Back From the Endangered List:Using Authority Data to Enhance the Semantic Webwww.niso.org/news/events/2011/nisowebinars/a...
What is an “Authority”?    Authority       Agency    Authority       Scheme    Authority       Format    Authority       C...
VIAF Overview    18 authority agency participants (mostly national      libraries)    21 authority files    Mostly MARC 21...
VIAF Pair-wise Matching   (“Research Libraries Group” example)Linking Things and the Virtual International Authority File ...
VIAF Linked Data Hub & Spoke Version   (using skos:exactMatch links)                                                   VIA...
VIAF URIs    Contributed record URI:         • http://viaf.org/viaf/sourceID/LC|n++79032879         • Behaves by redirecti...
But What Do Authority Records Describe?    UNIMARC Authorities Format:         • Primary Entity — The entity, named in the...
Deciphering the Primary Entity’s “type”   (MARC 21)    100    Personal Name -> FRBR Person or FRAD Family?    110    Corpo...
Deciphering the Primary Entity’s “type”   (UNIMARC)    200    Personal Name -> FRBR Person?    210    Corporate Body Name ...
Primary Entities in Linked Data    In Linked Data, the Primary Entity should have a      different http URI from the recor...
VIAF Primary Entity URIs    Person         • http://viaf.org/viaf/102333412/#foaf:Person         • http://viaf.org/viaf/10...
The “focus” of a VIAF Cluster is a Primary   Entity                                        exactMatch       exactMatch    ...
Authoritiesas Linked Data     Hubs      Richard Wallis  Technology Evangelist          Talis richard.wallis@talis.com     ...
...40+ year library metadata heritage
...40+ year library metadata heritage•   Originated from a library cooperative    cataloguing project
...40+ year library metadata heritage•     Originated from a library cooperative      cataloguing project•     Leading UK ...
...40+ year library metadata heritage•     Originated from a library cooperative      cataloguing project•     Leading UK ...
... and the Semantic Web
... and the Semantic Web•   Semantic Web potential for data rich    organisations-   2005
... and the Semantic Web•   Semantic Web potential for data rich    organisations-   2005•   Built Semantic Web Platform S...
... and the Semantic Web•   Semantic Web potential for data rich    organisations-   2005•   Built Semantic Web Platform S...
... and the Semantic Web•   Semantic Web potential for data rich    organisations-   2005•   Built Semantic Web Platform S...
Term Clarification!
Term Clarification!Linked Data                         Semantic Web                    Web of Data
Term Clarification!Linked Data :The pragmatic application of Semantic Webstandards and techniques which underpin theemerge...
Term Clarification!Linked Data :The pragmatic application of Semantic Webstandards and techniques which underpin theemerge...
Term Clarification!Linked Data :The pragmatic application of Semantic Webstandards and techniques which underpin theemerge...
An AssertionThe impact of Linked Data will be greater than     the World Wide Web it builds upon.
Linked Data Web
Linked Data Web
Linked Data WebCurrent state:
Hub Attributes•   Useful•   Onward Links•   Available•   Open•   Authoritative•   Trusted•   Does core job well
Hub Interconnections
Hub Interconnections
Hub Interconnections
Hub InterconnectionsWhy no Link to VIAF ?       RDF - only a VIAF result format
Library of Congress Authorities
Library Linked Data        Mark      Fischetti                  Author     Published by                                   ...
Look beyond the record ...
Look beyond the record ...  ... to a set of links
Look beyond the record ...             ... to a set of linksSubject:    http://id.loc.gov/authorities/sh95000541#concept
Authorities Become Linking Hubs
Authorities Become Linking Hubs •   Hubs to Link to ....
Authorities Become Linking Hubs •   Hubs to Link to .... •   Hubs to link onwards from ....
Authorities Become Linking Hubs •   Hubs to Link to .... •   Hubs to link onwards from .... •   Authoritative
Authorities Become Linking Hubs •   Hubs to Link to .... •   Hubs to link onwards from .... •   Authoritative     -   With...
Authorities Become Linking Hubs •   Hubs to Link to .... •   Hubs to link onwards from .... •   Authoritative     -   With...
Authorities Become Linking Hubs •   Hubs to Link to .... •   Hubs to link onwards from .... •   Authoritative     -   With...
Authorities Become Linking Hubs •   Hubs to Link to .... •   Hubs to link onwards from .... •   Authoritative     -   With...
How?
How?•   RDF encode what we have
How?•   RDF encode what we have•   Mixture of ontologies    -   For Libraries - RDA, FRBR, etc.    -   Wider use - DC Term...
How?•   RDF encode what we have•   Mixture of ontologies    -   For Libraries - RDA, FRBR, etc.    -   Wider use - DC Term...
How?•   RDF encode what we have•   Mixture of ontologies    -   For Libraries - RDA, FRBR, etc.    -   Wider use - DC Term...
How?•   RDF encode what we have•   Mixture of ontologies    -   For Libraries - RDA, FRBR, etc.    -   Wider use - DC Term...
How?Soon!
Authoritiesas Linked Data     Hubs      Richard Wallis  Technology Evangelist          Talis richard.wallis@talis.com     ...
The Getty Vocabularies: ‗Non-             Authoritarian‘ Authority Files for Art,              Architecture, and Material ...
The Getty Vocabularies:      an Overview
• The AAT, ULAN, and TGN were begun in the mid-1980s• to meet the needs of the art museum, visual  resources, archives, an...
• Each vocabulary was conceived and constructed differently            • Since 1990s, all three have been united with the ...
http://www.getty.edu/research/tools/vocabularies/index.html                      Getty Vocabularies   •Art & Architecture ...
The Getty Vocabularies• AAT terms = generic concepts      • (e.g., watercolors, amphora)• TGN names = administrative, phys...
CONTRIBUTORS TO THE GETTY VOCABULARIES   The thesauri grow and change over time   New terms come from Getty projects and...
The Getty Vocabularies Contributed records  are merged as  necessary I.e., if multiple  contributors submit  records for...
The Getty Vocabularies Contributed records  are merged as  necessary I.e., if multiple  contributors submit     Le Corbu...
The Getty Vocabularies  The compiled Getty vocabularies are copyrighted by the J.   Paul Getty Trust  They are licensed ...
The Getty Vocabularies• The Getty vocabularies are implemented in collections  management systems, in which thousands of u...
In this sample trimester, Web users of the Getty vocabulariesrepresented around 130 nations, with the heaviest usage comin...
The Getty vocabularies are used by various audiences:•by catalogers or indexers who are describing works of art, archivalm...
• The Getty vocabularies comply with national and  international standards for thesaurus construction.
• The Getty vocabularies comply with national and    international standards for thesaurus construction. We are active in...
Images from getty.edu, metmuseum.org,, other museum sites                             Thesauri Thesaurus: A semantic netw...
Images from getty.edu, metmuseum.org,, other museum sites                             Thesauri                        As w...
Coverage & Status ofthe Getty Vocabularies
simplified Entity Relationship Diagram for Getty Vocabularies                                   SUBJECT                   ...
simplified Entity Relationship Diagram for Getty Vocabularies                                    SUBJECT                  ...
simplified Entity Relationship Diagram for Getty Vocabularies                                    SUBJECT                  ...
simplified Entity Relationship Diagram for Getty Vocabularies                                   SUBJECT                   ...
simplified Entity Relationship Diagram for Getty Vocabularies•Equivalencerelationships between SUBJECTterms/names that are...
simplified Entity Relationship Diagram for Getty Vocabularies                                   SUBJECT                   ...
simplified Entity Relationship Diagram for Getty Vocabularies                                   SUBJECT                   ...
simplified Entity Relationship Diagram for Getty Vocabularies                                   SUBJECT                   ...
Union Listof Artist Names    ULAN
Elements of a ULAN record                    names                 Gaudí, Antoni                 Antoni Gaudíartist      G...
Elements of a ULAN record                           names                       Gaudí, Antoni                             ...
SCOPE OF ULAN• Scope is from        • Involved in the conception                         or production of visual arts  Ant...
ULAN news and current development:Adding nonwestern artists, current and historical, includingChinese, Japanese, other As...
Getty Thesaurus ofGeographic Names       TGN
Elements of a TGN record              names             Munich             München    place    Monaco   7004333   Munichen...
Elements of a TGN record               names               parent place              Munich                 Germany       ...
SCOPE OF TGN• TGN places include          • Real places, not  political entities and        mythical  physical features   ...
TGN news and current development:Updating the modern hierarchy of administrativedivisions (last done in 1998)Adding arch...
Art & Architecture    Thesaurus      AAT
Elements of an AAT record                   names/terms                   travertine       concept   travertine marble    ...
Elements of an AAT record                       names/terms            related concepts                       travertine  ...
SCOPE OF AAT   Scope is from                    Concepts identified    prehistory to the                 by terms exclud...
AAT news and current development:Qualifier in the data structure: The editorialsystem, VCS, has been upgraded to betterac...
AAT news and current development:Keeping up to date with new media where technologyused in artwork is rapidly changingAd...
AAT news and current development:Multilingual AAT terms:Spanish from Centro de Documentación de Bienes Patrimoniales,Chi...
Cultural ObjectsName Authority    CONA
Elements of a CONA record       titles/names         Irises        Les Iris      Piante di iris       Die Irisse          ...
Elements of a CONA record                                     titles/names                creator                    date ...
CONA Equivalence Relationships Titles/Names: Eiffel Tower      Preference: preferred Tour Eiffel      Preference: alternat...
CONA Equivalence Relationships Titles/Names: Eiffel Tower      Preference: preferred Tour Eiffel      Preference: alternat...
CONA Hierarchical  RelationshipsCatalog Level: componentClass: prints and drawingsWork Type: engravingTitle: Spring Flower...
