Libraries build “research collections” by collecting resources via ownership models.Selection of monographs – use book vendors for approval plan and librarians select titles via firm orderingRely on Interlibrary Loan for items not owned by library
Cory: Library Budgetsthe 2009 CIBER survey reported that 34% of libraries have seen their budgets reduced by at least 5%. In addition, 72% of the libraries surveyed expected that in the next two years their budgets would at best remain flat, if not decreased. impact on books, journals and library staffLibraries are purchasing less monographs because more of the budget goes to recurring costs for resources such as journals, databases, etc.Vendors are offering different business models for purchasing/leasing resources.Network Level Discovery and AccessWith the move to electronic format, libraries have had to adapt services and increased the implementation of technology to offer improved tools to help users find information and have the ability to access the information they need. The introduction of Google, ITunes, and other services has had a significant impact on how library users search and locate information and have influenced how users expect to access and use information.Users want customizable and personalized information environments. They want more control over where and when they access information. Studies are showing both faculty and students are increasingly using search engines or other sites to begin their research. Users want the ability to quickly and easily identify and obtain the information they discover.
Cory: Collection philosophyThe cuts to collections have caused an evolution in the philosophy of collecting information. In past years, libraries have concentrated on collecting and owning materials. However, the financial environment has caused libraries to “rethink” how they collect. Libraries cannot afford to collect resources “just in case.” Financial constraints have resulted in a shift to consideration of a “just in time” collection philosophy, where libraries want short-term access to information, may increase funding for document delivery services, or consider adding pay-per-view services for library users.
UNLV Libraries is experiencing low circulation. The first three years of circulation for Lied Library is 35%, 34% and 35%. Overall, the entire collection averages about 18% circulation each year. Approval plan has higher circulation rate.Budgets are decreasing and libraries continue to make data-driven decisions via usage statistics. Circulation of books is going down and the library cannot continue to buy materials and hope people find them and use them. Using PDA helps the library save money. We can pay for a short-term lease without having to purchase the entire book. So far, we have purchased 1 book. The rest of the expenses are short-term leases. In speaking with other libraries who have PDA ebook services, 70-80% of the expenses for the service are short-term loans.Libraries have prided themselves for the services offered to patrons and are known to be “customer service oriented.” Customer’s behaviors are changing. Libraries need to deliver information at the point of need. PDA with ebooks allows us to do this.UNLV has converted some of the approval plan to e-preferred and will continue to move in this direction. So, the PDA ebook service made sense.
First activity for us was to go into the market place and see what types of business models/services were available. At the time of implementation, there were only a few options, so we went with the model that made the most sense and offered more flexibility. In addition, we went with a vendor where there was a high level of trust, good customer service and a company we had worked well with and had few, if any issues.We spoke with other libraries to see how they had planned, implemented, etc their PDA service. Case studies helped reinforce our thinking for above.One of the difficult tasks was getting “buy-in” from librarians who have collection development duties. The concern is would there be push-back by selectors since it is taking out some of the decision making out of their hands? Our strategy was to come up with a strategy to demonstrate the low circulation, more acceptance of e-book usage and then ask for volunteers to pilot the project.Another potential hurdle is the back-end staff. It was important to communicate with them to let them know we were thinking about PDA and we set-up calls and provided information to see how it would impact their job and workflow.As with any shift in philosophy, especially with regards to collections, it is vital to get “buy-in” from the Library Administration.
For the PDA service, looked at ebook usage stats for disciplines. Saw trends with certain subject areasSelected Disciplines to participate – Business, Education, Marriage and Family Therapy, Social Work, Criminal Justice, Technology, Engineering (Mechanical), Mathematics & Computer ScienceWork with YBP. Base parameters off of Approval plan to fine tune service
PDA helps library deal with patron expectations and needs. Patron also helps build the collection.Combine traditional model with new model. Best of both worlds. Helps save money.Librarians are becoming more embedded. Partnering with faculty in course and assignment design to incorporate information literacy skills. More teaching. Have less time to devote to selections.The Library decided to pilot both the print and electronic PDA services. Allows for discipline and user preference for format.
