Revolution for Sure
David W. Lewis
NISO Virtual Conference: Revolution or Evolution:
The Organizational Impact of Electron...
“That is what real revolutions are like. The old
stuff gets broken faster than the new stuff is put
in its place.”

Clay S...
Resulted in:
1. Scientific Journal
2. Novels
3. Use of alphabetical order as a means of
organizing knowledge
4. Silent rea...
Resulted in:
5. Literacy became an amateur activity
6. Institutions that had controlled of
information lost that control
7...
Agenda
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•

Ronald Coase
Job to Be Done
Tyler Cowen and Freestyle Chess
Michael Buckland
Digital Documents
Ope...
Ronald Harry Coase
“The Nature of the Firm” Economica 4
(16): 386–405 1937

Question: If markets are efficient, why do we
...
Ronald Harry Coase
“The Nature of the Firm” Economica 4
(16): 386–405 1937

Question: If markets are efficient, why do we
...
Ronald Harry Coase
“The Nature of the Firm” Economica 4
(16): 386–405 1937

• Where the market has high transactions
costs...
“The Nature of the Firm” and Libraries
• In the past the market could not answer
questions
• Now the market can answer man...
“The Nature of the Firm” and Libraries
• In the past the market could not manage
collections
• Now access to many kinds of...
“The Nature of the Firm” and Libraries
Critical Question:
What knowledge management problems do
our institutions and commu...
Clayton Christensen

“Job to Be Done”
• People have jobs they need to do in their
lives
• They want to do these jobs in th...
Clayton Christensen

“Job to Be Done”
• What jobs are scholars and students hiring
the library to do?
• How do we provide ...
"People don't want to buy a quarter-inch drill.
They want a quarter-inch hole!” — Theodore
Levitt

People don’t want a lib...
Tyler Cowen,
Average is Over: Powering America Beyond
the Age of the Great Stagnation
(New York: Dutton, 2013), page 7.

“...
Tyler Cowen,
Average is Over: Powering America Beyond
the Age of the Great Stagnation
(New York: Dutton, 2013), page 7.

“...
Tyler Cowen,
Average is Over: Powering America Beyond
the Age of the Great Stagnation
(New York: Dutton, 2013), page 7.

•...
Tyler Cowen,
Average is Over: Powering America Beyond
the Age of the Great Stagnation
(New York: Dutton, 2013), page 7.

•...
“Moore’s Law,” Wikipedia. Available at: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Moores_law
• Watson’s hardware cost $3,000,000 in 2011
• By 2020 the same hardware can be expected
to cost less than $50,000
• By 203...
Michael Buckland,
Redesigning Library Services: A Manifesto
(Chicago: American Library Association, 1992).

“The central p...
Michael Buckland,
Redesigning Library Services: A Manifesto
(Chicago: American Library Association, 1992).

1. Paper Libra...
Michael Buckland,
Redesigning Library Services: A Manifesto
(Chicago: American Library Association, 1992).

• Library coll...
Michael Buckland,
Redesigning Library Services: A Manifesto
(Chicago: American Library Association, 1992).

• When documen...
Michael Buckland,
Redesigning Library Services: A Manifesto
(Chicago: American Library Association, 1992).

• When documen...
Melvil Dewey

Our practices and values come from the
Paper Library
Paper
•
•
•
•

Localized
One use at a time
Not easily copied
Inflexible, not easily
modified or
annotated
• Storage bulky ...
Paper
• Publishers needed •
• Long lasting medium •
• Preservation
strategies understood
• Emotional
attachment to books
a...
Content Supply Chain is All Digital

• Print books delivered nearly as quickly as
digital files
• Digital readers nearly a...
Content Supply Chain is All Digital
• You can purchase/access content only when
it is actually needed
• Inventories of con...
Opportunity Costs of Print Collections
$5.00 to $13.10
$28.77

