http://www.niso.org/news/events/2012/nisowebinars/marc_and_frbr/        NISO Webinar:MARC and FRBR: Friends or Foes?      ...
W(h)ither MARC? What’s Wrong with MARC, or, The Place of the MARC Format in a Changing Metadata Environment               ...
from Library Journal, October 15, 2002
“There are only two kinds of people who believe  themselves able to read a MARC record  without a stack of manuals: a hand...
MARC control subfields
Cover image, Semantic Web group, of HASTAC(site developed August 2, 2011; viewed October 9, 2012)
What is FRBR?A Conceptual Model for the Bibliographic Universe.                                    Barbara Tillett
Harry Potter in MARC
Work Elements
Expression Elements
Manifestation Elements
RDA Vocabularies Registry
Vocabulary List of RDA Carrier Types
Computer Card Vocabulary Entry
What Might “NEW MARC”       Look Like        ???
Our Record Typesa - Language materialc - Notated musicd - Manuscript notated musice - Cartographic materialf - Manuscript ...
New Record Typesw – Group 1: Work-level Recorde – Group 1: Expression-level Recordm – Group 1: Manifestation-level Recordi...
Good bye FF/008
Hello embedded coding264 /1 $c 2012 $2 item $7   300 // $b  transcribed               http://rdvocab.info/termLi264 /4 $c ...
Further Disaggregate fields/subfields;                                Improve sequencingNOW245 10 $a Henry Esmond : $b a n...
Further Disaggregate fields/subfields;                                 Improve sequencingNOW264 /1 $a London : $b Benn ; $...
Semantic Web vs NEW MARCSemantic Web/RDF pros              Semantic Web/RDF cons                                   • Indus...
Transitions, transformations, and shifting sands: the landscape beyond MARC;        the ground beneath the record. Gordon ...
Future PossibilitiesLC’s Bibliographic Framework   Marc of Quality’s RIMMFTransition Initiative
IGeLU "Bibliographic Framework Initiative Approach                     for MARC Data as Linked Data,"               Sally ...
RIMMF template for Manifestation
FRBR at Fourteen:         Will Its Time Ever Come?David Lindahl, University of RochesterNISO Webinar: MARC and FRBR: Frien...
AgendaImplementing FRBR in eXtensible CatalogWhat we’ve learned about:  – FRBR and library users  – “FRBRizing” MARC data ...
What is XC software?eXtensible Catalog (XC) is opensource software for libraries and libraryconsortia.XC provides a discov...
eXtensible Catalog Funders and                   SponsorsMajor FundingAndrew W. Mellon FoundationSponsorsConsortium of Aca...
First XC Discovery Sites  XC Discovery       Kyushu University      Perseus Digital Library   Demo Site           Cute. Ca...
FRBR and Library Users
User Research FindingsUsers care about…• Material and format types• Versions and relationships• Why these search results?•...
Bottom line…Users care about relationships…    Among resources    Between people and resources    Between people and other...
Studying Students: The              Scholarly Practice, ParticipatoryUndergraduate Research Project at   Design and the eX...
XC Demo Interface
38
39
40
“View XC Schema”                   41
42
43
“Uplinks” between FRBR levels                                44
45
XC Schema record originatedas this MARC record in our ILS                                 46
Pipeline from ILS to Discovery                                      Discovery Layer        ILS                            ...
Pipeline from ILS to Discovery                                         Discovery Layer        ILS                         ...
Pipeline from ILS to Discovery                                                            Discovery Layer        ILS      ...
“FRBRized” MARC recordsParse MARCXML records:                 XC• Create new XC Schema records                            ...
“FRBRized” MARC recordsParse MARCXML records:                     XC• Create new XC Schema records                        ...
“FRBRized” MARC recordsParse MARCXML Holdings records             XC                                           Work       ...
“FRBRized” MARC recordsParse MARC Holdings records:                XC• Create new XC Holdings records                     ...
What we’ve learned from“FRBRizing” MARC in a live system
MARC to XC Schema TransformationParses MARCXMLrecords into linkedFRBR-based            Maps MARCXML datarecords           ...
Converting MARC 21Problematic areas:  – Some MARC fields/subfields are difficult    to map to appropriate FRBR entities  –...
Managing Relationships                         57
Managing Relationships                         58
Issue 1: Managing Multiple RelationshipsMARC bibliographic records can referto multiple FRBR entities of the sametype (ana...
