http://www.niso.org/news/events/2013/econtent

NISO Virtual Conference:
Revolution or Evolution:
The Organizational Impact...
NISO Virtual Conference:
Revolution or Evolution:
The Organizational Impact of Electronic Content
Agenda
Introduction - To...
Revolution for Sure
David W. Lewis
NISO Virtual Conference: Revolution or Evolution:
The Organizational Impact of Electron...
“That is what real revolutions are like. The old
stuff gets broken faster than the new stuff is put
in its place.”

Clay S...
Resulted in:
1. Scientific Journal
2. Novels
3. Use of alphabetical order as a means of
organizing knowledge
4. Silent rea...
Resulted in:
5. Literacy became an amateur activity
6. Institutions that had controlled of
information lost that control
7...
Agenda
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•

Ronald Coase
Job to Be Done
Tyler Cowen and Freestyle Chess
Michael Buckland
Digital Documents
Ope...
Ronald Harry Coase
“The Nature of the Firm” Economica 4
(16): 386–405 1937

Question: If markets are efficient, why do we
...
Ronald Harry Coase
“The Nature of the Firm” Economica 4
(16): 386–405 1937

Question: If markets are efficient, why do we
...
Ronald Harry Coase
“The Nature of the Firm” Economica 4
(16): 386–405 1937

• Where the market has high transactions
costs...
“The Nature of the Firm” and Libraries
• In the past the market could not answer
questions
• Now the market can answer man...
“The Nature of the Firm” and Libraries
• In the past the market could not manage
collections
• Now access to many kinds of...
“The Nature of the Firm” and Libraries
Critical Question:
What knowledge management problems do
our institutions and commu...
Clayton Christensen

“Job to Be Done”
• People have jobs they need to do in their
lives
• They want to do these jobs in th...
Clayton Christensen

“Job to Be Done”
• What jobs are scholars and students hiring
the library to do?
• How do we provide ...
"People don't want to buy a quarter-inch drill.
They want a quarter-inch hole!” — Theodore
Levitt

People don’t want a lib...
Tyler Cowen,
Average is Over: Powering America Beyond
the Age of the Great Stagnation
(New York: Dutton, 2013), page 7.

“...
Tyler Cowen,
Average is Over: Powering America Beyond
the Age of the Great Stagnation
(New York: Dutton, 2013), page 7.

“...
Tyler Cowen,
Average is Over: Powering America Beyond
the Age of the Great Stagnation
(New York: Dutton, 2013), page 7.

•...
Tyler Cowen,
Average is Over: Powering America Beyond
the Age of the Great Stagnation
(New York: Dutton, 2013), page 7.

•...
“Moore’s Law,” Wikipedia. Available at: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Moores_law
• Watson’s hardware cost $3,000,000 in 2011
• By 2020 the same hardware can be expected
to cost less than $50,000
• By 203...
Michael Buckland,
Redesigning Library Services: A Manifesto
(Chicago: American Library Association, 1992).

“The central p...
Michael Buckland,
Redesigning Library Services: A Manifesto
(Chicago: American Library Association, 1992).

1. Paper Libra...
Michael Buckland,
Redesigning Library Services: A Manifesto
(Chicago: American Library Association, 1992).

• Library coll...
Michael Buckland,
Redesigning Library Services: A Manifesto
(Chicago: American Library Association, 1992).

• When documen...
Michael Buckland,
Redesigning Library Services: A Manifesto
(Chicago: American Library Association, 1992).

• When documen...
Melvil Dewey

Our practices and values come from the
Paper Library
Paper
•
•
•
•

Localized
One use at a time
Not easily copied
Inflexible, not easily
modified or
annotated
• Storage bulky ...
Paper
• Publishers needed •
• Long lasting medium •
• Preservation
strategies understood
• Emotional
attachment to books
a...
Content Supply Chain is All Digital

• Print books delivered nearly as quickly as
digital files
• Digital readers nearly a...
Content Supply Chain is All Digital
• You can purchase/access content only when
it is actually needed
• Inventories of con...
Opportunity Costs of Print Collections
$5.00 to $13.10
$28.77

$50.98 to $68.43
$141.89
Life cycle cost based on 3% discou...
Content Supply Chain is All Digital
• Because marginal cost of distributing content
is zero, new business models are possi...
Open Access
• Open-access (OA) literature is digital, online, free of
charge, and free of most copyright and licensing
res...
Open Access
Open Access is:
1. A movement — response to excessive price
increases by commercial journal publishers
2. A ne...
Disruptive Innovation
Clayton Christensen
Clayton M. Christensen, Michael B. Horn, Louis Soares, and Louis
Caldera, Disrup...
Disruptive Innovation
• Needs
– New Technology (simplified solution)
– New Business Model
– New Value Chain
• Starts as be...
Pace of Substitution of Direct Gold OA for
Subscription Journals
100.0%
90.0%
80.0%
70.0%
60.0%
50.0%
40.0%
30.0%
20.0%
10...
Pace of Substitution of Direct Gold OA for Subscription
Journals (log scale)
100.0%

10.0%

1.0%
Laakso, et. al. Estimates...
Pace of Substitution of Direct Gold OA for
Subscription Journals Based on Additional 2011
European Commission Data
100.0%
...
Old Model
General Public

Scholar

Library

Publisher
Funders

General Public

University

Old Model
“Good Old
Days”

Scholar

Library

Publisher
Funders

Old Model
“Bad Old
Days”

General Public

University

Scholar

Library

Publisher

Shareholders
Funders

Open Access
Future

General Public

University

Scholar

Library

Publisher

Shareholders
Funders

Open Access
Future

General Public

University

Scholar

Library

Publisher

Shareholders
The Flip
• In a paper world libraries brought documents
from the world to the local community or
institution
• In the digi...
Library
Library
Library
The Subsidy Perspective
• If information is not cheap and easy, people
will not use it to the extent that will
maximize so...
The Subsidy Perspective
• What matters is that information is cheap
and easy
• Preserving the subsidy matters

• Preservin...
The Subsidy Perspective
• What matters is getting the most scholarship
to the most people
“That is what real revolutions are like. The old
stuff gets broken faster than the new stuff is put
in its place.”

Clay S...
Questions/Comments

© 2013 David W. Lewis. This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-NoDeri...
LIBRARY/PRESS COLLABORATIONS
SERVING A SPECTRUM OF NEEDS
NISO Virtual Conference: Revolution or Evolution
The Organization...
MISSION-DRIVEN PUBLISHING
EACH “FIELD” HAS ITS OWN PLAYERS, BUSINESS MODELS, VALUES, MEETINGS, etc.

University
Presses

L...
OUR POSITIONING
THE AIM IS TO OFFER PUBLISHING SERVICES ACROSS A SPECTRUM OF NEEDS and
to CREATE A SYNERGY BENEFICIAL FOR ...
MEETING A SPECTRUM OF NEEDS
TWO IMPRINTS, ONE STAFF, SHARED INFRASTRUCTURE
- Purdue UP: branded; peer-reviewed; books and ...
PURDUE UNIVERSITY PRESS
PEER-REVIEWED BOOKS AND JOURNALS
SCHOLARLY PUBLISHING SERVICES
OA JOURNALS, TECH REPORTS, OPEN TEXTS, CONFERENCE PROCEEDINGS, POSTPRINTS, etc.
“The publishing division of Purdue Libraries enhances the impact of Purdue scholarship by
developing information products ...
BEHIND THE SCENES
PHYSICAL COLLOCATION
ADMIN INTEGRATION
SHARED MISSION
PHYSICAL COLLOCATION

Center of power
Now – 2013 (above)

Then – 2009 (below)
ADMINISTRATIVE INTEGRATION
Planning and Operations Council
Dean’s Council

Dean of Libraries

Information Resources Counci...
SHARED MISSION
UNIT PLANS LINK TO JOINT STRATEGIC PLAN
TOGETHER WE BETTER . . .
SERVE CAMPUS NEEDS
SUPPORT DISCIPLINES
SOLVE ISSUES IN SYSTEM
SERVE CAMPUS NEEDS
HOW CAN WE ADVANCE INSTITUTIONAL PRIORITIES?
85 article proposals lead to
11 articles, 35 “snapshots”

...
SUPPORT DISCIPLINES
HOW CAN WE BETTER SERVE DISCIPLINARY COMMUNITIES?
17,500 bibliographic entries
(600 full text Open Acc...
SOLVE ISSUES IN THE SYSTEM
HOW CAN WE ADDRESS LARGER SCHOLARLY COMMUNICATION CHALLENGES?
Gray
Literature

Joint Transporta...
FUTURE PROSPECTS
PLANS FOR THE FUTURE
• Expansion of campus publishing services with more
systematic cost-recovery. Conferences offer a spe...
WHAT HAPPENS IF WE SCALE THIS UP?
» Ca. 130
organizations.
» Focus on
formal, peerreviewed
publications.
» Sales income is...
“OH, THE PLACES [WE] WILL GO!”
With apologies
to Dr. Seuss
THANK YOU
Organization
Infrastructure:
The Impact of Cloud,
Mobile, and
Managing the
Changing Platforms
of Digital Collections.
Topics we‟ll cover
•
•
•
•
•
•

Introduction (2 minutes)
Directions we‟re headed (5 minutes)
How do we do that? (5 minutes...
“One of the biggest flaws in the
common conception of the
future is that the future is
something that happens to
us, not s...
Directions we’re headed
“The MISSION of LIBRARIANS is
to IMPROVE SOCIETY through
FACILITATING KNOWLEDGE
creation in their COMMUNITIES”
R. David La...
PC Magazine, January 1, 2013
“Gartner’s Top 10 Tech-Trends for
2013”
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
8.
9.
10.