CONA Hierarchical                                                                  Record  Relationships                  ...
CONA HierarchicalRelationships Whole/part relationships for groups, subgroups, it ems                         images: Libr...
CONA Hierarchical RelationshipsTraveling Tea Service  Record Type: set  Class: decorative arts  Work Type: tea service sil...
CONA Hierarchical RelationshipsTraveling Tea Service   Record Type: set   Class: decorative arts   Work Type: tea service ...
Images: Metropolitan Museum of Art, New York, New York, USA) ID:JP1847Cat. Level[controlled]: series  Class. [controlled]...
Images: Metropolitan Museum of Art, New York, New York, USA) ID:JP1847Cat. Level[controlled]: series  Class. [controlled]...
CONA Associative                                                        Relationships are                                 ...
 One work may be depicted 2009 J. Paul Getty Trust                          ©                            in  another  wor...
 One work may be depicted 2009 J. Paul Getty Trust                          ©                            in  another work...
 One work may be depicted 2009 J. Paul Getty Trust                          ©                            in              ...
• CONA is an authority that provides a unique numeric ID for  works, variant names/titles, and other information• Retrieva...
Cultural Objects Name Authority CONA                                          Catalog level: item                         ...
Cultural Objects Name Authority CONA                                             Current Location: Metropolitan Museum of ...
Cultural Objects Name Authority CONA                                              Display Creation Date: ca. 1831/1833    ...
Cultural Objects Name Authority CONA                                          Inscription: transliterated                 ...
Cultural Objects Name Authority CONA                                              Descriptive Note: The large wave        ...
Growth of CONA will rely upon contributions from the user community: Getty vocabularies are ―social‖ yet ―authoritative,‖...
CONA news and current development:Production system is currently in alphatesting phaseEditorial manuals now available on...
Multilinguality andTranslation Issues
The vocabulary databases are increasinglymultilingualThe Getty Vocabularies are not fully multilingual, due toissues of ...
Languages in ULANGiambologna (preferred, display, Italian-P)Bologna, Giovanni (Italian)Giovanni Bologna (Italian)Giovanni ...
Languages in ULANGiambologna (preferred, display, Italian-P)Bologna, Giovanni (Italian)Giovanni Bologna (Italian)         ...
Corporate BodiesEthnological Museum (preferred, English-P)Ethnologisches Museum (German-P)Ethnographische Sammlung (histor...
Various transliterations    Dai Xi (preferred, display)    Dai, Xi (LC)                              Transliterated    Dà...
Various transliterations, diacritics      Shishkin, Ivan (preferred, index, LC)      Ivan Shishkin (display)      Šiškin, ...
TranslationsKicking Bear (preferred, English-P)Mato Wanartaka (Native American language)                             Portr...
TranslationsKicking Bear (preferred, English-P)                                 Common translations                      ...
Married nameCommon misspelling     OKeeffe, Georgia     Georgia OKeeffe     OKeefe, Georgia     Stieglitz, Alfred, Mrs.   ...
Married nameCommon misspelling     OKeeffe, Georgia     Georgia OKeeffe     OKeefe, Georgia     Stieglitz, Alfred, Mrs.   ...
Married nameCommon misspelling     OKeeffe, Georgia     Georgia OKeeffe     OKeefe, Georgia     Stieglitz, Alfred, Mrs.   ...
Former names, ―incorrect‖ names Names for 14th-century Sienese painter Include spelling variations, former names  (e.g.,...
Former names, ―incorrect‖ names Names for 14th-century Sienese painter Include spelling variations, former names  (e.g.,...
Languages in TGNFirenze (preferred, vernacular, Italian-preferred)Florence (English-preferred)Florencia (Spanish-preferred...
Languages in TGN                         Variant names in                                             other languages    ...
Transliterations, diacriticsTōkyō (preferred,C,V) ............ after  replacing Kyōto as Imperial  capital, 1868Tokyo (C,V...
Languages in CONA    Hagia Sophia (preferred, English-P, Greek transliterated-P)    Holy Wisdom (English, translated)    Ἁ...
Languages in  the AAT
Languages in AATCurrent situation: AAT is in the Roman alphabet Base language is English Terms and Scope Notes may be  ...
English descriptorscolor proofs (preferred, descriptor, American                                                Atlanta Tr...
English descriptorscolor proofs (preferred, descriptor, American                                                Atlanta Tr...
Terms in other languagesstill lifes (preferred, C,U,D, English-P)still life (C,U,AD, English)still-lifes (C,U,UF, English)...
Terms in other languagesstill lifes (preferred, C,U,D, English-P)still life (C,U,AD, English)still-lifes (C,U,UF, English)...
Various transliterationschi wara (preferred)chi-warachiwaraciwaratyi waratyiwarasogoni koun Include variant  transliterat...
The Getty Vocabularies and VIAF The GRI was invited by the Library of Congress to join the project, and officially became...
NISO Webinar: Back From the Endangered List: Using Authority Data to Enhance the Semantic Web
NISO Webinar: Back From the Endangered List: Using Authority Data to Enhance the Semantic Web
NISO Webinar: Back From the Endangered List: Using Authority Data to Enhance the Semantic Web
NISO Webinar: Back From the Endangered List: Using Authority Data to Enhance the Semantic Web
NISO Webinar: Back From the Endangered List: Using Authority Data to Enhance the Semantic Web
NISO Webinar: Back From the Endangered List: Using Authority Data to Enhance the Semantic Web
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NISO Webinar: Back From the Endangered List: Using Authority Data to Enhance the Semantic Web

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Librarian use of authority files dates back to Callimachus and the Great Library of Alexandria around 300 BC. With the evolution of powerful computerized searching and retrieval systems, authority data appears to some to have outlived its usefulness. However, the Semantic Web provides an opportunity to use authority data to enable computers to search, aggregate, and combine information on the Web. Join this webinar to learn about the amazing services that can result when the rich data included in name authority files, and other standardized vocabularies are linked via the Semantic Web.

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NISO Webinar: Back From the Endangered List: Using Authority Data to Enhance the Semantic Web

  1. 1. Back From the Endangered List:Using Authority Data to Enhance the Semantic Webwww.niso.org/news/events/2011/nisowebinars/authoritydata/• Linking Things and the Virtual International Authority File – Jeff Young, Software Architect, OCLC Research• Authorities as Linked Data Hubs – Richard Wallis, Technology Evangelist, Talis• The Getty Vocabularies: “Non-Authoritarian” Authority Files for Art, Architecture, and Material Culture – Murtha Baca, Head, Digital Art History Access, Getty Research Institute NISO Webinar • February 9, 2011
  2. 2. What is an “Authority”? Authority Agency Authority Scheme Authority Format Authority Collection Authority File Authority Record Authority Heading Authority Data Etc.Linking Things and the Virtual International Authority File 3
  3. 3. VIAF Overview 18 authority agency participants (mostly national libraries) 21 authority files Mostly MARC 21 or UNIMARC authority format 17 million name authority records 60 million bibliographic records Includes personal, corporate, and meeting name records, with some cross-referenced geographic name records pulled in Result: 14 million VIAF clustersLinking Things and the Virtual International Authority File 4
  4. 4. VIAF Pair-wise Matching (“Research Libraries Group” example)Linking Things and the Virtual International Authority File 5
  5. 5. VIAF Linked Data Hub & Spoke Version (using skos:exactMatch links) VIAF ClusterLinking Things and the Virtual International Authority File 6
  6. 6. VIAF URIs Contributed record URI: • http://viaf.org/viaf/sourceID/LC|n++79032879 • Behaves by redirecting to the assigned VIAF cluster URI • Acts as a REST web service to lookup the VIAF cluster identifier VIAF cluster URI: • http://viaf.org/viaf/102333412 • Content-negotiable for XHTML, MARC21/XML, UNIMARC/XML, VIAF/XML, and RDF/XML • ―Exact match‖ to contributed record URIs to form the spokesLinking Things and the Virtual International Authority File 7
  7. 7. But What Do Authority Records Describe? UNIMARC Authorities Format: • Primary Entity — The entity, named in the 2-- block of the record, for which the record was created. Data in the 1-- block generally pertain to characteristics of the primary entity. MARC 21 Format for Authority Data: • 024: “… associated with the entity named in the 1XX field…” • 046: “… the entity described in the record…” • Various new 37X fields to collect information about “the entity” “Primary Entity” is a handy term to avoid confusion with any secondary entities lying aroundLinking Things and the Virtual International Authority File 8
  8. 8. Deciphering the Primary Entity’s “type” (MARC 21) 100 Personal Name -> FRBR Person or FRAD Family? 110 Corporate Name -> FRBR Corporate Body? 111 Meeting Name -> FRBR Corporate Body or Event? 130 Uniform Title -> FRBR Work? 148 Chronological Term-> ??? 150 Topical Term -> FRBR Concept? 151 Geographic Name -> FRBR Place? 155 Genre/Form -> ???Linking Things and the Virtual International Authority File 9
  9. 9. Deciphering the Primary Entity’s “type” (UNIMARC) 200 Personal Name -> FRBR Person? 210 Corporate Body Name -> FRBR Corporate Body? 215 Territorial or Geographic Name-> FRBR Place? 220 Family Name -> FRAD Family? 230 Uniform Title -> FRBR Work? 240 Name/Title -> FRBR Work? 250 Topical Subject-> FRBR Concept? 260 Place Access -> FRBR Place? 280 Form, Genre or Physical Characteristics -> ???Linking Things and the Virtual International Authority File 10
  10. 10. Primary Entities in Linked Data In Linked Data, the Primary Entity should have a different http URI from the record that describes it For convenience, the former should be a “cool URI” that automatically directs clients to the latter URI This identifier separation allows us to construct sensible statements like ―Primary Entity X was born on Y‖ without leading systems to believe the record was ―born‖ on that date ―Cool URIs for the Semantic Web.‖ W3C. 03 December 2008. <http://www.w3.org/TR/cooluris/>.Linking Things and the Virtual International Authority File 11
  11. 11. VIAF Primary Entity URIs Person • http://viaf.org/viaf/102333412/#foaf:Person • http://viaf.org/viaf/102333412/#rdaEnt:Person Corporate Body • http://viaf.org/viaf/153463563/#foaf:Organization • http://viaf.org/viaf/153463563/#rdaEnt:CorporateBodyLinking Things and the Virtual International Authority File 12
  12. 12. The “focus” of a VIAF Cluster is a Primary Entity exactMatch exactMatch VIAF exactMatch exactMatch Cluster focus PersonLinking Things and the Virtual International Authority File 13
  13. 13. Authoritiesas Linked Data Hubs Richard Wallis Technology Evangelist Talis richard.wallis@talis.com @rjw www.slideshare.net/rjw NISO Webinar February 9th 2011
  14. 14. ...40+ year library metadata heritage
  15. 15. ...40+ year library metadata heritage• Originated from a library cooperative cataloguing project
  16. 16. ...40+ year library metadata heritage• Originated from a library cooperative cataloguing project• Leading UK ILS supplier- 25% of UK public and academic libraries- 30M Shared catalogue still core service
  17. 17. ...40+ year library metadata heritage• Originated from a library cooperative cataloguing project• Leading UK ILS supplier- 25% of UK public and academic libraries- 30M Shared catalogue still core service• Talis Education- Resource management for Universities- Resource relationships between educators students and libraries
  18. 18. ... and the Semantic Web
  19. 19. ... and the Semantic Web• Semantic Web potential for data rich organisations- 2005
  20. 20. ... and the Semantic Web• Semantic Web potential for data rich organisations- 2005• Built Semantic Web Platform Service- Powering Library & Education products- Linked Data Platform as a Service for all
  21. 21. ... and the Semantic Web• Semantic Web potential for data rich organisations- 2005• Built Semantic Web Platform Service- Powering Library & Education products- Linked Data Platform as a Service for all• Linked Data Evangelism
  22. 22. ... and the Semantic Web• Semantic Web potential for data rich organisations- 2005• Built Semantic Web Platform Service- Powering Library & Education products- Linked Data Platform as a Service for all• Linked Data Evangelism• Facilitate learning, understanding, adoption, hosting- Training, advising, mentoring, consultancy, managed services
  23. 23. Term Clarification!
