Renewble energies-market-needs-book
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Renewble energies-market-needs-book



This book presents the results of the various surveys undertaken in the participant countries. These involved ...

This book presents the results of the various surveys undertaken in the participant countries. These involved
university personnel on the one hand, and employers, local authorities and ministries on the other, thus building up a
profile of the current and future needs. The results of these surveys are very useful, since they provide a sound basis
upon which concrete action in respect of education, training and extension works can be undertaken, vis-à-vis addressing
the problems they have identified. Readers will therefore find this book useful both in respect of the provision of background information and in terms of gaining knowledge of the specific circumstances in each country. All in all, if countries are able to adequately train human resources, they
can more easily take advantage of the various economic opportunities the field of renewable energy may offer.



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    Renewble energies-market-needs-book Renewble energies-market-needs-book Presentation Transcript

    • Renewable Energy Market Needs:A perspective from Europe and Latin America
    • Authors Bolivia Chile Guatemala Horacio Villegas Francisca López Robinovich Cyrano Ruiz Javier Aliaga Lordemann Guillermo Jiménez Estévez Ericka Tuquer Lea Franziska Buch Luis Vargas Díaz Lourdes Socarrás Manuel Díaz Romero Nelson Amaro Natalia Garrido Echeverría Brazil Robert Guzmán André Luis Silva Leite Germany João Luiz Alkaim Latvia Gabriela EspinosaJosé Baltazar Salgueirinho Aleksejs ZorinsOsório de Andrade Guerra Julia Gottwald Gotfrids Noviks Mariana Eliza Ferrari Walter LealMariana Dalla Barba Wendt Rodrigo Antonio Martins Youssef Ahmad Youssef Organizers (Brazil) José Baltazar Salgueirinho Osório de Andrade Guerra Youssef Ahmad Youssef Instructional Design Assessoria de Comunicação e Marketing - C&M Marina Cabeda Egger Moellwald Assessor Laudelino José Sardá Revision Andrzej Korzeniowski (transLEEtion) Director Sarah Jauncey (transLEEtion) Maria do Rosário Stotz Graphic Design Editorial Manager Edison Rodrigo Valim Alessandra Turnes R32 Renewable energy market needs : a perspective from Europe and Latin America. / José Baltazar Salgueirinho Osório de Andrade Guerra, Youssef Ahmad Youssef organizers– Palhoça : Ed. Unisul, 2010. 286 p. ; 21 cm ISBN 978-85-86870-48-X Bibliography: p. 279-285 1. Renewable energy sources. 2. Environment. 3. Sustainable development. 4. Jelare. I. Guerra, José Baltazar Salgueirinho Osório de Andrade Guerra, 1968-. II. Youssef, Youssef Ahmad, 1967-. CDD – 333.794This publication has been produced with the assistance of the European Union. Thecontent of this publication is the sole responsibility of the JELARE project consortium andcan in no way be taken to reflect the views of the European Union.
    • ContentsPreface . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5Chapter 1 – Introduction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7Chapter 2 – Bolivia . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 29Chapter 3 – Brazil . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 57Chapter 4 – Chile . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 71Chapter 5 – Germany . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 97Chapter 6 – Guatemala . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .127Chapter 7 – Latvia . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .157Chapter 8 – JELARE survey reports: main variables . . .177Chapter 9 – Conclusions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .259References . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .279
    • PrefaceThe search for global solutions to environmental andclimate problems associated with the consumption of fossilfuels has led to the development of a new field, namely thefield of renewable energy. Even though it has always beenpossible to harness the sun or winds as energy sources, thelimited technological means to do so have largely hindereddevelopments in this field in the past. Nowadays, technologyis now available to allow us to realize the potential the fieldof renewable energy offers.From the production of biogas from wastes to the use ofbiomass to generate energy for households, the possibilitiesof using renewable energy are manifold. In poor countriessuch as those in Latin America, the use of locally availablerenewable energy resources may allow them to improvequality of life as well as contribute to their economicdevelopment. But in order to yield the expected benefits,there is a pressing need to address many of the deficienciesseen today in respect of the development and use of renewableenergy. Some of these are the lack of institutional policiesand frameworks, limited access to technology, restrictedaccess to financing, unsuitability of local infrastructures and,last but not least, lack of training.In the context of the Joint European-Latin AmericanUniversities Renewable Energy Project ( JELARE),undertaken as part of the ALFA III Programme of theEuropean Commission, various initiatives are beingundertaken to develop the renewable energy sector in theparticipant countries (Bolivia, Brazil, Chile, Germany,Guatemala, Latvia) in both Europe and in South America.In particular, JELARE tries to address the problems posedby lack of expertise and lack of training in this importantfield. Consistent with this approach, a number of surveyshave been undertaken in the participant countries as part of
    • JELARE, focusing on the market needs seen in the fieldof renewable energy.This book presents the results of the various surveysundertaken in the participant countries. These involveduniversity personnel on the one hand, and employers, localauthorities and ministries on the other, thus building up aprofile of the current and future needs. The results of thesesurveys are very useful, since they provide a sound basisupon which concrete action in respect of education, trainingand extension works can be undertaken, vis-à-vis addressingthe problems they have identified. Readers will thereforefind this book useful both in respect of the provision ofbackground information and in terms of gaining knowledgeof the specific circumstances in each country. All in all, ifcountries are able to adequately train human resources, theycan more easily take advantage of the various economicopportunities the field of renewable energy may offer.A special thanks goes to Prof. Baltazar de Andrade Guerraand Prof. Youssef Ahmad Youssef, from UNISUL in Brazil,for their efforts in compiling this publication. Thanks arealso due to the JELARE project partners, who performedthe surveys in their countries and supplied the data whichis compiled here. It is hoped that this ground-breakingpublication will facilitate a better understanding of thecurrent situation in the field of renewable energy and itsdevelopment in each country and, inter alia, across the LatinAmerican region.Enjoy the book!Prof. Walter Leal (BSc, PhD, DSc, DPhil, DEd, DL, DLitt)JELARE Project Coordinator
    • Chapter 1 - Introduction1.1 - The Joint European-Latin American UniversitiesRenewable Energy (JELARE) project: ‘Fosteringinnovative labour market-oriented educational& research approaches in the field of renewableenergies at Latin American and European institutesof higher education’The JELARE project is a co-operation scheme involvinguniversities from Bolivia, Brazil, Chile, Germany, Guatemalaand Latvia with the aim of fostering innovative labourmarket-oriented educational and research approaches inthe field of renewable energies (RE) at Latin Americanand European institutes of higher education. The projectis funded by ALFA III, a European Union programmefor co-operation between the European Union (EU) andLatin America (LA), in the higher education and trainingframework.The JELARE project partners are: „ Universidad Católica Boliviana (Bolivia); „ Universidade do Sul de Santa Catarina (Brazil); „ Universidad de Chile (Chile); „ Hamburg University of Applied Sciences (Germany); „ Universidad Galileo (Guatemala); and „ Rēzeknes Augstskola (Latvia). 7
    • These universities have been chosen based on their academic competence and interest in international cooperation in the field of RE as well as in the modernization and improvement of their current research and teaching activities. Germany, Chile and Brazil represent comparatively experienced and advanced organizations and countries in the field of renewable energies, while Latvia, Bolivia and Guatemala are less developed in this field. Hopefully this combinationNetwork members not only anticipates future knowledge transfers between theare EU and LA European Union (EU) and Latin America (LA), but alsoorganizations such the intracontinental exchanges that may take enterprises,NGOs, ministries, Each partner takes on one work package and also activelylocal authorities, contributes to the transnational elements of the other workuniversities and packages, as well as carrying on with their respective localother institutionsworking in the activities. Accordingly, all surveys, concepts, pilot modules,field of education, evaluations and recommendation reports, networking andresearch and dissemination activities will also be carried out locally withemployment in each partner following a joint transnational methodology.the renewableenergies sector. The purpose of the JELARE Network is to promote European–Latin American networking and exchange of experience in employment, research and education in the field of renewable energies within and also beyond the JELARE project partnership. Other universities may therefore also take part in its activities and benefit from the project information and experience. The purpose of the project is not only to improve the academic quality of European and Latin American Higher Education Institutions (HEIs), but also to strengthen their role so as to contribute to local economic development and social cohesion. The JELARE network aims to enhance the role of the universities in the context of renewable energy sector dynamics. In this sense, the project also seeks to increase the capacity of HEIs to modernize their research and teaching programmes in the renewable energy sector and to strengthen the link between the HEIs and businesses that operate on renewable energy. 8
    • The overall objectives of the JELARE project are: „ to improve the quality of research and teaching in LA and EU universities; „ to strengthen the role of HEIs in socio-economic development; and „ to foster sustainable cooperation between HEIs in LA and EU.In order to contribute to its overall objectives, the JELAREproject focuses on the thematic sector of renewable energy,an area widely acknowledged as being very important. Dueto the current global situation of scarce energy resources,rapidly rising prices for fossil fuels and the impact of climatechange, the promotion of renewable energies is of vitalimportance for sustainable socio-economic development inLatin America as well as in Europe.For developing countries in particular, local energygeneration has great potential for local economicdevelopment. Lack of expertise is a major impediment tothe broader use of renewable energies in Latin America.In this context, LA HEIs play a very important role intraining people – through education, providing expertadvice, through research and technology transfer – and,thereby, having a positive impact on socio-economicdevelopment.Therefore, the specific objectives of the JELARE project are: „ to develop and implement labour market-oriented research and educational approaches in the field of renewable energies, first of all, JELARE identifies the needs of the labour market, develops and implements practical transnational pilot modules and long-term concepts. Moreover, based on JELARE’s experiences and evaluation, practical recommendations are offered 9
    • to the participating HEIs, as well as other HEIs in the EU–LA regions, in the area of education. As a consequence, graduates will benefit with better job opportunities, while HEIs and their staff will gain new business opportunities in the research and technology transfer field. Local businesses and public institutions will benefit from locally available expertise and highly qualified staff; „ to increase the capacity of HEI staff so as to modernize their educational and research programmes and activities: this is a precondition for the long-term competitiveness of HEIs and will be achieved by capacity-building seminars, study visits and exchange of experience between JELARE partners and other network members. Moreover, JELARE supports decision- making processes by providing detailed information and concepts on current needs and potential; „ to strengthen the link between HEIs and the labour market, business and public sector in the field of renewable energies: a closer link between HEIs and the private and public sectors offers multiple opportunities for both sides. HEIs benefit from new clients and project partners’ research. This close co-operation helps HEIs to focus their activities on the actual needs of the labour market and also strengthens the impact HEIs have on local economic development. Private enterprises can benefit from technology transfer, and public and governmental bodies can obtain valuable support for decision-making;10
    • „ to establish a long-term partnership and network between European and Latin American universities: in the RE field much needs to be done in terms of research and education, both in LA and the EU. On the other hand, due to different climatic, natural and economic conditions, all EU and LA countries can benefit from the exchange of know-how and cooperation. The JELARE project is basically regarded as a starting point for more cooperation between the JELARE partners and beyond.During the 3-year project (2009-2011), the followingoutputs are expected: „ renewable energy labour market survey for Bolivia, Brazil, Chile, Germany, Guatemala and Latvia; „ teaching and research concepts for renewable energies; „ teaching and research pilot modules for renewable energies; „ university staff capacity building program; „ recommendation report for European and Latin American universities; and „ international JELARE network, with local subgroups in the partner countries. 11
    • 1.2 – The JELARE Survey: Labour market-oriented research and teaching approaches at Higher Education Institutions in Bolivia, Brazil, Chile, Germany, Guatemala and Latvia Research problem Over the last few decades, many countries have expressed serious concerns regarding the need to restructure their production matrix. To this end, we have observed some movement towards a cleaner energy matrix, intended to be less harmful to the environment. The Kyoto Protocol and specific researches on global warming have raised a number of issues related to the role of the current model of energy generation and its harmful effects on the environment. Consequently there has been, for the first time and in a collective way, a call for an efficient energy matrix that, simultaneously: „ meets the demand for energy worldwide; „ promotes environmental preservation; and „ contributes to the reduction of the greenhouse effect. In recent decades, the issue of increasing renewable energy sources has been discussed in tandem with environmental issues, aiming at reducing our dependence on fossil fuels. Such discussion has revealed that, although contrary to the liberalizing reforms of the 1990s, the development of renewable energy sources requires major government participation (YI-CHONG, 2006). According to the IEA (2006), world demand for energy will grow at an average annual rate of 1.6% until 2030, leveraged by the exponential growth of energy consumption in developing countries. At the same time, there are some12
    • doubts about the influence that human activity has had onglobal warming, leading to the urgent need for climate changemitigation (DANTAS; CASTRO, 2008a). The best availablemethod for increasing energy supply lies in improving energyefficiency and promoting greater participation of RE inthe world energy matrix, including bio-energy, which is ofsignificant importance both for the transport and electricalgeneration sectors.This trend requires a well-defined energy policy and a greaterrole for renewable energies in a matrix that must be supportedon a tripod comprised by the state, corporations and universities.The driving force behind the recent quest for RE is the oilcrisis, which reached its highest point in the middle of 2008:a price of US$147 per barrel of crude oil. Petrol also reachedunexpected retail prices, in major importing countries, of US$4per gallon. In the past, especially in the early 1960s, when asimilar phenomenon took place, efforts to use RE became apriority for many countries.The 1960s marked the beginning of Brazil’s effort in thatdirection. Real progress has been made over the years, andBrazil now holds a leading position in the field. This isespecially true regarding Brazil’s substitution choice: petrolfor bio-ethanol, a product derived mainly from sugarcane.However, this step forward experienced a setback whenOPEC was founded and began to intervene in theinternational market by fixing quotas that made the pricego up or down according to the criteria of the producingcountries, mainly Arab. The main factors taken into accountwere: „ the world’s oil reserves; „ the price of the dollar; „ annual inflation; 13
    • „ global economic growth; and „ the production capacity of OPEC countries. Nevertheless, unlike Brazil, which regarded the production of alternative energy sources as a priority, most countries lost interest in the development of alternative RE sources as soon as prices started to fall, which was caused by the discovery of new oil reserves in areas that were more politically sympathetic to principal oil customers. All of these trends, in addition to the movement towards RE development, diminished OPEC’s control of the situation. This control continued to be affected in periods of advances in renewable energies researches, especially when there were price increases that threatened the economies of non-oil producing countries. This can be seen in the following graphic: 160 140 120 100 US $/ bl 80 60 40 20 Jan/98 Jan/99 Jan/00 Jan/01 Jan/02 Jan/03 Jan/04 Jan/05 Jan/06 Jan/07 Jan/08 Jan/09 Jul/98 Jul/99 Jul/00 Jul/01 Jul/02 Jul/03 Jul/04 Jul/05 Jul/06 Jul/07 Jul/08 Jul/09 0 Graphic 1.1 – International oil prices. Source: the Technical Team, based on “Energías Renovables de Guatemala” (Renewable Energies in Guatemala), Victor Araujo, February 2007, for the period of January 1998 – July 2006; for the period of January 2007 – January 2009, consult: <http://www.marketwatch. com/tools/quotes/intTable.asp?symb=CL08XE&sid=3343724&dist=TQP_Table_14 date&freq=1&time=9>
    • The crisis has now reached unprecedented proportions.The consistent growth of China and the more recent riseof India, as well as the renewed efforts for the economicgrowth of other emerging countries, dating from the late1970s, has brought about an increase in demand, which haslead to an astronomical ‘world oil bill’. At the same time, weare coming to terms with the fact that oil is a non-renewableresource and that in the near future it will start to dwindleand, ultimately, cease to exist. Existing reserves are limitedand even the discovery and exploitation of new oilfields willonly serve to delay this inexorable end.The consequences of an industrial society developed to itsfull extent, as well as emerging countries viewing oil as afundamental strategic factor since the 1970s, have been: „ atmosphere contamination; „ climate change; „ deforestation; „ oversights in waste and fertilizer disposal, among others; and „ resulting impact for water usage and for the environment.On the other hand, the melting of polar masses and sealevel rise, which are signs of global warming, among otherthreats, are starting to attract the world’s attention. Theidea of sustainable development started to impose itself atthe end of the 1980s, highlighting the need for economicgrowth within some limits which would not threaten thesurvival of future generations. 15
