Recent academic study found average delivery annual cost is $6,800 a year In Colorado -- internal courier, USPS, & statewide courier large Denver-area library -- $250,000 midsized library system -- $97,160 small college - $6,000
FocusLocal-area library courier servicesStatewide or regional library courier servicesInternal branch delivery systemsUSPS, FedEx, UPS, etc.
Saves money, wear & tear, chance of loss or delay, keep items available to patrons
Central Sorting vs. PresortingThere are two primary sorting types:Central Sorting Central sorting can take place at a main location or a warehouse. All materials are sent to the central hub for sorting. Central sorting moves sorting from individual libraries to a central facility. Central sorting allows for delivery on the next scheduled delivery at the requesting library in cases where the sorting takes place after daily pick-ups and the sort site is emptied daily. This next delivery day turnaround time can be lengthened in cases where sorting takes place after vehicles have departed and in cases where the sort site is not emptied daily. On-board Sorting ‑ Courier personnel sorts materials “on the fly”allowing for same day delivery for requesting locations that fall later on a given route. In other cases, next delivery day delivery is the optimum.Presorting ‑ Libraries presort materials for couriers in separate bins or bags. Allows for same day delivery for requesting locations that fall later on a given route. In other cases, next delivery day delivery is the optimum.When reviewing these options, one thing that libraries must take into consideration is workload factors. Libraries that have the staff and facility space needed to take on sorting, presorting, and bundling of items may be willing to do so in order to eliminate work at the sort site or by delivery drivers. Two primary reasons why a library may choose to presort delivery materials may be: 1) to allow for more frequent stops on a given route or 2) to contain costs. It must be noted, however, that the cost of delivery/sorting is not eliminated entirely in presorting. It has merely been shifted from the courier to the library that has taken on some of the labor and overhead for the service, and may in fact cost more to have libraries using their own labor and facilities to do this work instead of moving it to a warehouse environment.
Patron request from an ILS/ILL systemPick and Routing slip created – or combo of bothK*I*S*S or don’t use them at all if your system allows itFor instance: Pick slip includes destination identifier (address/code) event transaction number (OCLC request number) Date or requestItem identifier (item title, call number, barcode)
Label Sticking Out TopLabels must have the destination (or code) printed near the top of the slip. The slip must be long enough to be held in a secure manner when placed inside the covers of a book (see Figure 4).Media cases are often incompatible to hold the label securely. Rubber bands or other methods (see #2 below) must be used for such incompatible items. Rubber Bands Used to Secure LabelLabels should be secured to an item (or small bundle of items) by placing two sturdy rubber bands—one vertically and one horizontally—on the item or bundle. Size 64 (3 1/2 x 1/4) or 117B (7 x 1/8) rubber bands are recommended.The routing slip should be folded in half and stapled around the intersection of the two rubber bands (see Figure 5). Rubber bands can be reused multiple times. On very rare occasions, minor damage to the item can occur where the rubber band connects to the item.
Paper Banding around the Front of the BookA strip of paper is affixed around the cover of the book; these strips may be self-adhesive or secured with tape (see Figure 6). The paper-banded method is not recommended because it tends to be labor intensive and can cause damage to materials when being added to or removed from a shipped item. Adhesive Removable LabelsA sticky note (e.g., “Post-it®” note) or other adhesive removable label with the destination (or code) is placed on the front of each item shipped (see Figure 7). Removable labels should not be used on any item that might be damaged by the adhesive. Not all libraries use truly removable barcodes or labels; adhesives can leave residue. Check the specific library’s borrowing policy for details.Some removable labels do not stick as well as others and might fall off.Adhesive Removable LabelsA sticky note (e.g., “Post-it®” note) or other adhesive removable label with the destination (or code) is placed on the front of each item shipped (see Figure 7). Removable labels should not be used on any item that might be damaged by the adhesive. Not all libraries use truly removable barcodes or labels; adhesives can leave residue. Check the specific library’s borrowing policy for details.Some removable labels do not stick as well as others and might fall off.