Mobile Device Battles...
Cloud
Computing
Source: http://www.biomedcentral.com/1741-7015/10/124#
“A week‟s worth of
the New York Times
contains more
information than the
average
seventeenth-century
citizen encountered
i...
“Ipv6 has enough
room for 340
trillion, trillion, trillion
unique
addresses, roughly
50,000 trillion, trillion
addresses p...
Growth in Tablet PC’s

Source: http://hothardware.com/News/Intel-Announces-New-Z670-For-Tablets/
Source: http://www.digitalbuzzblog.com/2011-mobile-statistics-stats-facts-marketing-infographic/
Source: http://www.digitalbuzzblog.com/2011-mobile-statistics-stats-facts-marketing-infographic/
“Many young people will never own a
traditional PC, the phone/tablet is all
they’ll need and ever use.”
John Bloom, Author...
“With over five billion
individuals currently
armed with mobile
phones, we‟re talking
about unprecedented
levels of access...
Other considerations: Learning styles

Support diverse learning styles "on average studies
have shown roughly 29% have a v...
IDC predicts that in the near
future, nearly 70% of the digital
universe will be created by individuals
Source: http://cdn.reelstatic.com/wp-content/uploads/2011/06/4-chart-video-growth-600x362.gif
http://www.emc.com/collateral/about/news/idc-emc-digital-universe-2011-infographic.pdf
BrightPlanet has estimated the size of the Dark Web
to be 500 times the size of the Surface web, which
would make it appro...
“Very few of
today‟s
students press
beyond the first
level of the
Web which
contains only
7% of the data
appropriate for
“A library in
New York or in
Kansas is no
long the library
for patrons in
those
geographic
areas, but to all
of those
As librarians, we have to get ready to
massively SCALE

everything we do.
How do we do that?
It won’t be with
the systems of
yesterday.
“We are interpreting
a global world with a
system built for local
landscapes.”
“Today‟s average lowend computer
calculates at roughly
10 to the 11th, or a
hundred billion
calculations per
second…. The
...
“Twenty years
ago, most well-off US
citizens owned a
camera, alarmclock, encyclopedias,
a world atlas.. And a
bunch of oth...
Cloud
Computing
Analytics
Knowledge Map
Source:
“Clickstream
Data Yields HighResolution Maps
of Science”

Bollen J, Van de Sompel H, Hagberg A, Bett...
Libraries will go from being reactive and
generic service organizations to
proactive and highly personalized
Concerns
“A cloud may
seem to be
beyond the
purview, both in
staff training
and technical
expertise – of
the average
library. It mu...
Librarians and Access (Specifically Discovery)
For our services to have
value they
must offer
differentiation.
Collaboration
Research data & BIG data
Requires planning for:
• Highly scalable data storage
• Jim Neal (Columbia) points out that netwo...
Research data & BIG data
As Neal also points out, these will be:

•
•
•
•
•
•

Accessed well beyond institution that creat...
Research data & BIG data
Issues include:

•
•
•
•
•
•
•

Usage rights
Intellectual property
Copyright
Ownership
Licensed v...
e-data in the Cloud
•
•
•
•
•

•
•
•
•

Licenses / Limitations
Pricing
First-sale-doctrine
Who “owns” the data?
What if li...
When is the
next
“Carrington
Event”?

The last one was in 1859

Or, hurricane(s)?
Wrap-Up
Topics we covered
• Directions we‟re headed
• How do we do that?
• Concerns
“Larry Page of
Google asks:
Are you working
on something that
can change the
world? Yes or no?
The answer for
99.99999% of...
Q&A
Carl Grant
Associate Dean for Knowledge Services
Chief Technology Officer
M: +1-540-449-2418
E: carl.grant@ou.edu
Twitter:...
Good Connections
Are Always Worth
Preserving
The Publishing Community’s Use of Social Media
Jill O’Neill
NISO Webinar, Oct...
First, Some Numbers

“You Want to Tell Me and I’ve no Objection
to Hearing it”
Some Statistics (Global Web
Index, Second Quarter 2013)
• Facebook:
• 1.1 billion monthly active users
• 751 million mobil...
Coming Up Fast
• Instagram
• Launched in
2010, Acquired by
Facebook 2012
• 150 million monthly
active users
• Still photos...
Why Are Businesses Interested?
• Increased awareness of our organization, products or
services among target customers
• (E...
Mining The Data (NLM)
By examining relevant tweets and other comments, NLM will gain insights to extent of use, context
fo...
Volume of Activity on Social
Media by Content Providers
Commerical
STM Provider

Commercial
Content
STM Provider Aggregato...
Social Media: Different
Uses, Different
Audiences, Different
Formats
“Such a Transformation”
Presence (Blogging)
Combining Social Feeds
(Blog, Oxford University Press)
Content for an Elite Brought
Into The Mainstream
Presence (Online Networks)
Google Plus Social Network
(Elsevier)
Facebook Page (Temple
University Press)
Facebook for Single Title
Promotion
(Yale University Press)
Pinterest (Yale University
Press)
Twitter (University of
Minnesota Press)
Twitter (Yale University Press)
Twitter (The Lancet)
Twitter (EBSCO)
YouTube (ProQuest)
YouTube Isn‟t Just About
Training
Tumblr – Brevity and Mobility!
Good Connections:
Adapting and
Unfolding
“You Were Our Audience and Our
Prompter”
Flipboard – Mobile First
Flipboard – Tablet Display
Academia.edu (Scholarly
Social Network)
Jellybooks.com (Small
Independent Presses)
Rifflebooks.com (Tradeoriented)
Job Qualifications for Social
Media Coordinator (2013)
• Strong writing, communication, and organizational skills
• Some e...
Audience and Prompter
Thank You!
Twitter: @jillmwo
Google Plus: Jill O’Neill
Email: jilloneill@nfais.org
A National Library: Playing a
role in data
Lee-Ann Coleman PhD

Head of Science, Technology &
Medicine
@ScienceBL
Custodians of old books

www.bl.uk

163
And we are embracing digital
National library of the UK
Here for everyone who wants to do
research
Archiving since 1662
Le...
Catering for contemporary science

Managing collections
Delivering new content
Developing services

Research

www.bl.uk

E...
Information lifecycle

www.bl.uk

166
The value of research data

•

Data are a vital part of the scientific record

•

But what is/should be/will be the role o...
Testing dataset discovery
A service involving a „new‟ material type
raised questions about:
• Users
• Selection
• Metadata...
Selection criteria
These considered:
Scope:

Subject
Value to research
Access:
Restrictions

Stability
Copyright
Quality:
...
Datasets discovery in Explore the British Library

>500 research datasets
Environmental Science
Tropical & Rare Diseases

...
Results
Metadata for SEARCH

% conversion from dataset view to click
through

100%
90%

80%

80.0
70.0

70%
60%
50%

60.0
...
The benefits of citing data
• Checking facts
• Obtaining easier access to data

• Enabling re-use of data
• Providing ackn...
Why finding and citing data is not easy

• No widely used method to identify datasets
• No widely used method to cite data...
Why DOIs?
The Digital Object Identifier is a persistent identifier that directs
users to an online object, even if it chan...
DataCite
• Established in 2009 as a not-for-profit
organisation
• A member of the International DOI Foundation

• A Regist...
British Library's role in DataCite
International DOI
Foundation

Member

• The British Library is one of 18
international ...
British Library DataCite Service

www.bl.uk

177
Examples of UK data centres with DOIs

DOI:
10.5285/1a91c7d1-ec44-4858-9af2-98d80f169bbd

www.bl.uk

178
Thank you!
• bl.uk/science
• bl.uk/datasets
• datacite.org

• E-mail: Lee-Ann.Coleman@bl.uk

www.bl.uk

179
Looking to the future:
what‟s the mindset
for a successful
information
organisation?
Keith Webster
Dean of University Libr...
Our Professional Future
Access to information, ideas and works of
imagination is an essential characteristic of
thriving d...
Overview of remarks
As a profession we add value
Not everyone recognises that!
There are tremendous opportunities to
deplo...
How do we add value?
British Library adds
£419m of value to the
economy each year
http://www.bl.uk/aboutus/stratpolpr
og/i...
Australian research study
Contingent valuation
Respondents were presented with different
hypothetical scenarios
They were ...
Use of print resources
Frequently

Sometimes

Never

Journal articles

748

328

99

Books

557

565

53

Abstracts, index...
Use of electronic resources

Frequently

Sometimes

Never

1,112

57

6

Books

307

611

257

Datasets

204

411

560

Da...
Time devoted to using information resources
Personal expenditure on information
resources

Nothing

15.4

$1-250

33.4

$251-500

23.9

$501-1000

16.3

$1001-1250

4...
How much does it all cost?
Respondents asked to indicate annual spend on
collections - to nearest $1 million
6 said $30 mi...
Value for money

Excellent

Value for money
relative to the level of
expenditure disclosed

Very good

Good

Fair

Poor

1...
Where else would you go for stuff?
Another university to which I am also affiliated

106

Other universities to which I ha...
Time matters
Less time than now – I could work more efficiently

1

None – it would make no difference to me

8

Up to 10 ...
Medium-long term effect on
research
Volume of research outputs

Volume will increase

16

Volume will remain
unchanged

37...
Key impacts of free access to information on
research
Access to information is indispensible for
research (91% strongly ag...
Funding scenarios
Current spent on information resources
across the three sites is $2,496 per
capita
Respondents were aske...
Summary finding
The final scenario would result in total
costs to the institution of $81.4m
compared to actual spend of $3...
Making a difference
Adverse event avoided
Hospital admission
Hospital acquired infection

Percent
11.5
8.2

Surgery

21.2
...
Making a difference
Adverse event avoided
Hospital admission
Hospital acquired infection

Percent
11.5
8.2

Surgery

21.2
...
What is happening in the
world is bypassing university
libraries
Peter Murray-Rust
The scientist‟s view
JISC Libraries of ...
“…contact with librarians
and information
professionals is rare”
“…researchers are
generally confident in
their [self-taug...
“The bad news is that I‟m not sure they
understand what goes on in the library
other than taking out books.”
Benton Founda...
• Within five years, graduate students and faculty will fill
all their information needs online, never coming into the
lib...
The transformed library of the future will be at the core of
teaching, learning and scholarship

• partnering with academi...
Demands for our core skills
Data services
Digital research
Open scholarship
Evidence-based medicine
Knowledge-based profes...
Collection-centric - 1st generation
Client-focused - 2nd generation
Experience-centered - 3rd generation
Connected Learning Experiences - 4th generation
Current priorities in
academic libraries

1. Continue and complete migration from
print to electronic and realign service
...
Barriers to implementation
Hybrid environment
Faculty (and librarian?) resistance
Costs of space redevelopment
Library sta...
•
•
•
•
•