    • The complexity of the crisis that has attracted attention to the topic of RE shows the interrelation between this problem and macro social factors that affect the most basic development matrix of developing countries. Poverty forces most populations, in the less industrialized countries, to use wood as a renewable energy, but this source also has its limits as far as preservation of forests and natural reserves are concerned. This clearly shows how close is the relationship between RE and the protection of the environment. Agricultural practices of burning and sowing that widen the limits of crop production, threaten vast zones – once full of vegetation – with desertification. These areas were used to generate rain that fed rivers, transferring the benefits of water to distant lower lands. In the Petén area of Guatemala, which represents 30% of the country’s territory but is home to only about 1% of its population, this situation is evident. A quick look tells us that these effects can also be seen in more populated and exhausted lands on the eastern side, where vast territories already show signs of desertification. Historical documents show that the area used to be rich and crossed by fast-flowing rivers. Today, poverty poses yet another threat that also limits the unmeasured search for other sources of energy. It consists of including staple food, such as corn and sugar, among the raw materials to generate biofuels, which means using cultivable fields for non-food purposes. This massive change in food products affects the prices of basic products and impacts negatively on the income of poor families who no longer have access to products of their basic diet. Even when this situation seems to have been temporary, it represents a latent threat that could become a permanent scourge for the most impoverished populations. In summary, one aspect is clear: any effort towards institutional strengthening of the RE sector calling for better personnel skills required in public and private companies16
    • and in universities entails a multidisciplinary approach. Thisapproach refers not only to the inclusion of environmentalaspects into the objectives of RE related policies andstrategies, but also to the connection of any renewable energyaction with economic, social, anthropological, political andpopulational studies that make the required employees’profiles be the base for an academic contribution capable ofsatisfying such need. This multidisciplinary approach will beconsidered the core of the questionnaires to be applied to thekey populations during this study. A wide rangeThe 2007 Lisbon Summit, which also gathered of local jobrepresentatives from HEIs of EU and LA, identified the opportunitiesenvironment sector as one of the priority areas where co- (from high-skilloperation is particularly needed. Renewable energy is of to low-skill, from high-techgreat relevance for socio-economic development in Latin to agriculture),America as well as in Europe, since both regions depend foster localheavily on (imported) fossil fuels to meet their energy needs. investments andApart from the environmental benefits, the local generation the reductionand use of renewable energies offer great potential for local of the need for importing.economic development, e.g.However, the renewable energy sector cannot developappropriately where there is a lack in expertise, especiallyin countries such as Bolivia and Guatemala. Due to theinnovative nature of this field, the HEIs are very importantactors, especially in terms of research, as well as in theeducation of the future labour force in RE. However,although the topic is of crucial value, renewable energy isnot yet prominently positioned in the curriculum of LA orEU universities as it could have been or, indeed, as it shouldbe.Public and private universities need greater interaction inorder to be able to meet the demands of the labour marketfor skilled staff in the RE area. The aim of the JELAREproject in its Work Package Two (WP2) is precisely tofill that gap, drafting a survey that finds the needs of thelabour market according to the availability of the HigherEducation Institutions. 17
    • The study of the challenges in the renewable energy field demands the strengthening of practices in the private sector, similar to what already happens to the public sector initiative in the field of energy production. Moreover, contact with HEIs in other countries participating in the JELARE project will affect the implementation of innovations. On the other hand, this situation will force universities to review current curricula and all contents that are taught to future graduates who eventually will be required to apply their knowledge in the market. This demand will affect: „ graduate profiles; „ curriculum improvement; „ the training of teaching and administrative staff in energy-related subjects; „ technology transfer; and, in general, „ all practices that promote compliance with the renewable energy objectives in the short, medium and long term. This study will be the basis for those changes, as presented in the interrelationships in Figure 1.1.18
    • Figure 1.1 – Agroenergy: New paradigm of matrix energy.Source: COGEN – SP.Objectives of the JELARE SurveyWork Package Two (WP2) of the JELARE project aimedto carry out a survey from 1 February to 21 July, 2009 on thisreport’s title subject. The reader should take into account allagreements from the Hamburg JELARE meeting that tookplace from 17 to 20 February 2009, where the design ofthis package was discussed. In short, the agreements wereas follows: 19
    • „ three surveys have been carried out: one aimed at either public or private companies participating in the market, another aimed at professors and university staff, and the third, at university bodies involved in the renewable energy field; „ the three surveys were to be carried out in JELARE partner countries, aiming at identifying the needs of the labour market regarding education and research in the RE sector, identifying university staff training needs in the RE sector, and benchmarking RE activities in Higher Education Institutions (HEI); and „ three questionnaires served as tools to analyse: public and private companies, for the first questionnaire; professors and administrative personnel of the universities involved as partners in the JELARE project, for the second questionnaire; and, for the last questionnaire, the units, departments for institutes involved in RE in other national universities. As there were restrictions regarding time and resources which could distract the researchers’ attention from theoretical or purely academic elements, the establishment of a strict methodological basis was required for the analysis of the gathered information, in order to avoid unsound generalization. The general objectives of the surveys are: „ to identify which topics and institutional situations are deemed necessary in order to include the subject of RE in the curriculum and as a part of the research program; as well as „ to develop curriculum and technology transfer activities, aiming to achieve sustainable cooperation among European and Latin American universities in search of socio-economic development.20
    • The specific objectives of the surveys are to: „ consult potential employers and researchers, as well as students, local authorities and ministers from the countries involved, in order to identify current personnel employment requirements and the need for expertise, in addition to identifying support requirements for research institutions; „ identify the need to build on administrative, teaching and research personnel’s capacity in the Higher Education Institutions in order to increase their skills and develop high-quality education, as well as advance research and technology transfer in general, and, in particular, in the renewable energy field; „ conceptually develop a strategic approximation of the needed changes and the implementation of innovative pilot modules; „ use the survey experience as a teaching-learning tool for the RE situation in the relevant country and use its results as educational and training content for key personnel in the area; „ take Work Package Two as a first measurement instrument before the implementation of the project, so as to evaluate two distinct points comparatively at a later stage: over the second year, in order to place emphasis on project improvements, given possible deviations; and, in turn, aiming towards project self- sustainability at the end of the third year, when the project winds down; and 21
    • „ carry out survey activities as an integral part of the project publicity material (posters, pamphlets, etc.) as well as the establishment of networks in the renewable energy field. Despite the progress achieved in our society in relation to the global warming debate and the increasing need for the usage of clean and renewable energy sources, we find that little is being done by the Higher Education Institutions (HEIs) in this new scenario. It is estimated that HEIs will play a key role both in research and development in the RE field, as well as in the qualification of a new labour force, capable of operating and managing the emerging technologies in this new business environment. In other words, HEIs are responsible for meeting future demands for skilled labour in the RE sector. In this context, the JELARE network intends to address the relationship between HEIs and businesses operating in the renewable energy field, trying to promote future initiatives in academic practices of teaching, research and technology transfer. As a result, all gaps that may emerge in terms of skilled labour force and applied research in this sector will be filled. Methodological procedures The following section will describe the: „ addressed population encompassed in this study; and „ the main variables involved. It was established that this study would be directed through three different questionnaires – in which the main variables could be found – applied to three specific populations:22
    • Questionnaire 1Public and private companies in the RE field1. General information about the organization, company or entity a. Nature of organization (private, NGO, public, etc.) b. Business sector of organization (renewable and non-renewable energy, communications, etc.) c. Interest in developing renewable energy d. Sector in which it is active e. Area in the value chain in which it works or plans to work f. Way of taking part in RE development g. Total income of the organization in 2008 (in the national currency of each country but converting into euros in the final analysis) h. RE income of the organization in 2008 (in national currency)2. Employee training and qualifications a. Total number of permanent employees in the organization b. Number of employees in RE c. Attitudes towards the availability of qualified personnel in RE d. RE-related activities where employees work e. Educational background of the personnel employed in RE f. Mechanism of employment applied to RE personnel g. Problems faced to select the right RE personnel continues... 23
    • h. Attitudes towards the future in the RE employment trend: i. General ii. In short term (next 2 years) iii. In medium term (next 5 years) 3. Qualification requirements and market needs a. Opportunity of more training in RE b. New qualifications for the personnel required for RE in the future c. Perception of the forces that move these qualifications d. Perception of the need for new courses and RE qualifications developed by universities e. Necessary qualifications that universities have to develop according to the people interviewed 4. The role of Higher Education Institutions a. Expectations in RE innovations b. Expectations about provided services c. Perception of how well HEIs are updating their understanding with respect to labour needs 5. General suggestions a. Perception of the biggest challenges for an increase in the use of RE in the country b. Suggestions regarding issues not mentioned in the questionnaire Questionnaire 1 – Public and private companies in the field of RE.24
    • Questionnaire 2Teaching and administrative staff in RE courses and degrees1. Profile of the unit or department a. Dedication to management, research or teaching b. Kind of appointment i. Number of years working in the university ii. For teachers: number of courses currently given iii. For teachers: whether they perform a direction or coordination role iv. Administrative personnel v. Others (specify) c. Rank of the professor. Whether there is a tenure appointment or some other system (some countries use other variables due to a different teaching system)2. Kind of department at their current appointment in terms ofcourses (Master’s degree in Renewable Energy, Master’s degree inEnergy Efficiency, specialization in Energy Engineering, other)3. Area that best describes their current academic/professionalinvolvement in RE4. Sector in RE in which they work or are interested in working in5. Number of years of experience in RE6. Number of years of experience in curriculum development7. Number of years of experience in research management8. Training needs a. In RE technologies continues... 25
    • b. In curriculum development c. In teaching modules d. In research management 9. Requirements of RE training and qualifications a. Technical/vocational knowledge updating b. Technical change updating c. Learning abilities in curriculum development about RE d. Better laboratories and equipment infrastructure and access to a scientific RE database e. Participation in events related to a RE network (workshops, seminars, visits to companies, etc.) f. Cooperation between the university and RE industry g. Detection of priority individual training needs (quote 3 topics in order) 10. Strengthening RE a. Perception of the need for strengthening RE (only for those who answered YES in the previous question) b. Need for change in market-oriented academic programs c. Exchange programs d. Associations with HEI for sharing knowledge e. RE applied technological research carried out by universities and financed by the RE market f. Same as previous, but financed by government agencies continues...26
    • g. More student internships in the RE industry h. Constant analysis of the design of RE occupational plans in relation to economic behaviour and economic change i. Specification of other initiatives 11. General Suggestions a. Suggestions regarding other necessary strengthening actions not mentioned aboveQuestionnaire 2 - Teaching and administrative staff in RE courses and degrees. Questionnaire 3 HEIs’ departments, institutes or units involved with RE 1. RE in the university a. Introduction of past, present and future RE practices b. RE courses as part of already implemented programs or of future programs c. Policies and strategies introduced d. Type of knowledge aquisition that the university regularly employs e. Other practices not included in these variables 2. RE sector in which the university carries out research or teaching activities a. Type of energy (wind, biomass, etc.) b. Name of the aforementioned teaching program continues... 27
    • 3. Departments, institutes or units specifically working in the RE field a. Name of the department, institute or unit that is working in RE b. Name the products that the university uses for RE teaching/ research and RE investments Questionnaire 3 – HEIs’ departments, institutes or units involved with RE. The following chapters are articles that demonstrate the results of the questionnaires applied in each country of the JELARE project.28
    • Chapter 2 - Bolivia1 – Renewable energy market in BoliviaThe Bolivian energy mixThe primary energy production in Bolivia is composedmainly of four sources: „ natural gas; „ oil; „ biomass; and „ hydropower, which constitutes the most important renewable energy source.Production maintained a growing trend between 2000 and2007 up to a level of 111.451 kilo barrels of oil equivalent(kBOE), the major part of which (86.420 kBOE)corresponds to the production of natural gas, Bolivia’s mainexport product. It is estimated that less than 1% of theprimary energy production can be attributed to renewableenergies, without considering the large-scale hydropowerproduction.The secondary energy production has increased from14,398 kBOE in the year 2000 to 23,295 kBOE in 2007.The energy carriers with major production volumes are: „ diesel oil; „ electricity; „ liquefied petroleum gas; and „ petrol.In the generation of hydropower, a very slow growth can behighlighted. 29
    • During the 2000–2007 period, natural gas exports to Brazil made up 90% of energy exports. The energy balance does not include electricity exports. Energy imports in the same period consisted basically in diesel oil and in a lower level of petrol imports. In summary, Bolivia is a net exporter of primary energy, whereby its internal supply only reaches 39% of the effective production. The secondary energy production accounts for an important part of the effective production. There is a strong internal dependence regarding the primary energy sources and a low participation of renewable energies in the energy mix. The potential of renewable energies To date, Bolivia does not have final studies about renewable energies. However, the initial investigations show a huge generation potential, especially due to the particular characteristics of the territory regarding the diversity of its ecologic floors, as the following balance illustrates in a summarized form: „ Hydropower: the main generator of renewable energy in the country, with an estimated potential of 1,802–2,500 MW based on the record of water sources of the country. „ Solar energy: the potential is not estimated; however, it is known that Bolivia is located inside the geographical band with the highest solar radiation of the continent. At almost 4,000 metres above sea level and an air mass of 4,000 metres inferior to the recorded at sea level, during most of the year there is a solar radiation about of 550-650 langleys/day.30
    • „ Wind energy: the effective potential is not estimated, but it is known that wind energy has a huge potential in four regions: (1) around the city of Santa Cruz de la Sierra; (2) in the southwest frontier of Bolivia with Chile and Argentina in the Department of Potosí; (3) in the south corridor between the cities of Santa Cruz and La Paz and (4) in the north-south corridor between the city of Oruro and the city of Potosí. „ Geothermal energy: it is estimated that the potential of generation in Laguna Colorada (the only explored zone) is between 280 and 370 MW, values that allow the production of electricity of at least 120 MW for 25 years.In 2006, the Bolivian electricity sector covered 67% of itspopulation. It is estimated that more than 700,000 ruraland about 70,000 urban households (concentrated in citieswith more than 5,000 inhabitants) do not have access tothis service.In the last three decades the country has experienced anurbanization process and since the mid-80s the urbanpopulation has begun to outpace the rural population, butstill around 36% of the Bolivian population resides in ruralareas. Thereby 28.6% of the rural population is concentratedin communities with between 61 and 120 households andthe remaining 71.4% in communities with 60 or fewerhouseholds. Around 27% of the rural households haveaccess to basic services in general, with a rural electricitycoverage of 33% in absolute terms.There is a high correlation between the number of ruralhouseholds in conditions of extreme poverty and the numberof households that do not have electricity; therefore 90.17%of homes without electricity of the rural area correspond to 31