Issue 2: Beyond FRBR Group 1 EntitiesMARC “Alternate Graphic Representation” (880fields) can contain data that belong in r...
If we were to parse this 880 data                          correctly:Alternative               Alternative script of      ...
Issue 3: Related Group 1                 EntitiesLanguage attribute for a related expression041 1 ‡a eng ‡h ita100 0 ‡a Da...
If we were to parse 041 ‡h data…                                              Original                                    ...
Managing Relationships Between Entities                                      64
What we are learning from XCMaintaining links among FRBR entityrecords may not be scalable…•new records•changedrecords•del...
What we are learning from XCMaintaining links among FRBR entityrecords may not be scalable… if wecontinue to manipulate re...
What XC has taught us about               FRBR…The GOOD news: MARC data is very rich, and contains data about MANY relatio...
What XC has taught us about                FRBR…• MARC data contains many  relationships…• A record-based system is probab...
What We’ve Learned about FRBR and Linked Data
XC software is “Linked Data Ready”The underlying schema for XC useselements from registered element sets tofacilitate conv...
XC Schema Properties                                DC• Dublin Core terms – all• RDA – subset of elements  and role design...
RDF Triple - Registered Data Elements     Subjec                Predicat                 Object       t                   ...
How XC is Linked Data ReadyXC converts MARC data to FRBRentities as an interim step. This mayenable us to produce more mea...
“FRBRized” MARC recordsParsing MARCXML records into linked                                             XC  FRBR-based XC S...
RDF triple     Subjec                Predicat                 Object       t                      eoai:mst.rochester.edu: ...
With and without FRBRWithout FRBR:<MARCBibRecord-number> has_author “J K Rowling”                                         ...
With and without FRBRWithout FRBR:<MARCBibRecord-number> has_author “J K Rowling”With FRBR:<Work-id> has_creator “J K Rowl...
Why use FRBR for Linked Data?• User want to see the relationships• FRBR is the underlying model for RDA• With XC, we can e...
Recap of what we’ve learned from                  XC• User research shows that the FRBR  model does align closely to user ...
Recap of what we’ve learned from                  XC• Linked Data may make a fuller  implementation of FRBR more feasible•...
Thank you!dlindahl@library.rochester.eduwww.eXtensiblecatalog.org
NISO Webinar: MARC and FRBR: Friends or Foes?
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NISO Webinar: MARC and FRBR: Friends or Foes?

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MARC and FRBR are among the best known acronyms in today’s cataloging world. With the implementation of RDA by the US national libraries in the late winter/spring of 2013, and with other libraries already adopting the new cataloging code, a great deal of discussion is taking place about FRBR and whether it is implementable. In addition, the viability of the MARC format has been called into question. What is wrong with MARC, and what alternatives are there? Join David Lindahl and John Myers for presentations and Q&A relating to these two cataloging fundamentals.

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  • what you want is the set on the left and set on right to describe the same set of library resourceyou want to be sure that if a marc record is updated, that the records on the right are updated.one change on the left could add, remove or change multiple records on the right.you might even fix an error in a record on the left, that results in the removal of five records on the right, or it could create some new ones.and what about when one record on the left describes a cd, but the granularity of the records on the right is higher, so you need 10 work records, ten expression records and one manifestation record to describe the resource that the one marc bib record was used for on the left?
  • Pull some elements from here and there…OLD: DC lacks frequency and numbering of serialsRole designator: composer, director
  • Uses terms from registered vocabularies
  • NISO Webinar: MARC and FRBR: Friends or Foes?

    1. 1. http://www.niso.org/news/events/2012/nisowebinars/marc_and_frbr/ NISO Webinar:MARC and FRBR: Friends or Foes? October 10, 2012Speakers: John Myers, David Lindahl
    2. 2. W(h)ither MARC? What’s Wrong with MARC, or, The Place of the MARC Format in a Changing Metadata Environment October 10, 2012 John Myers, Catalog Librarian Union College
    3. 3. from Library Journal, October 15, 2002
    4. 4. “There are only two kinds of people who believe themselves able to read a MARC record without a stack of manuals: a handful of top catalogers and those on serious drugs.”“The MARC syntax, the MARC data elements, and the [AACR] … are so intertwined that teasing out which must be jettisoned and which can be kept will be at least as difficult as starting from scratch.”
