Renewble energies-market-needs-book


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This book presents the results of the various surveys undertaken in the participant countries. These involved
university personnel on the one hand, and employers, local authorities and ministries on the other, thus building up a
profile of the current and future needs. The results of these surveys are very useful, since they provide a sound basis
upon which concrete action in respect of education, training and extension works can be undertaken, vis-à-vis addressing
the problems they have identified. Readers will therefore find this book useful both in respect of the provision of background information and in terms of gaining knowledge of the specific circumstances in each country. All in all, if countries are able to adequately train human resources, they
can more easily take advantage of the various economic opportunities the field of renewable energy may offer.

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Renewble energies-market-needs-book

  1. 1. Renewable Energy Market Needs:A perspective from Europe and Latin America
  2. 2. Authors Bolivia Chile Guatemala Horacio Villegas Francisca López Robinovich Cyrano Ruiz Javier Aliaga Lordemann Guillermo Jiménez Estévez Ericka Tuquer Lea Franziska Buch Luis Vargas Díaz Lourdes Socarrás Manuel Díaz Romero Nelson Amaro Natalia Garrido Echeverría Brazil Robert Guzmán André Luis Silva Leite Germany João Luiz Alkaim Latvia Gabriela EspinosaJosé Baltazar Salgueirinho Aleksejs ZorinsOsório de Andrade Guerra Julia Gottwald Gotfrids Noviks Mariana Eliza Ferrari Walter LealMariana Dalla Barba Wendt Rodrigo Antonio Martins Youssef Ahmad Youssef Organizers (Brazil) José Baltazar Salgueirinho Osório de Andrade Guerra Youssef Ahmad Youssef Instructional Design Assessoria de Comunicação e Marketing - C&M Marina Cabeda Egger Moellwald Assessor Laudelino José Sardá Revision Andrzej Korzeniowski (transLEEtion) Director Sarah Jauncey (transLEEtion) Maria do Rosário Stotz Graphic Design Editorial Manager Edison Rodrigo Valim Alessandra Turnes R32 Renewable energy market needs : a perspective from Europe and Latin America. / José Baltazar Salgueirinho Osório de Andrade Guerra, Youssef Ahmad Youssef organizers– Palhoça : Ed. Unisul, 2010. 286 p. ; 21 cm ISBN 978-85-86870-48-X Bibliography: p. 279-285 1. Renewable energy sources. 2. Environment. 3. Sustainable development. 4. Jelare. I. Guerra, José Baltazar Salgueirinho Osório de Andrade Guerra, 1968-. II. Youssef, Youssef Ahmad, 1967-. CDD – 333.794This publication has been produced with the assistance of the European Union. Thecontent of this publication is the sole responsibility of the JELARE project consortium andcan in no way be taken to reflect the views of the European Union.
  3. 3. ContentsPreface . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5Chapter 1 – Introduction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7Chapter 2 – Bolivia . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 29Chapter 3 – Brazil . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 57Chapter 4 – Chile . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 71Chapter 5 – Germany . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 97Chapter 6 – Guatemala . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .127Chapter 7 – Latvia . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .157Chapter 8 – JELARE survey reports: main variables . . .177Chapter 9 – Conclusions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .259References . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .279
  4. 4. PrefaceThe search for global solutions to environmental andclimate problems associated with the consumption of fossilfuels has led to the development of a new field, namely thefield of renewable energy. Even though it has always beenpossible to harness the sun or winds as energy sources, thelimited technological means to do so have largely hindereddevelopments in this field in the past. Nowadays, technologyis now available to allow us to realize the potential the fieldof renewable energy offers.From the production of biogas from wastes to the use ofbiomass to generate energy for households, the possibilitiesof using renewable energy are manifold. In poor countriessuch as those in Latin America, the use of locally availablerenewable energy resources may allow them to improvequality of life as well as contribute to their economicdevelopment. But in order to yield the expected benefits,there is a pressing need to address many of the deficienciesseen today in respect of the development and use of renewableenergy. Some of these are the lack of institutional policiesand frameworks, limited access to technology, restrictedaccess to financing, unsuitability of local infrastructures and,last but not least, lack of training.In the context of the Joint European-Latin AmericanUniversities Renewable Energy Project ( JELARE),undertaken as part of the ALFA III Programme of theEuropean Commission, various initiatives are beingundertaken to develop the renewable energy sector in theparticipant countries (Bolivia, Brazil, Chile, Germany,Guatemala, Latvia) in both Europe and in South America.In particular, JELARE tries to address the problems posedby lack of expertise and lack of training in this importantfield. Consistent with this approach, a number of surveyshave been undertaken in the participant countries as part of
  5. 5. JELARE, focusing on the market needs seen in the fieldof renewable energy.This book presents the results of the various surveysundertaken in the participant countries. These involveduniversity personnel on the one hand, and employers, localauthorities and ministries on the other, thus building up aprofile of the current and future needs. The results of thesesurveys are very useful, since they provide a sound basisupon which concrete action in respect of education, trainingand extension works can be undertaken, vis-à-vis addressingthe problems they have identified. Readers will thereforefind this book useful both in respect of the provision ofbackground information and in terms of gaining knowledgeof the specific circumstances in each country. All in all, ifcountries are able to adequately train human resources, theycan more easily take advantage of the various economicopportunities the field of renewable energy may offer.A special thanks goes to Prof. Baltazar de Andrade Guerraand Prof. Youssef Ahmad Youssef, from UNISUL in Brazil,for their efforts in compiling this publication. Thanks arealso due to the JELARE project partners, who performedthe surveys in their countries and supplied the data whichis compiled here. It is hoped that this ground-breakingpublication will facilitate a better understanding of thecurrent situation in the field of renewable energy and itsdevelopment in each country and, inter alia, across the LatinAmerican region.Enjoy the book!Prof. Walter Leal (BSc, PhD, DSc, DPhil, DEd, DL, DLitt)JELARE Project Coordinator
  6. 6. Chapter 1 - Introduction1.1 - The Joint European-Latin American UniversitiesRenewable Energy (JELARE) project: ‘Fosteringinnovative labour market-oriented educational& research approaches in the field of renewableenergies at Latin American and European institutesof higher education’The JELARE project is a co-operation scheme involvinguniversities from Bolivia, Brazil, Chile, Germany, Guatemalaand Latvia with the aim of fostering innovative labourmarket-oriented educational and research approaches inthe field of renewable energies (RE) at Latin Americanand European institutes of higher education. The projectis funded by ALFA III, a European Union programmefor co-operation between the European Union (EU) andLatin America (LA), in the higher education and trainingframework.The JELARE project partners are: „ Universidad Católica Boliviana (Bolivia); „ Universidade do Sul de Santa Catarina (Brazil); „ Universidad de Chile (Chile); „ Hamburg University of Applied Sciences (Germany); „ Universidad Galileo (Guatemala); and „ Rēzeknes Augstskola (Latvia). 7
  7. 7. These universities have been chosen based on their academic competence and interest in international cooperation in the field of RE as well as in the modernization and improvement of their current research and teaching activities. Germany, Chile and Brazil represent comparatively experienced and advanced organizations and countries in the field of renewable energies, while Latvia, Bolivia and Guatemala are less developed in this field. Hopefully this combinationNetwork members not only anticipates future knowledge transfers between theare EU and LA European Union (EU) and Latin America (LA), but alsoorganizations such the intracontinental exchanges that may take enterprises,NGOs, ministries, Each partner takes on one work package and also activelylocal authorities, contributes to the transnational elements of the other workuniversities and packages, as well as carrying on with their respective localother institutionsworking in the activities. Accordingly, all surveys, concepts, pilot modules,field of education, evaluations and recommendation reports, networking andresearch and dissemination activities will also be carried out locally withemployment in each partner following a joint transnational methodology.the renewableenergies sector. The purpose of the JELARE Network is to promote European–Latin American networking and exchange of experience in employment, research and education in the field of renewable energies within and also beyond the JELARE project partnership. Other universities may therefore also take part in its activities and benefit from the project information and experience. The purpose of the project is not only to improve the academic quality of European and Latin American Higher Education Institutions (HEIs), but also to strengthen their role so as to contribute to local economic development and social cohesion. The JELARE network aims to enhance the role of the universities in the context of renewable energy sector dynamics. In this sense, the project also seeks to increase the capacity of HEIs to modernize their research and teaching programmes in the renewable energy sector and to strengthen the link between the HEIs and businesses that operate on renewable energy. 8