    • households in extreme poverty. Due to the dispersion of the rural population, renewable energies are of great importance for the electrification needs of these households due to their decentralized character. Strategic Framework of the Energy Sector According to the National Development Plan (NDP) of the Bolivian government, the electricity sector must re- establish its leading and strategic role in order to guarantee the electricity supply, ensuring universal access to this service in a sustainable form and with social equity. To achieve this goal, four policies and strategies are proposed: „ Policy 1: Develop electricity infrastructure able to satisfy the internal needs and generate surplus for electricity exportation. „ Policy 2: Increase the coverage of the electricity service in the urban and rural area in order to achieve the universalization of electricity. „ Policy 3: Independence and sovereignty of the energy system through the state´s declaration as the proprietor of all the natural resources and the use of the renewable energies. „ Policy 4: Consolidate State participation in the development of the electricity sector with sovereignty and social equity.32
    • The renewable energy businessThe renewable energy sector has great potential in Bolivia;however, there is not a big number of companies that operatein the value chain of research, development and production ofthese type of energies, due to the lack of a policy frame, the lowprofitability and high technological costs.An important share of the market is concentrated in thehydropower sector, destined to electricity supply in the urbanand rural areas of the country. The companies operating inthis sector are mainly medium and large.The business activities in other renewable energy sectors aremarginal, with the exception of solar energy, which has amoderate penetration in the rural areas of the country.In many cases, renewable energy enters the market withinternational cooperation financing. Therefore there is alack of formal market structures and there is a trend leadingto the association between NGOs and companies.The opportunities faced by renewable energy companies aremainly related to the fact that there are wide rural zones withlow levels of electricity coverage. Decentralized renewableenergy systems can give a solution to the electrificationneeds of about 90% of the households in remote areas.The challenges faced by the companies can be categorizedas follows: „ lack of an energy policy and regulation that promotes the use of renewable energies; „ distortions introduced through subsidies that create unfair prices between renewable and conventional energies; 33
    • „ lack of financing mechanisms for the implementation of renewable energies to cope with the low payment capacity for energy of the rural population; and „ deficit of qualified human resources and delays in the technological adaptation. Research and teaching of renewable energies at the Bolivian Catholic University Research and teaching about renewable energies is not yet fully established in the Bolivian Catholic University. Currently, there are related activities in the Institute of Socio-Economic Studies (IISEC) that works topics in Energy Economics. In turn, the recently founded Institute of Applied Research (IIA) of the Faculty of Exact Sciences and Engineering carries out research in solar energy and biofuels from non-edible materials. In the Faculty of Architecture research on solar architecture has been realized. Regarding the academic program, the Faculty of Economics offers individual courses as part of its Bachelor and Master’s degree programs, which include the subjects of Energy Economics and Economics of Environment and Natural Resources. At postgraduate level, the Masters for Development program, founded in co-operation with the Harvard Institute for Economic Development, offers a Diploma course in Energy Planning and Management of Energy Systems that includes RE topics. The Faculty of Engineering includes renewable energy topics in the programs of Chemical Engineering, Environmental Engineering and Industrial Engineering. The topic has a general approach in all specializations, emphasizing windpower, solar and geothermal energy. Subjects offered in the Bachelor degree are Introduction to Energy and Natural Resources, Environmental Economics and Natural Resources and Environmental Impact.34
    • 2 – The JELARE surveys in BoliviaMethodologyThe aspects related to the sample design for the surveysare briefly explained below, in addition to the generalmethodology description in Chapter 1: „ Renewable energy market survey: the initial list of companies was obtained from the Vice Ministry of Electricity and Alternative Energies (VMEAE). Companies from other sectors that operate or could be interested in working in the field of renewable energy (communications, mining, industry, etc.) were also identified and contacted. 80% of the companies were interest in participating in the survey. A total of thirty companies, NGOs and public institutions were interviewed. „ Staff survey: first, the university programs that could include renewable energy topics were identified. Next, the director of each relevant degree program was asked to provide a list of professors who work in or could be interested in working with the topic. Finally, the questionnaire was applied to nine people who were interested in participating. „ Benchmarking survey: for this survey the homepages of universities of Bolivia’s four largest cities were reviewed to identify those with programs that could include renewable energy topics. After confirmation by phone that there are activities in the field of renewable energies, five, out of ten universities, participated in the survey. 35
    • Surveys with people or entities located in La Paz were done personally by previously trained interviewers. The rest of the surveys were done by fax or email. For the evaluation of all the surveys the Statistical Program for Social Sciences (SPSS) was used. Focus groups In addition to the surveys, two focus groups were carried out. The main purpose was to obtain qualitative information from some of the actors previously interviewed to complement the quantitative data of the survey. One focus group was conducted with three professors working in the field of renewable energies and three representatives of the market. The second focus group was held by four professors, experts on the topic, and two representatives of government entities and international cooperation working with renewable energy. The discussion was guided through a compendium of key questions. The participants’ contributions were later transcribed to add key quotations to the survey results. 2.1 - Market survey results Characteristics of the renewable energy organizations From the thirty interviewed organizations, 73.3% are private companies, 13.3% are non-governmental organizations, 10% are government entities and 3.3% operate in the country as international cooperation organizations. It is worth mentioning that the sample for this survey is highly significant and the typology of the surveyed organizations reflects the weigh of actors in the market. Results showi.e., solar thermaland photovoltaic. that most of the companies and organizations work in the sectors of hydropower and solar energy. There are also, in a lower scale, activities in the rural windpower generation, biomass and biogas. 36
    • It is interesting to observe that most of the companies areengaged in planning activities, whereas a small number worksin research and development. This situation reflects the hugemarket set-back regarding its capacity of technologicaladaptation. In functional terms most of the companiesoperate in the following areas of the value chain: „ planning, project management and marketing (63%); „ education and training (47%); 1 - i.e. evaluation, certification, planning, project „ service, maintenance and repair (37%); management, marketing. „ operation and administration (37%); 2 - i.e. „ electrical engineering (33%); and mechanical engineering and plant „ research and development (27%). construction.Regarding the future perspectives of the RE market, it ishighlighted that the companies plan to operate in the shortand medium term in the sectors of windpower, hydropower,biofuels and biomass. However, the market size is still verysmall, thus most of the institutions have planned to workin consulting areas1 and, on a smaller scale, in the projectdevelopment2 itself .Most of the private corporations are small companies with atotal income not higher than 50,000 euros in 2008, accordingto the survey. This is reflected in the organizational structure,where more than half of the interviewed institutions rangein two ranks, from one to five or from six to nineteenemployees. Considering the specific employment in thefield of renewable energy, three-quarters of the companiesemploy fewer than twenty people. 37
    • Bolivian companies are generally technology suppliers, not producers. Costs of technological development are very high considering the size of the renewable energy market. On this subject, the manager of a small solar energy company said: ‘Imported Chinese equipment is cheaper; manufacturing is a waste of time for me. We just adapt the systems to the local reality and sell them for a slightly higher price.’ The renewable energy market in Bolivia does not function in a regular way regarding price-fixing and conditions of competition, as another businessman states: ‘You cannot give the final client your real price, everything is subsidized by the international co-operation; you have to associate with an NGO to stay in the market.’ Qualification of professionals in renewable energy Only one-third of the organizations declare that there are university graduates and technicians available in the field of renewable energies; the majority rates the availability as scarce or insufficient. The bigger part of the organizations employs technicians as well as university graduates, with a slightly higher percentage of technicians. Only a small part employs people with business competences. The survey results confirm that the main areas of activity in the renewable energy sector are related to services; production and manufacturing are carried out on a smaller i.e., sales,assembly and scale and research and development activities are notinstallation. significant. So the problems of the sector are clearly related to the requirement of specialized technical qualifications. Nearly all companies hire their employees directly, not through external agencies. However, government entities use public calls. The problems the organizations deal with when hiring new professionals are, in almost every case, the lack of specialized technical qualifications; and, 38
    • in a smaller percentage (40%), lack of multidisciplinaryqualifications or lack of applicants (33%). Only one outof thirty organizations declared not to have problems infinding adequate personnel. This situation could worsen inthe future, because in the short, as well as in the mediumterm, around half of the organizations forecast a positivetendency in employment, while another important partenvisages at least a constant trend.Training of the companies’ staff in renewable energyAs expected, all interviewed organizations confirmed theirneed for some kind of training for their staff. According tothe survey, the highest requirement is oriented to programsof coaching and learning on the job. This result is coherentwith the need to increase the specific technical qualificationsof their personnel. Also considered as important by theparticipants are the measures of in-house training withexternal support and training at further education andresearch institutions. Less important are programs ofe-learning and blended learning. i.e., intensiveFirst of all, new specialized technical competences are seminars and certificaterequired. The strengthening of existing basic competences is courses.also given great importance. One businessman who took partin the focus group highlighted this: We look for people who studied sciences, not technology. Since we are a company that develops technology, we do not need people trained to read a catalog or import certain equipment, but people who can develop technology, who know about math, physics and chemistry. I think the quality of competences in these basic subjects is one of the main deficiencies. 39
    • Less importance is granted to the acquisition of multidisciplinary competences such as communication skills, foreign languages and social competences. Nevertheless this perception can be contrasted with the opinion of a representative of a company in a focus group: It would be useful to grant scholarships to students to give them the opportunity to go abroad. They could acquire social competences and communication skills that are very important. Graphic 2.1 shows the drivers for the required new qualifications in the field of renewable energies and their relevance according to the surveyed organizations (multiple answers were possible). Graphic 2.1 – Drivers for new qualifications in renewable energy. Source: JELARE Survey, 2009. As can be observed in Graphic 2.1, the main motivations for the development of the mentioned competences are product and process innovations. Likewise, market needs and government policies and incentives are important reasons for the development of qualifications by the staff.40
    • The representatives of the organizations agree that theuniversities have to develop new courses and competencesin the field of renewable energies. However, it is not asimportant to create new professions and/or occupationalprofiles in the area (only 23% of the interviewed companiesare in favour), as to develop additional qualifications thatcomplement the initial vocational education (70% of theinterviewed organizations). One participant of the focusgroup proposed: Universities should focus on the topic of Energy Economics. There should be cooperation between the Faculty of Engineering and the Faculty of Economics, because often engineers develop solutions lacking economic viability.Interface between the renewable energy market and theuniversitiesSo far, the contact and cooperation between companies anduniversities is marginal. The universities research and buildprototypes that are not capitalized by the market. There is amutual distrust, as a professor of the Faculty of Engineeringin a focus group says, that hinders a fruitful cooperation.The manager of a renewable energy company also mentions [t]he lack of credibility of the universities in other parts of the system like insurance companies – they do not accept technologies that are not internationally recognized, but developed by national universities. This is one of the reasons of the poor cooperation between the private sector and the universities. 41
    • The interviewed organizations expect from the universities a contribution at two levels: on the one hand a reform in education and training and, on the other, a bigger contribution in basic research and development. Almost half of the participants also hold that the universities should work in process innovations, such as new procedures, and a third part expect them to work on product innovations (new products and materials). When asked what types of services offered by Higher Education Institutes they would be interested in, the organizations expressed interest in many different services. Graphic 2.2 shows the different services and the participant’s level of interest for each one of them (multiple answers were possible). Joint research and development 25% Technology transfer 22% Consultancy, advisory service 11% Monitoring, evaluation 8% Providing access to latest knowlegde 17%Linking with business or research partners 12% Others 5% Graphic 2.2 – Interest in services offered by universities. Source: JELARE Survey, 2009. As seen in Graphic 2.2, the services the companies require from universities are mainly related to joint research and development and technology transfer, followed by obtaining access to the latest knowledge through universities. A considerable part of the companies also expect the universities to provide linking with business and research partners and consultancy and advisory service. However, 93% of the survey participants maintain that the current state of the universities regarding renewable energies is behind the market needs.42
    • Main challenges for a wider application of renewableenergies in BoliviaAmong the major challenges to extend the use of renewableenergies, the implementation of supporting policies andregulation standards stand out. The universities could playa role in the development of regulation standards andconsultancy services for the government. Equally importantis the development of financing mechanisms and theintroduction of subsidies for renewable energy technologiesor at least the elimination of subsidies for fuel energy sources.For the development of a competitive market of renewableenergy systems, the practice of international cooperationorganizations not to resort to the national market but toimport the equipment for their projects is consideredharmful. Finally, intensive information campaigns and anew vision of university education have also been demandedby the surveyed organizations.2.2 – Staff survey resultsProfile of the interviewed university staffAnalysing the description of the positions of the BolivianCatholic University (BCU) staff, there is an obvious emphasison education and administration, whereas research is not themain focus of their activities. However, there seems to be acontradiction in the description of the working areas as one-third of the interviewed staff declared, in the following sectionof the survey, to work in research and development as well asin education and training. But in the focus groups conductedlater, the participating professors highlighted the incipientactivity in research and development in the universities.Only 22.2% of the staff has senior experience (10 years)in topics related to renewable energies, which confirmsthe huge quantitative and qualitative set-back in this 43
    • area. At the same time, results show that only 11.11% of the professors have experience in curriculum design and research management. The combination of these results allows assessing initially the huge difficulty implied when implementing renewable energy subjects in the university. The survey also shows a clear relationship between the working or interest fields of the BCU staff in renewable energies and the planned activities of the companies. Both express their intention to operate in the sectors of windpower, biomass and hydropower. However, this apparent concordance is not reflected in reality, considering the insignificant number of joint projects. Interests and training needs of the staff The professors’ intention to strengthen the topic of renewable energy at the BCU is reflected in their high interest to receive training in renewable energy technologies as well as in curriculum design, development of teaching modules and research management. Graphic 2.3 shows the sectors of renewable energy technologies and the level of interest of the university staff to receive capacity building in each area. Graphic 2.3 – Training interest in RE technologies.44 Source: JELARE Survey, 2009.