$50.98 to $68.43
$141.89
Life cycle cost based on 3% discou...
Content Supply Chain is All Digital
• Because marginal cost of distributing content
is zero, new business models are possi...
Open Access
• Open-access (OA) literature is digital, online, free of
charge, and free of most copyright and licensing
res...
Open Access
Open Access is:
1. A movement — response to excessive price
increases by commercial journal publishers
2. A ne...
Disruptive Innovation
Clayton Christensen
Clayton M. Christensen, Michael B. Horn, Louis Soares, and Louis
Caldera, Disrup...
Disruptive Innovation
• Needs
– New Technology (simplified solution)
– New Business Model
– New Value Chain
• Starts as be...
Pace of Substitution of Direct Gold OA for
Subscription Journals
100.0%
90.0%
80.0%
70.0%
60.0%
50.0%
40.0%
30.0%
20.0%
10...
Pace of Substitution of Direct Gold OA for Subscription
Journals (log scale)
100.0%

10.0%

1.0%
Laakso, et. al. Estimates...
Pace of Substitution of Direct Gold OA for
Subscription Journals Based on Additional 2011
European Commission Data
100.0%
...
Old Model
General Public

Scholar

Library

Publisher
Funders

General Public

University

Old Model
“Good Old
Days”

Scholar

Library

Publisher
Funders

Old Model
“Bad Old
Days”

General Public

University

Scholar

Library

Publisher

Shareholders
Funders

Open Access
Future

General Public

University

Scholar

Library

Publisher

Shareholders
Funders

Open Access
Future

General Public

University

Scholar

Library

Publisher

Shareholders
The Flip
• In a paper world libraries brought documents
from the world to the local community or
institution
• In the digi...
Library
Library
Library
The Subsidy Perspective
• If information is not cheap and easy, people
will not use it to the extent that will
maximize so...
The Subsidy Perspective
• What matters is that information is cheap
and easy
• Preserving the subsidy matters

• Preservin...
The Subsidy Perspective
• What matters is getting the most scholarship
to the most people
“That is what real revolutions are like. The old
stuff gets broken faster than the new stuff is put
in its place.”

Clay S...
Questions/Comments

© 2013 David W. Lewis. This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-NoDeri...
Upcoming SlideShare
Loading in...5
×

Keynote: Revolution for Sure: Envisioning a 21st Century Information Organization

899

Published on

Keynote: Revolution for Sure: Envisioning a 21st Century Information Organization by David Lewis, Dean of the Indiana University - Purdue University Indianapolis (IUPUI) University Library for the October 16, 2013 NISO Virtual Conference: Revolution or Evolution: The Organizational Impact of Electronic Content.

Published in: Education, Technology
0 Comments
0 Likes
Statistics
Notes
  • Be the first to comment

  • Be the first to like this

No Downloads
Views
Total Views
899
On Slideshare
0
From Embeds
0
Number of Embeds
0
Actions
Shares
0
Downloads
3
Comments
0
Likes
0
Embeds 0
No embeds

No notes for slide
  • TimBerners-Lee “invented” the web
  • TimBerners-Lee “invented” the web
  • Keynote: Revolution for Sure: Envisioning a 21st Century Information Organization