  24. 24. Term Clarification!Linked Data Semantic Web Web of Data
  25. 25. Term Clarification!Linked Data :The pragmatic application of Semantic Webstandards and techniques which underpin theemergence of a GlobalWeb of Data thatwill help realise a futureSemantic Web .
  26. 26. Term Clarification!Linked Data :The pragmatic application of Semantic Webstandards and techniques which underpin theemergence of a GlobalWeb of Data thatwill help realise a futureSemantic Web .Key Standards: RDF SPARQL
  27. 27. Term Clarification!Linked Data :The pragmatic application of Semantic Webstandards and techniques which underpin theemergence of a GlobalWeb of Data thatwill help realise a futureSemantic Web .Key Standards: Format to describe data and RDF relationships Query language for RDF SPARQL data
  28. 28. An AssertionThe impact of Linked Data will be greater than the World Wide Web it builds upon.
  29. 29. Linked Data Web
  30. 30. Linked Data Web
  31. 31. Linked Data WebCurrent state:
  32. 32. Hub Attributes• Useful• Onward Links• Available• Open• Authoritative• Trusted• Does core job well
  33. 33. Hub Interconnections
  34. 34. Hub Interconnections
  35. 35. Hub Interconnections
  36. 36. Hub InterconnectionsWhy no Link to VIAF ? RDF - only a VIAF result format
  37. 37. Library of Congress Authorities
  38. 38. Library Linked Data Mark Fischetti Author Published by Harper Tim Author Weaving PaperbacBerners- the Web ks Lee Subject Sold by World Amazon.c Wide Web om
  39. 39. Look beyond the record ...
  40. 40. Look beyond the record ... ... to a set of links
  41. 41. Look beyond the record ... ... to a set of linksSubject: http://id.loc.gov/authorities/sh95000541#concept
  42. 42. Authorities Become Linking Hubs
  43. 43. Authorities Become Linking Hubs • Hubs to Link to ....
  44. 44. Authorities Become Linking Hubs • Hubs to Link to .... • Hubs to link onwards from ....
  45. 45. Authorities Become Linking Hubs • Hubs to Link to .... • Hubs to link onwards from .... • Authoritative
  46. 46. Authorities Become Linking Hubs • Hubs to Link to .... • Hubs to link onwards from .... • Authoritative - Within Library Community
  47. 47. Authorities Become Linking Hubs • Hubs to Link to .... • Hubs to link onwards from .... • Authoritative - Within Library Community - On behalf of Library Community
  48. 48. Authorities Become Linking Hubs • Hubs to Link to .... • Hubs to link onwards from .... • Authoritative - Within Library Community - On behalf of Library Community • Subjects, Identities, Geographies, Form ats, ...
  49. 49. Authorities Become Linking Hubs • Hubs to Link to .... • Hubs to link onwards from .... • Authoritative - Within Library Community - On behalf of Library Community • Subjects, Identities, Geographies, Formats, ... • Works?
  50. 50. How?
  51. 51. How?• RDF encode what we have
  52. 52. How?• RDF encode what we have• Mixture of ontologies - For Libraries - RDA, FRBR, etc. - Wider use - DC Terms, FOAF
  53. 53. How?• RDF encode what we have• Mixture of ontologies - For Libraries - RDA, FRBR, etc. - Wider use - DC Terms, FOAF• Link out - Wikipedia, NYT, IMDB, etc.
  54. 54. How?• RDF encode what we have• Mixture of ontologies - For Libraries - RDA, FRBR, etc. - Wider use - DC Terms, FOAF• Link out - Wikipedia, NYT, IMDB, etc.• Openly Publish
  55. 55. How?• RDF encode what we have• Mixture of ontologies - For Libraries - RDA, FRBR, etc. - Wider use - DC Terms, FOAF• Link out - Wikipedia, NYT, IMDB, etc.• Openly Publish• Make queryable - SPARQL
  56. 56. How?Soon!
  57. 57. Authoritiesas Linked Data Hubs Richard Wallis Technology Evangelist Talis richard.wallis@talis.com @rjw www.slideshare.net/rjw NISO Webinar February 9th 2011
  58. 58. The Getty Vocabularies: ‗Non- Authoritarian‘ Authority Files for Art, Architecture, and Material Culture NISO Webinar on Using Authority Data to Enhance the Semantic Web February 9, 2011 Murtha Baca, PhD Getty Research Institute© 2011 J. Paul Getty Trust. For educational purposes only. Do not reproduce.
  59. 59. The Getty Vocabularies: an Overview
  60. 60. • The AAT, ULAN, and TGN were begun in the mid-1980s• to meet the needs of the art museum, visual resources, archives, and art library communities• They are authoritative vocabularies to aid in the indexing and retrieval of resources related to art, architecture, and material culture. image: photographer Michael Gäbler , wikipedia commons
  61. 61. • Each vocabulary was conceived and constructed differently • Since 1990s, all three have been united with the same core data structure and editorial rules • Planning for the 4th vocabulary, CONA, was begun in 2004 • We provide instruction for use of and contribution to the Getty vocabularies at conferences and in online training materialsPatricia Harpring © 2010 J. Paul Getty Trust. For educational purposes. Do not reproduce. image: photographer Michael Gäbler , wikipedia commons
  62. 62. http://www.getty.edu/research/tools/vocabularies/index.html Getty Vocabularies •Art & Architecture Thesaurus ® (AAT) • 34,000 ‗records‘; 131,000 terms • Getty Thesaurus of Geographic Names ® (TGN) •895,000 ‗records‘; 1,115,000 names • Union List of Artist Names ® (ULAN) •127,000 ‗records‘ 375,000 names • Cultural Objects Name Authority™ (CONA) •under development; available for contributions in 2011 Focus on the visual arts and architecture Grow through contributions from the user community Compiled, maintained, distributed by the Getty Vocabulary Program, a unit of the Getty Research Institute (GRI) in Los Angeles
  63. 63. The Getty Vocabularies• AAT terms = generic concepts • (e.g., watercolors, amphora)• TGN names = administrative, physical places • (e.g., Los Angeles, Ottoman Empire, Bavarian Alps)• ULAN = person, corporate body names • (e.g., Christopher Wren, Altobelli & Molins)• CONA = titles/names of art and architecture • (e.g., Mona Lisa, Empire State Building)  Each vocabulary record is identified by a unique, persistent numeric ID
  64. 64. CONTRIBUTORS TO THE GETTY VOCABULARIES  The thesauri grow and change over time  New terms come from Getty projects and authorized outside contributors  Current contributors include museums, libraries, archives, bibliographic and documentation projects
  65. 65. The Getty Vocabularies Contributed records are merged as necessary I.e., if multiple contributors submit records for the same concept (AAT), person (ULAN), place (TGN), or object/work (CONA), the information is merged into one record, with contributors noted at certain key fields
  66. 66. The Getty Vocabularies Contributed records are merged as necessary I.e., if multiple contributors submit Le Corbusier …….[Avery, BHA, CCA] records for the same concept (AAT), person (ULAN), place (TGN), or object/work (CONA), the information is merged into one record, with contributors noted at certain key fields
  67. 67. The Getty Vocabularies  The compiled Getty vocabularies are copyrighted by the J. Paul Getty Trust  They are licensed to institutions and businesses; over 330 licenses have been negotiated Currently, AAT, TGN, and ULAN are licensed with fees adjusted differently for for-profit and not-for-profit institutions; currently licenses are renewed every five years; CONA licensing details are not yet determined Data files are released annually in XML and relational tables. New releases of full data files for AAT, ULAN, and TGN are released annually, in June or July Also available via Web services APIs; refreshed every two weeks
  68. 68. The Getty Vocabularies• The Getty vocabularies are implemented in collections management systems, in which thousands of users access the vocabularies • They are also available through a search screen on line, averaging over 180,000 queries per month • The Getty vocabularies are among the top resources accessed on the Getty Web site
  69. 69. In this sample trimester, Web users of the Getty vocabulariesrepresented around 130 nations, with the heaviest usage comingfrom the following nations: USA, Canada, UK, Switzerland,Germany, Italy, Australia, France, India, Spain, Poland, Belgium,Japan, Russia, Greece, Taiwan, Portugal, and the Netherlands.