    5. 5. MARC control subfields
    6. 6. Cover image, Semantic Web group, of HASTAC(site developed August 2, 2011; viewed October 9, 2012)
    7. 7. What is FRBR?A Conceptual Model for the Bibliographic Universe. Barbara Tillett
    8. 8. Harry Potter in MARC
    9. 9. Work Elements
    10. 10. Expression Elements
    11. 11. Manifestation Elements
    12. 12. RDA Vocabularies Registry
    13. 13. Vocabulary List of RDA Carrier Types
    14. 14. Computer Card Vocabulary Entry
    15. 15. What Might “NEW MARC” Look Like ???
    16. 16. Our Record Typesa - Language materialc - Notated musicd - Manuscript notated musice - Cartographic materialf - Manuscript cartographic materialg - Projected mediumi - Nonmusical sound recordingj - Musical sound recordingk - Two-dimensional nonprojectable graphicm - Computer fileo – Kitp - Mixed materialsr - Three-dimensional artifact or naturally occurring objectt - Manuscript language materialz - Authority
    17. 17. New Record Typesw – Group 1: Work-level Recorde – Group 1: Expression-level Recordm – Group 1: Manifestation-level Recordi – Group 1: Item-level Recordn – Group 2 Record(or) p – Group 2: Personal name Record c – Group 2: Corporate name Record f – Group 2: Family name RecordEtc., for Group 3
    18. 18. Good bye FF/008
    19. 19. Hello embedded coding264 /1 $c 2012 $2 item $7 300 // $b transcribed http://rdvocab.info/termLi264 /4 $c 2012 $2 item $7 st/IllusContent/1008 high (RDF)264 /1 $c 2012 $2 item $7 conjectured
    20. 20. Further Disaggregate fields/subfields; Improve sequencingNOW245 10 $a Henry Esmond : $b a novel / $c by Thackeray. Bleak House : a novel / by Dickens.NEW245 10 $8 1.1 $a Henry Esmond : $b a novel /245 10 $8 1.2 $a Bleak House : $b a novel /24X // $8 1.1 $c by Thackeray.24X // $8 1.2 $c by Dickens.
    21. 21. Further Disaggregate fields/subfields; Improve sequencingNOW264 /1 $a London : $b Benn ; $a Chicago ; $b Rand McNally,NEW264 /1 $8 1.1 $0 [Geo-Names ID for London] $a London :264 /1 $8 1.2 $0 [Geo-Names ID for Chicago] $a Chicago :264 /1 $8 1.1 $0 [ID for Benn] $b Benn ;264 /1 $8 1.2 $0 [ID for Rand McNally] $b Rand McNally,
    22. 22. Semantic Web vs NEW MARCSemantic Web/RDF pros Semantic Web/RDF cons • Industry standard of holistic• “Off the shelf” software vs. and “imprimatured” records specialized software • Migrating/mapping legacy• Expose Library Data to the data in MARC WWW • How develop profiles to• Leverage non-Library “harvest” selected RDF Semantic Web Data for triples Library use • How ensure the stability of “imprimatured” data
    23. 23. Transitions, transformations, and shifting sands: the landscape beyond MARC; the ground beneath the record. Gordon Dunsire. Presented to the RDA Programs Taskforce Annual Forum, 25 Jun 2011.