  8. 8. The overall objectives of the JELARE project are: „ to improve the quality of research and teaching in LA and EU universities; „ to strengthen the role of HEIs in socio-economic development; and „ to foster sustainable cooperation between HEIs in LA and EU.In order to contribute to its overall objectives, the JELAREproject focuses on the thematic sector of renewable energy,an area widely acknowledged as being very important. Dueto the current global situation of scarce energy resources,rapidly rising prices for fossil fuels and the impact of climatechange, the promotion of renewable energies is of vitalimportance for sustainable socio-economic development inLatin America as well as in Europe.For developing countries in particular, local energygeneration has great potential for local economicdevelopment. Lack of expertise is a major impediment tothe broader use of renewable energies in Latin America.In this context, LA HEIs play a very important role intraining people – through education, providing expertadvice, through research and technology transfer – and,thereby, having a positive impact on socio-economicdevelopment.Therefore, the specific objectives of the JELARE project are: „ to develop and implement labour market-oriented research and educational approaches in the field of renewable energies, first of all, JELARE identifies the needs of the labour market, develops and implements practical transnational pilot modules and long-term concepts. Moreover, based on JELARE’s experiences and evaluation, practical recommendations are offered 9
  9. 9. to the participating HEIs, as well as other HEIs in the EU–LA regions, in the area of education. As a consequence, graduates will benefit with better job opportunities, while HEIs and their staff will gain new business opportunities in the research and technology transfer field. Local businesses and public institutions will benefit from locally available expertise and highly qualified staff; „ to increase the capacity of HEI staff so as to modernize their educational and research programmes and activities: this is a precondition for the long-term competitiveness of HEIs and will be achieved by capacity-building seminars, study visits and exchange of experience between JELARE partners and other network members. Moreover, JELARE supports decision- making processes by providing detailed information and concepts on current needs and potential; „ to strengthen the link between HEIs and the labour market, business and public sector in the field of renewable energies: a closer link between HEIs and the private and public sectors offers multiple opportunities for both sides. HEIs benefit from new clients and project partners’ research. This close co-operation helps HEIs to focus their activities on the actual needs of the labour market and also strengthens the impact HEIs have on local economic development. Private enterprises can benefit from technology transfer, and public and governmental bodies can obtain valuable support for decision-making;10
  10. 10. „ to establish a long-term partnership and network between European and Latin American universities: in the RE field much needs to be done in terms of research and education, both in LA and the EU. On the other hand, due to different climatic, natural and economic conditions, all EU and LA countries can benefit from the exchange of know-how and cooperation. The JELARE project is basically regarded as a starting point for more cooperation between the JELARE partners and beyond.During the 3-year project (2009-2011), the followingoutputs are expected: „ renewable energy labour market survey for Bolivia, Brazil, Chile, Germany, Guatemala and Latvia; „ teaching and research concepts for renewable energies; „ teaching and research pilot modules for renewable energies; „ university staff capacity building program; „ recommendation report for European and Latin American universities; and „ international JELARE network, with local subgroups in the partner countries. 11
  11. 11. 1.2 – The JELARE Survey: Labour market-oriented research and teaching approaches at Higher Education Institutions in Bolivia, Brazil, Chile, Germany, Guatemala and Latvia Research problem Over the last few decades, many countries have expressed serious concerns regarding the need to restructure their production matrix. To this end, we have observed some movement towards a cleaner energy matrix, intended to be less harmful to the environment. The Kyoto Protocol and specific researches on global warming have raised a number of issues related to the role of the current model of energy generation and its harmful effects on the environment. Consequently there has been, for the first time and in a collective way, a call for an efficient energy matrix that, simultaneously: „ meets the demand for energy worldwide; „ promotes environmental preservation; and „ contributes to the reduction of the greenhouse effect. In recent decades, the issue of increasing renewable energy sources has been discussed in tandem with environmental issues, aiming at reducing our dependence on fossil fuels. Such discussion has revealed that, although contrary to the liberalizing reforms of the 1990s, the development of renewable energy sources requires major government participation (YI-CHONG, 2006). According to the IEA (2006), world demand for energy will grow at an average annual rate of 1.6% until 2030, leveraged by the exponential growth of energy consumption in developing countries. At the same time, there are some12
  12. 12. doubts about the influence that human activity has had onglobal warming, leading to the urgent need for climate changemitigation (DANTAS; CASTRO, 2008a). The best availablemethod for increasing energy supply lies in improving energyefficiency and promoting greater participation of RE inthe world energy matrix, including bio-energy, which is ofsignificant importance both for the transport and electricalgeneration sectors.This trend requires a well-defined energy policy and a greaterrole for renewable energies in a matrix that must be supportedon a tripod comprised by the state, corporations and universities.The driving force behind the recent quest for RE is the oilcrisis, which reached its highest point in the middle of 2008:a price of US$147 per barrel of crude oil. Petrol also reachedunexpected retail prices, in major importing countries, of US$4per gallon. In the past, especially in the early 1960s, when asimilar phenomenon took place, efforts to use RE became apriority for many countries.The 1960s marked the beginning of Brazil’s effort in thatdirection. Real progress has been made over the years, andBrazil now holds a leading position in the field. This isespecially true regarding Brazil’s substitution choice: petrolfor bio-ethanol, a product derived mainly from sugarcane.However, this step forward experienced a setback whenOPEC was founded and began to intervene in theinternational market by fixing quotas that made the pricego up or down according to the criteria of the producingcountries, mainly Arab. The main factors taken into accountwere: „ the world’s oil reserves; „ the price of the dollar; „ annual inflation; 13
  13. 13. „ global economic growth; and „ the production capacity of OPEC countries. Nevertheless, unlike Brazil, which regarded the production of alternative energy sources as a priority, most countries lost interest in the development of alternative RE sources as soon as prices started to fall, which was caused by the discovery of new oil reserves in areas that were more politically sympathetic to principal oil customers. All of these trends, in addition to the movement towards RE development, diminished OPEC’s control of the situation. This control continued to be affected in periods of advances in renewable energies researches, especially when there were price increases that threatened the economies of non-oil producing countries. This can be seen in the following graphic: 160 140 120 100 US $/ bl 80 60 40 20 Jan/98 Jan/99 Jan/00 Jan/01 Jan/02 Jan/03 Jan/04 Jan/05 Jan/06 Jan/07 Jan/08 Jan/09 Jul/98 Jul/99 Jul/00 Jul/01 Jul/02 Jul/03 Jul/04 Jul/05 Jul/06 Jul/07 Jul/08 Jul/09 0 Graphic 1.1 – International oil prices. Source: the Technical Team, based on “Energías Renovables de Guatemala” (Renewable Energies in Guatemala), Victor Araujo, February 2007, for the period of January 1998 – July 2006; for the period of January 2007 – January 2009, consult: <http://www.marketwatch. com/tools/quotes/intTable.asp?symb=CL08XE&sid=3343724&dist=TQP_Table_14 date&freq=1&time=9>
  14. 14. The crisis has now reached unprecedented proportions.The consistent growth of China and the more recent riseof India, as well as the renewed efforts for the economicgrowth of other emerging countries, dating from the late1970s, has brought about an increase in demand, which haslead to an astronomical ‘world oil bill’. At the same time, weare coming to terms with the fact that oil is a non-renewableresource and that in the near future it will start to dwindleand, ultimately, cease to exist. Existing reserves are limitedand even the discovery and exploitation of new oilfields willonly serve to delay this inexorable end.The consequences of an industrial society developed to itsfull extent, as well as emerging countries viewing oil as afundamental strategic factor since the 1970s, have been: „ atmosphere contamination; „ climate change; „ deforestation; „ oversights in waste and fertilizer disposal, among others; and „ resulting impact for water usage and for the environment.On the other hand, the melting of polar masses and sealevel rise, which are signs of global warming, among otherthreats, are starting to attract the world’s attention. Theidea of sustainable development started to impose itself atthe end of the 1980s, highlighting the need for economicgrowth within some limits which would not threaten thesurvival of future generations. 15