  70. 70. The Getty vocabularies are used by various audiences:•by catalogers or indexers who are describing works of art, archivalmaterials, visual surrogates, or bibliographic materials•by researchers•by systems implementers creating search tools to enhance end-user access to online resources
  71. 71. • The Getty vocabularies comply with national and international standards for thesaurus construction.
  72. 72. • The Getty vocabularies comply with national and international standards for thesaurus construction. We are active in the standards-building communities
  73. 73. Images from getty.edu, metmuseum.org,, other museum sites Thesauri Thesaurus: A semantic network of unique concepts Thesauri may be monolingual or multilingual Thesauri may have the following three relationships: Equivalence Relationships Hierarchical Relationships hierarchical Associative Relationships Objects Facet .... Furnishings and Equipment stirrup cups ........ Containers coaching glasses hunting glasses ............ <culinary containers> associative ................ <vessels for serving / consuming rhyta equivalence sturzbechers .................... rhyta distinguished from rhyton rhytons Sturzbecher stortebekers rhea rheon rheons ritón
  74. 74. Images from getty.edu, metmuseum.org,, other museum sites Thesauri As with AAT, TGN, ULAN, and CONA are Thesaurus: A semantic network of unique concepts thesauri in Thesauri may be monolingual or multilingual compliance with ISO Thesauri may have the following three relationships: and NISO standards Equivalence Relationships Hierarchical Relationships hierarchical Associative Relationships Objects Facet .... Furnishings and Equipment stirrup cups ........ Containers coaching glasses hunting glasses ............ <culinary containers> associative ................ <vessels for serving / consuming rhyta equivalence sturzbechers .................... rhyta distinguished from rhyton rhytons Sturzbecher stortebekers rhea rheon rheons ritón
  75. 75. Coverage & Status ofthe Getty Vocabularies
  76. 76. simplified Entity Relationship Diagram for Getty Vocabularies SUBJECT MAIN TABLE basic record information, unique ID, parent_key, record type, descriptive/scope note, flags NAMES / TERMS multiple names, one is flagged preferred; dates for names
  77. 77. simplified Entity Relationship Diagram for Getty Vocabularies SUBJECT MAIN TABLE basic record information, unique ID, parent_key, record type, descriptive/scope note, flags NAMES / TERMS multiple names, one is flagged preferred; dates for names•All four Gettyvocabularies have acommon structure
  78. 78. simplified Entity Relationship Diagram for Getty Vocabularies SUBJECT MAIN TABLE basic record information, unique ID, parent_key, record type, descriptive/scope note, flags NAMES / TERMS •Main multiple table, Subject_I names, one is flagged preferred; dates for names D links data to the record •Terms also identified by an ID•All four Gettyvocabularies have acommon structure
  79. 79. simplified Entity Relationship Diagram for Getty Vocabularies SUBJECT MAIN TABLE basic record information, unique ID, parent_key, record type, descriptive/scope note, flags NAMES / TERMS multiple names, one is flagged preferred; dates for namesLanguage Contributors Sources ASSOCIATIVE RELATIONSHIPS links between subjects, dates
  80. 80. simplified Entity Relationship Diagram for Getty Vocabularies•Equivalencerelationships between SUBJECTterms/names that are MAIN TABLE basic record information,linked to the same unique ID, parent_key, record type,concept ID descriptive/scope note, flags NAMES / TERMS •Hierarchical multiple relationships between names, one is flagged preferred; dates for names different concept IDs; each record is linked to its Language immediate parent Contributors Sources •Associative relationships between different concept ASSOCIATIVE IDs; are reciprocal RELATIONSHIPS links between subjects, dates
  81. 81. simplified Entity Relationship Diagram for Getty Vocabularies SUBJECT MAIN TABLE basic record information, unique ID, parent_key, record type, descriptive/scope note, flags NAMES / TERMS Biography Revision multiple (ULAN) names, one is flagged Coordinates display History •TGN preferred; dates for names bio, birth/death editor (TGN) name, action, date , ULAN, an dates, places of action d CONALanguage Events Contributors (ULAN) PLACE additional event, dates TYPES/ROLES tables Sources Nationality (ULAN, TGN) multiple place types or roles, one is (ULAN) flagged preferred, dates ASSOCIATIVE RELATIONSHIPS links between subjects, dates
  82. 82. simplified Entity Relationship Diagram for Getty Vocabularies SUBJECT Source MAIN TABLE controlled basic record information, unique ID, parent_key, record type, descriptive/scope note, flags Relationship Types controlled Biography Language NAMES / TERMS Revision controlled multiple (ULAN) names, one is flagged Coordinates display History editor Contributor preferred; dates for names bio, birth/death (TGN) name, action, date controlled dates, places of action NationalityLanguage Events controlled Contributors (ULAN) PLACE event, dates TYPES/ROLES Events Sources Nationality (ULAN, TGN) multiple controlled place types or roles, one is (ULAN) flagged preferred, dates Location ASSOCIATIVE controlled RELATIONSHIPS links between Place Type / subjects, dates Role controlled
  83. 83. simplified Entity Relationship Diagram for Getty Vocabularies SUBJECT Source MAIN TABLE controlled basic record information, unique ID, parent_key, record type, descriptive/scope note, flags Relationship Types controlled Biography Language NAMES / TERMS controlled multiple •Controlled values (ULAN) Revision names, one is flagged Coordinates identified by IDs; other display History Contributor preferred; dates for names bio, birth/death (TGN) editor name, action, controlled shorter controlled lists inof action dates, places date the DB simply list terminology NationalityLanguage Events ―preferred,‖ ―non- (e.g., controlled Contributors (ULAN) preferred‖) PLACE event, dates TYPES/ROLES Events Sources Nationality (ULAN, TGN) multiple controlled place types or roles, one is (ULAN) flagged preferred, dates Location ASSOCIATIVE controlled RELATIONSHIPS links between Place Type / subjects, dates Role controlled
  84. 84. Union Listof Artist Names ULAN
  85. 85. Elements of a ULAN record names Gaudí, Antoni Antoni Gaudíartist Gaudí y Cornet, Antonio500014514 Cornet, Antoni Gauí Gaudí i Cornet, Antoni  The Focus of each vocabulary record is a concept - not a “term”  Conceptual record identified by unique numeric ID  Linked to each artist record are names, related artists, sources for the data, and notes Sagrada Familia, Barcelona Spain, 1882-1926. Image © http://www.op.net/~jmeltzer/Gaudi/eltemple.html. Portrait © Encyclopedia Britannica online.