In the print library
Local access costs low saved time allowed for
research productivity
Library costs high acq...
Research publication is
essential to future research
Technology reduces costs of
production and distribution
Demand from a...
What might this mean?
Ongoing acquisitions will require increasingly
less space
Substantial parts of existing collections ...
What‟s involved in storing books?
Open shelves in libraries
Accessible, but expensive centre of campus
real estate
Highly ...
Storage costs for pbooks
Estimated over time to exceed purchase
price on average by 50 percent
(Lawrence et al, 2001)
Grow...
Indicative costs

Open stack

Warehouse

10 year open
then WHS

20 year
open then
WHS

141.89

28.77

50.98

66.43
Compare with ebooks
HathiTrust will archive and backup an
ebook at $0.15-$0.40 per annum (using
same discount rates as for...
Use of print collections

Pittsburgh study
1979

Cornell study
2010

40% of collection never
circulates

55% of books purc...
Moving forward
Ruthless move towards digital only acquisitions policy, relocation to
storage, collaborative retention,
dis...
Accelerate the reduction and removal of
routine transactions
- Increase use of web-based activity
- Increase use of self-s...
Identify opportunities to leverage
economies of scale
- Buy publishers‟ bundles to reduce need
for selection decisions
- C...
Library redevelopment
Lots of success stories
Understand need for different spaces on
your campus - do good research
Intentions

Activities

Achievements
What did you do in the Library?
Use a computer
Quiet study
Meet friends
Group work
Find course materials
Think
Coffee
Borr...
Library redevelopment
Lots of success stories
Understand need for different spaces on
your campus - do good research
Showc...
The role of librarians
Current state

Future state

Many libraries retain large
numbers of librarians to catalogue
and cou...
W(h)ither the Library?
Local
distribution
1990s

Global
digital
2000s

Cloud-based
models
2010s

Convergent media services
NISO Virtual Conference
Revolution or Evolution:
The Organizational Impact of Electronic Content

Questions?
All questions...
THANK YOU
Thank you for joining us today.
Please take a moment to fill out the brief online survey.
We look forward to hea...
NISO Oct 16 Virtual Conference: Revolution or Evolution: The Organizational Impact of Electronic Content
NISO Oct 16 Virtual Conference: Revolution or Evolution: The Organizational Impact of Electronic Content
NISO Oct 16 Virtual Conference: Revolution or Evolution: The Organizational Impact of Electronic Content
NISO Oct 16 Virtual Conference: Revolution or Evolution: The Organizational Impact of Electronic Content
NISO Oct 16 Virtual Conference: Revolution or Evolution: The Organizational Impact of Electronic Content
NISO Oct 16 Virtual Conference: Revolution or Evolution: The Organizational Impact of Electronic Content
NISO Oct 16 Virtual Conference: Revolution or Evolution: The Organizational Impact of Electronic Content
NISO Oct 16 Virtual Conference: Revolution or Evolution: The Organizational Impact of Electronic Content
NISO Oct 16 Virtual Conference: Revolution or Evolution: The Organizational Impact of Electronic Content
NISO Oct 16 Virtual Conference: Revolution or Evolution: The Organizational Impact of Electronic Content
NISO Oct 16 Virtual Conference: Revolution or Evolution: The Organizational Impact of Electronic Content
NISO Oct 16 Virtual Conference: Revolution or Evolution: The Organizational Impact of Electronic Content
NISO Oct 16 Virtual Conference: Revolution or Evolution: The Organizational Impact of Electronic Content
NISO Oct 16 Virtual Conference: Revolution or Evolution: The Organizational Impact of Electronic Content
NISO Oct 16 Virtual Conference: Revolution or Evolution: The Organizational Impact of Electronic Content
NISO Oct 16 Virtual Conference: Revolution or Evolution: The Organizational Impact of Electronic Content
NISO Oct 16 Virtual Conference: Revolution or Evolution: The Organizational Impact of Electronic Content
NISO Oct 16 Virtual Conference: Revolution or Evolution: The Organizational Impact of Electronic Content
NISO Oct 16 Virtual Conference: Revolution or Evolution: The Organizational Impact of Electronic Content
NISO Oct 16 Virtual Conference: Revolution or Evolution: The Organizational Impact of Electronic Content
NISO Oct 16 Virtual Conference: Revolution or Evolution: The Organizational Impact of Electronic Content
NISO Oct 16 Virtual Conference: Revolution or Evolution: The Organizational Impact of Electronic Content
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The impact of electronic content cannot be understated. Through constantly evolving technologies, electronic content has made its way into almost every facet of our lives. Platforms are evolving and improving at a breakneck pace, prices for devices are accessible in a way that they weren’t just a few years ago, the e-content is becoming richer and more interactive, and publishers are developing profitable business models to respond. Many higher education institutions find it an ongoing challenge to respond to the latest technology changes. Compounding this problem is the fact that electronic content has now become a priority and expectation for the academic and publishing community.

NISO’s third virtual conference examines the issues and opportunities this rapid growth of electronic content has presented and challenged our community with, as well as thoughts on the future and how information organizations can successfully serve their patrons.

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  • TimBerners-Lee “invented” the web
  • TimBerners-Lee “invented” the web
  • Ray Kurzweil in the Singularity is Near says: “The exponential growth of computing is a marvelous quantitative example of the exponentially growing returns from an evolutionary process. We can express the exponential growth of computing in terms of its accelerating pace: it took ninety years to achieve the first MIPS per thousand dollars; now we add one MIPS per thousand dollars every five hours.40 “
  • Hathitrust, DuraSpace, LOCKSS, Florida Digital Archive, Alabama Preservation Network
  • Title of presentation is from Jane Austen as her work was tightly focused on human interactions. it could just as easily have been a quote from librarian Barbara Fister on her blog at Inside Higher Ed this past August, when in writing of social media, she used the phrase : “relationships that live primarily in virtual space and on borrowed time”. But I’m sticking with Jane.
  • Let’s begin with statistics however.
  • A monthly active user is unique registered user, who visits the site at least once in a 30-day period, better metric for gauging the reality of registered users on a platform. YouTube has a billion monthly users and Google very sensibly is harnessing identity on their Google+ network to the commenting functionality on YouTube (kind of a catch-up).
  • This 2011 report actually surveyed all kinds of businesses – not just publishing – but the objectives are valid for pointing up why scholarly publishers pursue use of social media. Concerns about visibility, discovery and influencing perception of the organization, product/service. Last week at the STM Association one-day meeting in Frankfurt, there was a panel focusing on reputation management and engagement featuring major STM publishers such as Wiley, Elsevier, and Nature. Indicative that these publishers grasp the necessity of social media as channel for exchange with their customers/users.
  • But it’s not just corporate entities. All kinds of content providers -- including government agencies -- are interested in social media. Request for quotation on providing text, data-mining software for National Library of Medicine. The interest in social media isn’t just about new forms of communication. For the content provider, it’s also about gaining a better understanding of who the audience is, what they’re saying and thinking. Again, just last week, the statement at last week’s STM meeting was made that those publishers recognized that their communities were increasingly talking about them on social media. They have to engage but esp.they have to listen
  • I think this table is indicative of current levels of involvement. Must remember that in many large organizations with multiple internal divisions, social media activities aren’t centralized. For some entities, social media is handled by marketing departments and could serve different purposes – whether specific geographic market or promotion of specific product line. Also note that there are many individual twitter accounts belonging to staff members of these organizations (and noted as such in their profiles) but which ought not to be viewed as official outlet.
  • Up to this point, this presentation has been heavily text based; but just like the publishers, I’m finding that I need to transform the conversation.
  • Doesn’t look like a traditional blog, but this is laid out to appear to advantage on a tablet. Same characteristics as a blog, visitors can share the content and comment on it as well, collaboratively written by the historians at the National Library of Medicine.
  • Blog entries, Twitter, video (on Vimeo as well as on YouTube), all combined on the OUP blog to attract traffic, visibility. Without this kind of Cross- channel, cross disciplinary approach, it’s hard to sufficiently fuel the site. OUP has also published new content to this venue, such as a recently re-discovered poem by Dorothy Wordsworth. First publication was to this blog on September 16th.
  • Always torn between showing the Downton Abbey entry or the Zombie Apocalypse entry; but both are used to bring forward elite content to the mainstream (who may actually be interested in the content). Not just talking to the elite.
  • As well as maintaining a presence on larger social platforms.
  • This is an instance of a smaller press with perhaps less resources at its disposal taking advantage of Facebook as a means of creating a sense of community and presence on a social network. Just as we saw with OUP’s blog, Temple fuels its presence here with an RSS feed from its Twitter account as well as linking out to other content (such as that item from The New Yorker). For Temple, this is a forum for engagement and they chose the appropriate platform for connecting with their immediate community of students and faculty. Their North Philly Notes blog is frequently aimed more at specialists and like OUP many of the entries are written by Temple authors.  Content providers are generally using more than one platform depending on the target audience and the content itself. It can be illuminating to compare what is posted on several such platforms across two or three days.
  • Note that this press focuses on visual arts and design. Subject matter definitely influences where a press may be most successful with social media. Yale Books (UK arm of the Yale University Press) has great images to support their presence here on Pinterest but their description up there at the top notes particularly the specialties of art and architecture. Presence may be dictated by the strength of a particular Platform and on Pinterest, it’s all about the visuals..
  • Social media is a great leveler of the playing field for smaller entities. Note the number of followers here  8,193 Look who is following the press  W.W. Norton as well as Harvard PressTwitter is for headlines and links (Note that top tweet). I had to drop a slide but Doug Armato who is Executive Director of this Press is himself a master of social media. He engages as himself on Twitter (@noctambulate) and posts about what he’s reading on his own as well as about press titles.
  • Monthly marketing campaign for a particular set of titles within a specific discipline. Note the two Twitter accounts @yalepress and @yaleRELIbooks and the handy hashtag #YUPoct (Yale University Press with the month abbreviation appended); also reflected this campaign on YUP’s blog. And the URL sends the curious over to explore in greater depth.
  • I learned from a recent presentation in London that Twitter is one of the top 10 sources of referrals for Elsevier-owned The Lancet, but note the inclusion of media here. Twitter has expanded the content formats that may be associated with a tweet and ELS is spotlighting images (important to medical community) found in the journal itself.
  • To use the parlance of the young, it’s equivalent to taking a “selfie”.
  • Want to talk a little bit about YouTube, because of its mainstream status and massive user base. Use of YouTube to deliver training tutorials. The NFAIS website maintains an extensive Library Education resource page that specifically highlights these video tutorials. But not solely tutorial content. NFAIS member organization, the Getty Conservation Institute, includes video on their channel that is intended to attract attention to art curation/conservation as a career.
  • Promotional video with an author. Temple University doesn’t have its own YouTube Channel so finding this promotional video is primarily accomplished through the Press’ own website. Smaller entities may not have the resources to leverage video entirely on their own so may be dependent on contractor to upload the material. Temple University Press
  • audio, video, images, quotes, animated gifs, text etc. Displays well in mobile environment. OUP has a tumblr blog.
  • Recently introduced social platform that fosters discovery via both images and text (lists); no scholarly publishers on this platform as yet, but no reason why they couldn’t be. Lists are a particularly sticky way of keeping users browsing on the site and it fosters discovery. Heavily visual in its orientation.
  • Recent job posting, but note the bolded sections!
  • The blood letting zodiac man is taken from one of the Library’s 15th century Harley Manuscripts They were donated to the nation in 1753 and form one of the foundation collections of the BLNot going to spend 20 minutes giving you a discourse on the representation of medicine in the medieval period although it is interesting to reflect on what some of this tells us about information – when you are complaining about writing up your work at least you don’t have to write it by hand and draw the picturesWill it still be around in 700 yearsWill people laugh at it
  • PhD focus groups: People Science & PolicyWe built evidence based on our own user research, research from the literature, and with internal consultation. But theoretical evidence of discovery as the route for the library to take needed to be backed up with something more concrete – a pilot.A pilot would allows us to test the proposition with users to get concrete evidence for the Library’s work in this area, but also something we could show those internal to the Library.
  • Some of this information was relevant to metadata, hence needing to have something in place to start selection properly.We couldn’t go out and select everything as an STM dataset at once, so for the pilot we chose a specific subject area: Living with Environmental Change – that is data from monitoring or modeling the environment. This is now also expanded to Biodiversity (for the International Year if Biodiversity in 2010) and soon there will also be records available on Neglected Tropical Diseases. In the next year we will be expanding to Food security – spanning environmental and bioscience topics, from crop genetics and animal breeding to soil quality and pollination.Guidelines were otherwise very much based on existing STM selection criteria.
  • And this is what it looks like!Research datasets material type, accessible via the I want this tab, direct link.
  • Darker blues are very useful or just useful. Lighter blues are not useful.Survey confirmed that our approach was suitable, but was it actually being used?Initial effort in promotion of the service to get feedback was high, but towards the end of the first year, when little or no time was put into promotion, usage stats showed that usage still remained stable, even given the ‘pilot’ status of the Search Our Catalogue interface itself.These data do exclude staff IP ranges, so are reading room and external visitors only.And wasn't just curiosity, this graph shows that people were clicking through to the website containing the data.
  • And just referring to other published articles where readers can’t check the facts for themselves can be problematic. A recent study (shown on the slide) demonstrated that ‘conventional wisdom’ is often not based on experimental data. The study looked at reported incubation times for various viral infections and found that half of the studies did not even provide a source for their estimate. Mapping the citation networks enabled the authors to show that the information about incubation times was often based on a small fraction of the data or on no empirical evidence. But there would be benefits if researchers could actually cite the dataset itself. This would enable people to check the facts for themselves, obtain easier access to the data (theoretically researchers should share any data that underpins a published article but in reality they often don’t), funding organisations could show better value for money if data generated could be re-used, many people or data centres who actually manage data do not receive credit for doing so but this could offer a form of acknowledgement. In addition, the process of science is aided by openness and transparency.
  • - In the same way that researchers don’t directly get DOIs for their papers, they must go via a publisher to get a DOI for them.When we say ‘data centre’ this is for ease of time – we include trusted digital/institutional repositories in this!!We work at an organisational level
  • You will see that this DOI appears quite long – data centres are free to determine the format for the DOI suffix (see slide #24).
  • NISO Oct 16 Virtual Conference: Revolution or Evolution: The Organizational Impact of Electronic Content