HYBRID: Another model where an single item is placed in a bag and label information is place in bag see-through pocket
Handle material as little as possible. Packaging materials should be reusable.Special collections or rare materials require more packagingUnpackedRubber bandedClothe, nylon or plastic bagsReusable paper bagsSingle use bags
Smaller packages in larger containersIn general smaller containers are better than larger, less lifting and item shifting during transportContainer consider – weight – durability – weather for closed containers or open for no weather exposureDESTINATION BINS –
Lifting can be thought of as an equation that considers how much a healthy worker can lift over an eight-hour period without increased risk of injury. Summarizing one NIOSH study for beverage workers, a healthy worker should lift no more than 51 pounds at a time over an eight-hour period of non-repetitive lifting and carrying. The formulas used to determine lifting guidelines for specific situations can be quite complex and include consideration of number of lifts, distance carried, weight of objects, etc. The Applications Manual for the Revised NIOSH Lifting Equation can help a library system determine the correct weight for their circumstances. However, many library delivery systems have chosen to simply the process by limiting frequently lifted container weights to between 25-35 pounds each, and for less repetitive lifting of containers using a range from 35-40 pounds.
NISO Webinar: Tangible Assets: Management of Physical Library Resources
http://www.niso.org/news/events/2011/nisowebinars/storage/ Tangible AssetsManagement of Physical Library Resources August 10, 2011Speakers: Valerie Horton, Timothy Cherubini, and David Borycz
THE GOAL:improve deliveryperformance andreduce costs
Sections: 1. Introduction 2. Management 3. Automation 4. The Physical Move 5. Taking the next step 6. Bibliography
• Coordination between separate providers• Governance• Role of delivery coordinator• Record keeping guidelines• Contracting with suppliers• Delivery policies• Reducing deliveries• Home & distance education delivery• International delivery
• Floating collections• Closest available copy • Overrides hold queue order• Delivery sort on route• Clustering requests • Single container between 2 libraries
Best manual sort is 600-700 items/hr › Norm: 400-500 items/hr Machines can sort 7,500 items/hr › Less staff
Using rubberbands to secure labelLabel sticking out from top
Order of Direct Cost per Workflow Environ-mental Label Product Examples Preference Unit Impact Impact Label sticking out of the top of the Any paper Low Minimal Low item Most Poor Label sticking outrecommended Thermal paper Medium Medium (paper is not the top of the item recyclable) Any heavier/wider rubber band: Rubber banded size 64 (3 1/2 x Low Low Low 1/4 ) or 117B (7 x 1/8 ) Any paper; regular Paper banded Low High Medium adhesive tape 3M brand Sticky notes Post-It® notes Low Minimal Low Least 1.5 x 2.5recommended Avery 5164 Adhesive (4 x 3.3 ) or Medium Minimal High removable labels similar generic label
Rubberband With BinNo packaging One time or reusable paper bags
Collaborative Retention ofMonographs: Early Thoughts for Future Action Timothy Cherubini Director of Regional Services LYRASIS Remarks prepared for the NISO Webinar: Tangible Assets - Management of Physical Library Resources August 10, 2011
Grant to LYRASIS from the Institute of Museum and Library Services (IMLS) “Developing a North AmericanStrategy to Cooperatively Manage & Retain Print Collections of Monographs”
LYRASIS Grant Partners• California Digital Library• Center for Research Libraries• Committee for Institutional Cooperation• Occidental College
“Think Tank” 27-28 October, 2010• 30 library leaders• Sought to define characteristics of a collaborative model• Identified themes• Possible implementations scenarios• Issues that require testing or research to confirm framework for future action
Major Themes & Issues• Libraries of all sizes are seeking strategies• Overlap – can it be measured, leveraged?• “Bibliographic indeterminacy”• Monographs – more politically difficult, costly than journals?• Monographs – disproportionately affect humanities faculty & students• User behaviors
“Affinity Groups”• University Librarians• Collection Development Officers• Interested parties from consortia and professional organizations
University Librarians - Discussion• Copyright• Costs and cost savings• Subject expertise: How to deploy?• Over promising what can be accomplished• Increasing knowledge of the “collective collection,” including integrity of data• Engaging faculty and scholarly societies• Developing a positive vision for shared collections and services
Collection Officers - Discussion• Developing a positive vision – preserving the scholarly record• Developing better data• Access• Press on copyright issues• Notion of acceptable loss
Consortium Leaders - Discussion• How much duplication of holdings is there?• What is the role of consortia?• Who can provide the infrastructure for collection management at network scale?