  86. 86. Elements of a ULAN record names Gaudí, Antoni life dates Antoni Gaudí Birth Date: 1852artist Gaudí y Cornet, Antonio Death Date: 1926500014514 Cornet, Antoni Gauí Gaudí i Cornet, Antoni roles architect, notes landscape Gaudí was influenced by Catalonias medieval history and architect, furniture architecture. His works display a designer respect for craftsmanship and structural logic. His work is geographic location characterized by sculptural Reus (Spain) plasticity... Barcelona (Spain) nationalities sources Catalan, Spanish Contemporary Architects (1987); Enciclopedia universal ilustrada (1978- 1983) ; Encyclopedia of world art (1959- related people 1987) ; Grove Dictionary of Art online studied with (1999-); LC Name Authority Headings Juan Martorell Montells [online] (2002-)
  87. 87. SCOPE OF ULAN• Scope is from • Involved in the conception or production of visual arts Antiquity to the and architecture present • May include artists, architects, craftsmen, as• Identified well as people and individuals or corporate bodies closely groups of related to artists, including rulers, individuals prominent patrons, working together museums and other repositories of art (corporate bodies)
  88. 88. ULAN news and current development:Adding nonwestern artists, current and historical, includingChinese, Japanese, other Asian, Native American, and othersAdding contemporary artists, particularly those collected bymuseums and special collections; artists noted in the PacificStandard Time exhibition Adding types of artists that are not currently in ULAN, such as mail artists, interior design artists, illustrators, calligraphers, etc. Adding names of repositories of art Ongoing processing of contributions: Witt Library (Courtauld), architects and firms from Avery Index of Architectural Periodicals, artists from the Provenance Index, 10,000 repository records from VRA/IU project
  89. 89. Getty Thesaurus ofGeographic Names TGN
  90. 90. Elements of a TGN record names Munich München place Monaco 7004333 Munichen images © Munich Tourist Board, http://www.muenchen-tourist.de/
  91. 91. Elements of a TGN record names parent place Munich Germany place types München Baveria inhabited place place Monaco Oberbayern state capital 7004333 Munichen dates coordinates founded near an older 48 08 N, 011 35 E settlement in 1157 note Capital of Bavaria and the third-largest city in Germany; is situated on both sides of the Isar River, north of the Alps. Henry the Lion, duke of Bavaria, established it in 1157 as a mint and market for Benedictine monks from Tegernsee ... sources Baedekers: München (1955); Cambridge Italian Dictionary (1962); Canby, Historic Places (1984); Columbia Lippincott Gazetteer (1961); Enciclopedia Europea (1978); Times Atlas of the World (1992); USBGN: Foreign Gazetteers; Websters Geographical Dictionary (1988)
  92. 92. SCOPE OF TGN• TGN places include • Real places, not political entities and mythical physical features • May include formerly• Scope is global, some inhabited extraterrestrial places, historical places• Includes all current with unknown exact continents and nations locations ―lost• Historical settlement‖ places, including nations • Focus on places and empires important to art and• Prehistory to the present material culture
  93. 93. TGN news and current development:Updating the modern hierarchy of administrativedivisions (last done in 1998)Adding archaeological sites, World Heritage Sitenames, and other historical sites, focusing onAsian, Pre-Columbian, Middle Eastern, and othersBuilding historical hierarchies for historical nations andempiresOngoing projects of processingcontributions, occasional Getty, first files from NationalGeospacial Intelligence Agency (formerly NIMA;includes non-domestic place names and coordinates)have been preprocessed and loaded, including the filefor Italy
  94. 94. Art & Architecture Thesaurus AAT
  95. 95. Elements of an AAT record names/terms travertine concept travertine marble 300011329 travertine stone roachstone lapis tiburtinus Images from getty.edu
  96. 96. Elements of an AAT record names/terms related concepts travertine tufa concept travertine marble onyx marble 300011329 travertine stone scope note roachstone A dense, crystalline lapis tiburtinus or microcrystalline limestone that was parent concept formed by the Materials Hierarchy evaporation of river ......limestone or spring waters. It ...........sinter is named after Tivoli ...............travertine (Tibur in Latin)... sources Sturgis, Dictionary of Architecture and Building (1902); Roberts, Construction Industry Thesaurus (1976); Brady and Clauser, Materials Handbook (1977); Dictionary of Geological Terms (1984); Oxford English Dictionary (1989); Encyclopaedia Britannica (1973) Images from getty.edu
  97. 97. SCOPE OF AAT Scope is from  Concepts identified prehistory to the by terms excluding present proper names No geographic  Thus it can be described limitations as containing Terms for concepts, information about activities, and objects generic concepts (as discussed within the opposed to proper literature of the fields of nouns or names) art, architecture, decorative arts,  Must fit into the archaeology, material hierarchies already culture, art conservation, established in the AAT archival materials, or related topics
  98. 98. AAT news and current development:Qualifier in the data structure: The editorialsystem, VCS, has been upgraded to betteraccommodate qualifiers in multilingual data Previously had been only one qualifier per term However, the same term may be appropriate for multiple languages, while the qualifier for different languages should be different (e.g., English: gouache (paint), Spanish: gouache (pintura); French: gouache (pientre)) Revised data structure = the Qualifier is repeating for each term Import XML formats, online Web contribution forms, and licensed files have been updated to accommodate the new structure
  99. 99. AAT news and current development:Keeping up to date with new media where technologyused in artwork is rapidly changingAdding styles, work types, tools, and materials fornon-Western art, contemporary art, decorative arts, andothers Corporate body counterparts for building types (e.g., museums (buildings), museums (institutions)) Processing contributions (Spanish, Italian, etc.), cleaning up non-synonyms currently included as UFs in legacy records, adding missing scope notes Advising and training re. Conservation Thesaurus (a project of the Getty Conservation Institute)
  100. 100. AAT news and current development:Multilingual AAT terms:Spanish from Centro de Documentación de Bienes Patrimoniales,Chile; delivered and onlineChinese translation is underway by the TELDAP (Taiwan E-Learning and Digital Archives ProgramGerman translation is being undertaken by the Institut fürMuseumsforschung in BerlinDutch translation from the Rijksbureau voor KunsthistorischeDocumentatie ; RKD will also contribute to ULAN in calendar year2011Integration is underway for around 3,000 Italian object type termsfrom ICCD, RomeFull set of 3,000 French terms from CHIN has been fullyintegrated
  101. 101. Cultural ObjectsName Authority CONA
  102. 102. Elements of a CONA record titles/names Irises Les Iris Piante di iris Die Irisse Irysy record is Irissen identified with a work persistent 800123 unique numeric ID image: c. j. paul getty museum
  103. 103. Elements of a CONA record titles/names creator date Irises Vincent van Gogh 1889 Les Iris (Dutch, 1853-1890) work type Piante di iris painting style Die Irisse Post Impressionist Irysy subject Irissen materials botanical oil on canvas, applied nature irises with brush and palette regenerations notes work knife oil This work was painted when 800123 measurements the artist was recuperating 71 x 93 cm (28 x 36 from a severe attack of mental illness; it depicts the 5/8 inches)garden at the asylum at Saint Rémy... current location Paul Getty Museum (Los sources Angeles, California, United States) J. Paul Getty Museum. Handbook of the creation location Collections. Los Angeles: J. Paul Getty Saint Rémy de Provence (Provence Museum, 1991. Alpes Côte dAzur, France) image: c. j. paul getty museum
  104. 104. CONA Equivalence Relationships Titles/Names: Eiffel Tower Preference: preferred Tour Eiffel Preference: alternate Torre Eiffel Preference: alternate Eiffelturm Preference: alternate Three-Hundred-Meter Tower Preference: alternate Title Type: former Image: Encyclopedia Britannia online
  105. 105. CONA Equivalence Relationships Titles/Names: Eiffel Tower Preference: preferred Tour Eiffel Preference: alternate Torre Eiffel Preference: alternate Eiffelturm Preference: alternate Three-Hundred-Meter Tower Preference: alternate Title Type: formerTitles and alternate titles torefer to same work Image: Encyclopedia Britannia online
  106. 106. CONA Hierarchical RelationshipsCatalog Level: componentClass: prints and drawingsWork Type: engravingTitle: Spring Flowers in a ChineseVaseCreator: Maria Sibylla Merian(German, 1647-1717)Creation Date: 1680Medium: hand-colored engraving Measurements:folio 32.6 x 21.3 cm (12 13/16 x 8 3/8 inches)Subject: •still life •botanical •flowers •insects •tulips •iris•vase •wasp •beetleCurrent Location: Natural History Museum(London, England) images: Natural History Museum (London, England)
  107. 107. CONA Hierarchical Record Relationships for the print is linked toCatalog Level: componentClass: prints and drawings separateWork Type: engraving recordTitle: Spring Flowers in a Chinese for theVase book as aCreator: Maria Sibylla Merian whole(German, 1647-1717)Creation Date: 1680Medium: hand-colored engraving Measurements: Relationship Type:folio 32.6 x 21.3 cm (12 13/16 x 8 3/8 inches) broader contextSubject: •still life •botanical •flowers •insects •tulips •iris•vase •wasp •beetle Related Work: New Book ofCurrent Location: Natural History Museum(London, England) Flowers. Nuremburg: 1680. Relationship Number: volume 3 plate 2 images: Natural History Museum (London, England)
  108. 108. CONA HierarchicalRelationships Whole/part relationships for groups, subgroups, it ems images: Library of Congress (Washington, DC); bookbinding.co.uk