    1. 1. http://www.niso.org/news/events/2013/econtent NISO Virtual Conference: Revolution or Evolution: The Organizational Impact of Electronic Content October 16, 2013 Speakers: David W. Lewis, Todd Carpenter, Charles Watkinson, Carl Grant, Jill O’Neill, Lee-Ann Coleman, Keith Webster
    2. 2. NISO Virtual Conference: Revolution or Evolution: The Organizational Impact of Electronic Content Agenda Introduction - Todd Carpenter, Executive Director, NISO 11:00 a.m. – 12:00 p.m. Keynote: Envisioning a 21st century Information Organization David W. Lewis, Dean of the Indiana University - Purdue University Indianapolis (IUPUI) University Library 12:00 p.m. – 12:45 p.m. Information Organization’s Most Valuable Resources: Engaging and Teaching the Necessary Skills for Success Todd Carpenter, Executive Director, NISO 12:45 p.m. – 1:30 p.m. Lunch break 

1:30 p.m. – 2:00 p.m. Library/Press Collaborations: Serving A Spectrum of Scholarly Publishing Needs Charles Watkinson, Director, Purdue University Press, Head of Scholarly Publishing Services, Purdue Libraries 2:00 p.m. – 2:30 p.m. The Impact of Cloud, Mobile, and Managing the Changing Platforms of Digital Collections 
Carl Grant, Associate Dean, Knowledge Services & Chief Technology Officer, University of Oklahoma Libraries 2:30 p.m. – 3:00 p.m. Good Connections Are Always Worth Preserving: Publishing and Social Technologies Jill O'Neill, Director of Planning & Communication, NFAIS 3:00 p.m. – 3:15 p.m. Break 

3:15 – 3:45 p.m. Latest trends in Data Analysis for the Scholarly and Academic Publishing Community
LeeAnn Coleman, PhD, Head of Science, Technology and Medicine, The British Library 