We chose YBP because we had a great relationship with them and we could tie in the PDA service to our Approval Plan. We also selected EBL for our ebook portion because of the good experiences from other libraries, plus we really liked the flexibility and business model. The content quality was very high.For the print PDA, we had to jump through several hoops and had to rely on the expertise of a computer programmer and our Systems Librarian. We had to carefully craft wording to inform the patron that the book was not “owned” and that they could order it. We had to attach this wording to display on each MARC record in the catalog and also set-up Load tables for the Innovative ILS. We had to identify staff to retrieve the MARC records from YBP’s Gobi site and ftp them into the ILS. In addition, acquisitions staff had to modify their work slightly because this was a new procedure. We held two conference calls with other academic libraries to gather information.For the electronic PDA, it was very easy. We receive the MARC records from EBL and they are ftp’d into the ILS. Very straightforward.Unlv chose to have purchase on the 5th short-term loan.
Before rolling out the service, we conducted an information session for our Liaison Librarians to go over the process for both print and electronic books in the PDA serviceThe library decided not to heavily promote the PDA service. Initially, we felt the best way to promote was word of mouth – for example, liaisons could demo the service in instruction sessions or at reference desk. Inform faculty in meetings.We did not experience any issues with incorporating the “back-end” of the PDA program. The procedures easily fit in with staff daily activities.
The response was very good from staff and students. We have not had any major issues with either PDA service. The ebook service took off like a rocket and usage of the books has been very consistent. For print, we had very few requests for books, but in the last semester, the requests for print books has increased dramatically.Issues – on occasion, liaison librarians do attempt to order an ebook or print book that we have in the PDA queue. In the acquisitions process, we have one layer of protection, so we can catch these. Although GOBI has notes on the records, librarians do not see these.For ebooks, it is sort of a pain for the user to have to enter their id and barcode when on-campus to access the ebooks. Not as seamless as we would like.
Top 5 publishers: WileyTaylor & FrancisO'Reilly MediaCambridge University PressAshgate Publishing LtdUNLV did not have any turnawaysTen pages or less were accessed by 68% of the patrons, fifty pages or less were accessed by only 13% of the patrons, which may indicate that books are selectively searched for relevant information needed. Only 3% were read or browsed hundred pages or more. Browse Online is any reading done during the free 10 minute period. 508 titles were browsed by patrons. Browsing on an average per title was 3 minutes. Out of the 508 titles that were browsed, 256 titles were read by patrons. On an average each title was read for approximately 55 minutes. Came in under budget
We have been very happy the ebook DDA plan and we will definitely expand it. There is now way, looking at the average price of an ebook, that UNLV could afford to purchase over 7,000 ebooks. The DDA plan allowed us to provide increased access to information and at the same time, save our budget.As the usage of our monographs continues to decrease, I see UNLV moving more areas out of the approval plan and into DDA and this includes print books as well.We will definitely monitor the marketplace to see how the DDA business models evolve and also look at other resources such as journals, media, maybe even databases?
Using PDA helps the library save money. We can pay for a short-term lease without having to purchase the entire book. In speaking with other libraries who have PDA ebook services, 70-80% of the expenses for the service are short-term loans.