Topical Discussions• Digital surrogates• Bibliographic information• Service models and business models
Topical Discussion: Digital Surrogates• Needs to collectively manage print? – Open standards-based formats – Accurate information about quality – Guidelines for use – Discoverability – Reliability
Topical Discussion: Digital Surrogates• Topics for further exploration – Who will retain print copies? – What are incentives to do so? – Titles represented in e- now top priority? – Studies relating online discoverability to print use – Balancing reliance of mass digitization and publisher digitization
Topical Discussion: Bibliographic Information• Issues & approaches – Build on plans, projects underway for journal archiving – Linkages between print copies in storage, print copies in circulation, and digital copies – Maintaining representatives of all editions – Agreement needed on cataloging as a requirement for print archiving
Topical Discussion: Service & Business Models• Questions, issues & approaches – What are the incentives to keep print? – How can consortia facilitate commitments? – What services are required? – What agreements are necessary? – What kind(s) of organizations are necessary to manage these efforts?
Implementation Scenarios• Already in storage• In Hathi Trust and also in public domain or published through 1963 or 1976• Domain-based approach (by LC class range, subject or discipline)
Grant Conclusion Continuing DiscussionOngoing LYRASIS role -TBD
Collaborative Retention of Print Monographs on the LYRASIS website: http://tinyurl.com/3p929qb LYRASIS Collection Development & Management Advisory Group: http://tinyurl.com/4x5p2b6
Storage at The Joe and RikaMansueto LibraryUniversity of ChicagoDavid BoryczSpecial Projects LibrarianThe University of Chicago Library
The Case Campus Libraries are “functionally full” Print collection continues to grow Inadequate space for new Library programs and services Collaborative spaces Technology-equipped spaces Training and workshop spaces
The Mansueto Library: Considerations Digitization: making print collections obsolete? Service: delayed vs. real-time collection access? Impact on existing library buildings …and Cost?
The Mansueto Library: Considerations On-site addition or off-site building? If on-site, importance of harmony with campus aesthetic? Book storage: open or closed stacks? Preservation and conservation of collections OR
Helmut JahnDesigner of ShanghaiInternational Expo Center,Munich Airport Center,Sony Center (Berlin),EU Headquarters (Brussels)
Joe and Rika MansuetoUniversity alumni: Joe Mansueto: A.B., 1978 & M.B.A., 1980 Rika Mansueto: A.B., 1991Founder of Morningstar, Inc.“This library combines three of our passions: great design, the free exchangeof information and the University of Chicago. That’s why Rika and I couldn’tbe more thrilled to be a part of this project.”
The Joe and Rika Mansueto Library240 ft x 120 ft x 3.5 stories high
Grand Reading Room184 seats with task lighting, electrical power, and laptop lock points3 study carrels for intensive useMulti-function printer/copier/scanner in roomWireless throughout buildingGlass has high-performance low-E coating to reduce heatGlass higher than 18 feet shaded with ceramic frit pattern to reduce glare, heat
Circulation Service Center 12 first floor pick stations 3 Special Collections 9 General Collections Expected 5-minute retrieval time Material can be requested from any computer at any time
Below Ground Storage Facility3.5 million volume capacity in high-density automated shelvingTotal campus capacity: 10+ million volumesHumidity and temperature controlled for optimal preservation environmentSlurry wall construction and pumps with emergency backup to prevent water damage
Bin and Shelf Rack Storage24,000 bins: 10”, 12” and 15” heights 1,200 shelf racks: 3’x5’x6’
Loading the System Loading 1 Million volumes June – September 2011 Approximately 70 student staff working 1,000-1,200 hrs/wk Utilizing 12 workstations with a goal of 20,000 items per day Materials coming from numerous different locations requiring: Record changes in the catalog Cleaning Sorting Preservation review Currently at 640,000 items loaded