3:45 p.m. – 4:30 p.m. Looking to the Future: What’s the Mindset for a Successful Information Organization? Keith Webster, Dean of the Libraries, Carnegie Mellon 4:30 p.m. – 5:00 p.m. Conference Roundtable Presenters return for a Q&A discussion lead by Todd Carpenter, Executive Director, NISO
    3. 3. Revolution for Sure David W. Lewis NISO Virtual Conference: Revolution or Evolution: The Organizational Impact of Electronic Content October 16, 2013 © 2013 David W. Lewis. This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-NoDerivs 3.0 Unported License.
    4. 4. “That is what real revolutions are like. The old stuff gets broken faster than the new stuff is put in its place.” Clay Shirky, “Newspapers and Thinking the Unthinkable,” March 2009. Available at: http://www.shirky.com/weblog/2009/03/newspapers-and-thinking-the-unthinkable/
    5. 5. Resulted in: 1. Scientific Journal 2. Novels 3. Use of alphabetical order as a means of organizing knowledge 4. Silent reading
    6. 6. Resulted in: 5. Literacy became an amateur activity 6. Institutions that had controlled of information lost that control 7. Renaissance, Reformation, 100 Years War, etc.
    7. 7. Agenda • • • • • • • • Ronald Coase Job to Be Done Tyler Cowen and Freestyle Chess Michael Buckland Digital Documents Open Access as a Disruptive Innovation The Flip Subsidy Perspective
    8. 8. Ronald Harry Coase “The Nature of the Firm” Economica 4 (16): 386–405 1937 Question: If markets are efficient, why do we have firms?
    9. 9. Ronald Harry Coase “The Nature of the Firm” Economica 4 (16): 386–405 1937 Question: If markets are efficient, why do we have firms? Answer: Transaction Costs
    10. 10. Ronald Harry Coase “The Nature of the Firm” Economica 4 (16): 386–405 1937 • Where the market has high transactions costs firms bring activities in house • When transaction costs are low, the market works and in house activities are dropped
    11. 11. “The Nature of the Firm” and Libraries • In the past the market could not answer questions • Now the market can answer many kinds of questions easily
    12. 12. “The Nature of the Firm” and Libraries • In the past the market could not manage collections • Now access to many kinds of collections is easy • What is hard now is curation and preservation of locally produced and special materials
    13. 13. “The Nature of the Firm” and Libraries Critical Question: What knowledge management problems do our institutions and communities have that the market can’t efficiently solve? These are the problems we need to focus on
    14. 14. Clayton Christensen “Job to Be Done” • People have jobs they need to do in their lives • They want to do these jobs in the fastest, easiest, and cheapest ways possible • They hire products and services to do these jobs Carmen Nobel, “Clay Christensen’s Milkshake Marketing,” Working Knowledge, Harvard Business School. February 14, 2011. Available at: http://hbswk.hbs.edu/item/6496.html Clayton M. Christensen, Scott Cook, and Taddy Hall, “What Customers Want from Your Products,” Working Knowledge, Harvard Business School, January 16, 2006. Available at: http://hbswk.hbs.edu/item/5170.html
    15. 15. Clayton Christensen “Job to Be Done” • What jobs are scholars and students hiring the library to do? • How do we provide products that do these jobs quickly, cheaply, and easily? Carmen Nobel, “Clay Christensen’s Milkshake Marketing,” Working Knowledge, Harvard Business School. February 14, 2011. Available at: http://hbswk.hbs.edu/item/6496.html Clayton M. Christensen, Scott Cook, and Taddy Hall, “What Customers Want from Your Products,” Working Knowledge, Harvard Business School, January 16, 2006. Available at: http://hbswk.hbs.edu/item/5170.html
    16. 16. "People don't want to buy a quarter-inch drill. They want a quarter-inch hole!” — Theodore Levitt People don’t want a library. People want information and answers.
    17. 17. Tyler Cowen, Average is Over: Powering America Beyond the Age of the Great Stagnation (New York: Dutton, 2013), page 7. “We're close to the point where the available knowledge at the hands of the individual, for questions that can be posed clearly and articulately, is not so far from the knowledge of the entire world...”
    18. 18. Tyler Cowen, Average is Over: Powering America Beyond the Age of the Great Stagnation (New York: Dutton, 2013), page 7. “Whether it is through Siri, Google, or Wikipedia, there is now almost always a way to ask and—more importantly—a way to receive the answer in relatively digestible form.”
    19. 19. Tyler Cowen, Average is Over: Powering America Beyond the Age of the Great Stagnation (New York: Dutton, 2013), page 7. • Freestyle chess • Professionals will be teamed with intelligent machines • The combination of person and machine can be much better than either alone, though the machine alone will be often superior to the person alone
    20. 20. Tyler Cowen, Average is Over: Powering America Beyond the Age of the Great Stagnation (New York: Dutton, 2013), page 7. • As a professional you need to add value above what the intelligent machine can do alone • This is a different skill set than simply doing the task yourself
    21. 21. “Moore’s Law,” Wikipedia. Available at: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Moores_law
    22. 22. • Watson’s hardware cost $3,000,000 in 2011 • By 2020 the same hardware can be expected to cost less than $50,000 • By 2030 it should cost less than $750
    23. 23. Michael Buckland, Redesigning Library Services: A Manifesto (Chicago: American Library Association, 1992). “The central purpose of libraries is to provide a service: access to information.” Usually by providing access to documents HTML version of the text is available at: http://sunsite.berkeley.edu/Literature/Library/Redesigning/html.html
    24. 24. Michael Buckland, Redesigning Library Services: A Manifesto (Chicago: American Library Association, 1992). 1. Paper Library — both bibliographic tools and document are paper 2. Automated Library — tools electronic and documents paper 3. Electronic Library — tools and documents electronic
    25. 25. Michael Buckland, Redesigning Library Services: A Manifesto (Chicago: American Library Association, 1992). • Library collections serve two purposes 1. Dispensing role 2. Preservation role • In the paper world the dispensing role is where the most money is spent
    26. 26. Michael Buckland, Redesigning Library Services: A Manifesto (Chicago: American Library Association, 1992). • When documents are paper, people and documents need to be brought together • Best way to do this is local collections • Libraries bring documents from the world to their local communities
    27. 27. Michael Buckland, Redesigning Library Services: A Manifesto (Chicago: American Library Association, 1992). • When documents are electronic, people can get them at a distance and instantaneously • Bibliographic tools and documents move to world/web scale • The dispensing role becomes cheaper • The preservation role becomes more important
    28. 28. Melvil Dewey Our practices and values come from the Paper Library
    29. 29. Paper • • • • Localized One use at a time Not easily copied Inflexible, not easily modified or annotated • Storage bulky and expensive • Universal Digital • Many users at a time • Easily copied • Flexible, easily modified and annotated • Storage does not require much space and is cheap
    30. 30. Paper • Publishers needed • • Long lasting medium • • Preservation strategies understood • Emotional attachment to books as objects • Anyone can Publish Digital Vulnerable Long-term preservation uncertain
    31. 31. Content Supply Chain is All Digital • Print books delivered nearly as quickly as digital files • Digital readers nearly as good as print books
    32. 32. Content Supply Chain is All Digital • You can purchase/access content only when it is actually needed • Inventories of content are no longer required • Inventories become expensive overhead
    33. 33. Opportunity Costs of Print Collections $5.00 to $13.10 $28.77 $50.98 to $68.43 $141.89 Life cycle cost based on 3% discount rate. From Paul N. Courant and Matthew “Buzzy” Nielsen, “On the Cost of Keeping a Book,” in The Idea of Order: Transforming Research Collections for 21st Century Scholarship, CLIR, June 2010, available at: http://www.clir.org/pubs/abstract/pub147abst.html
    34. 34. Content Supply Chain is All Digital • Because marginal cost of distributing content is zero, new business models are possible • Open Access is the most important so far
    35. 35. Open Access • Open-access (OA) literature is digital, online, free of charge, and free of most copyright and licensing restrictions. • OA removes price barriers (subscriptions, licensing fees, pay-per-view fees) and permission barriers (most copyright and licensing restrictions). Peter Suber, Open access overview, at: http://legacy.earlham.edu/~peters/fos/overview.htm
    36. 36. Open Access Open Access is: 1. A movement — response to excessive price increases by commercial journal publishers 2. A new business model for scholarly communication — costs covered upfront and the content is then given away
    37. 37. Disruptive Innovation Clayton Christensen Clayton M. Christensen, Michael B. Horn, Louis Soares, and Louis Caldera, Disrupting College: How Disruptive Innovation Can Deliver Quality and Affordability to Postsecondary Education, February 8, 2011, Available at: http://www.americanprogress.org/issues/labor/report/2011/02/0 8/9034/disrupting-college/ Clayton M. Christensen, SC10 Keynote with Clayton Christensen, December 4, 2010, video running time: 1:00:28, available at: http://insidehpc.com/2010/12/04/video-sc10-keynotewith-clayton-christensen Clayton M. Christensen, The Innovator's Prescription: A Disruptive Solution to the Healthcare Crisis, May 13, 2008, video, running time: 1:27:38, available at: http://video.mit.edu/watch/the-innovators-prescription-a-disruptive-solution-to-thehealthcare-crisis-9380/ Maxwell Wessel and Clayton M. Christensen, “Surviving Disruption,” Harvard Business Review 90(12):56-64 December 2012.
    38. 38. Disruptive Innovation • Needs – New Technology (simplified solution) – New Business Model – New Value Chain • Starts as being not good enough and gets better fast and comes to dominate the market • How products become cheaper, faster, and easier
    39. 39. Pace of Substitution of Direct Gold OA for Subscription Journals 100.0% 90.0% 80.0% 70.0% 60.0% 50.0% 40.0% 30.0% 20.0% 10.0% 0.0% Laakso, et. al. Estimates S-curve Extrapolation Based on 2000-2009 S-curve Extrapolation Based on 2005-2009 David W. Lewis, “The Inevitability of Open Access,” College & Research Libraries September 2012. Available at: http://crl.acrl.org/content/73/5/493.full.pdf+html
    40. 40. Pace of Substitution of Direct Gold OA for Subscription Journals (log scale) 100.0% 10.0% 1.0% Laakso, et. al. Estimates S-curve Extrapolation Based on 2000-2009 S-curve Extrapolation Based on 2005-2009 David W. Lewis, “The Inevitability of Open Access,” College & Research Libraries September 2012. Available at: http://crl.acrl.org/content/73/5/493.full.pdf+html
    41. 41. Pace of Substitution of Direct Gold OA for Subscription Journals Based on Additional 2011 European Commission Data 100.0% 90.0% 80.0% 70.0% 60.0% 50.0% 40.0% 30.0% 20.0% 10.0% 0.0% Laakso, et. al. Estimate with EC Data Extrapolation Based on 2000-2009 Extrapolation Based on 2005-2009 Extrapolation Based on 2000-2011 Extrapolation Based on 2005-2011 David W. Lewis, “The Inevitability of Open Access: Update One.” Available at: https://scholarworks.iupui.edu/handle/1805/3471
    42. 42. Old Model General Public Scholar Library Publisher
    43. 43. Funders General Public University Old Model “Good Old Days” Scholar Library Publisher
    44. 44. Funders Old Model “Bad Old Days” General Public University Scholar Library Publisher Shareholders
    45. 45. Funders Open Access Future General Public University Scholar Library Publisher Shareholders
    46. 46. Funders Open Access Future General Public University Scholar Library Publisher Shareholders