NISO Webinar: Evolving Trends in Collection Development Part 2: Putting the User in the Driver's Seat
http://www.niso.org/news/events/2013/webinars/user NISO Webinar: Evolving Trendsin Collection Development Part 2: Putting the User in the Drivers Seat March 13, 2013 Speakers: Greg Doyle,Barbara Kawecki, Cory Tucker
Orbis Cascade Alliance Demand Driven Ebook Initiative Putting the User in the Driver’s Seat March 13, 2013 Greg Doyle Electronic Resources Program Manager Orbis Cascade Alliance
Central Oregon Comm. CollegeCentral Washington UniversityChemeketa Community College Consortium of 37 academic libraries in Oregon, Washington,Clark College Idaho: Private & Public, 2-year & 4-yearConcordia University Colleges, Universities, Community CollegesEastern Oregon UniversityEastern Washington UniversityGeorge Fox UniversityLane Community CollegeLewis & Clark CollegeLinfield CollegeMt. Hood Community College 7 membersOregon State UniversityOregon Health & Science Univ.Oregon Institute of TechnologyOregon State University 6 membersPacific University 2 membersPortland Community CollegePortland State University 20 membersReed CollegeSaint Martin’s UniversitySeattle Pacific UniversitySeattle UniversitySouthern Oregon University 6 membersThe Evergreen State CollegeUniversity of IdahoUniversity of Oregon 2 membersUniversity of PortlandUniversity of Puget SoundUniversity of WashingtonWalla Walla CollegeWarner Pacific CollegeWashington State UniversityWestern Oregon UniversityWestern Washington UniversityWhitman College
Resource Sharing• Orbis Cascade ran an Inn-Reach system until it was replaced with OCLC’s Navigator service in 2008• Implementing a true Shared ILS using Ex Libris Alma and Primo• Access to Summit (group catalog and borrowing system) includes 9.2 million titles representing 28.7 million items: primary reason libraries choose to become full members• The Alliance manages a courier program to ship materials around the Pacific Northwest• Resource sharing stats: • 2012: 301,388 requests ; 254,918 requests filled (85% fill rate) • 2011: 321,098 requests ; 293,473 requests filled (85% fill rate) • 2010: 355,996 requests; 296,473 requests filled (83% fill rate)
Cooperative Collection DevelopmentCollection Development Vision Statement (adopted 2007)• “As an Alliance, we consider the combined collections of member institutions as one collection.• While member institutions continue to acquire their own material, the Alliance is committed to cooperative collection development to leverage member institutions’ resources to better serve our users.
Background for the DDA Project• Not successful purchasing ebooks as a consortium – Publishers offered proposals to purchase subject collections and/or current output and backfiles – ER program operated on an opt-in basis – Participation levels were not sufficient to meet the amount required to purchase• Individual libraries were purchasing single ebook titles or collections• Purchased ebooks were not part of the single consortial collection available to all member libraries
Orbis Cascade Demand Driven Program• 2010: Task Force investigates consortial opportunities; recommends a Demand Driven Pilot with EBL• Planning and Implementation: January – June 2011 – 7 people from member libraries – Representatives from EBL and YBP – Biggest challenge: identify and document options for how libraries could access MARC records based on whether the patron starts in the local catalog, Summit (OCLC group catalog), Discovery layer – Profile with YBP: all subjects, 2011 imprint, $250 price cap• July 1, 2011: Go live – 1700 titles – $231,000 with contributions from all libraries based on FTE tiers • January-June 2012: Extended with an addition $231,000
DDA Model• Users discover DDA titles in their local catalog, or Summit (Alliance Group Catalog)• Clicks through to EBL and authenticates• Free browse for 5 minutes• A Short Term Loan (STL) occurs if the title is used more than 5 minutes, or copy/printing content• STL is a “rental” and the cost varies by publisher (4%- 21% of the list cost), averages 14%• A title is purchased when a predetermined number of STLs occur. Titles are purchased with a negotiated multiplier of the list price
DDA Model• We set the STL trigger to purchase and can change it instantly• Use the trigger to control spending• We’ve set our STL trigger at 5, 10, 15 and suspended as needed to stay within budget• Once purchased, no additional costs for access to owned titles