    1. 1. Revolution for Sure David W. Lewis NISO Virtual Conference: Revolution or Evolution: The Organizational Impact of Electronic Content October 16, 2013 © 2013 David W. Lewis. This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-NoDerivs 3.0 Unported License.
    2. 2. “That is what real revolutions are like. The old stuff gets broken faster than the new stuff is put in its place.” Clay Shirky, “Newspapers and Thinking the Unthinkable,” March 2009. Available at: http://www.shirky.com/weblog/2009/03/newspapers-and-thinking-the-unthinkable/
    3. 3. Resulted in: 1. Scientific Journal 2. Novels 3. Use of alphabetical order as a means of organizing knowledge 4. Silent reading
    4. 4. Resulted in: 5. Literacy became an amateur activity 6. Institutions that had controlled of information lost that control 7. Renaissance, Reformation, 100 Years War, etc.
    5. 5. Agenda • • • • • • • • Ronald Coase Job to Be Done Tyler Cowen and Freestyle Chess Michael Buckland Digital Documents Open Access as a Disruptive Innovation The Flip Subsidy Perspective
    6. 6. Ronald Harry Coase “The Nature of the Firm” Economica 4 (16): 386–405 1937 Question: If markets are efficient, why do we have firms?
    7. 7. Ronald Harry Coase “The Nature of the Firm” Economica 4 (16): 386–405 1937 Question: If markets are efficient, why do we have firms? Answer: Transaction Costs
    8. 8. Ronald Harry Coase “The Nature of the Firm” Economica 4 (16): 386–405 1937 • Where the market has high transactions costs firms bring activities in house • When transaction costs are low, the market works and in house activities are dropped
    9. 9. “The Nature of the Firm” and Libraries • In the past the market could not answer questions • Now the market can answer many kinds of questions easily
    10. 10. “The Nature of the Firm” and Libraries • In the past the market could not manage collections • Now access to many kinds of collections is easy • What is hard now is curation and preservation of locally produced and special materials
    11. 11. “The Nature of the Firm” and Libraries Critical Question: What knowledge management problems do our institutions and communities have that the market can’t efficiently solve? These are the problems we need to focus on
    12. 12. Clayton Christensen “Job to Be Done” • People have jobs they need to do in their lives • They want to do these jobs in the fastest, easiest, and cheapest ways possible • They hire products and services to do these jobs Carmen Nobel, “Clay Christensen’s Milkshake Marketing,” Working Knowledge, Harvard Business School. February 14, 2011. Available at: http://hbswk.hbs.edu/item/6496.html Clayton M. Christensen, Scott Cook, and Taddy Hall, “What Customers Want from Your Products,” Working Knowledge, Harvard Business School, January 16, 2006. Available at: http://hbswk.hbs.edu/item/5170.html
    13. 13. Clayton Christensen “Job to Be Done” • What jobs are scholars and students hiring the library to do? • How do we provide products that do these jobs quickly, cheaply, and easily? Carmen Nobel, “Clay Christensen’s Milkshake Marketing,” Working Knowledge, Harvard Business School. February 14, 2011. Available at: http://hbswk.hbs.edu/item/6496.html Clayton M. Christensen, Scott Cook, and Taddy Hall, “What Customers Want from Your Products,” Working Knowledge, Harvard Business School, January 16, 2006. Available at: http://hbswk.hbs.edu/item/5170.html
    14. 14. "People don't want to buy a quarter-inch drill. They want a quarter-inch hole!” — Theodore Levitt People don’t want a library. People want information and answers.
    15. 15. Tyler Cowen, Average is Over: Powering America Beyond the Age of the Great Stagnation (New York: Dutton, 2013), page 7. “We're close to the point where the available knowledge at the hands of the individual, for questions that can be posed clearly and articulately, is not so far from the knowledge of the entire world...”
    16. 16. Tyler Cowen, Average is Over: Powering America Beyond the Age of the Great Stagnation (New York: Dutton, 2013), page 7. “Whether it is through Siri, Google, or Wikipedia, there is now almost always a way to ask and—more importantly—a way to receive the answer in relatively digestible form.”
    17. 17. Tyler Cowen, Average is Over: Powering America Beyond the Age of the Great Stagnation (New York: Dutton, 2013), page 7. • Freestyle chess • Professionals will be teamed with intelligent machines • The combination of person and machine can be much better than either alone, though the machine alone will be often superior to the person alone