  15. 15. The complexity of the crisis that has attracted attention to the topic of RE shows the interrelation between this problem and macro social factors that affect the most basic development matrix of developing countries. Poverty forces most populations, in the less industrialized countries, to use wood as a renewable energy, but this source also has its limits as far as preservation of forests and natural reserves are concerned. This clearly shows how close is the relationship between RE and the protection of the environment. Agricultural practices of burning and sowing that widen the limits of crop production, threaten vast zones – once full of vegetation – with desertification. These areas were used to generate rain that fed rivers, transferring the benefits of water to distant lower lands. In the Petén area of Guatemala, which represents 30% of the country’s territory but is home to only about 1% of its population, this situation is evident. A quick look tells us that these effects can also be seen in more populated and exhausted lands on the eastern side, where vast territories already show signs of desertification. Historical documents show that the area used to be rich and crossed by fast-flowing rivers. Today, poverty poses yet another threat that also limits the unmeasured search for other sources of energy. It consists of including staple food, such as corn and sugar, among the raw materials to generate biofuels, which means using cultivable fields for non-food purposes. This massive change in food products affects the prices of basic products and impacts negatively on the income of poor families who no longer have access to products of their basic diet. Even when this situation seems to have been temporary, it represents a latent threat that could become a permanent scourge for the most impoverished populations. In summary, one aspect is clear: any effort towards institutional strengthening of the RE sector calling for better personnel skills required in public and private companies16
  16. 16. and in universities entails a multidisciplinary approach. Thisapproach refers not only to the inclusion of environmentalaspects into the objectives of RE related policies andstrategies, but also to the connection of any renewable energyaction with economic, social, anthropological, political andpopulational studies that make the required employees’profiles be the base for an academic contribution capable ofsatisfying such need. This multidisciplinary approach will beconsidered the core of the questionnaires to be applied to thekey populations during this study. A wide rangeThe 2007 Lisbon Summit, which also gathered of local jobrepresentatives from HEIs of EU and LA, identified the opportunitiesenvironment sector as one of the priority areas where co- (from high-skilloperation is particularly needed. Renewable energy is of to low-skill, from high-techgreat relevance for socio-economic development in Latin to agriculture),America as well as in Europe, since both regions depend foster localheavily on (imported) fossil fuels to meet their energy needs. investments andApart from the environmental benefits, the local generation the reductionand use of renewable energies offer great potential for local of the need for importing.economic development, e.g.However, the renewable energy sector cannot developappropriately where there is a lack in expertise, especiallyin countries such as Bolivia and Guatemala. Due to theinnovative nature of this field, the HEIs are very importantactors, especially in terms of research, as well as in theeducation of the future labour force in RE. However,although the topic is of crucial value, renewable energy isnot yet prominently positioned in the curriculum of LA orEU universities as it could have been or, indeed, as it shouldbe.Public and private universities need greater interaction inorder to be able to meet the demands of the labour marketfor skilled staff in the RE area. The aim of the JELAREproject in its Work Package Two (WP2) is precisely tofill that gap, drafting a survey that finds the needs of thelabour market according to the availability of the HigherEducation Institutions. 17
  17. 17. The study of the challenges in the renewable energy field demands the strengthening of practices in the private sector, similar to what already happens to the public sector initiative in the field of energy production. Moreover, contact with HEIs in other countries participating in the JELARE project will affect the implementation of innovations. On the other hand, this situation will force universities to review current curricula and all contents that are taught to future graduates who eventually will be required to apply their knowledge in the market. This demand will affect: „ graduate profiles; „ curriculum improvement; „ the training of teaching and administrative staff in energy-related subjects; „ technology transfer; and, in general, „ all practices that promote compliance with the renewable energy objectives in the short, medium and long term. This study will be the basis for those changes, as presented in the interrelationships in Figure 1.1.18
  18. 18. Figure 1.1 – Agroenergy: New paradigm of matrix energy.Source: COGEN – SP.Objectives of the JELARE SurveyWork Package Two (WP2) of the JELARE project aimedto carry out a survey from 1 February to 21 July, 2009 on thisreport’s title subject. The reader should take into account allagreements from the Hamburg JELARE meeting that tookplace from 17 to 20 February 2009, where the design ofthis package was discussed. In short, the agreements wereas follows: 19
  19. 19. „ three surveys have been carried out: one aimed at either public or private companies participating in the market, another aimed at professors and university staff, and the third, at university bodies involved in the renewable energy field; „ the three surveys were to be carried out in JELARE partner countries, aiming at identifying the needs of the labour market regarding education and research in the RE sector, identifying university staff training needs in the RE sector, and benchmarking RE activities in Higher Education Institutions (HEI); and „ three questionnaires served as tools to analyse: public and private companies, for the first questionnaire; professors and administrative personnel of the universities involved as partners in the JELARE project, for the second questionnaire; and, for the last questionnaire, the units, departments for institutes involved in RE in other national universities. As there were restrictions regarding time and resources which could distract the researchers’ attention from theoretical or purely academic elements, the establishment of a strict methodological basis was required for the analysis of the gathered information, in order to avoid unsound generalization. The general objectives of the surveys are: „ to identify which topics and institutional situations are deemed necessary in order to include the subject of RE in the curriculum and as a part of the research program; as well as „ to develop curriculum and technology transfer activities, aiming to achieve sustainable cooperation among European and Latin American universities in search of socio-economic development.20
  20. 20. The specific objectives of the surveys are to: „ consult potential employers and researchers, as well as students, local authorities and ministers from the countries involved, in order to identify current personnel employment requirements and the need for expertise, in addition to identifying support requirements for research institutions; „ identify the need to build on administrative, teaching and research personnel’s capacity in the Higher Education Institutions in order to increase their skills and develop high-quality education, as well as advance research and technology transfer in general, and, in particular, in the renewable energy field; „ conceptually develop a strategic approximation of the needed changes and the implementation of innovative pilot modules; „ use the survey experience as a teaching-learning tool for the RE situation in the relevant country and use its results as educational and training content for key personnel in the area; „ take Work Package Two as a first measurement instrument before the implementation of the project, so as to evaluate two distinct points comparatively at a later stage: over the second year, in order to place emphasis on project improvements, given possible deviations; and, in turn, aiming towards project self- sustainability at the end of the third year, when the project winds down; and 21
  21. 21. „ carry out survey activities as an integral part of the project publicity material (posters, pamphlets, etc.) as well as the establishment of networks in the renewable energy field. Despite the progress achieved in our society in relation to the global warming debate and the increasing need for the usage of clean and renewable energy sources, we find that little is being done by the Higher Education Institutions (HEIs) in this new scenario. It is estimated that HEIs will play a key role both in research and development in the RE field, as well as in the qualification of a new labour force, capable of operating and managing the emerging technologies in this new business environment. In other words, HEIs are responsible for meeting future demands for skilled labour in the RE sector. In this context, the JELARE network intends to address the relationship between HEIs and businesses operating in the renewable energy field, trying to promote future initiatives in academic practices of teaching, research and technology transfer. As a result, all gaps that may emerge in terms of skilled labour force and applied research in this sector will be filled. Methodological procedures The following section will describe the: „ addressed population encompassed in this study; and „ the main variables involved. It was established that this study would be directed through three different questionnaires – in which the main variables could be found – applied to three specific populations:22