    • The graphic shows a clear preference for training in theareas of biomass, hydropower and windpower technologies,followed by photovoltaic and solar thermal energy,geothermal energy and hydrogen/fuel cells in equalterms. Concerning training in curriculum design, mostparticipants have a clear preference for Master’s degreeprograms, but there is also interest in PhD and jointinternational programs. Regarding training in researchmanagement, a major interest in funding opportunities andresearch managerial capacities is specified. Only one-thirdis interested in training in research fund management.In general, most of the participants consider it as a majorneed to improve their technical/vocational knowledgeand their skills in their area of teaching or research. Thesame applies to their need to keep up to date with majortechnological changes in renewable energies and to acquireskills of renewable energy curriculum development.Moreover, the majority describes it as a very important needto have better research infrastructure, such as laboratoriesand equipment. The same applies to the need for access toa scientific database in renewable energies and the need toparticipate in networking events in renewable energy suchas workshops, seminars, conferences and/or field visits toindustries.Finally, the need for more collaboration between the BCUand the renewable energy industry is seen as a major or veryimportant need by nearly all participants. A participant ofthe focus group affirmed: “What we need are agreementsbetween the private sector and the universities with clearterms of reference, rights and obligations for both parties –agreements of mutual interests”. 45
    • Strengthening of the renewable energy topic at the university All measures proposed in the survey, focused on the introduction or strengthening of renewable energies at the BCU, were qualified as important or very important by most of the participants. The following table shows the percentages: Very No Minor Definite Major Options Important Need Need Need Need NeedA – Academic programs 11.11% 11.11% 0.00% 55.56% 22.22%devoted to market needsB – Exchange programs 11.11% 11.11% 0.00% 44.45% 33.33%between HEIs and RE MarketC – HEI’s partnership with RE 11.11% 0.00% 00.00% 44.44% 44.44%marketD – Applied technologicalresearches funded by the 11.11% 11.11% 0.00% 33.33% 44.45%marketE – Applied technologicalresearches funded by the 11.11% 11.11% 0.00% 33.33% 44.45%governmentF – Internships for students 11.11% 0.00% 0.00% 44.44% 44.44%in RE companiesG – Constant analysis anddesign of occupational plans 11.11% 11.11% 0.00% 11.11% 66.67%in RETable 2.1 – Percentage received by participants for each option and need level.Source: JELARE Survey, 2009. An important deficit was found in all the consulted fields in the university, especially in the aspects related to collaboration with the market.46
    • Therefore, the following measures are the most importantto strengthen: „ partnership between the university and the renewable energy market; and „ internships for students in RE companies.2.3 – Benchmark survey resultsRenewable energy activities at other universitiesThe purpose of the benchmark survey is to compare the state ofthe art of renewable energy at other universities in the Boliviansystem with the results of the UCB. A first approximationcan be done based on the balance of activities in renewableenergies and the universities’ degree of insertion in the field ofrenewable energies, illustrated in Graphic 2.4.Graphic 2.4 – Profile of universities regarding renewable energies.Source: JELARE Survey, 2009. 47
    • It can be observed, on the one hand, that a great part of the universities have offered undergraduate and postgraduate programs on topics related to renewable energies before 2007. On the other hand, most of the institutions do not have research programs with foreign investment in the field. This shows that the coherence of the technology development chain is incipient. Most of the activities financed with external funds in renewable energies are destined for the rural area, through technology transfer at low scale and in many cases with obsolete technology. In this current situation, the set-back of the technological adaptation and innovation processes in the country is evident. More than half of the universities have conducted some kind of research in renewable energies before 2007, usually exploratory. Regrettably, in none of the surveyed institutions are these activities sustained constantly over time, despite many of them having partnerships with national and/ or international research networks. It is important to remark that the current conditions for the conduction of research projects are not adequate. For instance, none of the universities has research laboratories financed by the productive sector. It can be established that cooperation between the universities and the renewable energy market in general does not exist and that the quality of research is deficient. This is illustrated by the fact that 80% of the universities do not have registered patents or newly developed technologies in the last few years. Nearly 60% of the participants declared that their university has policies in renewable energy as well as a value system that promotes commitment in this area. 80% of the universities also confirm that they have a strategy in the field of renewable energy. However, it is recommended to be careful with these results, as it is evident that there cannot be a strategy without a policy; therefore it is incoherent that this last percentage is higher than the first one.48
    • More than 80% of the participating universities work incooperation with public or private organizations and 60%also have interdisciplinary programs about renewableenergy in their institutions. The level of market connectionof the universities in renewable energies seems interesting;however the extension and frequency of the relationshipscannot be concluded from this information.The survey shows that 40% of the participants use formalpractices of mentoring or coaching and the same percentagelet experienced staff from different areas of knowledgetransfer their know-how to students and teaching staff. Itis interesting that another 60% are planning to introducethis last measure in the next two years. To receive externaltraining to keep up to date with the technological changes inrenewable energies is less common, which might be causedby the fact that there is not of this kind of capacity buildingon offer. Finally, none of the universities grants scholarshipsin renewable energy.The most common practice of knowledge acquirement is touse knowledge on renewable energy obtained from othermarket sources as companies and organizations, which isapplied by all participants. Another frequent practice is toacquire knowledge from research institutions, done by 60%of the universities before 2007 and planned by the rest of theparticipants. This result demonstrates that the universitiesdo not have the budget to generate knowledge and thereforeneed to choose, almost exclusively, mechanisms that reducetheir transaction costs (by the use of Internet sources). 49
    • Education and research in renewable energy at other universities The survey results show that in the area of renewable energies, education prevails over research activities in all the interviewed universities. Most educational activities are concentrated in the sectors of hydropower, solar thermal and photovoltaic energy, followed by windpower and biogas. There are research activities in all renewable energy sectors except for geothermal and hydrogen/fuel cells, but only 20% of the participants research in each sector. Graphic 2.5 shows what the research/teaching ratio looks like for each type of renewable energy. Graphic 2.5 – Research/teaching activities in renewable energy. Source: JELARE Survey, 2009.50
    • All the universities have specific programs or courses inrenewable energy, whereby 70% correspond to courses ofinitial formation in the frame of a Bachelor’s degree andonly 30% have a higher level of specialization. Only one ofthe institutions has a Master’s degree exclusively dedicatedto renewable energies. Likewise, 80% of the universitieshave a department, institute or research group in the field ofrenewable energy. Half of them are exclusively dedicated torenewable energies, whereas the other half includes topicsof renewable energy.Finally, we must emphasize that none of the participantuniversities have a multi-year investment budget dedicatedexclusively to research in renewable energies and thereforethere is a lack of sustainable long-term research programs.This shows the structural limitations and the poor financialconditions of the higher education system in this country. 51
    • 3 - Conclusions Conclusions of the renewable energy market survey The RE market in Bolivia is concentrated in the areas of hydropower, photovoltaic and solar thermal energy. Most of the private and public organizations operate only in one sector, although a considerable number of them are planning to extend their range of products, especially in the areas of windpower, low generation hydropower and biomass and/ or biofuels. Most of the companies currently work in planning and training, whereas only a small number carries out researche.g. electric and development activities or project This is mainly due to the lack of government policies oror plantconstruction. incentives and the reduced market size. Therefore, the sector operates – except for the hydropower sector – with small companies or micro companies, which act almost exclusively as technology suppliers. The demand for technicians and university graduates in RE is considerably higher than the supply. The lack of specialized technical qualifications is the most common problem for the companies when hiring staff. This situation can worsen in the mid term, because most of the companies forecast a positive or at least constant trend in their staff requirements. To cover the increasing requirements of RE specialists, the organizations can also train their current staff instead of recruiting new employees. Among the planned capacity building opportunities, training and learning on the job is the most common. The main motivations for these measures are product and process innovations and, to a smaller extent, market needs, as well as government policies and incentives. 52
    • According to the surveyed companies, the current state ofthe Higher Education Institutions regarding renewableenergies is far behind the market needs. Cooperationbetween universities and the market is minimal. However,private and public organizations expect the universities tocontribute with more and better education and training andto encourage research and basic development. In addition, astrengthening of technology transfer activities as well as thejoint development of research projects is required.Conclusions of the staff surveyThe most important results of the staff survey are: „ the insufficient research and development activity at the university; „ the huge quantitative and qualitative set-back in the field of renewable energy; and „ the lack of cooperation with the RE market.The low number of research projects is related to thereduced budget destined for this purpose, whereas thequality responds more to the lack of long-term planningand the deficit of human resources. On the one hand, theuniversity staff does not have the appropriate infrastructurefor research activities at their disposal and their access toinformation sources is very limited. On the other, there is aclear lack of capacities in fundraising and management andin the development of a sustained strategy for research.The set-back regarding renewable energies has similarcauses. There is no integral strategy for renewable energiesin any particular institute, nor formal cooperationmechanisms between different institutes or faculties of theuniversity. The professors do not have financial resources at 53
    • their disposal to promote a greater inclusion of renewable energy topics, nor do they have easy access to specialized information sources or infrastructure. Furthermore, a lack of mechanisms to detect market developments and to adjust the study programs to their needs has to be added. A clear correspondence between the staff ’s training interests and the development plans of the companies can be highlighted. Both actors manifested their intention to operate more intensively in the sectors of windpower, biomass and hydropower. The university staff highlights the need to receive training that allows improving the support to the market through the building of capacities and through required services in the field of research. It is consequently very important to design institutional mechanisms that permit a stronger association among Higher Education Institutions and companies. Conclusions of the benchmarking survey The survey conducted with other Bolivian universities has fully confirmed the results obtained at the BCU. There is also a greater emphasis in education than in research in the renewable energy field. Although a high percentage of the universities claim to have done research before 2007, their activities in most cases are not constantly maintained. This happens because none of the participant universities has a multi-year budget exclusively dedicated to research in renewable energies and therefore cannot often sustain long- term research programs. At the same time, infrastructure conditions and access to information sources are also very limited.54
    • Finally, the results show that most of the professors have notrecently received any kind of training in renewable energies.This situation is directly related to the low quality and poorsustainability of education and research. There is, however,great interest in starting integrated activities related withthe RE market needs, as well as with the electrificationneeds of rural population.Lessons learnedThe survey conducted by the JELARE Project with theHigher Education Institutions and market actors in thefield of renewable energies has permitted an analysis ofthis segment at different levels of interaction. In this sense,three important lessons were learned which reflect the globalinteraction of the sector as well as its structural aspects: „ the technological cycle is not linked to the higher education system. This is reflected in very low levels of technology transfer, technological adaptation and innovation and in the lack of technicians and specialized engineers in the country; „ education and research are not fitted for the market needs because there are no linking and feedback mechanisms with the renewable energy market. Therefore the universities offer insufficient study programs and develop technological prototypes which do not get exploited by the market, and the companies do not have clear incentives for the use of education, training and research services; and „ education and research are not sustainable because the Higher Education Institutions lack an integral strategy and financing mechanisms for planned and structured activities in long-term programs. 55
    • Chapter 3 – Brazil1 – Renewable energy market in BrazilThe Brazilian electrical industry is now predominantlyhydroelectric, and is complemented with hydrothermaloutput. Table 3.1 shows the installed capacity of electricalpower generation in Brazil in 2006. 1 – Taking into Source Capacity (MW) (%) account Hydroelectric power plants (HEP)1 72,005.41 74.78 6,300 MW from Itaipu. Small Hydroelectric Central (SHC) 1,673.06 1.74 2 – Not Thermoelectric power plants (TPP) 20,372.13 21.16 considering Wind generator 236.85 0.25 imported energy. Photovoltaic generator 0.02 0.00 3 – This fact Thermonuclear power plants 2,007.00 2.08 depends essentially on Total2 96,294.47 100.00 the degree of flexibility orTable 3.1 – Installed capacity of energy generation at SIN (2006). inflexibility ofSource: Aneel Report, 2006. each plant.In practice, HEP accounts for more than 90% of theelectricity generated in Brazil, due to criteria which favoursources that cost less. Although the thermoelectric powerplants account for 23.24% of the installed capacity, theyare responsible for less than 10% of the energy produced3because of their higher production cost. It is important tonote that, unlike many countries, approximately 89% ofBrazilian electrical energy comes from renewable sources.Table 3.2 presents an appraisal of Brazilian electrical sourcecompetitiveness at an installed capacity of 1,000 MW.Note that hydropower is more competitive (in R$/MWh),however it takes longer to build – approximately 5 years –and has greater environmental restrictions. 57
    • Although the costs of production are extremely important for defining dispatch criteria for distribution, they are not per se investment constraints. This is because the auction and therefore the sources are defined in advance by Aneel and EPE. National Unit. Hydroelectric Biomass Nuclear coal Disp. MW 1,000 1,000 1,000 1,000 Variable R$/Mwh 1.5 14.7 37.5 25.2 Unit Cost R$/Kw Fixed cost 11.3 46.0 57.8 138.0 year Investment US$/KW 1,250 1,100 1,500 2,000 Rate of R$/ 116.4 121.1 133.3 151.6 equilibrium MWh Table 3.2 (part 1) – Competitiveness among electricity sources. Source: Moreira, 2008. Unit. Imported Natural Wind Fuel oil Diesel coal gas Disp. MW 1,000 1,000 1,000 1,000 1,000 Variable R$/ 54.3 108.6 4.5 300 500 Unit Cost Mwh R$/Kw Fixed cost 57.8 57.5 4.0 28.0 25.0 year Investment US$/KW 1,500 900 2,000 800 600 Rate of R$/ 152.4 175.0 297.0 382.9 602.2 equilibrium MWh Table 3.2 (part 2) – Competitiveness among electricity sources. Source: Moreira, 2008.58
    • Growth trends in renewable energyHydroelectric generationHistorically, the Brazilian electrical sector was developedbased on the country’s great hydroelectric potential, andexpansion was made possible due to the large number ofrivers, lakes and other hydrological regimes. Industrieshave been developed strongly based on complementarities Which means thatamong different water areas by means of the construction of wet periods occurlarge reservoirs and long transmission lines. in one region while dry periodsLarge reservoirs have been used primarily to maintain the in of the system, and to offer better control of electricityproduction in the dry season. Transmission lines haveallowed the optimization of water resources and helped takeadvantage of rainfall regime diversity among regions.However, the 1988 Constitution generated greater concernabout environmental issues, essentially focused on theconsequences of flooding, leading to a reduction in majornew reservoir construction.Moreover, when it comes to water, we must not only considerits multiples uses, but the interests of various stakeholdersas well. Fortunately, there are now significant barriers to the Human andconstruction of major new reservoirs in Brazil. animal supply, irrigation,It is estimated that the hydroelectric potential yet to be industrial,tapped in the country is approximately 126 GW. From this fisheries,total, approximately 70% is in the Amazon basin, where recreation, etc.rivers surrounded by floodplains predominate and largereservoir construction is impossible, so hydropower willhave to take the form of run-of-the-river plants.Without adding the remaining non-individualizedpotential (28,000 MW ), the potential in the basin isestimated at 77,058 MW, distributed among 13 sub- 59
    • basins, with four of them concentrating almost 90% ofTapajós, Xingu, the potential. Still, according to PNE data, by 2030 (EPE)Madeira and only 38% of the potential could be classified as exploitableTrombetas. without easing significant environmental restrictions. The increased use of run-of-the-river plants, which do not require seasonal regulation, will reduce the capacity of the system’s strategic reserve and will also require major operational flexibility from existing reservoirs. Besides, it will require more installed capacity for backup power plants. i.e., thermal However, there are significant restrictions to the use of thisflexible, potential, due to social, environmental and technologicalespeciallyin periods issues, especially the former. As Dias Leite states (2007,of adverse p. 549), ‘the chance of nonviability of some projects hashydrology. to be present, since there are strong disagreements of environmental, social and political nature.’ Take as an example that more than 44% of the potential is directly related to indigenous land. Such restrictions indicate that there is a growing urgent need for a diverse energy matrix. Moreover, it is important to notice the need for more in depth studies on the aptitude of this potential. New renewable resourcesBiomass, wind With regard to new renewable resources to generateenergy and solarenergy. electricity, emphasis should be given to energy generated from biomass, especially sugar-alcohol. The Brazilian sugar- alcohol sector is traditionally self-sufficient in terms of energy (Castro and Dantas, 2008a). The use of waste as fuel accounts for 98% of the energy needs of the factories (Corrêa and Ramon, 2002). According to Souza e Azevedo (2006), entrepreneurs from the sugar-alcohol sector are investing in more efficient co-generation technology to 60