    47. 47. The Flip • In a paper world libraries brought documents from the world to the local community or institution • In the digital world libraries collect and curate “documents” created by or of importance to the local institution or community for the world
    48. 48. Library
    49. 49. Library
    50. 50. Library
    51. 51. The Subsidy Perspective • If information is not cheap and easy, people will not use it to the extent that will maximize societal benefit • Information needs to be subsidized • Libraries have been one important means of providing this subsidy See: David W. Lewis "What If Libraries Are Artifact Bound Institutions?" Information Technology and Libraries 17(4):191-197 December 1998. Available at: https://scholarworks.iupui.edu/handle/1805/434.
    52. 52. The Subsidy Perspective • What matters is that information is cheap and easy • Preserving the subsidy matters • Preserving the institutions that once provided the subsidy is not what is important
    53. 53. The Subsidy Perspective • What matters is getting the most scholarship to the most people
    54. 54. “That is what real revolutions are like. The old stuff gets broken faster than the new stuff is put in its place.” Clay Shirky, “Newspapers and Thinking the Unthinkable,” March 2009. Available at: http://www.shirky.com/weblog/2009/03/newspapers-and-thinking-the-unthinkable/
    55. 55. Questions/Comments © 2013 David W. Lewis. This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-NoDerivs 3.0 Unported License.
    56. 56. LIBRARY/PRESS COLLABORATIONS SERVING A SPECTRUM OF NEEDS NISO Virtual Conference: Revolution or Evolution The Organizational Impact of Electronic Content October 16, 2013
    57. 57. MISSION-DRIVEN PUBLISHING EACH “FIELD” HAS ITS OWN PLAYERS, BUSINESS MODELS, VALUES, MEETINGS, etc. University Presses Library Publishers Society Publishers “Publishing is a complex and highly differentiated world but it is not without order. It is structured by the existence of a plurality of fields which have their own distinctive properties and by the existence of networks and organizations of various kinds which operate in one or more of these fields.” John B. Thompson, Books in the Digital Age (Polity, 2005), p. 38
    58. 58. OUR POSITIONING THE AIM IS TO OFFER PUBLISHING SERVICES ACROSS A SPECTRUM OF NEEDS and to CREATE A SYNERGY BENEFICIAL FOR THE UNIVERSITY University Presses Library Publishers Purdue University Press & Scholarly Publishing Services
    59. 59. MEETING A SPECTRUM OF NEEDS TWO IMPRINTS, ONE STAFF, SHARED INFRASTRUCTURE - Purdue UP: branded; peer-reviewed; books and journals aligned with Purdue mission; discipline-focused - Scholarly Publishing Services: “white label”; less formal; e.g., tech reports, conferences; institution-focused PURDUE UNIVERSITY PRESS PRE- and POST-PRINT COLLECTIONS CONFERENCE PROCEEDINGS TECHNICAL REPORTS SCHOLARLY PUBLISHING SERVICES 59 JOURNALS BOOKS E-BOOKS APPS
    60. 60. PURDUE UNIVERSITY PRESS PEER-REVIEWED BOOKS AND JOURNALS
    61. 61. SCHOLARLY PUBLISHING SERVICES OA JOURNALS, TECH REPORTS, OPEN TEXTS, CONFERENCE PROCEEDINGS, POSTPRINTS, etc.
    62. 62. “The publishing division of Purdue Libraries enhances the impact of Purdue scholarship by developing information products aligned with the University’s strengths.” www.lib.purdue.edu/publishing
    63. 63. BEHIND THE SCENES PHYSICAL COLLOCATION ADMIN INTEGRATION SHARED MISSION
    64. 64. PHYSICAL COLLOCATION Center of power Now – 2013 (above) Then – 2009 (below)
    65. 65. ADMINISTRATIVE INTEGRATION Planning and Operations Council Dean’s Council Dean of Libraries Information Resources Council Digital Scholarship Council (James L. Mullins) Director of PUP & Head of SPS AD for Academic Affairs AD for Technology and Assessment AD for Planning and Administration AD for Research (Charles Watkinson) Admin Assistant (Becki Corbin) Director of Financial Affairs Director of University Copyright Office Director of Advancement Director of Strategic Communication University Archivist Booker Chair in Information Literacy Managing Editor Sales & Marketing Manager (Katherine Purple) Repository Specialist (Purdue e-Pubs) Repository Specialist (HABRI .75 / Purdue e-Pubs .25) (Bryan Shaffer) (Dave Scherer) (Marcy Wilhem-South) Production Editor (w/JTRP) 0.5 FTE Production Editor (w/Shofar) 0.5 FTE Communications Assistant (Kelley Kimm) (Dianna Gilroy) (Heidi Branham) Editorial Assistant (JTRP) Alexandra Hoff Editorial Assistant (Jennifer Lynch) JPUR Coordinator (UG) (Brooke Haltema) Repository Assistant (Eric Thompson) Repository Assistant (Lauren Weldy) Communications Assistant (Megan Kendall)
    66. 66. SHARED MISSION UNIT PLANS LINK TO JOINT STRATEGIC PLAN
    67. 67. TOGETHER WE BETTER . . . SERVE CAMPUS NEEDS SUPPORT DISCIPLINES SOLVE ISSUES IN SYSTEM
    68. 68. SERVE CAMPUS NEEDS HOW CAN WE ADVANCE INSTITUTIONAL PRIORITIES? 85 article proposals lead to 11 articles, 35 “snapshots” High impact learning practices; student retention Student authors, editors, designers. Faculty reviewers and advisory board Library skills: instruction, assessment, instit utional outreach. Publisher skills: content selection, project management, editing, design. Journal of Purdue Undergraduate Research www.jpur.org
    69. 69. SUPPORT DISCIPLINES HOW CAN WE BETTER SERVE DISCIPLINARY COMMUNITIES? 17,500 bibliographic entries (600 full text Open Access) 20 discussion groups Events and jobs boards Blogs, wikis, workspaces ca. 7,000 visitors per month Interdisciplinary field, many outside academy, gap between (often NIH-funded) research and on-the-ground practice Library skills: bibliographical research, taxonomy, metadata, licensing, preservation. HABRI Central – Resources for the Study of the Human-Animal Bond, www.habricentral.org Publisher skills: financial management, acquisition of original content, marketing.
    70. 70. SOLVE ISSUES IN THE SYSTEM HOW CAN WE ADDRESS LARGER SCHOLARLY COMMUNICATION CHALLENGES? Gray Literature Joint Transportation Research Program docs.lib.purdue.edu/jtrp HIDDEN PRINT AND UNSTABLE ONLINE becomes DISCOVERABLE IN PRINT AND ONLINE Library skills: digitization, metadata, online hosting, linked data, preservation. Publisher skills: management of peer-review, production process redesign, project management, identifiers
    71. 71. FUTURE PROSPECTS
    72. 72. PLANS FOR THE FUTURE • Expansion of campus publishing services with more systematic cost-recovery. Conferences offer a special opportunity. • More support for new models of publication, e.g., better capacity to handle multimedia and links with data. • Move up the value chain from technology and science areas where we have established relationships through our informal publishing activities. E.g., books in civil engineering. • Promote larger scale opportunities for library/press collaboration.
    73. 73. WHAT HAPPENS IF WE SCALE THIS UP? » Ca. 130 organizations. » Focus on formal, peerreviewed publications. » Sales income is primary source of funding. • • • • • » Ca. 110 organizations. » Focus on informal, lightlyreviewed publications. » Institutional subsidy is primary source of funding. Unique positioning on campuses, close to the authors and users of information. Shared belief in the importance of maximizing access to scholarly information. Both oriented toward construction of “unique collections” and “distinctive lists.” Track record of collaboration across as well as within institutions. Priorities not dictated by financially-motivated shareholders.
    74. 74. “OH, THE PLACES [WE] WILL GO!” With apologies to Dr. Seuss
    75. 75. THANK YOU
    76. 76. Organization Infrastructure: The Impact of Cloud, Mobile, and Managing the Changing Platforms of Digital Collections.
    77. 77. Topics we‟ll cover • • • • • • Introduction (2 minutes) Directions we‟re headed (5 minutes) How do we do that? (5 minutes) Concerns (5 minutes) Wrap-Up (2.5 minutes) Q & A (10 minutes) Total (30 minutes)
    78. 78. “One of the biggest flaws in the common conception of the future is that the future is something that happens to us, not something we create.” MICHAEL ANISSIMOV
    79. 79. Directions we’re headed
    80. 80. “The MISSION of LIBRARIANS is to IMPROVE SOCIETY through FACILITATING KNOWLEDGE creation in their COMMUNITIES” R. David Lankes
    81. 81. PC Magazine, January 1, 2013 “Gartner’s Top 10 Tech-Trends for 2013” 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. 10. Mobile Device Battles. Mobile Applications and HTML5. Personal Cloud. Enterprise App Stores. Internet of Things. Hybrid IT and Cloud Computing. Strategic Big Data. Actionable Analytics. In Memory Computing. Integrated Ecosystems.
    82. 82. Cloud Computing
    83. 83. Source: http://www.biomedcentral.com/1741-7015/10/124#
    84. 84. “A week‟s worth of the New York Times contains more information than the average seventeenth-century citizen encountered in a lifetime.”… “In the year 2013, the human race is
    85. 85. “Ipv6 has enough room for 340 trillion, trillion, trillion unique addresses, roughly 50,000 trillion, trillion addresses per person.”
    86. 86. Growth in Tablet PC’s Source: http://hothardware.com/News/Intel-Announces-New-Z670-For-Tablets/
    87. 87. Source: http://www.digitalbuzzblog.com/2011-mobile-statistics-stats-facts-marketing-infographic/
    88. 88. Source: http://www.digitalbuzzblog.com/2011-mobile-statistics-stats-facts-marketing-infographic/
    89. 89. “Many young people will never own a traditional PC, the phone/tablet is all they’ll need and ever use.” John Bloom, Author of Content Nation Image Source: www.apple.com
    90. 90. “With over five billion individuals currently armed with mobile phones, we‟re talking about unprecedented levels of access and insight in the psyches of over two-thirds of the wrold‟s population. …. By
    91. 91. Other considerations: Learning styles Support diverse learning styles "on average studies have shown roughly 29% have a visual preference, 34% auditory and 37% tactile” SMITH (IN TRUNER,T & FROST, T. 2005, 146)
    92. 92. IDC predicts that in the near future, nearly 70% of the digital universe will be created by individuals
    93. 93. Source: http://cdn.reelstatic.com/wp-content/uploads/2011/06/4-chart-video-growth-600x362.gif
    94. 94. http://www.emc.com/collateral/about/news/idc-emc-digital-universe-2011-infographic.pdf
    95. 95. BrightPlanet has estimated the size of the Dark Web to be 500 times the size of the Surface web, which would make it approximately 550 billion web pages Creative Commons:
    96. 96. “Very few of today‟s students press beyond the first level of the Web which contains only 7% of the data appropriate for
    97. 97. “A library in New York or in Kansas is no long the library for patrons in those geographic areas, but to all of those
    98. 98. As librarians, we have to get ready to massively SCALE everything we do.
    99. 99. How do we do that?
    100. 100. It won’t be with the systems of yesterday.
    101. 101. “We are interpreting a global world with a system built for local landscapes.”
    102. 102. “Today‟s average lowend computer calculates at roughly 10 to the 11th, or a hundred billion calculations per second…. The average $1,000 laptop should be computing at the rate of the human brain in
    103. 103. “Twenty years ago, most well-off US citizens owned a camera, alarmclock, encyclopedias, a world atlas.. And a bunch of other assets that easily add up to more than $10,000. All of which comes standard on today‟s
    104. 104. Cloud Computing
    105. 105. Analytics
    106. 106. Knowledge Map Source: “Clickstream Data Yields HighResolution Maps of Science” Bollen J, Van de Sompel H, Hagberg A, Bettencourt L, et al. (2009) Clickstream Data Yields High-Resolution Maps of Science. PLoS ONE 4(3): e4803. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0004803 http://www.plosone.org/article/info:doi/10.1371/journal.pone.0004803
    107. 107. Libraries will go from being reactive and generic service organizations to proactive and highly personalized
    108. 108. Concerns
    109. 109. “A cloud may seem to be beyond the purview, both in staff training and technical expertise – of the average library. It must not be
    110. 110. Librarians and Access (Specifically Discovery)