  22. 22. Questionnaire 1Public and private companies in the RE field1. General information about the organization, company or entity a. Nature of organization (private, NGO, public, etc.) b. Business sector of organization (renewable and non-renewable energy, communications, etc.) c. Interest in developing renewable energy d. Sector in which it is active e. Area in the value chain in which it works or plans to work f. Way of taking part in RE development g. Total income of the organization in 2008 (in the national currency of each country but converting into euros in the final analysis) h. RE income of the organization in 2008 (in national currency)2. Employee training and qualifications a. Total number of permanent employees in the organization b. Number of employees in RE c. Attitudes towards the availability of qualified personnel in RE d. RE-related activities where employees work e. Educational background of the personnel employed in RE f. Mechanism of employment applied to RE personnel g. Problems faced to select the right RE personnel continues... 23
  23. 23. h. Attitudes towards the future in the RE employment trend: i. General ii. In short term (next 2 years) iii. In medium term (next 5 years) 3. Qualification requirements and market needs a. Opportunity of more training in RE b. New qualifications for the personnel required for RE in the future c. Perception of the forces that move these qualifications d. Perception of the need for new courses and RE qualifications developed by universities e. Necessary qualifications that universities have to develop according to the people interviewed 4. The role of Higher Education Institutions a. Expectations in RE innovations b. Expectations about provided services c. Perception of how well HEIs are updating their understanding with respect to labour needs 5. General suggestions a. Perception of the biggest challenges for an increase in the use of RE in the country b. Suggestions regarding issues not mentioned in the questionnaire Questionnaire 1 – Public and private companies in the field of RE.24
  24. 24. Questionnaire 2Teaching and administrative staff in RE courses and degrees1. Profile of the unit or department a. Dedication to management, research or teaching b. Kind of appointment i. Number of years working in the university ii. For teachers: number of courses currently given iii. For teachers: whether they perform a direction or coordination role iv. Administrative personnel v. Others (specify) c. Rank of the professor. Whether there is a tenure appointment or some other system (some countries use other variables due to a different teaching system)2. Kind of department at their current appointment in terms ofcourses (Master’s degree in Renewable Energy, Master’s degree inEnergy Efficiency, specialization in Energy Engineering, other)3. Area that best describes their current academic/professionalinvolvement in RE4. Sector in RE in which they work or are interested in working in5. Number of years of experience in RE6. Number of years of experience in curriculum development7. Number of years of experience in research management8. Training needs a. In RE technologies continues... 25
  25. 25. b. In curriculum development c. In teaching modules d. In research management 9. Requirements of RE training and qualifications a. Technical/vocational knowledge updating b. Technical change updating c. Learning abilities in curriculum development about RE d. Better laboratories and equipment infrastructure and access to a scientific RE database e. Participation in events related to a RE network (workshops, seminars, visits to companies, etc.) f. Cooperation between the university and RE industry g. Detection of priority individual training needs (quote 3 topics in order) 10. Strengthening RE a. Perception of the need for strengthening RE (only for those who answered YES in the previous question) b. Need for change in market-oriented academic programs c. Exchange programs d. Associations with HEI for sharing knowledge e. RE applied technological research carried out by universities and financed by the RE market f. Same as previous, but financed by government agencies continues...26
  26. 26. g. More student internships in the RE industry h. Constant analysis of the design of RE occupational plans in relation to economic behaviour and economic change i. Specification of other initiatives 11. General Suggestions a. Suggestions regarding other necessary strengthening actions not mentioned aboveQuestionnaire 2 - Teaching and administrative staff in RE courses and degrees. Questionnaire 3 HEIs’ departments, institutes or units involved with RE 1. RE in the university a. Introduction of past, present and future RE practices b. RE courses as part of already implemented programs or of future programs c. Policies and strategies introduced d. Type of knowledge aquisition that the university regularly employs e. Other practices not included in these variables 2. RE sector in which the university carries out research or teaching activities a. Type of energy (wind, biomass, etc.) b. Name of the aforementioned teaching program continues... 27
  27. 27. 3. Departments, institutes or units specifically working in the RE field a. Name of the department, institute or unit that is working in RE b. Name the products that the university uses for RE teaching/ research and RE investments Questionnaire 3 – HEIs’ departments, institutes or units involved with RE. The following chapters are articles that demonstrate the results of the questionnaires applied in each country of the JELARE project.28
  28. 28. Chapter 2 - Bolivia1 – Renewable energy market in BoliviaThe Bolivian energy mixThe primary energy production in Bolivia is composedmainly of four sources: „ natural gas; „ oil; „ biomass; and „ hydropower, which constitutes the most important renewable energy source.Production maintained a growing trend between 2000 and2007 up to a level of 111.451 kilo barrels of oil equivalent(kBOE), the major part of which (86.420 kBOE)corresponds to the production of natural gas, Bolivia’s mainexport product. It is estimated that less than 1% of theprimary energy production can be attributed to renewableenergies, without considering the large-scale hydropowerproduction.The secondary energy production has increased from14,398 kBOE in the year 2000 to 23,295 kBOE in 2007.The energy carriers with major production volumes are: „ diesel oil; „ electricity; „ liquefied petroleum gas; and „ petrol.In the generation of hydropower, a very slow growth can behighlighted. 29
  29. 29. During the 2000–2007 period, natural gas exports to Brazil made up 90% of energy exports. The energy balance does not include electricity exports. Energy imports in the same period consisted basically in diesel oil and in a lower level of petrol imports. In summary, Bolivia is a net exporter of primary energy, whereby its internal supply only reaches 39% of the effective production. The secondary energy production accounts for an important part of the effective production. There is a strong internal dependence regarding the primary energy sources and a low participation of renewable energies in the energy mix. The potential of renewable energies To date, Bolivia does not have final studies about renewable energies. However, the initial investigations show a huge generation potential, especially due to the particular characteristics of the territory regarding the diversity of its ecologic floors, as the following balance illustrates in a summarized form: „ Hydropower: the main generator of renewable energy in the country, with an estimated potential of 1,802–2,500 MW based on the record of water sources of the country. „ Solar energy: the potential is not estimated; however, it is known that Bolivia is located inside the geographical band with the highest solar radiation of the continent. At almost 4,000 metres above sea level and an air mass of 4,000 metres inferior to the recorded at sea level, during most of the year there is a solar radiation about of 550-650 langleys/day.30
  30. 30. „ Wind energy: the effective potential is not estimated, but it is known that wind energy has a huge potential in four regions: (1) around the city of Santa Cruz de la Sierra; (2) in the southwest frontier of Bolivia with Chile and Argentina in the Department of Potosí; (3) in the south corridor between the cities of Santa Cruz and La Paz and (4) in the north-south corridor between the city of Oruro and the city of Potosí. „ Geothermal energy: it is estimated that the potential of generation in Laguna Colorada (the only explored zone) is between 280 and 370 MW, values that allow the production of electricity of at least 120 MW for 25 years.In 2006, the Bolivian electricity sector covered 67% of itspopulation. It is estimated that more than 700,000 ruraland about 70,000 urban households (concentrated in citieswith more than 5,000 inhabitants) do not have access tothis service.In the last three decades the country has experienced anurbanization process and since the mid-80s the urbanpopulation has begun to outpace the rural population, butstill around 36% of the Bolivian population resides in ruralareas. Thereby 28.6% of the rural population is concentratedin communities with between 61 and 120 households andthe remaining 71.4% in communities with 60 or fewerhouseholds. Around 27% of the rural households haveaccess to basic services in general, with a rural electricitycoverage of 33% in absolute terms.There is a high correlation between the number of ruralhouseholds in conditions of extreme poverty and the numberof households that do not have electricity; therefore 90.17%of homes without electricity of the rural area correspond to 31