    • guarantee its provision in a streamlined manner. Thus, theemerging possibility of marketing the electricity producedfrom sugar-alcohol biomass can generate a third productoffered by this sector.Biomass as a source for generating electricity is amongthe renewable sources with more possibilities in terms ofnature, origin and technology available for conversion. Themain sources of energy from biomass are: soybean straw,corn (cobs, stalks and leaves), rice straw, and sugarcane cropresidue.It is of note that the complementary nature of the wetseason and sugar-alcohol production allows bioelectricalproduction to mitigate hydrological risk (Castro andDantas, 2008a). The production of electricity from sugar-alcohol plants occurs between April and November, whichis normally the dry season in the southeast region, wherearound 70% of Brazilian reservoirs are concentrated. 1 – Fixing aIn an effort to promote the economic viability of this energy higher ceilingsource, the first reserve energy project was conducted in price andAugust 2008, using biomass exclusively. An average of resolving2101.60 MW was available during the project, and an problemsaverage of 548 MW (Castro and Dantas, 2008b) was actually regardingcontracted. These results, according to the authors, indicate collecting stations.a new scenario for this RE source, due to solutions1 thathad been impairing development of this business model. 2 – According toWhen it comes to wind and photovoltaic (solar) energy, the Atlas do PotencialBrazil has significant competitive advantages due to its vast Eólico Brasileiroterritory, especially of coastline, which is conducive for wind (2001),energy. The estimated wind energy potential for the country available atis around 143.5 GW2, majorly situated in the northeast. <http://www. cresesb.cepel.Apart from this region, the coastlands of the states Rio br/ >Grande do Sul and Rio de Janeiro (northern coast) of are 61
    • considered quite favourable. Mountainous areas of the hinterland also contain several propitious sites, while the north is the least favoured in relation to windpower energy. Study, planning and construction of new windpower plants have been intensified. The restrictions and environmental impact of wind farms are mainly related to noise from the aerogenerators’ motion and drive mechanics, as well as their visual impact. With respect to solar energy, Brazil is also well situated. With its territory located mostly in latitudes between the equator and the Tropic of Capricorn, the country has a favourable incidence of solar energy. The instantaneous power incident on the Earth’s surface can reach values above 1,000 W/m2. The annual average energy incidence in most of Brazil’s territory varies between 4 kWh/ and 5 kWh/ It is characterized, like windpower, as intermittent, because of the significant variation in solar incidence over the year. Furthermore, the operation of solar plants may cause: „ thermal and chemical pollution to water resources; „ loss of habitat due to land use; „ visual impact; „ noise and damage to the ecosystem. The first two are considered the most important, curtailing the possible exploitation of this potential. Regarding natural resources and the consequent diversification of the electrical matrix, the evolutionary forecast is described in Table 3.3. There is a noticeable trend towards greater use of the sources that make up the Brazilian electric matrix. Auction results of new energy produced by 2008 show a significant trend towards gas and coal sources, especially62
    • the latter, which is imported. A significant tendency can beobserved towards smaller plants (PCHs and PCTs14) builtcloser to load centres, which require lower investments inlong distance transmission lines. Source 2007 2008 2009 2010 2011 2012 Hydroelectric 66,295 66,425 67,105 69,247 70,776 70,824 Thermal 1 11,086 12,115 13,764 16,100 16,260 17,735 Nuclear 2,007 2,007 2,007 2,007 2,007 2,007 PCHs 268 934 1,126 1,126 1,126 1,126 PCTs 489 509 509 509 509 509 Windpower 218 487 720 720 720 720 Others 2,425 3,481 4,292 4,567 4,637 4,637 Itaipu (BR) 7,000 7,000 7,000 7,000 7,000 7,000 Purchase 6,455 6,410 6,055 6,017 5,978 5,937 Itaipu (PY) Total 96,243 99,368 102,578 107,293 109,013 110,495Table 3.3 – Projected evolution of installed power SIN Grid (MW).Source: ONS, 1 – Includes natural gas, coal2 – The JELARE Surveys in Brazil and biomass.General methodologyQualitative approach methodology, which, according toOliveira (1998), allows a wide range of readings about thesubject of study, was used in this research project. The researchwas conducted through semi-structured questionnairesdesigned by Unisul and adapted and approved by JELAREaiming to target the wide audience of the JELARE Project.The audience is made up of Brazilian companies anduniversities. 63
    • As a research methodology we chose qualitative research that, according to Ghauri and Gronhaug (2005), provides a better understanding of a given context and underlying motivations, values and attitudes. Based on these distinctions, we have applied the qualitative approach aiming to gain a deep understanding about the gap between the market needs and what the universities have to offer in terms of research and education by interpreting primary and secondary data, mainly process-oriented rather than result-oriented. In this sense, there were two types of questionnaires: „ one directed to firms, attempting to understand RE market requirements for university graduates; „ the other aimed to assess employees training needs at the universities that offer RE programs, as well as analysing the benchmarking results. The questionnaire results and statistics analysis were done by Sphinx software. The surveyed companies were: „ Desenvix, from the Engevix Group; „ Komlog, from the Komeco Group; „ SC Parcerias S.A.; „ Tractebel Energia S.A.; „ CELESC – Centrais Elétricas de Santa Catarina S.A.;64
    • „ Enercam; „ Instituto Ideal; „ Fundação CERTI – Fundação Centros de Referência em Tecnologias Inovadoras; „ Sapiens Parque S.A.; „ Canasvieiras Transportes; „ Haztec Soluções Integradas em Sustentabilidade; „ Dedini S. A. Indústria de Base; „ Petrobras Distribuidora S.A.; „ SC Gás S.A.; and „ Progetti Pesquisa e Gestão Tecnológica S.A.The universities involved were: „ Universidade do Sul de Santa Catarina – UNISUL; „ Universidade do Estado de Santa Catarina – UDESC; and „ Universidade Federal de Santa Catarina – UFSC, with the special collaboration of the Laboratory of Engineering Processes and Technology for Energy Conversion (LEPTEN) of the Mechanical Engineering Department.The three surveys focused on the labour market, mainlycovering those industries and organizations capable ofinfluencing the supply and/or demand of qualified personnel. 65
    • The analysis that follows, based on the samples, examines: „ the market survey; „ the staff survey; and „ the universities that offer programs in the field of RE. 2.1 – Market survey results The sample comprised fifteen responding companies, of which thirteen are in Florianopolis and two in Rio de Janeiro. In relation to corporate membership, 73.3% were private enterprises, and the remaining 26.3%, were divided between government and NGOs. The following characteristics drawn from the collected data should be highlighted: „ the Brazilian market is mainly oriented towards hydroelectric energy generation: 93.33% of the interviewed firms have some kind of interest in the development of projects related to renewable energy. The research also demonstrates that the majority of the surveyed companies (60%) develop projects in RE through some form of partnership or strategic alliance. On the other hand, 20% stated that they develop autonomous projects, while another 10% outsource the development of such projects. It is very clear that there is an opportunity to join the universities and their research groups, development and innovation activities through a partnership or outsourcing to the productive sector;66
    • „ there is a lack of skilled workers in Brazilian RE market: 86.6% of the firms have difficulties in finding skilled professionals to work in the RE area. Thus, there is a significant gap between supply and availability of vacancies for professionals in this area. It is possible to observe that the demand for skilled workers goes beyond the technical area to cover virtually all areas of knowledge, especially management; „ results show a scarcity of skilled professionals: on the determinants of new skills, several items were identified, with emphasis on innovation in processes, 17.6%; innovation in products, 15.7%.Basic innovations, 9.8%; regulation of industry and relevantlaws, 37.3%; and management and market studies, 17.6%.From the results presented above we ascertained that thereis a great distance between the universities and the market inall the elements of the RE production chain. Thus, there is anurgent need for an objective approach by HEIs in responseto the demands for future qualified labour. Another aspectunderscored by the results is the need for major integrationbetween HEIs and public and private companies in the REfield. This means the promotion of a comprehensive reform incurrent course offerings by HEIs, characteristic of the missionof most institutions of higher education. It is also evident that,from the standpoint of the surveyed companies, HEIs areoutdated when it comes to RE. 67
    • Regarding the subjective answers, respondents were asked about the biggest challenge for a wide application and use of RE in Brazil. Two issues were made clear from the replies: „ for greater investment in RE, a greater governmental incentive is needed. That is to say that this issue will be resolved by means of an energy policy focused on increasing RE participation in the Brazilian energy matrix; and „ regarding the former question, many companies state that the cost of production and market price of electricity from renewable sources is not very competitive. 2.2 – Staff survey results The questionnaire was applied to the universities, in order to rank them in the RE market. Seven respondents participated: „ four from UNISUL; „ one from UDESC/ESAG; and „ two from UFSC. All the respondents are professors or researchers. 87.5% of them work in engineering departments while the others work in administration. Regarding the professional development of the professors, it is clear that the universities and their research departments still require massive training/qualification in the RE area. According to the respondents, this need is both technical and managerial. In the latter, the respondents emphasized both resource and research management in RE.68
    • Thus, according to all interviewees, HEIs must offer moreacademic programs directed towards the RE sector. In thissense, the majority also see the possibility of increasingresearch and education programs with both public andprivate funding.2.3 – Benchmarking survey resultsThe questionnaire on benchmarking was used to rank theHEIs in terms of the RE market. The most significant resultsare presented below. Regarding curriculum development,75% of the respondents are not working in that direction yet.This implies that there is a great opportunity for universities.As shown by the figures below, there is a significant openingfor project development, since universities are interested intraining and courses. „ Most scholars want to receive more training in the RE field. „ Solar energy generation was the preferred field of work as well as the source of greatest interest, followed by biomass and fuel cells.Of universities and departments whose work with RE beganbefore 2007, 12.5% operate post-graduate programs andresearch projects using foreign investment, with laboratoriesfunded by companies. Of those whose work in RE beganafter 2007, 62.5% do so through laboratories and integratenational and international networks of RE research. As forRE-related programs in universities, the principal methodsare collaboration with public and/or private institutions,and utilization of expertise from many different scientificareas for teaching students and training young employees. 69
    • Regarding RE policies and strategies, only 37.5% of the HEIs have implemented them since 2007, and then merely for the dissemination of values and organizational culture promoting renewable energy. However, most of them plan to adopt strategies and policies in the coming years. Regarding knowledge acquisition, 12.5% became familiar with the topic before 2007, particularly through businesses, and 50% through research institutes. As in the former answer, 37.5% predict an upswing in RE knowledge acquisition in the next few years. These two answers demonstrate that RE is a significant area and has growth potential within HEIs. 3 – Conclusions The main finding of the three surveys conducted in Brazil suggest that there is a significant gap between the RE market requirements and needs and what indeed the universities are offering in terms of research and teaching. With regard to capacity building, the surveys indicated that the universities according to the stakeholders are not prepared to supply the market needs. The surveys also indicated that there are more needs for investments in the universities infrastructure in order to better respond to the growing market needs for research and training in the field of renewable energies.70
    • Chapter 4 - Chile1 – Energy market in ChileGeneral frameworkThe Chilean energy supply for 2007 reached 301.381 GWh.This supply is composed of five energy sources: crude oil,natural gas, coal, hydropower, biomass and other resources.In 2008, Law 20.257 came into effect, which establishedthe obligation of electric companies to obtain a percentageof commercialized energy from non-conventional renewableenergy sources (ERNC) starting in 2010. Specifically, the lawstates that each electric company that purchases energy frompower systems with installed capacity greater than 200 MW,in commerce with distributors or end users, must prove thata quantity of energy, equivalent to 10% of its purchases ineach year, has been injected into one of the non-conventionalrenewable energy generator sources: their own or contracted.Between the years 2010 and 2014, the obligation to supplyenergy with non-conventional renewable generators will be 5%.After 2015, this percentage will increase 0.5% annually, up to10% in the year 2024. This progressive increase will be appliedin such a way that purchases affected by the obligation in 2015must comply with 5.5%, in 2016 with 6% and so on, up to 10%in the year 2024, as is shown in Graphic 4.1.Graphic 4.1 – Annual obligations established by Law 20.257. 71
    • Given the above, Chile’s near future will obviously find a significant increase in the use of renewable energies in their energy system. For this reason, Chile must improve the technical skills of those who will manage and operate systems that generate this kind of energy. Thus, a primary objective for the short and medium term will be to improve both teaching and research in renewable energies at Higher Education Institutions (HEIs). To examine the current situation of teaching and researching in the area of renewable energy and to help define the future needs in this area, three different surveys were designed to gather information from the labour market, HEIs and internal staff at the University of Chile. The methodology to develop the proposed surveys focused on two main aspects: the sample selection and logistics. In the section on sample selection, the criteria applied to select the respondents for our survey and design the database are described. The section on logistics details how contacts were made and how information moved amongst those involved in this project. 2 – The JELARE surveys in Chile Sample selection The sample selection and the criteria applied to design the database differ depending on the survey objective. The different methodologies used for the market survey, the benchmarking survey, and the staff survey are described below.72
    • Market Survey ResultsFor companies located in the Santiago area, an initial contactwas established by means of an email or phone call, andpersonal appointments were then scheduled. Companieslocated outside Santiago were supposed to answer thesurvey without a personal interview, but only one companyresponded. The final sample of sixteen companies is detailedin Table 4.1. Company name Sector Agrosuper Agriculture/food CDEC-Sing Energy Colbún S.A Energy Gener Energy Ingendesa Energy Transelec S.A Energy Codelco Mining Collahuasi Mining Contac Other/consulting Electronet Other/consulting Poch Ambiental Other/consulting National Energy Comission Other/government agency Chile Sustentable Other/NGO CMPC Tissue Chile Pulp and paper Deuman Renewable energy EndesaEco Renewable energy Table 4.1 – Final surveyed companies. 73
    • Staff survey The staff survey was conducted among university professors, project managers and researchers who were chosen for their research and teaching interests within selected academic units. The academic units were selected based on the Domeyko Energy program, whose objective is to strengthen thehttp://www. university capabilities to face issues of national The three surveys described above were performedprograma_ considering the following criteria:domeyko/index.html „ members of the survey team were not allowed to provide answers and/or fill out surveys in order to provide statistical validation; „ interviewed contacts could not answer more than one survey (this criterion maintained the statistical independence of the answers provided); „ personal interviews were given first priority. However, potential contacts located outside Santiago were also considered and were approached electronically (by email). Logistics The survey logistics were organized as shown in Figure 4.1. Figure 4.1 – Survey team logistic organization.74
    • Figure 4.1 shows the flow of information related to thesurveys. The coordination area is in charge of developinga database with potential contacts to be interviewed forthe three surveys and for making the initial contact withprospective respondents. Once the contact responds that he/she will participate, the field team is advised. The field teamis in charge of applying the survey, processing and storingthe data collected. Finally, when a survey is completed, finaldata is supplied to the coordination area.Benchmarking surveyThere are currently fifty-eight universities in Chile, but notall of them do research and teach in the field of energy.Based on Conicyt studies, there are thirty-four researchcentres in Chile developing research lines on energy, and Conicyt. “Elmost of these are located in universities. Among the main sector deresearch lines developed by those centres, non-conventional la energíarenewable energy predominates in nineteen centres. A en Chile.smaller number of centres (eleven centres) carry out research Capacidades deon electric energy. Seven centres focus their research on the investigaciónenergy field. In general these thirty-four centres are located y áreas dein eleven universities. Additionally two more universities desarrollothat created energy centres in 2008 were added to the initial científico-sample. These thirteen universities constitute the initial tecnológico”.database for the survey development. Once contact with Santiago, Chile,the universities was established, the final sample of seven 2007.universities were interested in participating in this projectas detailed below in Table 4.2. 75
    • University name Universidad Federico Santa María Universidad Diego Portales Universidad Adolfo Ibáñez Universidad de Antofagasta Universidad de Santiago Pontificia Universidad Católica Universidad de Tarapacá Table 4.2 – Interviewed universities for benchmark survey. In this section, survey results for three targets, Staff, Market and Universities (benchmarking), are presented below. 2.1 – Market survey results 88% of the companies in the sample are in the private sector; 6% are state-owned and 6% are non-governmental organizations (NGOs). 42% are in the mining sector. 75% operate within the energy sector (gas, electricity, oil) and 50% of these operate in both the energy and renewable energy sectors. 25% of the companies operate in the agriculture sector as well as in the paper and pulp industry. Only 8% of the sample operate in the steel sector.76 Graphic 4.2 – Type of organisation.