    18. 18. Tyler Cowen, Average is Over: Powering America Beyond the Age of the Great Stagnation (New York: Dutton, 2013), page 7. • As a professional you need to add value above what the intelligent machine can do alone • This is a different skill set than simply doing the task yourself
    19. 19. “Moore’s Law,” Wikipedia. Available at: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Moores_law
    20. 20. • Watson’s hardware cost $3,000,000 in 2011 • By 2020 the same hardware can be expected to cost less than $50,000 • By 2030 it should cost less than $750
    21. 21. Michael Buckland, Redesigning Library Services: A Manifesto (Chicago: American Library Association, 1992). “The central purpose of libraries is to provide a service: access to information.” Usually by providing access to documents HTML version of the text is available at: http://sunsite.berkeley.edu/Literature/Library/Redesigning/html.html
    22. 22. Michael Buckland, Redesigning Library Services: A Manifesto (Chicago: American Library Association, 1992). 1. Paper Library — both bibliographic tools and document are paper 2. Automated Library — tools electronic and documents paper 3. Electronic Library — tools and documents electronic
    23. 23. Michael Buckland, Redesigning Library Services: A Manifesto (Chicago: American Library Association, 1992). • Library collections serve two purposes 1. Dispensing role 2. Preservation role • In the paper world the dispensing role is where the most money is spent
    24. 24. Michael Buckland, Redesigning Library Services: A Manifesto (Chicago: American Library Association, 1992). • When documents are paper, people and documents need to be brought together • Best way to do this is local collections • Libraries bring documents from the world to their local communities
    25. 25. Michael Buckland, Redesigning Library Services: A Manifesto (Chicago: American Library Association, 1992). • When documents are electronic, people can get them at a distance and instantaneously • Bibliographic tools and documents move to world/web scale • The dispensing role becomes cheaper • The preservation role becomes more important
    26. 26. Melvil Dewey Our practices and values come from the Paper Library
    27. 27. Paper • • • • Localized One use at a time Not easily copied Inflexible, not easily modified or annotated • Storage bulky and expensive • Universal Digital • Many users at a time • Easily copied • Flexible, easily modified and annotated • Storage does not require much space and is cheap
    28. 28. Paper • Publishers needed • • Long lasting medium • • Preservation strategies understood • Emotional attachment to books as objects • Anyone can Publish Digital Vulnerable Long-term preservation uncertain
    29. 29. Content Supply Chain is All Digital • Print books delivered nearly as quickly as digital files • Digital readers nearly as good as print books
    30. 30. Content Supply Chain is All Digital • You can purchase/access content only when it is actually needed • Inventories of content are no longer required • Inventories become expensive overhead
    31. 31. Opportunity Costs of Print Collections $5.00 to $13.10 $28.77 $50.98 to $68.43 $141.89 Life cycle cost based on 3% discount rate. From Paul N. Courant and Matthew “Buzzy” Nielsen, “On the Cost of Keeping a Book,” in The Idea of Order: Transforming Research Collections for 21st Century Scholarship, CLIR, June 2010, available at: http://www.clir.org/pubs/abstract/pub147abst.html
    32. 32. Content Supply Chain is All Digital • Because marginal cost of distributing content is zero, new business models are possible • Open Access is the most important so far
    33. 33. Open Access • Open-access (OA) literature is digital, online, free of charge, and free of most copyright and licensing restrictions. • OA removes price barriers (subscriptions, licensing fees, pay-per-view fees) and permission barriers (most copyright and licensing restrictions). Peter Suber, Open access overview, at: http://legacy.earlham.edu/~peters/fos/overview.htm
    34. 34. Open Access Open Access is: 1. A movement — response to excessive price increases by commercial journal publishers 2. A new business model for scholarly communication — costs covered upfront and the content is then given away