    24. 24. Future PossibilitiesLC’s Bibliographic Framework Marc of Quality’s RIMMFTransition Initiative
    25. 25. IGeLU "Bibliographic Framework Initiative Approach for MARC Data as Linked Data," Sally McCallum (September 13, 2012)
    26. 26. RIMMF template for Manifestation
    27. 27. FRBR at Fourteen: Will Its Time Ever Come?David Lindahl, University of RochesterNISO Webinar: MARC and FRBR: Friends or Foes?October 10, 2012
    28. 28. AgendaImplementing FRBR in eXtensible CatalogWhat we’ve learned about: – FRBR and library users – “FRBRizing” MARC data in a production system – FRBR and Linked Data 29
    29. 29. What is XC software?eXtensible Catalog (XC) is opensource software for libraries and libraryconsortia.XC provides a discovery system anda set of tools for libraries tomanage/transform metadata and buildapplications.Four software toolkits available at: 30
    30. 30. eXtensible Catalog Funders and SponsorsMajor FundingAndrew W. Mellon FoundationSponsorsConsortium of Academic and Research Libraries in Illinois (CARLI)Kyushu UniversityUniversity of North Carolina at CharlotteUniversity of Rochester 31
    31. 31. First XC Discovery Sites XC Discovery Kyushu University Perseus Digital Library Demo Site Cute. CatalogFukuoka University Kanazawa University Thailand Cyber University Library OPAC Integrated Search 32
    32. 32. FRBR and Library Users
    33. 33. User Research FindingsUsers care about…• Material and format types• Versions and relationships• Why these search results?• Scholarly networks 34
    34. 34. Bottom line…Users care about relationships… Among resources Between people and resources Between people and other people Between a search term and the resources that they retrieve with itFRBR, FRAD, etc. are all aboutrelationships! 35
    35. 35. Studying Students: The Scholarly Practice, ParticipatoryUndergraduate Research Project at Design and the eXtensiblethe University of Catalog, published by the AmericanRochester, published by Library Association, 2011ACRL, 2008 Available as FREE PDF download:Available as FREE PDF download: http://hdl.handle.net/1802/12375http://hdl.handle.net/1802/7520 User Research at the UR… 36
    36. 36. XC Demo Interface
    37. 37. 38
    38. 38. 39
    39. 39. 40
    40. 40. “View XC Schema” 41
    41. 41. 42
    42. 42. 43
    43. 43. “Uplinks” between FRBR levels 44
    44. 44. 45
    45. 45. XC Schema record originatedas this MARC record in our ILS 46
    46. 46. Pipeline from ILS to Discovery Discovery Layer ILS (on Drupal)Set of MARC records Set of XC (FRBR) records Bib Records Work Records Holding Records Expression Records Manifestation Records Holding Records 47
    47. 47. Pipeline from ILS to Discovery Discovery Layer ILS (on Drupal)Set of MARC records Set of XC (FRBR) records Bib Records Set of Work Records Holding Records Library Expression Records Resources Manifestation Records Holding Records 48
    48. 48. Pipeline from ILS to Discovery Discovery Layer ILS XC transformation and (on Drupal) synchronization services XC Metadata Services ToolkitSet of MARC records Set of XC (FRBR) records Bib Records Set of Work Records Holding Records Library Expression Records Resources Manifestation Records Holding Records 49
    49. 49. “FRBRized” MARC recordsParse MARCXML records: XC• Create new XC Schema records Work XC Expression MARCXML Bibliographic XC Manifestation 50
    50. 50. “FRBRized” MARC recordsParse MARCXML records: XC• Create new XC Schema records Work• Insert uplinks Work Expressed• Maintain them over time XC Expression MARCXML Bibliographic Expression Manifested XC Manifestation 51
    51. 51. “FRBRized” MARC recordsParse MARCXML Holdings records XC Work Work Expressed XC Expression MARCXML Bibliographic Expression Manifested XC Manifestation OO4 “Uplink” MARCXML Holdings 52
    52. 52. “FRBRized” MARC recordsParse MARC Holdings records: XC• Create new XC Holdings records Work• Insert uplinks Work Expressed XC Expression MARCXML Bibliographic Expression Manifested XC Manifestation OO4 “Uplink” Manifestation Held MARCXML XC Holdings Holdings 53
    53. 53. What we’ve learned from“FRBRizing” MARC in a live system
    54. 54. MARC to XC Schema TransformationParses MARCXMLrecords into linkedFRBR-based Maps MARCXML datarecords elements to elements in the XC Schema.