  31. 31. households in extreme poverty. Due to the dispersion of the rural population, renewable energies are of great importance for the electrification needs of these households due to their decentralized character. Strategic Framework of the Energy Sector According to the National Development Plan (NDP) of the Bolivian government, the electricity sector must re- establish its leading and strategic role in order to guarantee the electricity supply, ensuring universal access to this service in a sustainable form and with social equity. To achieve this goal, four policies and strategies are proposed: „ Policy 1: Develop electricity infrastructure able to satisfy the internal needs and generate surplus for electricity exportation. „ Policy 2: Increase the coverage of the electricity service in the urban and rural area in order to achieve the universalization of electricity. „ Policy 3: Independence and sovereignty of the energy system through the state´s declaration as the proprietor of all the natural resources and the use of the renewable energies. „ Policy 4: Consolidate State participation in the development of the electricity sector with sovereignty and social equity.32
  32. 32. The renewable energy businessThe renewable energy sector has great potential in Bolivia;however, there is not a big number of companies that operatein the value chain of research, development and production ofthese type of energies, due to the lack of a policy frame, the lowprofitability and high technological costs.An important share of the market is concentrated in thehydropower sector, destined to electricity supply in the urbanand rural areas of the country. The companies operating inthis sector are mainly medium and large.The business activities in other renewable energy sectors aremarginal, with the exception of solar energy, which has amoderate penetration in the rural areas of the country.In many cases, renewable energy enters the market withinternational cooperation financing. Therefore there is alack of formal market structures and there is a trend leadingto the association between NGOs and companies.The opportunities faced by renewable energy companies aremainly related to the fact that there are wide rural zones withlow levels of electricity coverage. Decentralized renewableenergy systems can give a solution to the electrificationneeds of about 90% of the households in remote areas.The challenges faced by the companies can be categorizedas follows: „ lack of an energy policy and regulation that promotes the use of renewable energies; „ distortions introduced through subsidies that create unfair prices between renewable and conventional energies; 33
  33. 33. „ lack of financing mechanisms for the implementation of renewable energies to cope with the low payment capacity for energy of the rural population; and „ deficit of qualified human resources and delays in the technological adaptation. Research and teaching of renewable energies at the Bolivian Catholic University Research and teaching about renewable energies is not yet fully established in the Bolivian Catholic University. Currently, there are related activities in the Institute of Socio-Economic Studies (IISEC) that works topics in Energy Economics. In turn, the recently founded Institute of Applied Research (IIA) of the Faculty of Exact Sciences and Engineering carries out research in solar energy and biofuels from non-edible materials. In the Faculty of Architecture research on solar architecture has been realized. Regarding the academic program, the Faculty of Economics offers individual courses as part of its Bachelor and Master’s degree programs, which include the subjects of Energy Economics and Economics of Environment and Natural Resources. At postgraduate level, the Masters for Development program, founded in co-operation with the Harvard Institute for Economic Development, offers a Diploma course in Energy Planning and Management of Energy Systems that includes RE topics. The Faculty of Engineering includes renewable energy topics in the programs of Chemical Engineering, Environmental Engineering and Industrial Engineering. The topic has a general approach in all specializations, emphasizing windpower, solar and geothermal energy. Subjects offered in the Bachelor degree are Introduction to Energy and Natural Resources, Environmental Economics and Natural Resources and Environmental Impact.34
  34. 34. 2 – The JELARE surveys in BoliviaMethodologyThe aspects related to the sample design for the surveysare briefly explained below, in addition to the generalmethodology description in Chapter 1: „ Renewable energy market survey: the initial list of companies was obtained from the Vice Ministry of Electricity and Alternative Energies (VMEAE). Companies from other sectors that operate or could be interested in working in the field of renewable energy (communications, mining, industry, etc.) were also identified and contacted. 80% of the companies were interest in participating in the survey. A total of thirty companies, NGOs and public institutions were interviewed. „ Staff survey: first, the university programs that could include renewable energy topics were identified. Next, the director of each relevant degree program was asked to provide a list of professors who work in or could be interested in working with the topic. Finally, the questionnaire was applied to nine people who were interested in participating. „ Benchmarking survey: for this survey the homepages of universities of Bolivia’s four largest cities were reviewed to identify those with programs that could include renewable energy topics. After confirmation by phone that there are activities in the field of renewable energies, five, out of ten universities, participated in the survey. 35
  35. 35. Surveys with people or entities located in La Paz were done personally by previously trained interviewers. The rest of the surveys were done by fax or email. For the evaluation of all the surveys the Statistical Program for Social Sciences (SPSS) was used. Focus groups In addition to the surveys, two focus groups were carried out. The main purpose was to obtain qualitative information from some of the actors previously interviewed to complement the quantitative data of the survey. One focus group was conducted with three professors working in the field of renewable energies and three representatives of the market. The second focus group was held by four professors, experts on the topic, and two representatives of government entities and international cooperation working with renewable energy. The discussion was guided through a compendium of key questions. The participants’ contributions were later transcribed to add key quotations to the survey results. 2.1 - Market survey results Characteristics of the renewable energy organizations From the thirty interviewed organizations, 73.3% are private companies, 13.3% are non-governmental organizations, 10% are government entities and 3.3% operate in the country as international cooperation organizations. It is worth mentioning that the sample for this survey is highly significant and the typology of the surveyed organizations reflects the weigh of actors in the market. Results showi.e., solar thermaland photovoltaic. that most of the companies and organizations work in the sectors of hydropower and solar energy. There are also, in a lower scale, activities in the rural windpower generation, biomass and biogas. 36
  36. 36. It is interesting to observe that most of the companies areengaged in planning activities, whereas a small number worksin research and development. This situation reflects the hugemarket set-back regarding its capacity of technologicaladaptation. In functional terms most of the companiesoperate in the following areas of the value chain: „ planning, project management and marketing (63%); „ education and training (47%); 1 - i.e. evaluation, certification, planning, project „ service, maintenance and repair (37%); management, marketing. „ operation and administration (37%); 2 - i.e. „ electrical engineering (33%); and mechanical engineering and plant „ research and development (27%). construction.Regarding the future perspectives of the RE market, it ishighlighted that the companies plan to operate in the shortand medium term in the sectors of windpower, hydropower,biofuels and biomass. However, the market size is still verysmall, thus most of the institutions have planned to workin consulting areas1 and, on a smaller scale, in the projectdevelopment2 itself .Most of the private corporations are small companies with atotal income not higher than 50,000 euros in 2008, accordingto the survey. This is reflected in the organizational structure,where more than half of the interviewed institutions rangein two ranks, from one to five or from six to nineteenemployees. Considering the specific employment in thefield of renewable energy, three-quarters of the companiesemploy fewer than twenty people. 37