  109. 109. CONA Hierarchical RelationshipsTraveling Tea Service Record Type: set Class: decorative arts Work Type: tea service silver Title: Traveling tea serviceTeapot Creation Location: Paris (France) Creation Dae: 1728/1729 Creator: probably by: Martin Berthe, master in 1712 Measurements:Tea Caddy Overall (Teapot): 10 x 16.8 x 10.3 cm (3 15/16 x 6 5/8 x 4 1/16 in.) Overall (Tea Canister): 9 x 5.9 x 4.9 cm (3 9/16 x 2 5/16 x 1 15/16 in.) Overall (Sugar bowl): 10 cm (3 15/16 in.) Overall (Tea bowl and saucer): 4.9 cm (1 15/16 in.)Japanese Imari Sugar Bowl and Cover Overall (Scent flask): 13.7 cm (5 3/8 in.) Overall (Spoons (each)): 11.7 cm (4 5/8 in.) Overall (Box): 15.4 cm (6 1/16 in.) Materials: silver and ebonized wood; porcelain; glass; kingwood; rosewoodChinese Famille- Verte Tea Bowl and Saucer Inscriptions/Marks: Makers Mark: a crowned fleur-de-lys, 2 grains, [M]B, a bunch of grapes ? (Dennis 50): Underside. Wardens Mark: 1728-29, a crowned M (Dennis 57): Underside. Charge Mark: 1727- 32, an A crowned on the side (Dennis 57): Underside, partially effaced. Discharge Mark: for medium- sized work, 1727-32, a crowned martlet (Dennis 57): Underside. Countermark: 1727-32, a crowned bellSilver-mounted Scent Flask (Dennis 343): flange of lid. Description: Traveling tea service consisting of a teapot; tea canister; suagrbowl; teabowl and saucer; scent flask; two spoons; box. Current Location: Museum of Fine Arts (Boston, Massachusetts);Two Spoons Elizabeth Parke Firestone and Harvey S. Firestone, Jr. Collection, 1993; Accession number: 1993.520.1-8 Ownership History: By 1955, with Jean-Louis Bonnefoy, Au Vieux Paris, Paris; November 1955, sold by Au Vieux Paris to Elizabeth Parke Firestone (1897-1990) and Harvey S. Firestone, Jr. (1898-Wooden Box 1973), Akron, OH and Newport, RI; 1993; gift of the Estate of Elizabeth Parke Firestone and Harvey S. Firestone, Jr. (Accession date: May 26, 1993) Image: Museum of Fine Arts, Boston. www.mfa.org
  110. 110. CONA Hierarchical RelationshipsTraveling Tea Service Record Type: set Class: decorative arts Work Type: tea service silver Title: Traveling tea serviceTeapot Creation Location: Paris (France) Creation Dae: 1728/1729 Creator: probably by: Martin Berthe, master in 1712 Measurements:Tea Caddy Overall (Teapot): 10 x 16.8 x 10.3 cm (3 15/16 x 6 5/8 x 4 1/16 in.) Overall (Tea Canister): 9 x 5.9 x 4.9 cm (3 9/16 x 2 5/16 x 1 15/16 in.) Overall (Sugar bowl): 10 cm (3 15/16 in.) Overall (Tea bowl and saucer): 4.9 cm (1 15/16 in.)Japanese Imari Sugar Bowl and Cover Overall (Scent flask): 13.7 cm (5 3/8 in.) Overall (Spoons (each)): 11.7 cm (4 5/8 in.) Overall (Box): 15.4 cm (6 1/16 in.) Materials: silver and ebonized wood; porcelain; glass; kingwood; rosewoodChinese Famille- Verte Tea Bowl and Saucer Inscriptions/Marks: Makers Mark: a crowned fleur-de-lys, 2 grains, [M]B, a bunch of grapes ? (Dennis 50): Underside. Wardens Mark: 1728-29, a crowned M (Dennis 57): Underside. Charge Mark: 1727- 32, an A crowned on the side (Dennis 57): Underside, partially effaced. Discharge Mark: for medium- sized work, 1727-32, a crowned martlet (Dennis 57): Underside. Countermark: 1727-32, a crowned bellSilver-mounted Scent Flask (Dennis 343): flange of lid. Description: Traveling tea service consisting of a teapot; tea canister; suagrbowl; teabowl and saucer; scent flask; two spoons; box. Current Location: Museum of Fine Arts (Boston, Massachusetts);Two Spoons Elizabeth Parke Firestone and Harvey S. Firestone, Jr. Collection, 1993; Accession number: 1993.520.1-8 Ownership History: By 1955, with Jean-Louis Bonnefoy, Au Vieux Paris, Paris; November 1955, sold by Au Vieux Paris to Elizabeth Parke Firestone (1897-1990) and Harvey S. Firestone, Jr. (1898-Wooden Box 1973), Akron, OH and Newport, RI; 1993; gift of the Estate of Elizabeth Parke Firestone and Harvey S. Firestone, Jr. (Accession date: May 26, 1993) Whole/Part Records for a set Displayed as a hierarchy, relationships indicated with indentation Image: Museum of Fine Arts, Boston. www.mfa.org
  111. 111. Images: Metropolitan Museum of Art, New York, New York, USA) ID:JP1847Cat. Level[controlled]: series  Class. [controlled]: prints*Work Type [link to authority]: color woodcuts*Title : Thirty-six Views of Mount Fuji: First SeriesAlternate Title: First Series: Mt. Fuji Views*Creator Display: Katsushika Hokusai (Japanese, 1760–1849); Published by Eijudo Japan*Role [controlled]: painter [link]: Hokusai, Katsushika Role: [cont.] publisher [link]: Eijudo Japan*Creation Date 1827-1837 [controlled]:  Earliest: 1827  Latest: 1837*Subject [links] Mount Fuji ocean genre scenes meisho-e*Current Location [link to authority]: not applicableStyle: Edo*Measurements: 36 prints, average plate size: 24 x 37 cm[cont.] Extent: items Value: 36 Unit: N/A Type: countQualifier: average dimensions Extent: plate mark Value: 24 Unit: cm Type: height Value: 37 Unit: cm Type: width*Materials and Techniques: woodcuts, polychrome ink and color on paper[link] ink color (pigment) paper woodcutsDescription: Hokusai produced two series of Views of Mt. Fuji. This is the first series. Cat. Level [controlled]: item  Class .[controlled]: prints and drawings Asian art  *Work Type [link]:  color woodcut  *Title: Great Wave at Kanagawa Title: In the Hollow of a Wave off the Coast at Kanagawa Title Type: alternate  *Creator Display: Katsushika Hokusai (Japanese, 1760-1849); published by Nishimura Eijudo (Japanese, 19th century) *Role [link]: printmaker [link]: Hokusai, Katsushika *Role [link]: publisher [link]: Nishimura Eijudo  *Creation Date: ca. 1831/1833 [controlled]:  Earliest: 1828  Latest: 1836  *Subject [links]: seascape wave fishermen boat Mount Fuji (Chubu, Japan) Kanagawa (Kanto, Japan)  Style [link]: Edo  Culture [link]: Japanese  *Current Location [link]: Metropolitan Museum of Art, New York, New York, USA) ID:JP1847  *Measurements: 25.7 x 37.9 cm (10 1/8 x 14 15/16 inches) [controlled]: Value: 25.7 Unit: cm Type: height | Value: 37.9 Unit: cm Type: width  *Materials and Techniques: woodcut, polychrome ink and color on paper Material [links]:  polychrome ink paper  color (pigment) Technique [links]:  woodcut  Description: The large wave dominates the scene, with the small mountain in the background. It is said to have inspired said to have inspired both Debussys "La Mer" and Rilkes "Der Berg."  Relationship: Relationship Type: part of Qualifier: 1st in series [link to Work]: Katsushika Hokusai (Japanese, 1760-1849); Thirty-six Views of Mount Fuji: First Series; 1827-1837
  112. 112. Images: Metropolitan Museum of Art, New York, New York, USA) ID:JP1847Cat. Level[controlled]: series  Class. [controlled]: prints*Work Type [link to authority]: color woodcuts*Title : Thirty-six Views of Mount Fuji: First SeriesAlternate Title: First Series: Mt. Fuji Views*Creator Display: Katsushika Hokusai (Japanese, 1760–1849); Published by Eijudo Japan*Role [controlled]: painter [link]: Hokusai, Katsushika Role: [cont.] publisher [link]: Eijudo Japan*Creation Date 1827-1837 [controlled]:  Earliest: 1827  Latest: 1837*Subject [links] Mount Fuji ocean genre scenes meisho-e*Current Location [link to authority]: not applicableStyle: Edo*Measurements: 36 prints, average plate size: 24 x 37 cm[cont.] Extent: items Value: 36 Unit: N/A Type: countQualifier: average dimensions Extent: plate mark Value: 24 Unit: cm Type: height Value: 37 Unit: cm Type: width*Materials and Techniques: woodcuts, polychrome ink and color on paper[link] ink color (pigment) paper woodcutsDescription: Hokusai produced two series of Views of Mt. Fuji. This is the first series. Cat. Level [controlled]: item  Class .[controlled]: prints and drawings Asian art  *Work Type [link]:  color woodcut  *Title: Great Wave at Kanagawa Title: In the Hollow of a Wave off the Coast at Kanagawa Title Type: alternate  *Creator Display: Katsushika Hokusai (Japanese, 1760-1849); published by Nishimura Eijudo (Japanese, 19th century) *Role [link]: printmaker [link]: Hokusai, Katsushika *Role [link]: publisher [link]: Nishimura Eijudo  *Creation Date: ca. 1831/1833 [controlled]:  Earliest: 1828  Latest: 1836  *Subject [links]: seascape wave fishermen boat Mount Fuji (Chubu, Japan) Kanagawa (Kanto, Japan)  Style [link]: Edo  Culture [link]: Japanese  *Current Location [link]: Metropolitan Museum of Art, New York, New York, USA) ID:JP1847  *Measurements: 25.7 x 37.9 cm (10 1/8 x 14 15/16 inches) [controlled]: Value: 25.7 Unit: cm Type: height | Value: 37.9 Unit: cm Type: width  *Materials and Techniques: woodcut, polychrome ink and color on paper Material [links]:  polychrome ink paper  color (pigment) Technique [links]:  woodcut  Description: The large wave dominates the scene, with the small mountain in the background. It is said to  Whole/Part Records have inspired said to have inspired both Debussys "La Mer" and Rilkes "Der Berg."  Relationship: for a series and a part Relationship Type: part of Qualifier: 1st in series [link to Work]: Katsushika Hokusai (Japanese, 1760-1849); Thirty-six Views of Mount Fuji: First Series; 1827-1837
  113. 113. CONA Associative Relationships are reciprocalRelationships study for study isJean-Auguste-Dominique Ingres; Study for the Dress and theHands of Madame Moitessier; 1851; graphite on tracingpaper, squared in black chalk; 13 15/16 x 6 5/8 inches; J. PaulGetty Museum (Los Angeles, California); 91.GG.79 Jean-Auguste-Dominique Ingres; Madame Moitessier; 1851; Samuel H. Kress Collection, National Gallery of Art (Washington, DC); 1946.7.18
  114. 114.  One work may be depicted 2009 J. Paul Getty Trust © in another work, e.g., architectural drawing, etc. E.g., record for photo as work of art linked to the architectural built work Cat.Level[cont.]: item Class [cont.:architecture *Obj./Work Type : observation tower *Title/Name: Eiffel Tower Alternate Title/Name: Tour Eiffel Former Title/Name: Three-Hundred-Metre Tower *Creator Display: architect: Gustave Eiffel (French, 1832- 1923) *Role [cont.] : architect  [link]: Eiffel, Gustave *Creation Date *: 1887 to 1889 [controlled]:  Start: 1887  End: 1889 *Subject [link to authorities]:  industrial exposition International Exposition of 1889 *Current Location [link]: Paris (France) *Measurements: height: 300 m (984 feet) [controlled] Value: 300 Unit: m Type: height *Materials and Techniques: wrought iron, exposed iron construction [link to Concept Authority]:  wrought iron structural iron exposed construction Style [link]: Belle Époque Description: Commission was awarded by competition; the competition sought a plan for a monument for the International Exposition of 1889, celebrating the centenary of the French Revolution. The tower is built almost entirely of open-lattice wrought iron. It was the entrance gateway to the exposition. image: Getty Research Institute