    • 92% of the companies surveyed are interested in developingrenewable energy projects. 8% either do not know, or are notsure, if there will be money available for renewable energyprojects.The results also indicate that geothermal energy and solarthermal energy are the sectors expected to be of most interestto these companies. In the future, photovoltaic and geothermalare expected to be the most active energy sectors.With regard to the subsectors of economic activity withinwhich the companies operate, some fall into more thanone category. 33% of the companies participate in bothgeneration and distribution. Another 33% of the companiesoperate across all subsectors: generation, distribution,commercialization and transport. The sample shows thatthe majority of the companies surveyed are involved ingeneration (83%).Graphic 4.3 – Subsectors of economic activity within which the companies operate. 77
    • Companies are focused primarily: „ on planning, project management, and marketing; „ on education and training; „ on mechanical engineering and plant construction; and „ on energy trading. For the future, companies expressed plans to focus on research and development. Regarding renewable energy projects and activities within the surveyed entities: 58% of the companies uses all three methods of project development. One of the companiesOutsourcing,in the survey assesses programs but does not develop them.own Another company functions as a consultancy.developmentand joint The sample shows that more than half of the surveyeddevelopment. companies have an average annual income greater than €10,000,000, which puts them in the medium−to−large− company category. Only twenty-five of the surveyed companies have income from renewable energy greater than €10,000,000. The number of employees by company sampled is detailed in Table 4.3 and Graphic 4.4. Company name Number of workers Codelco More than 500 Colbún S.A More than 500 Collahuasi More than 500 CMPC Tissue Chile More than 500 continues...78
    • Company name Number of workers Deuman 20–49 Electronet 6–19 Endesa Eco More than 500 Gener More than 500 Ingendesa More than 500 Poch Ambiental 250–499 CDEC-Sing 20–49 Transelec S.A 250–499 CNE 50–249 Contac Ingenieros 50–249 Agrosuper 50–249 Table 4.3 – Number of workers per company.Graphic 4.4 – Total number of employees per organization. 79
    • Whether measured by number of employees or income greater than €10,000,000, the majority of the companies fall in the medium-to-large category. Given the size of the companies surveyed, they do not have a very substantial number of employees dedicated to renewable energy. The company average is from 20 to 49 employees. If we go further afield into the Non- Conventional Renewable Energy (NCRE) segment, these companies have practically no specialized employees and therefore have to turn to international experts for training in the area. The perception among employers is that the availability of RE employees is generally low, and some respondents have estimated zero availability. Graphic 4.5 – Number of available RE employees. Additionally, 33% of the surveyed companies report having other facets related to renewable energy in which their employees are involved. These are: „ training courses; „ technology watch; „ project assessment and impact;80
    • „ assessment of renewable energy process; and „ sale on the electricity market.Regarding the professional and educational backgrounds ofcompany employees hired to work in the renewable energyfield, 24% of the companies surveyed have technicians anduniversity graduates working in the RE field. In some casesthe company has employees with postgraduate degrees, orwho are engineers with experience in renewable energy.8% of the respondents report that it is difficult to hireexperienced personnel in the NCRE field, since they barelyexist. As a result, they turn to international experts whoare brought into the company to train as many workers aspossible in the area, or they send a company representativeto be trained abroad.In regard to which methods are used by companies to hirepersonnel, straightaway recruiting and hiring are mostcommonly used by the companies. This method has beengenerally effective as companies feel they have been able tolocate good candidates for the jobs. One of the companiesin the survey does not specifically hire renewable energypersonnel, preferring to hire electrical engineers.58% of the companies reported problems locating andselecting qualified employees. 16% of the companies didnot respond to this question. In four cases the respondentsindicated that there are not enough candidates for the jobsand that candidates lack the specialized technical skillsrequired. There are very few workers with deep knowledgeand sufficient experience when it comes to RE. The largemajority of those who do exist are trained abroad.For a large majority of the sample (84%), the forecastedhiring trend in the renewable energy field is both positiveand constant. This may be attributable to the growingimportance of renewable energy both in our country as well 81
    • as abroad. We can see that the medium−term hiring trend in the RE field is growing even more than for the short term. Regarding current training needs for organizations in the renewable energy field, 50% of the companies currently have training plans for their organization and employees. The training opportunities provided by the companies are as follows: Graphic 4.6 – Training opportunities. „ 75% of the companies surveyed have future plans to train or educate their employees in the new skills required by the renewable energy field. The remaining companies are not sure. Companies indicated they will require training in the legal and the standardization aspects in the field of renewable energy. It can be observed that the vast majority of those interviewed will require new specialized skills and qualifications;82
    • „ 92% of the surveyed companies say they require new skills from their employees in the renewable energy field. The catalysts for the required new skills development in renewable energy are: process innovations, modified legal framework conditions, basic innovations, policies and government incentives, and market needs. There are other areas in which renewable energy skills are required, such as new technologies, transmission systems and legislative changes required in the area of RE;„ 75% of the companies indicate that universities need to develop new courses and skills relating to the renewable energy field. This gives strong support for the need of universities to carry out this function;„ 42% of the companies believe there is no need for a new profession related to renewable energy though there should be a postgraduate course available, in addition to courses in the legal and environmental aspects of the field;„ the expected role of institutions of higher learning in the area related to RE is mainly in training and education and research and development;„ types of services offered by institutions of higher learning that are of interest to companies are research and development and technology transfer; and„ 92% of the companies surveyed indicate that there is a gap between what the institutions of higher learning are currently offering and the needs of the market. 83
    • 2.2 – Staff survey results In regard to the current positions of the respondents at the University of Chile (Administration, Research or Teaching), 88% have a position at the University of Chile, which entails both research and teaching. 24% of the sample are involved with all three university functions, while only 13% are employed in administration. Approximately 75% have worked at the University of Chile for more than five years, while 13% have worked there for one to three years, and the remaining 13% for three to five years. 50% have teaching responsibilities and also administrative duties. Regarding type of degree, unit, institute or project degree related to renewable energies at the University of Chile, 25% of the respondents hold a Master’s degree in renewable energy. 50% have a Bachelor of Science in Energy Engineering, and the remaining 25% hold a Certificate in Environmental Economics. As for segments of the value chain describing current academic/professional participation in renewable energy, 100% of the interviewees are currently engaged in training and education, while also being engaged in research and development. The majority of the respondents work in the photovoltaics and windpower sectors, though it should be noted that the universe of respondents included all of the renewable energy sectors. 75% currently work in generation, 25% work in transportation and 10% in distribution. 38% of the interviewees are also involved in environmental economics as well as exploration.84
    • Graphic 4.7 – Specific RE area you work in.When asked about their interest in working in the renewableenergy sector, 88% of those interviewed demonstratedinterest. The main preference was found for solar thermal.Windpower, geothermal, and photovoltaics were mentionedas a secondary preference.Graphic 4.8 – Types of energy. 85
    • In regard to academic experience in renewable energy, 50% of the respondents are vastly experienced with more than ten years of academic experience in the field. Graphic 4.9 – Academic experience. 63% of the respondents have more than five years of experience and 25% have less than five years of experience in the renewable energy field. Concerning experience in research design and management, 51% of the respondents have more than five years of experience in research design and management. When the respondents were asked if they were interested in receiving training in renewable energy technologies, 75% of them indicated interest and of those interested, 50% would like to receive training in solar thermal energy and biomass. Additionally, 50% of the respondents would be interested in receiving training in curriculum development.86
    • Graphic 4.10 – Training in curriculum development.38% of the respondents would like to be trained in programscarried out in conjunction with international entities. In spiteof the distinguished careers of the academics interviewed, asignificant number of them (63%) would be interested inreceiving training in developing teaching modules, and 37%are interested in receiving training in research management.Graphic 4.11 – Areas of research management training. 87
    • Concerning how they would describe the need for improving their technical/professional knowledge and skills in the teaching and education areas, 38% of the respondents consider it important to improve both their technical/ professional knowledge and skills in the education and teaching arenas. Graphic 4.12 – Technical and professional knowledge. On the other hand, 88% of the respondents consider that acquiring renewable energy curriculum development skills is either an important or a very important need, and 75% of them indicated the very important need to improve the infrastructure and research at the university. Additionally, 88% of the respondents consider that participation in renewable energy-related events is either an important or a very important need. In regard to the need for more collaboration between the University of Chile and the renewable energy industry as a whole, fully 75% of the respondents deem the need for collaboration to be a very important need, with the idea being to solidify both the knowledge and research base.88
    • Graphic 4.13 – Collaboration between the University of Chile and the renewableenergy industry as a whole.It is important to notice that 100% of the respondentsindicated that the focus on renewable energy needs to bestrengthened at the University of Chile, and that bothfinancing and greater regulation from the state are needed.Concerning the most important measures for strengtheningthe focus on renewable energy at the University of Chile: „ 75% of the respondents consider that there is a need for academic programs dedicated to meeting market requirements; „ 75% of the respondents indicate that participating in exchange programs between the university and the industry is an important need. The remaining 25% consider this to be a very important need; „ 75% of the respondents indicate that it is either an important or very important need for the University of Chile to participate in associations with the renewable energy industry and markets in order to share knowledge; 89
    • „ 63% of the respondents believe that it is very important to participate in applied technology research carried out within the University of Chile and financed by the renewable energy industry and market; „ 63% of the respondents believe that it is important to participate in applied technology research carried out within the University of Chile and financed by governmental agencies; „ 50% of the sample considers that there is a real need for more internship and hands-on opportunities for students with renewable energy companies; and „ 38% of the respondents believe there is an important need for ongoing analysis and occupational training design as it relates to renewable energy due to changing technology and economic variability. 2.3 – Benchmarking survey results Only 20% of respondents plan to engage in a renewable energy research project with foreign investment within the next twenty-four months, while 80% are not sure or do not know if they will. Insofar as registered patents or new developed technologies are concerned, 100% of the sample do not know whether they will utilize these or not. Regarding which kind of RE projects the university is engaging in, 80% of the sample work with private and/or public organizations in subject areas related to renewable energy. From 2007 to the present, 60% of the respondents indicated they have been using formal programs for tutoring/training.90
    • On the other hand, 60% of the respondents do not knowwhether there are interdisciplinary RE programs withintheir institutions, and 40% of the sample do not knowwhether there are renewable energy scholarships available.The majority of those interviewed believe that theirorganization had developed renewable energy policies andstrategies prior to 2007, while a fraction of the respondentsbelieve that these policies and strategies are planned for usein the next twenty-four months.Concerning the types of knowledge acquisition strategiesthe universities regularly employ, 60% of those interviewedhave used renewable energy knowledge from externalmarket sources, such as companies and organizations, sincebefore 2007. 60% of the sample have been using renewableenergy knowledge obtained from other research institutionssince before 2007. Another 60% of the respondents use theInternet to obtain external renewable energy knowledge.Finally, 60% of the sample supports their personnel inparticipating in team projects (or conferences) with externalexperts.80% of those surveyed indicate that they frequently useformal tutoring/training programs, while the remaining20% use them once in a while. 60% of those surveyed useexperienced personnel with different areas of expertise totransfer their “know-how” to students and faculty members.When it comes to investing in external knowledge onrenewable energy, 60% of the sample do so very rarely.On the other hand, 60% of the sample frequently usethe Internet to obtain renewable energy knowledge fromexternal sources. 60% of those interviewed rarely userenewable energy scholarships. 91
    • Additionally, 80% of those interviewed work with a strategic plan that guides the way they manage the entity they control, while the remaining 20% have no strategic plan to follow. 40% of those who have a strategic plan indicate that it is followed rigorously. 80% of those interviewed believe this survey covered all the renewable energy practices and initiatives used by their institutions and that there were no additional practices or policies which were not mentioned. Additionally, 20% of the sample note that they work with research committees, one of which focuses specifically on energy. These committees meet twice a year and then conduct workshops for the community regarding new forms of energy, such as biomass, windpower and solar power. Regarding the sector of renewable energy field where universities have research and/or teaching activities, 56% of the interviewees teach in the area of wind energy and 44% carry out research in this same area. As for biomass, 71% of the sample teach and 29% do research in this area. 67% teach in the hydraulic energy area, but only 33% carry out research on the subject. In the area of geothermal energy, 50% of the respondents teach and only 33% are doing research. 57% of the sample teach about biofuels. It is worth noting that in the area of solar thermal energy, 57% are carrying on research, while only 43% are engaged in teaching. Finally, 57% of the interviewees have teaching activities related to PV, and only 43% are active in that research area.92
    • Graphic 4.14 – Sector of RE field.80% of the surveyed universities have specific courses/programs in the area of renewable energy. These are asfollows: „ degree in Energy and Sustainable Development, which includes some aspects of RE; and „ industrial Engineering with a focus on Energy and the Environment.100% of the sample said they did not have an exclusive areaspecifically dedicated to renewable energy. 93
    • Concerning the materials universities produce for research/ teaching in RE, 80% of the respondents produce their own course handouts and materials. 60% of the sample produce books for teaching about RE. 75% of the interviewees use information gathered from conferences for both researching and teaching. 25% produce ISI documentation while 40% produce laboratory prototypes. In summary, the most frequently used materials come from conferences and handouts produced for the courses. Finally, 60% of those interviewed have no budget to invest in renewable energy. The 20% that do have a budget feel that the amount available for renewable energy is low. 3 – Conclusions Considering the country background described at the beginning of this national report and the results of the performed survey, some concluding remarks should be added from these surveys: „ the RE technologies with the highest development potential are hydraulic, wind and geothermal. The companies surveyed showed significant interest in developing projects on their own or jointly; „ the Chilean labour market currently has a scarcity of potential employees with RE backgrounds, and they still prefer to recruit university graduates. Clearly for both short- and mid-term hiring, the recruiting tendency shows a positive increase; „ the labour market detects a need for more training of its employees, focusing on in-house training with external support where the main concern is on changes related to the legal framework; and94