    111. 111. For our services to have value they must offer differentiation.
    112. 112. Collaboration
    113. 113. Research data & BIG data Requires planning for: • Highly scalable data storage • Jim Neal (Columbia) points out that networking capacity must be built out to support: • Connectivity • Reliability • Capacity • Performance • Security
    114. 114. Research data & BIG data As Neal also points out, these will be: • • • • • • Accessed well beyond institution that created it Extracted Reused by other applications Collaborated around and upon Used to drive visualizations/simulations/gaming Used in conjunction with analytics to drive decision making
    115. 115. Research data & BIG data Issues include: • • • • • • • Usage rights Intellectual property Copyright Ownership Licensed vs. open Rights management Preservation
    116. 116. e-data in the Cloud • • • • • • • • • Licenses / Limitations Pricing First-sale-doctrine Who “owns” the data? What if library data is “enhanced”? Who owns it then? Rules governing API‟s and their usage? Extracting library owned data. Privacy Preservation
    117. 117. When is the next “Carrington Event”? The last one was in 1859 Or, hurricane(s)?
    118. 118. Wrap-Up
    119. 119. Topics we covered • Directions we‟re headed • How do we do that? • Concerns
    120. 120. “Larry Page of Google asks: Are you working on something that can change the world? Yes or no? The answer for 99.99999% of people is “no”. I
    121. 121. Q&A
    122. 122. Carl Grant Associate Dean for Knowledge Services Chief Technology Officer M: +1-540-449-2418 E: carl.grant@ou.edu Twitter: http://www.twitter.com/carl_grant Personal Blog: http://thoughts.care-affiliates.com
    123. 123. Good Connections Are Always Worth Preserving The Publishing Community’s Use of Social Media Jill O’Neill NISO Webinar, October 16, 2013 On Twitter: jillmwo
    124. 124. First, Some Numbers “You Want to Tell Me and I’ve no Objection to Hearing it”
    125. 125. Some Statistics (Global Web Index, Second Quarter 2013) • Facebook: • 1.1 billion monthly active users • 751 million mobile users every month • 189 million mobile only every month • YouTube • 1 billion unique monthly visitors • Google+ • 359 million monthly active users • Twitter • 288 million monthly active users • Pinterest • 10 million monthly active users but fastest growing service
    126. 126. Coming Up Fast • Instagram • Launched in 2010, Acquired by Facebook 2012 • 150 million monthly active users • Still photos as well as video • Tumblr • Launched 2007, Acquired by Yahoo 2013 • ~30-50 million monthly active users with average length of visit being 14 minutes. • Text, quotes, video, audi o, photos, etc.
    127. 127. Why Are Businesses Interested? • Increased awareness of our organization, products or services among target customers • (Effective users of social media listed this as key benefit (61%)) • More favorable perception of our organization, products or services • (Effective users of social media listed this as key benefit (31%)) • Increase in new business • (Effective users of social media listed this as key benefit (22%)) The New Conversation: Taking Social Media from Talk to Action Harvard Business Review Analytic Services, 2011
    128. 128. Mining The Data (NLM) By examining relevant tweets and other comments, NLM will gain insights to extent of use, context for which information was sought, and effects of various health-related announcements and events on usage patterns including: • Relative frequency with which various NLM resources are mentioned • Comparison of NLM mentions with mentions of "competitors“ • Identification of urgent information requests for which NLM could "push" vetted information free of advertising or commercial interest • Effects of topical health issues such as "mad cow" or West Nile Virus or disasters etc. on use of NLM resources • Effect of changing NLM's interface design and textual/graphic style on usage by consumers • Effectiveness of NLM use of social media to distribute health information • Comparable analyses of other NIH, DHHS and private sector health information sources • Demographic characteristics of those whose messages are being examined to the extent permitted by privacy regulations. • Ascertaining public interest in using social media for health-related purpose • Value of tweets and other messages as teaching tools and change-agents for health-relevant behavior
    129. 129. Volume of Activity on Social Media by Content Providers Commerical STM Provider Commercial Content STM Provider Aggregator (Two Divisions) Government Agency Twitter Accounts 117 68 13 14 Facebook Pages 38 49 9 6 LinkedIn Groups 23 10 1 corporate page; 1 group YouTube Channels 5 2 1 1 Google+ Accounts 5 20 2 2 Blogs 14 2
    130. 130. Social Media: Different Uses, Different Audiences, Different Formats “Such a Transformation”
    131. 131. Presence (Blogging)
    132. 132. Combining Social Feeds (Blog, Oxford University Press)
    133. 133. Content for an Elite Brought Into The Mainstream
    134. 134. Presence (Online Networks)
    135. 135. Google Plus Social Network (Elsevier)
    136. 136. Facebook Page (Temple University Press)
    137. 137. Facebook for Single Title Promotion (Yale University Press)
    138. 138. Pinterest (Yale University Press)
    139. 139. Twitter (University of Minnesota Press)
    140. 140. Twitter (Yale University Press)
    141. 141. Twitter (The Lancet)
    142. 142. Twitter (EBSCO)
    143. 143. YouTube (ProQuest)
    144. 144. YouTube Isn‟t Just About Training
    145. 145. Tumblr – Brevity and Mobility!
    146. 146. Good Connections: Adapting and Unfolding “You Were Our Audience and Our Prompter”
    147. 147. Flipboard – Mobile First
    148. 148. Flipboard – Tablet Display
    149. 149. Academia.edu (Scholarly Social Network)
    150. 150. Jellybooks.com (Small Independent Presses)
    151. 151. Rifflebooks.com (Tradeoriented)
    152. 152. Job Qualifications for Social Media Coordinator (2013) • Strong writing, communication, and organizational skills • Some experience in editing and copyediting • Knowledge of major and emerging social media platforms, digital trends, and best practices • Strong proficiency in Wordpress, Facebook, Twitter, Tumblr, Google Plus, Pinterest, and working knowledge in other areas of social media • Proficiency in Microsoft Office including Word, Excel, Powerpoint, and Outlook • Basic understanding of HTML • Preferable but not required: Basic understanding of CSS and other web languages • Preferable but not required: Experience with video and audio production including filming, iMovie, and Final Cut
    153. 153. Audience and Prompter
    154. 154. Thank You! Twitter: @jillmwo Google Plus: Jill O’Neill Email: jilloneill@nfais.org
    155. 155. A National Library: Playing a role in data Lee-Ann Coleman PhD Head of Science, Technology & Medicine @ScienceBL
    156. 156. Custodians of old books www.bl.uk 163
    157. 157. And we are embracing digital National library of the UK Here for everyone who wants to do research Archiving since 1662 Legal deposit incl. non-print publications (from April 2013) Print occupies > 600km shelving 300TB of data in the Digital Library Provide access to 45k eJournals & newspapers, eBooks, datasets & 800 bibliographic databases 2M sound recordings, 4M maps, 5M reports, theses, conference papers, the world’s largest patents collection (c.50M) & 8M stamps www.bl.uk 164
    158. 158. Catering for contemporary science Managing collections Delivering new content Developing services Research www.bl.uk Engaging and inspiring Science team Collaborations & Partnerships 165
    159. 159. Information lifecycle www.bl.uk 166
    160. 160. The value of research data • Data are a vital part of the scientific record • But what is/should be/will be the role of libraries in this changing landscape? • Data as a format is very different from traditional library content, so are libraries equipped with the knowledge, technology and capacity to deal with it? • How should libraries prepare for this? We examined the landscape of data and assessed the services that the British Library might offer www.bl.uk 167
    161. 161. Testing dataset discovery A service involving a „new‟ material type raised questions about: • Users • Selection • Metadata SDASM Archives. Public Domain Via Flickr • Operational sustainability Preliminary work: • Studies conducted on our behalf • Literature review of user behaviour • Internal scoping to define suitable processes and systems Lead to a pilot service, using existing systems www.bl.uk 168
    162. 162. Selection criteria These considered: Scope: Subject Value to research Access: Restrictions Stability Copyright Quality: Creators Publishers www.bl.uk 169
    163. 163. Datasets discovery in Explore the British Library >500 research datasets Environmental Science Tropical & Rare Diseases www.bl.uk 170 170
    164. 164. Results Metadata for SEARCH % conversion from dataset view to click through 100% 90% 80% 80.0 70.0 70% 60% 50% 60.0 50.0 40% 40.0 30% 30.0 20% 20.0 10% 0% 10.0 0.0 • A wide variety of approaches were used • Usage statistics suggest the service to search was used to find research data www.bl.uk 171
    165. 165. The benefits of citing data • Checking facts • Obtaining easier access to data • Enabling re-use of data • Providing acknowledgement to a wider group – the data centre, curators etc. • Supporting openness and transparency Reich NG, Perl TM, Cummings DAT, Lessler J (2011) Visualizing Clinical Evidence: Citation Networks for the Incubation Periods of Respiratory Viral Infections. PLoS ONE 6(4): e19496. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0019496 www.bl.uk 172
    166. 166. Why finding and citing data is not easy • No widely used method to identify datasets • No widely used method to cite datasets • No effective way to link between articles and datasets • How can we solve these challenges? www.bl.uk 173
    167. 167. Why DOIs? The Digital Object Identifier is a persistent identifier that directs users to an online object, even if it changes location. Why DOIs? • Most widely used identifier for research articles • Researchers and publishers already know how to use them • Puts datasets on the same playing field as articles • The DOI system offers an easy way to connect the article with the underlying data www.bl.uk 174
    168. 168. DataCite • Established in 2009 as a not-for-profit organisation • A member of the International DOI Foundation • A Registration Agency for DOI names • 18 full members from Europe, North America, Asia and Australia (2m DOIs) • Members work with data centres in their own countries • Provide a shared infrastructure for minting DOIs www.bl.uk 175
    169. 169. British Library's role in DataCite International DOI Foundation Member • The British Library is one of 18 international members of DataCite DataCite • We are an allocating agent Member Institution • We provide the DataCite infrastructure, enabling UK Data Centres to „mint‟ DOIs for data Data Centre Data Centre Data Client www.bl.uk • While the aim is to support researchers, we do not work with individuals - they must deposit to a data centre/institution 176
    170. 170. British Library DataCite Service www.bl.uk 177
    171. 171. Examples of UK data centres with DOIs DOI: 10.5285/1a91c7d1-ec44-4858-9af2-98d80f169bbd www.bl.uk 178
    172. 172. Thank you! • bl.uk/science • bl.uk/datasets • datacite.org • E-mail: Lee-Ann.Coleman@bl.uk www.bl.uk 179
    173. 173. Looking to the future: what‟s the mindset for a successful information organisation? Keith Webster Dean of University Libraries 16 October 2013 180
    174. 174. Our Professional Future Access to information, ideas and works of imagination is an essential characteristic of thriving democracies, cultures and economies. This is increasingly so in the global information society. Information is a cultural, social and economic resource and a commodity of crucial importance in a huge range of diverse enterprises. Librarians and information scientists can be at the heart of this revolution, in demand for their creative, technical and managerial expertise. Library Association/Institute of Information Scientists, 1999