  115. 115.  One work may be depicted 2009 J. Paul Getty Trust © in another work, e.g., architectural drawing, etc. E.g., record for photo as work of art linked to the architectural built work Cat.Level[cont.]: item Class [cont.:photograph Cat.Level[cont.]: item Class [cont.:architecture *Obj./Work Type: albumen print *Obj./Work Type : observation tower *Title/Name: The Eiffel Tower: State of the Construction *Creator Display: photographer: Louis-Emile Durandelle *Title/Name: Eiffel Tower (French, 1832-1923) Alternate Title/Name: Tour Eiffel *Role [cont.] : photographer  [link]: Durandelle, Louis-Emile Former Title/Name: Three-Hundred-Metre Tower *Creation Date *: photographed 23 November 1888 *Creator Display: architect: Gustave Eiffel (French, 1832- *Subject [link to authorities]:  Eiffel Tower 1923) Related Works [link to work record]: depicts *Role [cont.] : architect  [link]: Eiffel, Gustave Relationship Type: depicts *Creation Date *: 1887 to 1889 [controlled]:  Start: 1887  End: 1889 [link to work record]: Eiffel Tower *Subject [link to authorities]:  industrial exposition *Current Location [link]: J. Paul Getty Museum (Los International Exposition of 1889 Angeles, California, USA); 87.XM.121.16 *Current Location [link]: Paris (France) *Measurements: 17 x 13 3/4 inches [controlled] Value: 17 Unit: in Type: height Value: 13.75 Unit: in Type: width depicted *Measurements: height: 300 m (984 feet) [controlled] Value: 300 Unit: m Type: height *Materials and Techniques: wrought iron, exposed iron *Materials and Techniques [link to Concept Authority]: albumin print in construction [link to Concept Authority]:  wrought iron structural iron Style [link]: Belle Époque exposed construction Description: This view was made about four months short Style [link]: Belle Époque of the towers completion. Louis-Émile Durandelle Description: Commission was awarded by competition; the photographed the tower from a low vantage point to competition sought a plan for a monument for the International emphasize its monumentality. The massive building barely Exposition of 1889, celebrating the centenary of the French Revolution. The tower is built almost entirely of open-lattice visible in the far distance is dwarfed under the towers wrought iron. It was the entrance gateway to the exposition. arches... Source: Getty Museum, Collections [online] (2000-) image: Getty Research Institute
  116. 116.  One work may be depicted 2009 J. Paul Getty Trust © in • The other work may be both another work, e.g., a Related Work and the architectural drawing, etc. Subject E.g., record for photo as work • e.g., when contributor of of art linked to the photo record does not have a architectural built work full catalog record for the architecture Cat.Level[cont.]: item Class [cont.:photograph Cat.Level[cont.]: item Class [cont.:architecture *Obj./Work Type: albumen print *Obj./Work Type : observation tower *Title/Name: The Eiffel Tower: State of the Construction *Creator Display: photographer: Louis-Emile Durandelle *Title/Name: Eiffel Tower (French, 1832-1923) Alternate Title/Name: Tour Eiffel *Role [cont.] : photographer  [link]: Durandelle, Louis-Emile Former Title/Name: Three-Hundred-Metre Tower *Creation Date *: photographed 23 November 1888 *Creator Display: architect: Gustave Eiffel (French, 1832- *Subject [link to authorities]:  Eiffel Tower 1923) Related Works [link to work record]: depicts *Role [cont.] : architect  [link]: Eiffel, Gustave Relationship Type: depicts *Creation Date *: 1887 to 1889 [controlled]:  Start: 1887  End: 1889 [link to work record]: Eiffel Tower *Subject [link to authorities]:  industrial exposition *Current Location [link]: J. Paul Getty Museum (Los International Exposition of 1889 Angeles, California, USA); 87.XM.121.16 *Current Location [link]: Paris (France) *Measurements: 17 x 13 3/4 inches [controlled] Value: 17 Unit: in Type: height Value: 13.75 Unit: in Type: width depicted *Measurements: height: 300 m (984 feet) [controlled] Value: 300 Unit: m Type: height *Materials and Techniques: wrought iron, exposed iron *Materials and Techniques [link to Concept Authority]: albumin print in construction [link to Concept Authority]:  wrought iron structural iron Style [link]: Belle Époque exposed construction Description: This view was made about four months short Style [link]: Belle Époque of the towers completion. Louis-Émile Durandelle Description: Commission was awarded by competition; the photographed the tower from a low vantage point to competition sought a plan for a monument for the International emphasize its monumentality. The massive building barely Exposition of 1889, celebrating the centenary of the French Revolution. The tower is built almost entirely of open-lattice visible in the far distance is dwarfed under the towers wrought iron. It was the entrance gateway to the exposition. arches... Source: Getty Museum, Collections [online] (2000-) image: Getty Research Institute
  117. 117. • CONA is an authority that provides a unique numeric ID for works, variant names/titles, and other information• Retrieval with CONA would allow users to retrieve ALL pertinent results with one search Hagia Sophia Church of the Holy Wisdom Ayasofya Agia Sofia Agia Sophia Haghia Sophia Sancta Sophia Sancta Sapientia Saint Sophia St. Sophia Αγία Σοφία • Multiple titles/names refer to the same work images: wikipedia; encyclopedia britannica online; greatbuildings.com
  118. 118. Cultural Objects Name Authority CONA Catalog level: item Names/Titles: Great Wave at Kanagawa Pref: preferred Type: repository In the Hollow of a Wave off the Coast at Kanagawa Pref: alternate La Vague Language: French© Metropolitan Museum of Art, New York Die große Welle Language: German Kanagawa oki nami ura Language: Japanese transliterated Language: Japanese
  119. 119. Cultural Objects Name Authority CONA Current Location: Metropolitan Museum of Art (New York, New York, USA) Location type: corporate body Repository ID: JP1847 Credit Line: H. O. Havemeyer Collection, Bequest of Mrs. H. O. Havemeyer, 1929 Display Creator: Katsushika Hokusai (Japanese, 1760-1849); published© Metropolitan Museum of Art, New York by Nishimura Eijudo (Japanese, 19th century) Related People/Corporate Bodies: Hokusai, Katsushika Role: printmaker Nishimura Eijudo Role: publisher
  120. 120. Cultural Objects Name Authority CONA Display Creation Date: ca. 1831/1833 Start: 1828  End: 1836 Classification: prints Object/Work Type: color woodcut Technique/Medium display: woodcut, polychrome ink and© Metropolitan Museum of Art, New York color on paper Material:  polychrome ink paper  color (pigment) Technique:  woodcut Measurements display: 25.7 x 37.9 cm (10 1/8 x 14 15/16 inches) Value: 25.7 Unit: cm Type: height Value: 37.9 Unit: cm Type: width
  121. 121. Cultural Objects Name Authority CONA Inscription: transliterated signature: Hokusai aratame Iitsu hitsu Depicted Subject: general: seascape specific: wave fishermen boat Mount Fuji (Chubu, Japan)© Metropolitan Museum of Art, New York Kanagawa (Kanto, Japan) Style: Edo Culture:
  122. 122. Cultural Objects Name Authority CONA Descriptive Note: The large wave dominates the scene, with the small mountain in the background. It is said to have inspired said to have inspired both Debussys "La Mer" and Rilkes "Der Berg“… Related Works: Sources: Metropolitan Museum of Art online© Metropolitan Museum of Art, New York (2001-) Page: accessed 10 June 2010 Broader Context: Movable Works Katsushika Hokusai (Japanese, 1760- 1849); Thirty-six Views of Mount Fuji: First Series; 1827-1837
  123. 123. Growth of CONA will rely upon contributions from the user community: Getty vocabularies are ―social‖ yet ―authoritative,‖ authoritative, but not ―authoritarian‖—so-called preferred terms are for display and collocation only—not prescriptive.Contributions may be made in bulkor one record at a time via an online contribution form
  124. 124. CONA news and current development:Production system is currently in alphatesting phaseEditorial manuals now available on lineContributions will be accepted beginning in2011CONA will be available online, with limiteddata, in 2012When critical mass is available throughcontributions, licensing options will beannounced
  125. 125. Multilinguality andTranslation Issues
  126. 126. The vocabulary databases are increasinglymultilingualThe Getty Vocabularies are not fully multilingual, due toissues of complexity; however Terms/Names/Titles andDescriptive/Scope Notes are repeatable in multiple languages TGN and ULAN have many thousands of non-English names, although the languages are not flagged and thus cannot be counted AAT: Of the total ca. 200,000 total terms in AAT, 70,000 are not American English: 50,000 are Spanish; 6,000 are French; 6,000 are Italian; 3,000 are British English; 1,600 are German; etc. (these are total records, including candidates not published)
  127. 127. Languages in ULANGiambologna (preferred, display, Italian-P)Bologna, Giovanni (Italian)Giovanni Bologna (Italian)Giovanni da Bologna (Italian)Bologne, Jean de (French)Jean de Bologne (French)Boulogne, Jean (French)Gian Bologna (Italian) portrait: "Portrait of Giovanni Bologna" by Hendrick Goltzius, image from Bridgeman Art Gallery ; sculpture: Female Figure, marble, 1571 - 1573 ; 45 1/4 in.; J. Paul Getty Museum, 2.SA.37, image http://www.getty.edu
  128. 128. Languages in ULANGiambologna (preferred, display, Italian-P)Bologna, Giovanni (Italian)Giovanni Bologna (Italian) Artists who were known by multipleGiovanni da Bologna (Italian) names in their lifetime; marriedBologne, Jean de (French) namesJean de Bologne (French)Boulogne, Jean (French)Gian Bologna (Italian) portrait: "Portrait of Giovanni Bologna" by Hendrick Goltzius, image from Bridgeman Art Gallery ; sculpture: Female Figure, marble, 1571 - 1573 ; 45 1/4 in.; J. Paul Getty Museum, 2.SA.37, image http://www.getty.edu
  129. 129. Corporate BodiesEthnological Museum (preferred, English-P)Ethnologisches Museum (German-P)Ethnographische Sammlung (historical, German)Ethnographic Collection (historical, English).... name used from 1829Cabinet of Art and Rarities (historical, English)Kunst- und Raritätenkabinett (historical, German) Ethnological Museum, Language often more pertinent with Berlin corporate bodies than people since corporate body names are often translated in published sources (while people‘s names rarely are)
  130. 130. Various transliterations Dai Xi (preferred, display) Dai, Xi (LC)  Transliterated Dài Xī (Chinese, transliterated names Pinyin)  Preferred name is Tai Hsi (Chinese, transliterated Wade- in the Roman Giles) alphabet Chunshi (sobriquet)  Transliterated Yuan (sobriquet) using ISO 戴熙 (Chinese) standard, if possible Dai Xi ; Landscape; sold at auction 28 November 2005. Admiring the waterfall (w/frontispiece & annotations); 1847; Sale Of Sothebys Hong Kong: Monday, April 28, 2003 Images from ArtNet online.