    • „ the companies expect the universities to contribute in the areas of technological transfer, consulting and advising, and research and development.In regard to the university staff survey the following can beconcluded from the results obtained: „ the great majority of people interviewed have five or more years of experience in the university, where the main interests are: thermal solar, geothermal, wind and PV. They also demonstrate some experience in curriculum design, but not much; „ the university respondents showed interest in receiving training in RE, especially focused on geothermal, wind, hydraulic, PV and solar thermal energy. They do not consider training in curriculum design as relevant as doing pilot modules. The most important issue mentioned regarding the direction for research training is finding appropriate funding sources; „ the respondents considered it most important to: improve technical/professional knowledge, keep up to date with the technology changes, access an RE database, attend conferences, workshops, etc., and establish internships with the RE industry; and „ the respondents considered it very important to improve the research infrastructure and cooperation between industry and university. They also noted the need to develop research at the university funded by industry or government. 95
    • From results of the benchmark survey, the following points should be observed: „ the main activities that have been developed by the universities are: undergraduate teaching, networking, and joint development with external institutions. Other universities develop these activities through standard procedures (courses, etc.), RE scholarships and cooperation with government agencies; „ the primary interest in the research field is solar thermal technology, while for the teaching aspect the focus is on hydraulic, biomass and wind generation; and „ other universities consider that there is a lack of investment in RE, and where there is any funding at all, it is perceived as very limited.96
    • Chapter 5 – Germany1 – Renewable energy market in GermanyStructure of the energy market in GermanyThe Federal Republic of Germany is a major country inCentral Northern Europe, with a surface area of 356,978 m2and a population of approximately 82 million inhabitants.More than 80% of its population lives in urban areas. Thecountry has a developed free-market economy which islargely based on services and manufacturing. Its grossdomestic product of 2,423 billion euros (DESTATIS, 2008)is one of the highest in the world and the country maintainsa positive trade balance.Germany has few conventional primary energy resourcesavailable. It has large deposits of coal, but its reserves ofpetroleum and natural gas are relatively small, thoughlocally significant. As a consequence, the country hasto import energy to cover its own requirements. Thischaracteristic of the German energy market is a powerfulincentive for public and private organizations to investin research and technology for renewable energy (RE) inorder to increase their independence from energy imports.As shown in Graphic 5.1, the domestic production ofenergy from renewable energy sources has grown overthe past few years, whereas the production of energy fromconventional sources has remained stable. 97
    • Graphic 5.1 – Primary energy production in Germany 2000–2007. In 2007, 1006.1 pentajoules (equal to 7.2%) of the whole primary energy consumption in Germany were provided by renewable energy sources (AGEB, 2008). Given that the energy market in Germany is liberalized, energy is offered by many different private companies to the end users, who can freely choose their energy supplier. The German government oversees and regulates the market and creates initiatives to promote sustainability and the competitive application of renewable energy sources. The Renewable Energy Sources Act (Erneuerbare Energien Gesetz or EGG) is the key instrument for the promotion of renewable energy. It came into force in 2000 and was amended in 2004. The core elements of the EEG are:98
    • „ priority connection of installations for the generation of electricity from renewable energy and from mine gas to the general electricity supply grids; „ priority purchase and transmission of this electricity; and „ nationwide equalization of electricity purchased and the corresponding fees paid.The fee paid for electricity depends on the energy sourceand the size of the installations. The rate also depends onthe date of commissioning; the later an installation beginsoperation, the lower the tariff (degression). The EEG ensuresthe increased use of environmentally friendly renewableenergy, not through subsidies but through apportioning thecosts (BMU 2004).Supply and demand in the renewable energy market inGermany develops in a well-balanced way and privatecompanies are encouraged to remain competitive both inprice and services. Graphic 5.2 shows the contribution of eachrenewable energy source to the total amount of renewableenergy sources consumed in the country in 2007.Graphic 5.2 – Renewable energy sources in Germany by source in 2007.Source: AGEB, 2008. 99
    • As can be observed from Graphic 5.2, the largest amount of renewable energy in Germany is produced from biomass (solid and liquid forms as well as biogas), followed by wind energy and renewable energy obtained from the co- incineration of waste. Labour market in renewable energy: opportunities for Higher Education Institutions As a consequence of the increasing demand and rising production of RE, skilled workers specialized in the area are required. According to information from the German Ministry for the Environment, jobs attributed to renewable energy-related sectors in Germany increased between 2004 and 2006 from approximately 160,000 to a total of approximately 235,600: an increase of nearly 48% in that period (KRATZAT ET AL, 2007). From 2006 to 2007 the increase is less impressive, but still positive: 13,700 new jobs were created in that period (Kratzat et al., 2008). Experts forecast a total number of jobs in the RE industry of 400,000 by 2020 (KRATZAT ET AL, 2007). The majority of the jobs in the RE industry exist in the biomass (38.5%) and wind sector (33.8%), followed by the photovoltaic sector (15.5%) (KRATZAT ET AL, 2008). All jobs directly related to the RE sector as well as corresponding supply and service sectors and research activities are included in these calculations. A study carried out by HAW Hamburg in 2006/2007 has shown that the demand for skilled workers in RE is not being fully met and that there is a lack of specialized professionals in the renewable energy industry. 76.7% of the companies questioned rated the availability of RE-specialized professionals as scarcely available or100
    • insufficiently available. According to the companiessurveyed, the primary difficulties encountered in searchingfor appropriately skilled workers in the RE industry are thelack of an interdisciplinary education of the candidates andof the desired technical skills (HAW 2007).Some companies (usually the largest ones) compensate thelack of their employees’ expertise by offering them internaltraining sessions to keep them updated or by sending themto external complementary training sessions to acquire therequired knowledge or skills. Other companies, by contrast,often lack sufficient resources to provide their workers withthe required training and have to rely on governmentalsupport to get access to advanced knowledge in the area ofRE (HAW 2007).In Germany, several HEIs have recognized this lack ofskilled workers as a chance to complement their existingstudy programs or to create new degree programs in orderto respond to the increasing demand for expert professionalsin the field. In this way, the HEIs make their graduates moreattractive for the employers and more competitive in thelabour market.Nowadays, the range of courses and specialization levels isvery broad and covers complementing lectures in traditionalstudy programs right down to totally new degree programsdedicated to the study of one or several renewable energysources as well as the whole supply and service sectorsaround it.Degrees offered in Germany in the field of RE includeBachelor and Master of Science degrees as well as Bachelorand Master of Engineering degrees. The study courses aremainly taught in German, but the number of programstaught in English is continually increasing. 101
    • Research and teaching of renewable energy at HAW The Hamburg University of Applied Sciences (HAW Hamburg) The Hamburg University of Applied Sciences (HAW Hamburg), with approximately 12,000 students, has become the second largest institution of higher education in the Hamburg region and one of the largest of its kind in Germany. The diversity of degrees on offer includes: „ Engineering & Computer Science; „ Life Sciences; „ Design; „ Media & Information; „ and Business & Social Sciences in a total of four faculties. HAW Hamburg offers undergraduate and postgraduate degree programs leading to the academic qualifications ‘Bachelor’ and ‘Master’. HAW Hamburg focuses on applied research and has close ties with institutes and industry. One of its main areas of interest lies in the research of renewable energy. In 2008, the Competence Centre for Renewable Energy & Energy Efficiency (CC4E) was created to link departments with energy-related degree programs and research fields and to encourage synergy within the university.102
    • The Competence Centre for Renewable Energy & EnergyEfficiency (CC4E)The CC4E concentrates all the capacities of HAW in thearea of renewable energy, coordinates their activities andfacilitates cooperation work between HAW and privatecompanies. Furthermore, the CC4E organizes events forrenewable energy, creates information material and transfersknowledge acquired from research and development projectsat the university.The degree programs at the HAW in the field of renewableenergy sources are taught in different departments of theHAW. The following degrees are already being offered or areunder development at the HAW: „ Information & Electrical Engineering, specializing in power engineering (Bachelor); „ Environmental Engineering (Bachelor); „ Energy & Plant Engineering (Bachelor); „ Process Engineering (Bachelor); „ Renewable Energy Management (Bachelor, program under development); „ Renewable Energy Systems - Environmental and Process Engineering (Master’s, starting in winter 2009); „ Innovative Energy Systems (Master’s); and „ Renewable Energy Management (Master’s, program under development). 103
    • At the same time, more than twenty formal research projects and numerous student projects are carried out by HAW academic staff and their students. These projects are all application-oriented and are carried out in close cooperation with private companies concerning the topics of biomass, solar and wind energy, fuel cells, energy efficiency and other related topics including economic and business solutions. 2 – The JELARE surveys in Germany Methodology The survey carried out in Germany by HAW Hamburg cannot be considered as a representative survey for the whole country. Due to the large number of companies in the RE market, RE staff at universities and universities engaged in RE topics, it was not possible to contact them all or to carry out an extensive survey within the framework of the JELARE project. In addition to the general methodology described in Chapter 1, the following specific methodology was applied to the different surveys in Germany. Market survey As part of past activities of HAW, all RE companies in the Hamburg metropolitan area were contacted in the recent past to answer questions regarding renewable energy topics. For this reason, HAW was not able to contact all companies directly again. The procedure for the survey was therefore as follows: during an event related to wind energy held at HAW, the participating companies were asked at the end of the event to manually fill in the questionnaire. A total of twelve companies agreed to fill in the questionnaire. Later104
    • on, the information compiled was manually fed into anExcel spreadsheet by HAW staff in order to analyse andevaluate the results.Staff surveyFor the purpose of the participants’ selection, nearly fiftyHAW staff members working in RE or in related fieldswere contacted. Twenty-five of them showed interest andwillingness to cooperate with the JELARE project andfilled in an online questionnaire.The results of the questionnaire were saved automatically inan Excel spreadsheet in order to analyse the information.Technical problems arose with one set of questions whichmade it necessary to contact the survey participants lateron via email to ask them these questions directly. Theinformation compiled was manually fed into the spreadsheetand thus the survey results were evaluated.Benchmark surveyFor the benchmark survey, the HAW contacted differentinstitutions of higher education with which the HAWhas cooperated in past projects. These institutions receivedinformation about the JELARE project in order to get theminterested and to invite them to take part in the survey. Ofthese HEIs, five showed interest and willingness to cooperatewith the JELARE project. Four of them filled in an onlinequestionnaire. The results of the online questionnaire weresaved automatically in an Excel spreadsheet in order to analysethe information. One additional university filled in a Wordtemplate with the same questions as the online questionnaire.The answers from this university were manually fed into theExcel spreadsheet and the survey results were updated withthis information. 105
    • 2.1 – Market survey results Generalities of the organizations and their RE staff requirements The total number of participants in the market survey was twelve. These were mostly private companies. Several governmental agencies and non-governmental organizations were also included. About 60% of the participants were active in the energy industry including renewable energy production and conventional energy production. The rest of the participants were from the manufacturing sector or were active in the communications or transportation sector. The majority of the participants were active in the windpower sector (80%), followed by participants active in the biogas or biomass sector (50% and 40% respectively) and by participants active in the photovoltaic sector (40%). Multiple answers were possible; therefore the participant companies or organizations may be active in one or more sectors at the same time. Activities in other RE sectors were less intensive, especially in the case of geothermal energy (only 10%). Furthermore, most of the participants were involved in planning/project management or in service and maintenance of installations. Graphic 5.3 shows how the participant organizations develop renewable energy activities or projects in their sectors (multiple choice was possible). Graphic 5.3 – Project development strategies in the organizations.106
    • As Graphic 5.3 shows, a large part of the project work isdone internally at the organizations and almost half of theorganizations take advantage of joint development projects.In order to carry out their projects, the organizations requireRE staff work in many different areas. When asked howthey rate the availability of qualified RE staff on the labourmarket, 90% of participants considered skilled professionalsas scarcely or even insufficiently available on the market.When asked about the functional areas in which the REstaff work, the following options are observed among thesurvey participants: Percentage of RE professionals Functional area working in this area at organization Miscellaneous activities (consulting, directives / politics, 64% project development, supply of services) Management 36% Administration 27% Research and development 27% Table 5.1 – Main work areas for RE professionals in organizations.Furthermore, the participants mentioned that the majorityof their RE staff have a university degree (47.4%) orbusiness qualifications (21.1%), and they are mostlyrecruited directly by the organization itself. According to thecompanies surveyed, the primary difficulties while lookingfor appropriately skilled workers in the RE industry are thelack of an interdisciplinary education of the candidates aswell as a lack of the desired technical skills. The scarcity ofappropriate candidates for RE jobs was also an obstacle inorder to find the desired personnel. 107
    • Training and qualification requirements in the RE market for RE staff To cover their increasing requirements of RE specialists, the organizations can also train their current staff instead of recruiting new employees. When asked which RE training opportunities were planned for their employees, the organizations mentioned the following options (listed according to popularity among participants): „ external training at further education and research institutions (29.6%); „ in-house training with external support (25.9%); and „ coaching and learning on the job (22.2%). From the market’s point of view it was also determined that the most important training requirements in the future will be new specialized technical qualifications followed by the enhancement of existing basic qualifications and multidisciplinary qualifications. Figure 5.1 shows the drivers for the required new qualifications in the field of renewable energy and their relevance according to the organizations surveyed (multiple answers were possible).108 Figure 5.1 – Drivers for new qualifications in RE.