  37. 37. Bolivian companies are generally technology suppliers, not producers. Costs of technological development are very high considering the size of the renewable energy market. On this subject, the manager of a small solar energy company said: ‘Imported Chinese equipment is cheaper; manufacturing is a waste of time for me. We just adapt the systems to the local reality and sell them for a slightly higher price.’ The renewable energy market in Bolivia does not function in a regular way regarding price-fixing and conditions of competition, as another businessman states: ‘You cannot give the final client your real price, everything is subsidized by the international co-operation; you have to associate with an NGO to stay in the market.’ Qualification of professionals in renewable energy Only one-third of the organizations declare that there are university graduates and technicians available in the field of renewable energies; the majority rates the availability as scarce or insufficient. The bigger part of the organizations employs technicians as well as university graduates, with a slightly higher percentage of technicians. Only a small part employs people with business competences. The survey results confirm that the main areas of activity in the renewable energy sector are related to services; production and manufacturing are carried out on a smaller i.e., sales,assembly and scale and research and development activities are notinstallation. significant. So the problems of the sector are clearly related to the requirement of specialized technical qualifications. Nearly all companies hire their employees directly, not through external agencies. However, government entities use public calls. The problems the organizations deal with when hiring new professionals are, in almost every case, the lack of specialized technical qualifications; and, 38
  38. 38. in a smaller percentage (40%), lack of multidisciplinaryqualifications or lack of applicants (33%). Only one outof thirty organizations declared not to have problems infinding adequate personnel. This situation could worsen inthe future, because in the short, as well as in the mediumterm, around half of the organizations forecast a positivetendency in employment, while another important partenvisages at least a constant trend.Training of the companies’ staff in renewable energyAs expected, all interviewed organizations confirmed theirneed for some kind of training for their staff. According tothe survey, the highest requirement is oriented to programsof coaching and learning on the job. This result is coherentwith the need to increase the specific technical qualificationsof their personnel. Also considered as important by theparticipants are the measures of in-house training withexternal support and training at further education andresearch institutions. Less important are programs ofe-learning and blended learning. i.e., intensiveFirst of all, new specialized technical competences are seminars and certificaterequired. The strengthening of existing basic competences is courses.also given great importance. One businessman who took partin the focus group highlighted this: We look for people who studied sciences, not technology. Since we are a company that develops technology, we do not need people trained to read a catalog or import certain equipment, but people who can develop technology, who know about math, physics and chemistry. I think the quality of competences in these basic subjects is one of the main deficiencies. 39
  39. 39. Less importance is granted to the acquisition of multidisciplinary competences such as communication skills, foreign languages and social competences. Nevertheless this perception can be contrasted with the opinion of a representative of a company in a focus group: It would be useful to grant scholarships to students to give them the opportunity to go abroad. They could acquire social competences and communication skills that are very important. Graphic 2.1 shows the drivers for the required new qualifications in the field of renewable energies and their relevance according to the surveyed organizations (multiple answers were possible). Graphic 2.1 – Drivers for new qualifications in renewable energy. Source: JELARE Survey, 2009. As can be observed in Graphic 2.1, the main motivations for the development of the mentioned competences are product and process innovations. Likewise, market needs and government policies and incentives are important reasons for the development of qualifications by the staff.40
  40. 40. The representatives of the organizations agree that theuniversities have to develop new courses and competencesin the field of renewable energies. However, it is not asimportant to create new professions and/or occupationalprofiles in the area (only 23% of the interviewed companiesare in favour), as to develop additional qualifications thatcomplement the initial vocational education (70% of theinterviewed organizations). One participant of the focusgroup proposed: Universities should focus on the topic of Energy Economics. There should be cooperation between the Faculty of Engineering and the Faculty of Economics, because often engineers develop solutions lacking economic viability.Interface between the renewable energy market and theuniversitiesSo far, the contact and cooperation between companies anduniversities is marginal. The universities research and buildprototypes that are not capitalized by the market. There is amutual distrust, as a professor of the Faculty of Engineeringin a focus group says, that hinders a fruitful cooperation.The manager of a renewable energy company also mentions [t]he lack of credibility of the universities in other parts of the system like insurance companies – they do not accept technologies that are not internationally recognized, but developed by national universities. This is one of the reasons of the poor cooperation between the private sector and the universities. 41
  41. 41. The interviewed organizations expect from the universities a contribution at two levels: on the one hand a reform in education and training and, on the other, a bigger contribution in basic research and development. Almost half of the participants also hold that the universities should work in process innovations, such as new procedures, and a third part expect them to work on product innovations (new products and materials). When asked what types of services offered by Higher Education Institutes they would be interested in, the organizations expressed interest in many different services. Graphic 2.2 shows the different services and the participant’s level of interest for each one of them (multiple answers were possible). Joint research and development 25% Technology transfer 22% Consultancy, advisory service 11% Monitoring, evaluation 8% Providing access to latest knowlegde 17%Linking with business or research partners 12% Others 5% Graphic 2.2 – Interest in services offered by universities. Source: JELARE Survey, 2009. As seen in Graphic 2.2, the services the companies require from universities are mainly related to joint research and development and technology transfer, followed by obtaining access to the latest knowledge through universities. A considerable part of the companies also expect the universities to provide linking with business and research partners and consultancy and advisory service. However, 93% of the survey participants maintain that the current state of the universities regarding renewable energies is behind the market needs.42
  42. 42. Main challenges for a wider application of renewableenergies in BoliviaAmong the major challenges to extend the use of renewableenergies, the implementation of supporting policies andregulation standards stand out. The universities could playa role in the development of regulation standards andconsultancy services for the government. Equally importantis the development of financing mechanisms and theintroduction of subsidies for renewable energy technologiesor at least the elimination of subsidies for fuel energy sources.For the development of a competitive market of renewableenergy systems, the practice of international cooperationorganizations not to resort to the national market but toimport the equipment for their projects is consideredharmful. Finally, intensive information campaigns and anew vision of university education have also been demandedby the surveyed organizations.2.2 – Staff survey resultsProfile of the interviewed university staffAnalysing the description of the positions of the BolivianCatholic University (BCU) staff, there is an obvious emphasison education and administration, whereas research is not themain focus of their activities. However, there seems to be acontradiction in the description of the working areas as one-third of the interviewed staff declared, in the following sectionof the survey, to work in research and development as well asin education and training. But in the focus groups conductedlater, the participating professors highlighted the incipientactivity in research and development in the universities.Only 22.2% of the staff has senior experience (10 years)in topics related to renewable energies, which confirmsthe huge quantitative and qualitative set-back in this 43
  43. 43. area. At the same time, results show that only 11.11% of the professors have experience in curriculum design and research management. The combination of these results allows assessing initially the huge difficulty implied when implementing renewable energy subjects in the university. The survey also shows a clear relationship between the working or interest fields of the BCU staff in renewable energies and the planned activities of the companies. Both express their intention to operate in the sectors of windpower, biomass and hydropower. However, this apparent concordance is not reflected in reality, considering the insignificant number of joint projects. Interests and training needs of the staff The professors’ intention to strengthen the topic of renewable energy at the BCU is reflected in their high interest to receive training in renewable energy technologies as well as in curriculum design, development of teaching modules and research management. Graphic 2.3 shows the sectors of renewable energy technologies and the level of interest of the university staff to receive capacity building in each area. Graphic 2.3 – Training interest in RE technologies.44 Source: JELARE Survey, 2009.