    175. 175. Overview of remarks As a profession we add value Not everyone recognises that! There are tremendous opportunities to deploy our skills There isn‟t much money to pay for more of us We need to rethink our business operations to free up our people
    176. 176. How do we add value? British Library adds £419m of value to the economy each year http://www.bl.uk/aboutus/stratpolpr og/increasingvalue/britishlibrar y_economicevaluation.pdf
    177. 177. Australian research study Contingent valuation Respondents were presented with different hypothetical scenarios They were asked about their willingness to pay, and the amount they would expect to pay Webster (2012) The evolving role of libraries in the scholarly ecosystem
    178. 178. Use of print resources Frequently Sometimes Never Journal articles 748 328 99 Books 557 565 53 Abstracts, indexes and bibliographies 342 458 375 32 264 879 Conference proceedings 163 633 379 Technical papers 144 408 623 10 116 1,049 148 554 473 CDs, DVDs, etc. 65 432 678 Other 27 51 206 Standards and specifications Patents Government publications
    179. 179. Use of electronic resources Frequently Sometimes Never 1,112 57 6 Books 307 611 257 Datasets 204 411 560 Databases 624 371 180 52 275 848 Conference proceedings 250 667 258 Technical papers 174 432 569 27 167 981 195 565 415 AV materials 73 415 687 Other 18 23 213 Journal articles Standards and specifications Patents Government publications
    180. 180. Time devoted to using information resources
    181. 181. Personal expenditure on information resources Nothing 15.4 $1-250 33.4 $251-500 23.9 $501-1000 16.3 $1001-1250 4.3 $1251-1500 1.7 Over $1500 5.1
    182. 182. How much does it all cost? Respondents asked to indicate annual spend on collections - to nearest $1 million 6 said $30 million + (3 reported $100m +) 51 less than $1,000,000 600 don‟t know UQ mean of $11.3 million Equates to mean of $1,760 per capita Actual spend is $2,797 per capita (37.1% under)
    183. 183. Value for money Excellent Value for money relative to the level of expenditure disclosed Very good Good Fair Poor 182 118 53 16 10
    184. 184. Where else would you go for stuff? Another university to which I am also affiliated 106 Other universities to which I have no affiliation 173 National Library of Australia 113 State libraries 149 Other public libraries 58 Overseas universities 97 Learned Societies 36 Specialist subject-focused research institutions 73 Institutional and open access repositories 160 Purchase from publishers or document delivery intermediaries 172 Obtain from colleagues/authors 183 Other 23
    185. 185. Time matters Less time than now – I could work more efficiently 1 None – it would make no difference to me 8 Up to 10 per cent more time 15 11-15 per cent more time 15 16-20 per cent more time 33 21-25 per cent more time 44 26-30 per cent more time 36 31-35 per cent more time 17 36-40 per cent more time 19 Over 40 per cent more time 191
    186. 186. Medium-long term effect on research Volume of research outputs Volume will increase 16 Volume will remain unchanged 37 Volume will decrease 326 Total responses: 379 Quality of research Quality will increase 15 Quality will remain unchanged 62 Quality will decrease 302 Total responses: 379
    187. 187. Key impacts of free access to information on research Access to information is indispensible for research (91% strongly agree) Maintain comprehensive overview of developments in field (77%) Eliminate unproductive time (74%) Avoiding duplication of research done elsewhere (50%)
    188. 188. Funding scenarios Current spent on information resources across the three sites is $2,496 per capita Respondents were asked to recommend a budget for the purchase of single-user access to the resources they need average $3,511 per capita Respondents were also asked to estimate the costs if they had to be self-sufficient (purchases, travel to libraries etc) average $5,894 per capita
    189. 189. Summary finding The final scenario would result in total costs to the institution of $81.4m compared to actual spend of $34.5m a financial return of 136 percent
    190. 190. Making a difference Adverse event avoided Hospital admission Hospital acquired infection Percent 11.5 8.2 Surgery 21.2 Additional tests/procedures 49.0 Additional out-patient visits 26.4 Marshall (1994) The impact of information services on decision making
    191. 191. Making a difference Adverse event avoided Hospital admission Hospital acquired infection Percent 11.5 8.2 Surgery 21.2 Additional tests/procedures 49.0 Additional out-patient visits 26.4 Patient mortality 19.2 Marshall (1994) The impact of information services on decision making
    192. 192. What is happening in the world is bypassing university libraries Peter Murray-Rust The scientist‟s view JISC Libraries of the future debate, April 2009
    193. 193. “…contact with librarians and information professionals is rare” “…researchers are generally confident in their [self-taught] abilities.., librarians see them as..relatively unsophisticated” “…librarians see it as a problem that they are not reaching all researchers with formal training, whereas most researchers don‟t think they need it”
    194. 194. “The bad news is that I‟m not sure they understand what goes on in the library other than taking out books.” Benton Foundation, 1996 “User perceptions negatively affect the ability of librarians to meet information needs simply because a profession cannot serve those who do not understand its purpose and expertise.” Durrance, 1988
    195. 195. • Within five years, graduate students and faculty will fill all their information needs online, never coming into the library • Libraries will open up their space to other areas of the university, and develop designer spaces for students • All library collections and services will be delivered from the cloud, and 90% of information needs will be met by non-Library providers http://taigaforumprovocativestatements.blogspot.com/
    196. 196. The transformed library of the future will be at the core of teaching, learning and scholarship • partnering with academic departments to create learning activities and environments • helping to build an infrastructure for learning • creating an intellectual commons for the community Guskin (2004) Project on the Future of Higher Education
    197. 197. Demands for our core skills Data services Digital research Open scholarship Evidence-based medicine Knowledge-based professions 2
    198. 198. Collection-centric - 1st generation
    199. 199. Client-focused - 2nd generation
    200. 200. Experience-centered - 3rd generation
    201. 201. Connected Learning Experiences - 4th generation
    202. 202. Current priorities in academic libraries 1. Continue and complete migration from print to electronic and realign service operations 2. Retire legacy collections 3. Continue to repurpose library as primary learning space 4. Reposition library expertise and resources to be more closely embedded in research and teaching enterprise outside library 5. Extend focus of collection development from external purchase to local curation Lewis (2007); Webster (2010)
    203. 203. Barriers to implementation Hybrid environment Faculty (and librarian?) resistance Costs of space redevelopment Library staff training Faculty reception Institutional acceptance of repository services
    204. 204. • • • • • In the print library Local access costs low saved time allowed for research productivity Library costs high acquisitions, maintenance, curation, buildings Correspondence between library reputation and research quality Great libraries attracted great scholars Great scholars attracted great funding
    205. 205. Research publication is essential to future research Technology reduces costs of production and distribution Demand from academy is for online content Almost all new content born digital Large swathe of scholarly print material now digitised
    206. 206. What might this mean? Ongoing acquisitions will require increasingly less space Substantial parts of existing collections can be relocated off-site and replaced with digital versions As services like Google books mature this will accelerate (subject to statutory provisions) This will provide new space opportunities for universities and their libraries
    207. 207. What‟s involved in storing books? Open shelves in libraries Accessible, but expensive centre of campus real estate Highly compact off-site configurations Low storage costs, better preservation but high access costs Very different to electronic storage! Courant and Nielsen (2009) On the Cost of Keeping a Book
    208. 208. Storage costs for pbooks Estimated over time to exceed purchase price on average by 50 percent (Lawrence et al, 2001) Grow over time as acquisitions continue Require either more storage, more discards or more efficient storage
    209. 209. Indicative costs Open stack Warehouse 10 year open then WHS 20 year open then WHS 141.89 28.77 50.98 66.43
    210. 210. Compare with ebooks HathiTrust will archive and backup an ebook at $0.15-$0.40 per annum (using same discount rates as for print books that equates to $5-$13)
    211. 211. Use of print collections Pittsburgh study 1979 Cornell study 2010 40% of collection never circulates 55% of books purchased since 1990 never borrowed If a book isn‟t borrowed during first 6 years, only 2% chance it will ever be used 13% Average circulation from open shelf collections 65% of books purchased in 2001 hadn‟t been borrowed 1% Average circulation from high density collections ~0% Average circulation from off-site storage
    212. 212. Moving forward Ruthless move towards digital only acquisitions policy, relocation to storage, collaborative retention, disposal Lobbying publishers and aggregators for better ebook terms Securing campus buy-in
    213. 213. Accelerate the reduction and removal of routine transactions - Increase use of web-based activity - Increase use of self-service - Close labour-intensive low volume services Prefer digital form at all times Patron-driven acquisition as supplement Better discovery services - eg Summon
    214. 214. Identify opportunities to leverage economies of scale - Buy publishers‟ bundles to reduce need for selection decisions - Consolidate distributed collections, warehousing or disposing of obsolete material - Consolidate and multi-purpose service points
    215. 215. Library redevelopment Lots of success stories Understand need for different spaces on your campus - do good research
    216. 216. Intentions Activities Achievements
    217. 217. What did you do in the Library? Use a computer Quiet study Meet friends Group work Find course materials Think Coffee Borrow books
    218. 218. Library redevelopment Lots of success stories Understand need for different spaces on your campus - do good research Showcase good examples (e.g. Hunt Library, UQ)
    219. 219. The role of librarians Current state Future state Many libraries retain large numbers of librarians to catalogue and count Even more librarians wait at service desks „just in case‟ Few librarians leave the library building Librarians embedded in research and teaching activities Librarians become campus specialists in areas such as escience, academic technology and research evaluation Librarians have meaningful impact Current barriers Many librarians lack skills and useful qualifications Many librarians are resistant to change Academics do not believe librarians are useful or credible partners
    220. 220. W(h)ither the Library? Local distribution 1990s Global digital 2000s Cloud-based models 2010s Convergent media services
    221. 221. NISO Virtual Conference Revolution or Evolution: The Organizational Impact of Electronic Content Questions? All questions will be posted with presenter answers on the NISO website following the webinar: http://www.niso.org/news/events/2013/econtent NISO Virtual Conference • October 16, 2013
    222. 222. THANK YOU Thank you for joining us today. Please take a moment to fill out the brief online survey. We look forward to hearing from you!

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