  131. 131. Various transliterations, diacritics Shishkin, Ivan (preferred, index, LC) Ivan Shishkin (display) Šiškin, Ivan Ivanovič Chichkin, Ivan Ivanovitch Schischkin, Iwan Iwanowitsch Иван Иванович Шишкин Ivan Shishkin; Sun-Lit Pines; 1886; oil on canvas; 102 x 70.2 cm (40 1/16 x 27 5/8 inches); Tretyakov Gallery (Moscow, Russia).. Image neneamircea.weblog.ro
  132. 132. TranslationsKicking Bear (preferred, English-P)Mato Wanartaka (Native American language) Portrait: Image from Wikipedia; Battle of Little Big Horn, ca. 1898 Watercolor on muslin2 ft. 11 in. x 5 ft. 10 in. frame included) The Southwest Museum (Los Angeles, California)
  133. 133. TranslationsKicking Bear (preferred, English-P)  Common translations are importantMato Wanartaka (Native Americanvariants language)  ―coined‖ terms or names are not allowed  translation must be found in published source Portrait: Image from Wikipedia; Battle of Little Big Horn, ca. 1898 Watercolor on muslin2 ft. 11 in. x 5 ft. 10 in. frame included) The Southwest Museum (Los Angeles, California)
  134. 134. Married nameCommon misspelling OKeeffe, Georgia Georgia OKeeffe OKeefe, Georgia Stieglitz, Alfred, Mrs. Georgia OKeefe; Rams Skull With Brown Leaves; Roswell Museum and Art Center; Roswell, New Mexico from: http://www.roswellmuseum.org/
  135. 135. Married nameCommon misspelling OKeeffe, Georgia Georgia OKeeffe OKeefe, Georgia Stieglitz, Alfred, Mrs. Georgia OKeefe; Rams Skull With Brown Leaves; Roswell Museum and Art Center; Roswell, New Mexico from: http://www.roswellmuseum.org/
  136. 136. Married nameCommon misspelling OKeeffe, Georgia Georgia OKeeffe OKeefe, Georgia Stieglitz, Alfred, Mrs.  published misspellings added to vocabulary  but anticipated end-user misspellings can be accommodated on retrieval Georgia OKeefe; Rams Skull With Brown Leaves; Roswell Museum and Art Center; Roswell, New Mexico from: http://www.roswellmuseum.org/
  137. 137. Former names, ―incorrect‖ names Names for 14th-century Sienese painter Include spelling variations, former names (e.g., appellations used when the artist was anonymous)Bulgarini, BartolomeoBartolomeo BolgariniBartolomeo BolghiniBartolomeo BulgariniBartolommeo Bulgarini da SienaMaestro dOvileMaster of the Ovile MadonnaOvile MasterLorenzetti, UgolinoUgolino Lorenzetti
  138. 138. Former names, ―incorrect‖ names Names for 14th-century Sienese painter Include spelling variations, former names (e.g., appellations used when the artist was anonymous) But do NOT include in same record unless it isBulgarini, Bartolomeo sources that they generally agreed in scholarlyBartolomeo Bolgariniuncertain, link as are the same person. If Related People.Bartolomeo BolghiniBartolomeo BulgariniBartolommeo Bulgarini da SienaMaestro dOvileMaster of the Ovile MadonnaOvile MasterLorenzetti, UgolinoUgolino Lorenzetti
  139. 139. Languages in TGNFirenze (preferred, vernacular, Italian-preferred)Florence (English-preferred)Florencia (Spanish-preferred)Florenz (German-preferred)Fiorenza (historical, Italian) MedievalFlorentia (historical, Latin) name of Roman colony on N bank of ArnoFlorentine (adjectival, English) Coat of Arms of Florence, floor mosaic, Medici Chaple, Florence image from Ediz. Giusti di S. Becoci, Firenze; view photo by Patricia Harpring
  140. 140. Languages in TGN  Variant names in other languages for archaeologicalPascua, Isla de (preferred,Spanish-P) and historical sitesIsla de Pascua (Spanish, display name)  Preferred forms in English and otherRapa Nui (Rapa Nui-P) languages may beRapanui (Rapa Nui) flaggedEaster Island (English-P) image: zengomob.com
  141. 141. Transliterations, diacriticsTōkyō (preferred,C,V) ............ after replacing Kyōto as Imperial capital, 1868Tokyo (C,V,English-P,U,N)東京 (C,V,Japanese-P,V,N)Tokio (H,O,English,U,N) ............ obsolete spellingEdo (H,V) ............ during Tokugawa Shogunate begining 1603Yeddo (H,V)Yedo (H,V)
  142. 142. Languages in CONA Hagia Sophia (preferred, English-P, Greek transliterated-P) Holy Wisdom (English, translated) Ἁγία Σοφία (Greek-P) Ayasofya (Turkish) Santa Sofia Agia Sofia Sancta Sophia (Latin) Megale Ecclesia Title/names in CONA may be flagged in various languages ―translated‖ is a Title Type Photo by Yetsuh Frank. © Yetsuh Frank; from http://www.byzantium1200.org/hagia.html
  143. 143. Languages in the AAT
  144. 144. Languages in AATCurrent situation: AAT is in the Roman alphabet Base language is English Terms and Scope Notes may be represented in other languages Displayed and published in Unicode
  145. 145. English descriptorscolor proofs (preferred, descriptor, American Atlanta Trial Color Proofs: Lincoln Ninety Cents 1869. Museum of United States Essays and Proofs. http://www.essayproof.net/museum/wings/ps/atlanta.html English-P)color proof (alternate descriptor, American English)colour proofs (descriptor, British English-P)colour proof (alternate descriptor, British English)flat proofs (used for)proofs, color (used for)
  146. 146. English descriptorscolor proofs (preferred, descriptor, American Atlanta Trial Color Proofs: Lincoln Ninety Cents 1869. Museum of United States Essays and Proofs. http://www.essayproof.net/museum/wings/ps/atlanta.html English-P)color proof (alternate descriptor, American English)colour proofs (descriptor, British English-P)colour proof (alternate descriptor, British English)flat proofs (used for)proofs, color (used for) English is preferred term, descriptor There are separate American English and British English descriptors if spelling is different
  147. 147. Terms in other languagesstill lifes (preferred, C,U,D, English-P)still life (C,U,AD, English)still-lifes (C,U,UF, English)still lives (C,U,UF, English)nature morte (C,U,D,French-P) ... used from the mid-18th centurynatura morta (C,U,D,Italian-P)stilleven (C,U,D,Dutch-P) ... in use from ca. 1650Stilleben (C,U,D,German-P)naturaleza muerta (C,U,D,Spanish-P)nature reposée (H,U,UF,French) ... early 18th-century French term Still Life with Apples, Paul Cézanne; French, 1893 - 1894; Oil on canvas; 25 3/4 x 32 1/8 in.; J. Paul Getty Museum (Los Angeles, California); 96.PA.8
  148. 148. Terms in other languagesstill lifes (preferred, C,U,D, English-P)still life (C,U,AD, English)still-lifes (C,U,UF, English)still lives (C,U,UF, English)nature morte (C,U,D,French-P) ... used from the mid-18th centurynatura morta (C,U,D,Italian-P)stilleven (C,U,D,Dutch-P) ... in use from ca. 1650Stilleben (C,U,D,German-P)naturaleza muerta (C,U,D,Spanish-P)nature reposée (H,U,UF,French) ... early 18th-century French term  AAT includes terms in other languages  Follows capitalization rules of that language Still Life with Apples, Paul Cézanne; French, 1893 - 1894; Oil on canvas; 25 3/4 x 32 1/8 in.; J. Paul Getty Museum (Los Angeles, California); 96.PA.8
  149. 149. Various transliterationschi wara (preferred)chi-warachiwaraciwaratyi waratyiwarasogoni koun Include variant transliterations We use sources where terms are already Bamana Headdresses; Bamana peoples; chi wara; wood, iron, fiber; 20th cen.; heights: 55.2 cm and 59.1 cm; National Museum of African Art, gift of transliterated Dr. Ernst Anspach and museum purchase Prefer ISO transliteration
  150. 150. The Getty Vocabularies and VIAF The GRI was invited by the Library of Congress to join the project, and officially became a member in March 2010. Our artists‘ names (ULAN®) records are now part of the VIAF file. The GRI‘s next contribution to VIAF will be Thesaurus of Geographic Names® (TGN) data.

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