  44. 44. The graphic shows a clear preference for training in theareas of biomass, hydropower and windpower technologies,followed by photovoltaic and solar thermal energy,geothermal energy and hydrogen/fuel cells in equalterms. Concerning training in curriculum design, mostparticipants have a clear preference for Master’s degreeprograms, but there is also interest in PhD and jointinternational programs. Regarding training in researchmanagement, a major interest in funding opportunities andresearch managerial capacities is specified. Only one-thirdis interested in training in research fund management.In general, most of the participants consider it as a majorneed to improve their technical/vocational knowledgeand their skills in their area of teaching or research. Thesame applies to their need to keep up to date with majortechnological changes in renewable energies and to acquireskills of renewable energy curriculum development.Moreover, the majority describes it as a very important needto have better research infrastructure, such as laboratoriesand equipment. The same applies to the need for access toa scientific database in renewable energies and the need toparticipate in networking events in renewable energy suchas workshops, seminars, conferences and/or field visits toindustries.Finally, the need for more collaboration between the BCUand the renewable energy industry is seen as a major or veryimportant need by nearly all participants. A participant ofthe focus group affirmed: “What we need are agreementsbetween the private sector and the universities with clearterms of reference, rights and obligations for both parties –agreements of mutual interests”. 45
  45. 45. Strengthening of the renewable energy topic at the university All measures proposed in the survey, focused on the introduction or strengthening of renewable energies at the BCU, were qualified as important or very important by most of the participants. The following table shows the percentages: Very No Minor Definite Major Options Important Need Need Need Need NeedA – Academic programs 11.11% 11.11% 0.00% 55.56% 22.22%devoted to market needsB – Exchange programs 11.11% 11.11% 0.00% 44.45% 33.33%between HEIs and RE MarketC – HEI’s partnership with RE 11.11% 0.00% 00.00% 44.44% 44.44%marketD – Applied technologicalresearches funded by the 11.11% 11.11% 0.00% 33.33% 44.45%marketE – Applied technologicalresearches funded by the 11.11% 11.11% 0.00% 33.33% 44.45%governmentF – Internships for students 11.11% 0.00% 0.00% 44.44% 44.44%in RE companiesG – Constant analysis anddesign of occupational plans 11.11% 11.11% 0.00% 11.11% 66.67%in RETable 2.1 – Percentage received by participants for each option and need level.Source: JELARE Survey, 2009. An important deficit was found in all the consulted fields in the university, especially in the aspects related to collaboration with the market.46
  46. 46. Therefore, the following measures are the most importantto strengthen: „ partnership between the university and the renewable energy market; and „ internships for students in RE companies.2.3 – Benchmark survey resultsRenewable energy activities at other universitiesThe purpose of the benchmark survey is to compare the state ofthe art of renewable energy at other universities in the Boliviansystem with the results of the UCB. A first approximationcan be done based on the balance of activities in renewableenergies and the universities’ degree of insertion in the field ofrenewable energies, illustrated in Graphic 2.4.Graphic 2.4 – Profile of universities regarding renewable energies.Source: JELARE Survey, 2009. 47
  47. 47. It can be observed, on the one hand, that a great part of the universities have offered undergraduate and postgraduate programs on topics related to renewable energies before 2007. On the other hand, most of the institutions do not have research programs with foreign investment in the field. This shows that the coherence of the technology development chain is incipient. Most of the activities financed with external funds in renewable energies are destined for the rural area, through technology transfer at low scale and in many cases with obsolete technology. In this current situation, the set-back of the technological adaptation and innovation processes in the country is evident. More than half of the universities have conducted some kind of research in renewable energies before 2007, usually exploratory. Regrettably, in none of the surveyed institutions are these activities sustained constantly over time, despite many of them having partnerships with national and/ or international research networks. It is important to remark that the current conditions for the conduction of research projects are not adequate. For instance, none of the universities has research laboratories financed by the productive sector. It can be established that cooperation between the universities and the renewable energy market in general does not exist and that the quality of research is deficient. This is illustrated by the fact that 80% of the universities do not have registered patents or newly developed technologies in the last few years. Nearly 60% of the participants declared that their university has policies in renewable energy as well as a value system that promotes commitment in this area. 80% of the universities also confirm that they have a strategy in the field of renewable energy. However, it is recommended to be careful with these results, as it is evident that there cannot be a strategy without a policy; therefore it is incoherent that this last percentage is higher than the first one.48
  48. 48. More than 80% of the participating universities work incooperation with public or private organizations and 60%also have interdisciplinary programs about renewableenergy in their institutions. The level of market connectionof the universities in renewable energies seems interesting;however the extension and frequency of the relationshipscannot be concluded from this information.The survey shows that 40% of the participants use formalpractices of mentoring or coaching and the same percentagelet experienced staff from different areas of knowledgetransfer their know-how to students and teaching staff. Itis interesting that another 60% are planning to introducethis last measure in the next two years. To receive externaltraining to keep up to date with the technological changes inrenewable energies is less common, which might be causedby the fact that there is not of this kind of capacity buildingon offer. Finally, none of the universities grants scholarshipsin renewable energy.The most common practice of knowledge acquirement is touse knowledge on renewable energy obtained from othermarket sources as companies and organizations, which isapplied by all participants. Another frequent practice is toacquire knowledge from research institutions, done by 60%of the universities before 2007 and planned by the rest of theparticipants. This result demonstrates that the universitiesdo not have the budget to generate knowledge and thereforeneed to choose, almost exclusively, mechanisms that reducetheir transaction costs (by the use of Internet sources). 49
  49. 49. Education and research in renewable energy at other universities The survey results show that in the area of renewable energies, education prevails over research activities in all the interviewed universities. Most educational activities are concentrated in the sectors of hydropower, solar thermal and photovoltaic energy, followed by windpower and biogas. There are research activities in all renewable energy sectors except for geothermal and hydrogen/fuel cells, but only 20% of the participants research in each sector. Graphic 2.5 shows what the research/teaching ratio looks like for each type of renewable energy. Graphic 2.5 – Research/teaching activities in renewable energy. Source: JELARE Survey, 2009.50
  50. 50. All the universities have specific programs or courses inrenewable energy, whereby 70% correspond to courses ofinitial formation in the frame of a Bachelor’s degree andonly 30% have a higher level of specialization. Only one ofthe institutions has a Master’s degree exclusively dedicatedto renewable energies. Likewise, 80% of the universitieshave a department, institute or research group in the field ofrenewable energy. Half of them are exclusively dedicated torenewable energies, whereas the other half includes topicsof renewable energy.Finally, we must emphasize that none of the participantuniversities have a multi-year investment budget dedicatedexclusively to research in renewable energies and thereforethere is a lack of sustainable long-term research programs.This shows the structural limitations and the poor financialconditions of the higher education system in this country. 51
  51. 51. 3 - Conclusions Conclusions of the renewable energy market survey The RE market in Bolivia is concentrated in the areas of hydropower, photovoltaic and solar thermal energy. Most of the private and public organizations operate only in one sector, although a considerable number of them are planning to extend their range of products, especially in the areas of windpower, low generation hydropower and biomass and/ or biofuels. Most of the companies currently work in planning and training, whereas only a small number carries out researche.g. electric and development activities or project This is mainly due to the lack of government policies oror plantconstruction. incentives and the reduced market size. Therefore, the sector operates – except for the hydropower sector – with small companies or micro companies, which act almost exclusively as technology suppliers. The demand for technicians and university graduates in RE is considerably higher than the supply. The lack of specialized technical qualifications is the most common problem for the companies when hiring staff. This situation can worsen in the mid term, because most of the companies forecast a positive or at least constant trend in their staff requirements. To cover the increasing requirements of RE specialists, the organizations can also train their current staff instead of recruiting new employees. Among the planned capacity building opportunities, training and learning on the job is the most common. The main motivations for these measures are product and process innovations and, to a smaller extent, market needs, as well as government policies and incentives. 52