    55. 55. Converting MARC 21Problematic areas: – Some MARC fields/subfields are difficult to map to appropriate FRBR entities – Tracking relationships between FRBR entity records: How many relationships can we support with XC software? 56
    56. 56. Managing Relationships 57
    57. 57. Managing Relationships 58
    58. 58. Issue 1: Managing Multiple RelationshipsMARC bibliographic records can referto multiple FRBR entities of the sametype (analytics that represent multipleworks/expressions, e.g. tracks on aCD) 59
    59. 59. Issue 2: Beyond FRBR Group 1 EntitiesMARC “Alternate Graphic Representation” (880fields) can contain data that belong in recordsfor Group 2 and Group 3 entitiesContributor:700 1 ‡6 880-08 ‡a Vasil’ev, Maksim.880 1 ‡6 700-08 ‡a Васильев, Максим.Subject:600 10 ‡6 880-06 ‡a Putin, Vladimir Vladimirovich, ‡d 1952-880 10 ‡6 600-06 ‡a Путин, Владимир Владимирович, ‡d1952- 60
    60. 60. If we were to parse this 880 data correctly:Alternative Alternative script of script ofname from subject 880 from 880 61
    61. 61. Issue 3: Related Group 1 EntitiesLanguage attribute for a related expression041 1 ‡a eng ‡h ita100 0 ‡a Dante Alighieri, ‡d 1265-1321.240 10 ‡a Divina commedia. ‡l English245 14 ‡a The divine comedy / ‡c Dante ; a new verse translation by C.H. Sisson.500 ‡a Translation of: Divina commedia. 62
    62. 62. If we were to parse 041 ‡h data… Original language from 041 ‡hAlternative Alternative script of script ofname from subject 880 from 880 63
    63. 63. Managing Relationships Between Entities 64
    64. 64. What we are learning from XCMaintaining links among FRBR entityrecords may not be scalable…•new records•changedrecords•deletedrecords•changed 65
    65. 65. What we are learning from XCMaintaining links among FRBR entityrecords may not be scalable… if wecontinue to manipulate records.•new records•changedrecords•deletedrecords•changed 66
    66. 66. What XC has taught us about FRBR…The GOOD news: MARC data is very rich, and contains data about MANY relationships described in FRBR and related data models There are hundreds of RDA Relationships between FRBR entitles! 67
    67. 67. What XC has taught us about FRBR…• MARC data contains many relationships…• A record-based system is probably not feasible• Linked Data may make a fuller implementation of FRBR much more attainable! 68
    68. 68. What We’ve Learned about FRBR and Linked Data
    69. 69. XC software is “Linked Data Ready”The underlying schema for XC useselements from registered element sets tofacilitate conversion to RDF triples (i.e.they already have URIs) 70
    70. 70. XC Schema Properties DC• Dublin Core terms – all• RDA – subset of elements and role designators• XC elements – newly RDA defined (when necessary)All properties are from XC registered element sets and thus already have URIs 71
    71. 71. RDF Triple - Registered Data Elements Subjec Predicat Object t eoai:mst.rochester.edu: http://id.loc.gov/authoritieMST/ s/sh85103735#conceptMARCToXCTransformatio http://www.n/ extensiblecatalog.in10081 fo/Elements/subject This resource has subject Poets, America n 72
    72. 72. How XC is Linked Data ReadyXC converts MARC data to FRBRentities as an interim step. This mayenable us to produce more meaningfulLinked Data. 73
    73. 73. “FRBRized” MARC recordsParsing MARCXML records into linked XC FRBR-based XC Schema records Work Work Expressed XC Expression MARCXML Bibliographic Expression Manifested XC Manifestation 74
    74. 74. RDF triple Subjec Predicat Object t eoai:mst.rochester.edu: http://id.loc.gov/authoritieMST/ s/sh85103735#conceptMARCToXCTransformatio http://www.n/ extensiblecatalog.in10081 fo/Elements/subject This resource has subject Poets, America n 75
    75. 75. With and without FRBRWithout FRBR:<MARCBibRecord-number> has_author “J K Rowling” 76
    76. 76. With and without FRBRWithout FRBR:<MARCBibRecord-number> has_author “J K Rowling”With FRBR:<Work-id> has_creator “J K Rowling”<Expression-id> has_language “English”<Expression-id> has_parent_work <Work-id><Manifestation-id> has_isbn <ISBN-number><Manifestation-id> has_parent_expression <Expression-id> 77
    77. 77. Why use FRBR for Linked Data?• User want to see the relationships• FRBR is the underlying model for RDA• With XC, we can explore when/how FRBR might be useful for Linked Data• Other data models may be more appropriate in some contexts and those can be explored as well. 78
    78. 78. Recap of what we’ve learned from XC• User research shows that the FRBR model does align closely to user needs• Not all relationship data in MARC data can be easily reused• Managing all FRBR relationships in a record-based system probably isn’t feasible 79
    79. 79. Recap of what we’ve learned from XC• Linked Data may make a fuller implementation of FRBR more feasible• FRBR may help us create more usable Linked Data in some situations 80
    80. 80. Thank you!dlindahl@library.rochester.eduwww.eXtensiblecatalog.org

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