Fiscal Year 13• Team recommended continuing in FY13 and proposed 2 budgets: $550,000 (status quo) and $1,000,000 (expansion)• Change funding model to 30% even split/35% FTE/35% Materials Budget• Council compromised and FY Budget is $750,000 with a commitment to increase to $1,000,000 in FY14• Individual contribution range from $8,054 up to $102,704• Hope is that putting more money on the table will bring in more publishers and titles
Use by Month250002000015000 2011 201210000 20135000 0 July August September October November December January February March April May June
Benefits of Demand Driven Acquisitions• Access to 10,000 titles• Ongoing workload is minimal• Expenditures based only on use• Elimination of staff costs to process borrowing requests• Purchased titles continue to have good use at no additional costs: 43,730 cumulative uses on 900 purchased titles
Benefits of Demand Driven Acquisitions• Libraries have ability to divert funds to titles not available in the DDA Project• Libraries being pushed into ebook environment• General enthusiasm for doing something new and of benefit to the user community• Informing publishers that business as usual can’t continue and new models needed
Challenges• With 37 libraries, value is in the eye of the beholder• Access to purchased titles limited to Alliance libraries• MARC record quality issues; bad URLs• Patron driven acquisitions not embraced by everyone• Publishers can change terms on titles (i.e. classify a title as a textbook)• Constant need to monitor expenditures• Communicating details to 37 libraries• As title pool increases, so does spend• No one wants to lose content
PDA/DDA: History, Overview and Here Today, Gone Tomorrow or Here to Stay? Barbara Kawecki, MLS Senior Sales Manager for Digital Content Western U.S and Western Canada YBP Library Services andCo-Chair NISO Working Group for Demand Driven Best Practices
Agenda• PDA/DDA History = what is it and why now?• Overview of the Integrated workflow• PDA/DDA – Fad or another collection development tool?• How does NISO fit into DDA? 19
NISO Working Group for DDA Best Practices• Group appointed in August 2012• Co-Chair with Michael Levine Clark, University of Denver• Members include librarians, aggregators, publisher representatives• Subcommittees: Technical issues, Access Models, Metrics• Information gathering stage – ER&L presentation & focus group• Deliverables include recommendations for : • Managing and populating the consideration pool • Developing consistent models for • Free discovery • Temporary lease • Purchase • Methods for managing multiple formats (p&e) • Ways to incorporate print-on-demand (POD) • Development of tools and strategies to measure use • Implementation at the local and consortial levels • Providing long-term access to unowned e-book content 20
PDA/DDA Milestones: Yesterday, Today and Tomorrow• 1999 NetLibrary and the Colorado Alliance• 2004 EBL launches DDA• 2005 YBP loads NetLibrary content• 2006 MyiLibrary and Coutts/Ingram• 2009 YBP and Integrated eApproval Plans: 230 customers• 2009 ebrary PDA pilot begins• 2010 ebrary launches PDA• 2010 NetLibrary acquired by EBSCO, now Ebooks on EBSCOhost• 2011 YBP Integrated Demand Driven Acquisitions (DDA): 175 customers today • EBL • Ebrary • Ebooks on EBSCOhost• 2012 Multi-Vendor DDA: 29 customers 21
Demand Driven Acquisition Statistics• 175 DDA Customers• 1,743,869 DDA Records Sent in 2012• 39,033 DDA Purchases• 165,926 Loans on 117,475 Titles 22
Digital Content: how much is there? YBP Approval Titles 70,000 60,898 59,951 60,000Approval Title Count 50,000 40,000 30,000 27,587 20,554 20,000 12,253 11,583 10,000 34% 20% 42% 0 FY2011 FY2012 FY2013 Print Approval eBook Alternate 23
Key Features of Integrated DDA Integration with existing approval and new title profiles Customized discovery and Multiple Vendor options cataloging records Consideration pool =appropriate academic titles Duplication control with Multiple usage options: Electronic invoicing for other print and ebook STLs? Purchase? purchased titles purchases Manual DDA option in Acquisition workflow DDA status in GOBI GOBI – add titles to the support pool on the fly 25