    35. 35. Disruptive Innovation Clayton Christensen Clayton M. Christensen, Michael B. Horn, Louis Soares, and Louis Caldera, Disrupting College: How Disruptive Innovation Can Deliver Quality and Affordability to Postsecondary Education, February 8, 2011, Available at: http://www.americanprogress.org/issues/labor/report/2011/02/0 8/9034/disrupting-college/ Clayton M. Christensen, SC10 Keynote with Clayton Christensen, December 4, 2010, video running time: 1:00:28, available at: http://insidehpc.com/2010/12/04/video-sc10-keynotewith-clayton-christensen Clayton M. Christensen, The Innovator's Prescription: A Disruptive Solution to the Healthcare Crisis, May 13, 2008, video, running time: 1:27:38, available at: http://video.mit.edu/watch/the-innovators-prescription-a-disruptive-solution-to-thehealthcare-crisis-9380/ Maxwell Wessel and Clayton M. Christensen, “Surviving Disruption,” Harvard Business Review 90(12):56-64 December 2012.
    36. 36. Disruptive Innovation • Needs – New Technology (simplified solution) – New Business Model – New Value Chain • Starts as being not good enough and gets better fast and comes to dominate the market • How products become cheaper, faster, and easier
    37. 37. Pace of Substitution of Direct Gold OA for Subscription Journals 100.0% 90.0% 80.0% 70.0% 60.0% 50.0% 40.0% 30.0% 20.0% 10.0% 0.0% Laakso, et. al. Estimates S-curve Extrapolation Based on 2000-2009 S-curve Extrapolation Based on 2005-2009 David W. Lewis, “The Inevitability of Open Access,” College & Research Libraries September 2012. Available at: http://crl.acrl.org/content/73/5/493.full.pdf+html
    38. 38. Pace of Substitution of Direct Gold OA for Subscription Journals (log scale) 100.0% 10.0% 1.0% Laakso, et. al. Estimates S-curve Extrapolation Based on 2000-2009 S-curve Extrapolation Based on 2005-2009 David W. Lewis, “The Inevitability of Open Access,” College & Research Libraries September 2012. Available at: http://crl.acrl.org/content/73/5/493.full.pdf+html
    39. 39. Pace of Substitution of Direct Gold OA for Subscription Journals Based on Additional 2011 European Commission Data 100.0% 90.0% 80.0% 70.0% 60.0% 50.0% 40.0% 30.0% 20.0% 10.0% 0.0% Laakso, et. al. Estimate with EC Data Extrapolation Based on 2000-2009 Extrapolation Based on 2005-2009 Extrapolation Based on 2000-2011 Extrapolation Based on 2005-2011 David W. Lewis, “The Inevitability of Open Access: Update One.” Available at: https://scholarworks.iupui.edu/handle/1805/3471
    40. 40. Old Model General Public Scholar Library Publisher
    41. 41. Funders General Public University Old Model “Good Old Days” Scholar Library Publisher
    42. 42. Funders Old Model “Bad Old Days” General Public University Scholar Library Publisher Shareholders
    43. 43. Funders Open Access Future General Public University Scholar Library Publisher Shareholders
    44. 44. Funders Open Access Future General Public University Scholar Library Publisher Shareholders
    45. 45. The Flip • In a paper world libraries brought documents from the world to the local community or institution • In the digital world libraries collect and curate “documents” created by or of importance to the local institution or community for the world
    46. 46. Library
    47. 47. Library
    48. 48. Library
    49. 49. The Subsidy Perspective • If information is not cheap and easy, people will not use it to the extent that will maximize societal benefit • Information needs to be subsidized • Libraries have been one important means of providing this subsidy See: David W. Lewis "What If Libraries Are Artifact Bound Institutions?" Information Technology and Libraries 17(4):191-197 December 1998. Available at: https://scholarworks.iupui.edu/handle/1805/434.
    50. 50. The Subsidy Perspective • What matters is that information is cheap and easy • Preserving the subsidy matters • Preserving the institutions that once provided the subsidy is not what is important
    51. 51. The Subsidy Perspective • What matters is getting the most scholarship to the most people
    52. 52. “That is what real revolutions are like. The old stuff gets broken faster than the new stuff is put in its place.” Clay Shirky, “Newspapers and Thinking the Unthinkable,” March 2009. Available at: http://www.shirky.com/weblog/2009/03/newspapers-and-thinking-the-unthinkable/
    53. 53. Questions/Comments © 2013 David W. Lewis. This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-NoDerivs 3.0 Unported License.
    1. A particular slide catching your eye?

      Clipping is a handy way to collect important slides you want to go back to later.

    ×