  52. 52. According to the surveyed companies, the current state ofthe Higher Education Institutions regarding renewableenergies is far behind the market needs. Cooperationbetween universities and the market is minimal. However,private and public organizations expect the universities tocontribute with more and better education and training andto encourage research and basic development. In addition, astrengthening of technology transfer activities as well as thejoint development of research projects is required.Conclusions of the staff surveyThe most important results of the staff survey are: „ the insufficient research and development activity at the university; „ the huge quantitative and qualitative set-back in the field of renewable energy; and „ the lack of cooperation with the RE market.The low number of research projects is related to thereduced budget destined for this purpose, whereas thequality responds more to the lack of long-term planningand the deficit of human resources. On the one hand, theuniversity staff does not have the appropriate infrastructurefor research activities at their disposal and their access toinformation sources is very limited. On the other, there is aclear lack of capacities in fundraising and management andin the development of a sustained strategy for research.The set-back regarding renewable energies has similarcauses. There is no integral strategy for renewable energiesin any particular institute, nor formal cooperationmechanisms between different institutes or faculties of theuniversity. The professors do not have financial resources at 53
  53. 53. their disposal to promote a greater inclusion of renewable energy topics, nor do they have easy access to specialized information sources or infrastructure. Furthermore, a lack of mechanisms to detect market developments and to adjust the study programs to their needs has to be added. A clear correspondence between the staff ’s training interests and the development plans of the companies can be highlighted. Both actors manifested their intention to operate more intensively in the sectors of windpower, biomass and hydropower. The university staff highlights the need to receive training that allows improving the support to the market through the building of capacities and through required services in the field of research. It is consequently very important to design institutional mechanisms that permit a stronger association among Higher Education Institutions and companies. Conclusions of the benchmarking survey The survey conducted with other Bolivian universities has fully confirmed the results obtained at the BCU. There is also a greater emphasis in education than in research in the renewable energy field. Although a high percentage of the universities claim to have done research before 2007, their activities in most cases are not constantly maintained. This happens because none of the participant universities has a multi-year budget exclusively dedicated to research in renewable energies and therefore cannot often sustain long- term research programs. At the same time, infrastructure conditions and access to information sources are also very limited.54
  54. 54. Finally, the results show that most of the professors have notrecently received any kind of training in renewable energies.This situation is directly related to the low quality and poorsustainability of education and research. There is, however,great interest in starting integrated activities related withthe RE market needs, as well as with the electrificationneeds of rural population.Lessons learnedThe survey conducted by the JELARE Project with theHigher Education Institutions and market actors in thefield of renewable energies has permitted an analysis ofthis segment at different levels of interaction. In this sense,three important lessons were learned which reflect the globalinteraction of the sector as well as its structural aspects: „ the technological cycle is not linked to the higher education system. This is reflected in very low levels of technology transfer, technological adaptation and innovation and in the lack of technicians and specialized engineers in the country; „ education and research are not fitted for the market needs because there are no linking and feedback mechanisms with the renewable energy market. Therefore the universities offer insufficient study programs and develop technological prototypes which do not get exploited by the market, and the companies do not have clear incentives for the use of education, training and research services; and „ education and research are not sustainable because the Higher Education Institutions lack an integral strategy and financing mechanisms for planned and structured activities in long-term programs. 55
  55. 55. Chapter 3 – Brazil1 – Renewable energy market in BrazilThe Brazilian electrical industry is now predominantlyhydroelectric, and is complemented with hydrothermaloutput. Table 3.1 shows the installed capacity of electricalpower generation in Brazil in 2006. 1 – Taking into Source Capacity (MW) (%) account Hydroelectric power plants (HEP)1 72,005.41 74.78 6,300 MW from Itaipu. Small Hydroelectric Central (SHC) 1,673.06 1.74 2 – Not Thermoelectric power plants (TPP) 20,372.13 21.16 considering Wind generator 236.85 0.25 imported energy. Photovoltaic generator 0.02 0.00 3 – This fact Thermonuclear power plants 2,007.00 2.08 depends essentially on Total2 96,294.47 100.00 the degree of flexibility orTable 3.1 – Installed capacity of energy generation at SIN (2006). inflexibility ofSource: Aneel Report, 2006. each plant.In practice, HEP accounts for more than 90% of theelectricity generated in Brazil, due to criteria which favoursources that cost less. Although the thermoelectric powerplants account for 23.24% of the installed capacity, theyare responsible for less than 10% of the energy produced3because of their higher production cost. It is important tonote that, unlike many countries, approximately 89% ofBrazilian electrical energy comes from renewable sources.Table 3.2 presents an appraisal of Brazilian electrical sourcecompetitiveness at an installed capacity of 1,000 MW.Note that hydropower is more competitive (in R$/MWh),however it takes longer to build – approximately 5 years –and has greater environmental restrictions. 57
  56. 56. Although the costs of production are extremely important for defining dispatch criteria for distribution, they are not per se investment constraints. This is because the auction and therefore the sources are defined in advance by Aneel and EPE. National Unit. Hydroelectric Biomass Nuclear coal Disp. MW 1,000 1,000 1,000 1,000 Variable R$/Mwh 1.5 14.7 37.5 25.2 Unit Cost R$/Kw Fixed cost 11.3 46.0 57.8 138.0 year Investment US$/KW 1,250 1,100 1,500 2,000 Rate of R$/ 116.4 121.1 133.3 151.6 equilibrium MWh Table 3.2 (part 1) – Competitiveness among electricity sources. Source: Moreira, 2008. Unit. Imported Natural Wind Fuel oil Diesel coal gas Disp. MW 1,000 1,000 1,000 1,000 1,000 Variable R$/ 54.3 108.6 4.5 300 500 Unit Cost Mwh R$/Kw Fixed cost 57.8 57.5 4.0 28.0 25.0 year Investment US$/KW 1,500 900 2,000 800 600 Rate of R$/ 152.4 175.0 297.0 382.9 602.2 equilibrium MWh Table 3.2 (part 2) – Competitiveness among electricity sources. Source: Moreira, 2008.58
  57. 57. Growth trends in renewable energyHydroelectric generationHistorically, the Brazilian electrical sector was developedbased on the country’s great hydroelectric potential, andexpansion was made possible due to the large number ofrivers, lakes and other hydrological regimes. Industrieshave been developed strongly based on complementarities Which means thatamong different water areas by means of the construction of wet periods occurlarge reservoirs and long transmission lines. in one region while dry periodsLarge reservoirs have been used primarily to maintain the in of the system, and to offer better control of electricityproduction in the dry season. Transmission lines haveallowed the optimization of water resources and helped takeadvantage of rainfall regime diversity among regions.However, the 1988 Constitution generated greater concernabout environmental issues, essentially focused on theconsequences of flooding, leading to a reduction in majornew reservoir construction.Moreover, when it comes to water, we must not only considerits multiples uses, but the interests of various stakeholdersas well. Fortunately, there are now significant barriers to the Human andconstruction of major new reservoirs in Brazil. animal supply, irrigation,It is estimated that the hydroelectric potential yet to be industrial,tapped in the country is approximately 126 GW. From this fisheries,total, approximately 70% is in the Amazon basin, where recreation, etc.rivers surrounded by floodplains predominate and largereservoir construction is impossible, so hydropower willhave to take the form of run-of-the-river plants.Without adding the remaining non-individualizedpotential (28,000 MW ), the potential in the basin isestimated at 77,058 MW, distributed among 13 sub- 59
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