What Does Multi-Vendor Mean?Multi-Vendor Support – allows libraries to choose multiple aggregators forDDA. YBP currently supports DDA through ebrary, EBL, and EBSCOhost.YBP will only send one title record for DDA to the appropriate aggregatorbased on library preferences.First Out: YBP will look for the “best match” based on the library’s vendorpreference. This preference will be used to determine which supplier to sendif the title is available through multiple suppliers for that week.Preferred Vendor: If the library prefers one supplier , YBP will look for thepreferred vendor up to 2 weeks from when the ebook becomes available. Atthat time we release the best match. 26
How to Fill the Pool – differentlevels of profiling All Titles: the entire aggregator catalog, including non-profiled titles. My Library Slips: this All YBP Profileduniverse includes Titles: this only titles from universe includesthe library’s new all profiled titles. title profile(s). 27
DDA Workflow: the Library Experience Each week, possible Titles are matched Titles that are on ebook candidates are against the aggregator order/already owned determined by the preferences set by the by library are removed library’s DDA profile library (optional) Aggregator confirms Possible candidates are Library history in GOBI DDA-eligible & sent to aggregator shows “Aggregator activates in Library partners each Probable DDA” Channel weekend. YBP creates Discovery Catalog Records with an embedded URL Library history in GOBIlinking to the title. The shows “Aggregatorfile of records is placed DDA Record Sent” on our FTP site for library to retrieve and 28 load into OPAC
DDA Workflow: the Patron ExperienceOnce Discovery records are loaded to your OPACand/or Discovery layer they are now available foryour patrons Embedded URL’s link to aggregator’s platform Patrons have a free browse period for selected title Library parameters with aggregator defines what happens next: • STL’s - Y/N • Number of Short Term Loans before purchase triggered • Frequency of billing for STLs and purchases 29
DDA Workflow: What Happens Next? YBP creates YBP sends Invoice for Cataloging Title is YBP does Library. One Records/Acq Purchase Triggered Internal invoice per uisitions/Inv reflected in Aggregator• Short Term Order aggregator oicing GOBI Notifies YBP Loan Process with and Information History, for • Purchase Aggregator purchase to Library Dup Control type (STL or (for Purchase) Purchases) 30
Discovery records vs. Point of Purchase records: they’re all MARC recordsDiscovery records• Initial records loaded to library’s catalog, reflecting all DDA candidates• Can include Enrichment data (TOC, summary, author affiliation)• Do not include order or invoicing data Point of purchase records• Can be standard free or customized • Optional records • Generated once a title has been purchased • Overlay discovery records • Include acquisitions and invoicing information • Can also include Enrichment data (optional) 31
DDA : a Teambuilding Exercise YBP Digital Sales Manager YBP Collection Cataloging Development Manager YBP Technical Collection Services Development Manager YBP Customer Acquisitions Service Bibliographer Aggregator representative 32
PDA/DDA – Here Today, Gone Tomorrow or Here to Stay?• Ebooks are becoming the norm• Space is still at a premium• Budgets are still tight• Library staff continues to shrink, particularly in the area of technical services and selection• Profiling for DDA is the opposite of profiling for an approval plan• DDA is part of the solution to building a collection, but it is not the only solution. There is still content that is only available in print• Publishers are not making ALL of their content available, so there needs to be care taken to collect comprehensively• DDA does allow libraries to understand their users like never before• DDA represents a new tool in the collection development sandbox, but requires thinking outside the box and collaborating together like never before 33
Thank you!For more information, please contact:Barbara Kawecki, MLSSenior Manager for Digital Content, Western US and Western CanadaYBP Library Servicesbkawecki@ybp.com 34
NISO WebinarEvolving Trends in Collection Development Part 2:Putting the User in the Drivers Seat Questions? All questions will be posted with presenter answers on the NISO website following the webinar: http://www.niso.org/news/events/2013/webinars/user NISO Webinar • March 13, 2013
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