design treatments?  Will determine which design better achieves business goals ▫ How long does it take participants to get to a particular AOI? (time to 1st fixation)  You only have a few seconds to impress a user – are they looking at that which you want them to?
    • Participant Recruitment • Make sure you ask about eye ailments ▫ Retina & cornea damage, eye cancer & tumors, macular degeneration, cataracts, conjunctivitis, and nystagmus ▫ Not necessarily problematic: amblyopia, glaucoma, and strabismus • If possible, you want to use the data from everyone you bring in ▫ Add questions to your screener to ensure you can eye track your participants
    • The great eye tracking debate • If a person looks at something, does that mean that he comprehends it? ▫ Maybe • Does a long duration indicate confusion or interest? ▫ It depends • Does eye tracking really help the usability cause? ▫ I think so • Isn’t it all just crap? ▫ Not really – eye tracking gives us data to backup qualitative findings
    • Neuromarketing – background • Modern neuromarketing is born • Some current vendors measure EEG from fMRIs instead ▫ Brain loci with oxygenated blood ▫ Electrical activity on the scalp ▫ Perform a task or present a stimulus ▫ Brain waves indicate what the person and watch where the blood goes is experiencing ▫ Relies on knowledge about brain  Pleasure, anxiety, fight or flight, etc loci… and a large fMRI machine ▫ Relies on interpretations of EEGs
    • Neuromarketing – the players Company Method Location Notes NeuroFocus EEG + GSR Berkeley • Owned by Nielsen • Just proposed “NeuroStandards” for the field EmSense EEG San Francisco • Developed own headset InnerScope Biometrics Boston • Campbells label Sands Research EEG + Biometrics El Paso • Super Bowl study OTOinsights EEG + self report Boston • Uses Emotiv headset Buyology Consultant NYC • Think-tank Neurosciencemarketingblog.com is a great source of information
    • Neuromarketing – studies • Daimler-Chrysler fMRI study ▫ Attractive cars light up the facial recognition area of the brain • Campbell’s Soup label There is no “buy” button in the brain!
    • Neuromarketing – the great debate • Is neuromarketing ethical? • How do we know the results are accurate? • Show me the ROI!
    • War Stories
    • Creep Map • 1 minute exposure • These are the only hotspots on the entire page • When asked why this design comp was given a low rating, the response: “because she’s fat” • Oy vey
    • Q&A