    • As Figure 5.1 shows, the most important driver for acquiringnew RE qualifications is ‘process innovation’ followed by‘product innovation’ and ‘changes in the legal framework’according to the organizations surveyed.Role of Higher Education Institutes (HEIs) in the qualificationrequirements of organizations and the market needsIn general, the role of the HEIs in the RE market is perceivedas highly important by the market, however only 50% ofthe organizations questioned considered that HEIs are upto date with the market needs, whereas the remaining 50%considered the HEIs to be behind the market needs.More than 80% of the organizations considered that theHEIs should develop new courses and qualifications inthe RE field. Of the organizations supporting the creationof new courses and qualifications at the HEIs, 63% agreethat qualifications additional to those obtained in aninitial vocational education (upgrade training) should bedeveloped and 27% think that new degrees or professionsshould be developed. Furthermore, the survey participantsstrongly expect HEIs to provide training and educationprograms as well as basic research and developmentactivities. The participants did not expect much from HEIsin terms of basic innovations regarding information andcommunications technologies, new measuring techniques,etc., or in product innovations.Besides providing new professionals or upgrade training,there are several ways in which HEIs can support theindustry and related organizations in the renewable energymarket. When asked what types of services offered atHEIs they would be interested in using, the organizationsexpressed interest in many different services. Graphic 5.4shows the different services and the participant’s level ofinterest in each one of them. 109
    • Graphic 5.4 – Interest in services offered by HEIs. As seen in Graphic 5.4, almost half of all participants were interested in using HEIs as consulting partners when advice is needed. Technology transfer services are an equally interesting option for participants. As the responses to this question show, there is a tendency and interest in using HEIs increasingly as an independent service provider rather than as a mere information provider. Finally, participants suggested several topics as major challenges for the wider application of RE in Germany. Among those challenges, public opinion and acceptance towards RE in combination with the ‘not-in-my-backyard’ effect were considered a major challenge. Other major challenges mentioned are the licensing and authorization procedures for generating renewable energy sources.110
    • 2.2 – Staff survey resultsProfile of interviewed staffThe participants of the staff survey were a sound mix ofuniversity professors and research associates as well astechnical and administrative staff. Student workers wereincluded in the survey as a minority. A total of twenty-five staff members took part in the survey. The participantswere involved in research and development activities (48%),education and training activities (36%) and in projectplanning and management activities (24%).The survey results indicate that the participants are involvedor interested in all types of renewable energy. Graphic 5.5shows the ranking of RE technologies according to theinterest shown by the survey participants.Graphic 5.5 – Interest of staff members in RE technologies (by technology type). 111
    • Other types of renewable energy of interest mentioned are: „ organic Rankine cycle processes to collect residual heat by means of organic high molecular mass fluids and convert this heat into work; „ waste-heat recovery; „ and waste-to-energy processes. The topics of energy efficiency and energy management were also mentioned as a field of interest. Training interests and requirements of RE staff In order to continue with their activities in the area of renewable energy or in order to enter new expertise areas, the majority of the survey participants showed an interest in obtaining further training. Graphic 5.6 shows the different topics of interest for further training according to the staff ’s preference. Graphic 5.6 – Interest of staff members in training (by topic).112
    • Regarding training in RE technologies, the interest of staffwas not only for specifically one type of technology but wasfairly well distributed among the different technology types.Nevertheless, a clear preference for photovoltaic technologywas identified, whereas the interest by participants inhydrogen or fuel cells technology was definitively smaller.Interesting additional topics for training in REtechnologies mentioned by staff participants are: „ socio-political framework; „ waste-to-energy technologies; and „ connection possibilities for renewable energy sources to the existing electricity grid.Furthermore, staff members who are interested in receivingtraining in curriculum development have a clear preferencefor getting trained in curriculum development for Master’sprograms. None of the participants showed any interestin training for development of licentiate degrees knownin Germany as Diplom degrees, or in the development oftechnical degrees. Training for the development of teachingmodules was not of interest for the majority of the surveyparticipants. However, for those where teaching moduleswere of interest, the following non-technical areas of interestare attractive topics: „ project-orientated tutorials; „ improvement in social conditions for renewable energy; and „ economic aspects, especially project financing. 113
    • In general, the majority of participants considered the need to update technical/vocational knowledge and skills in their areas of teaching and research as a definite or major need, however not as a very important need. The same applies for the need to be updated with major technological change. In comparison, the majority of the staff surveyed considered their need to learn skills in curriculum development as nonexistent or only as a minor need. This was expected, because in previous questions, the participants showed little interest in the topic. In contrast, when asked how important a better research infrastructure such as laboratories and equipment was, the majority of the participants considered it at least as a definite need, a major need or even as a very important need. Furthermore, their need for access to a scientific database in renewable energy was also considered as highly important by the majority of participants, who considered their need for such a database as definite, major or very important. Again, these are not unexpected results, given that 45% of the participants are involved in research and 50% are engaged in teaching. Similar results are obtained for questions regarding the need to participate in networking events and the need to collaborate with industry. Both needs were regarded by the majority of participants as important, and the need to collaborate with industry was in particular ranked as very important or as a major need by 64% of the participants.114
    • Strength of renewable energy topics at HEIsWhen asked if the topic of renewable energy needs tobe strengthened at their HEIs, an emphatic ‘Yes’ was theanswer. Although all proposed measures to strengthenthe topic of RE at HEIs were mostly perceived as animportant need, the priorities of such measures wereperceived differently. Table 5.2 shows the prioritizationof options according to the survey participants. Percentage received by participants for each option and need level Minor Definite Major Very important Options No need need need need need A – Academic programs devoted to 4.76% 14.29% 47.62% 23.81% 9.52% market needs. B – Exchange programs between 9.52% 4.76% 28.57% 42.86% 14.29% HEIs and RE market. C – HEI’s partnership 4.76% 4.76% 33.33% 38.10% 19.05% with RE market. D – Applied technological 0.00% 0.00% 14.29% 52.38% 33.33% researches funded by the market. E – Applied technological 0.00% 0.00% 14.29% 38.10% 47.62% researches funded by government. continues... 115
    • Percentage received by participants for each option and need level Minor Definite Major Very important Options No need need need need needF – Internshipsfor students in RE 0.00% 5.00% 50.00% 35.00% 10.00%companies.G – Constantanalysis and design 0.00% 23.81% 42.86% 28.57% 4.76%of occupationalplans in RE.Table 5.2 – Priorities according to staff for strengthening RE topics at HEIs. It can be concluded from Table 5.2 that, according to the staff, the following measures are the most important to strengthen the topic of renewable energy in their institutions (the list is ranked by importance): „ applied technological research in RE conducted within the HEIs and funded by the RE industry or by government agencies; „ exchange programs between the HEIs and the RE industry as well as HEIs’ partnership with the RE industry in order to share knowledge; and „ more internships for students in RE companies. The rest of the options are also considered important. However, they are seen more as a definite need with less priority.116
    • 2.3 – Benchmark Survey ResultsEngagement in renewable energy topics at HEIsA total of five German HEIs took part in this survey. Amongthe participant HEIs there were traditional universities anduniversities of applied sciences. Graphic 5.7 provides a verygood overview of the universities’ profile in RE topics andan insight into how strongly the topic of renewable energy ishandled in the participant HEIs. It can be observed that almostall universities were already researching renewable energy withthe support of foreign investment before 2007 and also a largeproportion of the participants had partnerships with nationaland international networks for research on renewable energybefore 2007.Furthermore, the majority of universities currently haveresearch laboratories financed by organizations from theproduction sector although half of these universities receivedthis financial support as recently as 2007.Another interesting fact is that the collaborative work at theuniversities by physically separated project teams (‘virtualteams’) was not very popular before 2007, but its popularityhas increased largely over the past few years.Graphic 5.7 – Profile of HEIs regarding renewable energy. 117
    • There are several similarities between all the universities surveyed. In addition to the RE profile of the HEIs, the survey results showed that all of the participants now have strategies at their institutions for renewable energy topics and they work in collaboration with public and/or private organizations on RE topics (80% of the HEIs had collaboration work with public and/or private organizations even before 2007). Moreover, all of the HEIs use information technology (Internet) to gain external knowledge about RE. Regarding scholarships for students in the RE field, only 40% of the universities surveyed offer such possibilities for students to finance their courses and also 40% of the HEIs use external training to keep in touch with technological change in RE. A further 20% plan to start this practice in the next two years. Common practices or initiatives in renewable energy are the use of knowledge about RE obtained through other market sources such as enterprises and organizations and the use of knowledge about RE obtained from research institutions (80% of HEIs). Further actions taken by the universities in the RE field include the realization of informative sessions for different target groups, such as private households and the organization of an annual symposium focusing on one type of renewable energy. Few universities plan to start with new practices or initiatives different to those already mentioned in the next two years. The most important innovation in the pipeline is the use of interdisciplinary programs on renewable energy at institutions (20% of HEIs plan to start this practice in the next two years).118
    • Teaching and research of RE topics at universitiesThe RE field where the most teaching is carried out is inwind energy topics; however, it is also the wind energyfield where less research is undertaken. In contrast, biomasshas the most research being conducted among all the REtechnologies without having as much teaching activity.Research activities are strong for all bioenergy types andin geothermal energy. Teaching activities are most frequentin wind energy, photovoltaic and solar thermal energy,followed by hydropower and hydrogen/fuel cells. Graphic5.8 shows the research/teaching ratio for each type ofrenewable energy.Graphic 5.8 – Research/teaching ratio for renewable energy topics. 119
    • The results shown in Graphic 5.8 may not be conclusive. Given that the majority of HEIs could only choose between teaching or researching in the online survey, it could well be that both activities are also carried out in parallel. Nevertheless, the survey results show a good approximation of the tendency. There are a large number of degree courses in RE fields at HEIs. Most of the universities have at least one degree course including RE topics on offer. Half of the programs at the universities consist of Master’s degrees (Master of Engineering or Master of Science) and slightly less than half are Bachelor degrees (Bachelor of Engineering or Bachelor of Science). However, only 12.5% of the degree courses on offer are exclusively dedicated to the study of RE topics. Furthermore, all universities have specific departments or institutes for RE topics, but only one third of these departments are dedicated to RE and only 40% of the HEIs have a dedicated budget for investment in the renewable energy area. Finally, as Table 5.3 shows, the survey results made evident that the universities questioned are very active in elaborating teaching products and issuing publications in renewable energy topics. Teaching materials as well as materials from conferences are the most popular and most extensively used type of products at the universities interviewed. % of HEIs creating this Teaching/research product product Lecture notes, teaching materials 100.00% Materials from related conferences 100.00% Articles/papers in scientific journals 80.00% Books 60.00% Laboratory prototypes 60.00% Table 5.3 – Type of products at universities.120
    • 3 – ConclusionsMarket surveyThe German market is highly concentrated in the wind,biomass and solar/photovoltaic sectors and it is commonpractice among public or private organizations to be activein more than one specific RE sector. According to the surveyresults, geothermal energy has the smallest share of themarket among all RE technologies. A large part of the REproject work is done internally at the organizations with animportant part of the work carried out in joint developmentprojects at the same time.In Germany, the demand for RE personnel is larger thansupply: the market faces scarcity of RE skilled personnel andRE professionals. According to the companies which tookpart in the survey, the greatest difficulties encountered whilelooking for appropriately skilled workers in the RE industryare the lack of an interdisciplinary education among thecandidates as well as a lack of the desired technical skills.The scarcity of appropriate candidates for RE jobs willincrease if no measures are undertaken, as the market needsand requirements of RE professionals will increase over theyears to come. Furthermore, it was suggested by the surveyparticipants that public opinion and acceptance towardsRE in combination with the ‘not-in-my-backyard’ are alsomajor challenges to overcome in the RE sector.In order to cope with their requirements of RE professionals,the companies plan to train their current staff. Some of themwill train their employees internally or externally and theywill also apply learning on the job as a training measure. Asthe companies expressed it, the most important drivers foracquiring new RE qualifications in Germany are: ‘processinnovation’, ‘product innovation’ and ‘changes in the legalframework’. In other words, the same elements that drivemost of the technology markets also drive the RE market. 121
    • The role of HEIs in the RE market is perceived as highly important; however, the companies consider that the universities are commonly behind the market needs. The companies would expect the HEIs to develop new education and training programs in RE topics parallel to increased basic research and development activities. Furthermore, the market is interested in using HEIs as consulting partners when advice is needed. Staff survey Renewable energy generated from all types of biomass is the topic of most interest among staff members of HAW Hamburg. This is followed by windpower and energy generated by sunlight (photovoltaic and solar thermal). However, there is a general interest in all types of renewable energy and staff members usually carry out activities in several different fields of RE at the same time without exclusivity for a special type of energy (similar to the market case). The RE topics at HAW Hamburg being researched or handled by staff go beyond the ‘traditional’ renewable energy and have already moved in more innovative directions as the RE market grows. Furthermore, HAW staff are mostly interested in receiving further training in the field of RE technologies and in research management rather than training in curriculum development or development of teaching modules. It is interesting to observe that in Hamburg not only are technology-related topics of interest, economic and social topics are also attractive and considered necessary in order to overcome the barriers to RE acceptance among the different stakeholders and increase the competitiveness of RE in the market. This may explain why the survey participants do not perceive updating knowledge in their expertise and work areas as a very important need but only122
    • as a definitive or major need. On the one hand, it may beargued that in Germany, RE staff have continuous accessto updates or news regarding RE, therefore the update ofknowledge is continuously carried out without being anisolated event. On the other, as staff members primarilythink that a better research infrastructure and access toscientific databases is highly important, it may be that thestaff members also prefer to generate innovations on theirown, instead of merely receiving information from externalsources.The priorities of the scientific and administrative staff takingpart in this survey regarding their requirements in termsof training and qualification for RE are similar and this isdefinitely to be recognized as a present and future successfactor for the universities in the area of RE. However,the survey results do not provide information about themotivation of each group.According to the staff, it is necessary to strengthen REtopics at the universities and the most important measuresto be taken are the implementation of applied technologicalresearch in RE conducted within the HEIs and funded bythe RE market or by government agencies.Benchmark surveyInstitutions of higher education that have participated in theGerman benchmark survey are very active in the RE fieldat a national and international level. The majority of theseuniversities have made provisions regarding aspects relatedto renewable energy, and a large proportion of them haveforged partnerships with national and international networksfor research on renewable energy before or since 2007.Furthermore, the majority of universities also have fundingfrom the production sector for their research activities. 123
    • The participant HEIs are also very good at using knowledge obtained from external sources and not only at developing new knowledge on their own. It can be observed that these universities recognize the synergy principle as the most effective way to work. Nevertheless, although already very active in R&D and knowledge transfer, it seems that few universities plan to start new practices or initiatives different to the current ones in the next two years. Apparently the HEIs do not plan to change their strategy for RE in the next two years. As they already have many ongoing practices and initiatives, this does not mean that their progress will stagnate in the RE field. However, it may be that the speed at which they generate innovations could decrease in a couple of years. Regarding the teaching of RE at universities, the HEIs have demonstrated high activity, as most of the universities have at least one degree which includes an RE topic, and all universities have specific departments or institutes for RE topics. The survey results indicate that teaching activities in wind energy and in solar/photovoltaic energy are the most intensive and that geothermal energy has the least intensive teaching activity. In regard to research activities, the most intensive research is being undertaken in the bioenergy sector (biomass, biogas, biofuels) and in geothermal energy topics. However, these results may not be conclusive. Given that the majority of the HEIs could only choose either teaching or researching in the survey, it could well be that both activities are also carried out in parallel. In any case, the survey results show a good approximation of the tendency.124
    • Overall conclusionsAccording to the survey results, the renewable energies withhighest potential to develop in the coming years are in thewind, biomass and solar/photovoltaic sectors, as both themarket surveyed and staff involved have shown interest incontinuing with the research and production activities.In the three different surveys, the participants were askedabout their qualification and training needs. The above-mentioned conclusions for each survey revealed importantinformation regarding the preferences and needs of thedifferent stakeholders. However, the results of the marketsurvey gave more than this information as an output: itshowed that not only should training requirements bestudied, but also research should be done focusing who willreceive this training (potential skilled staff ) and by whichmeans this training will be provided (by means of theHEIs), because in their opinion, skilled RE staff are scarceon the market nowadays.In order to overcome these challenges, the role of theuniversities is highly important. To generate enoughskilled professionals, the HEIs should expand theircurrent study and training courses and obtain enoughstudents for their programs. Furthermore, the role of theuniversity as a knowledge provider should be enhancedand the information should flow not only from the HEIsto the market, but also to society if better acceptance is tobe achieved.However, the priorities and interests of the staff and HEIspoint in a different direction. Their interest is geared more 125
    • towards knowledge generation and transfer to the market and not towards development of new study programs. Therefore, more intensive dialogue between the market and the HEIs must be promoted, so the priorities of all stakeholders are lined up and a more common course of action is taken. Finally, it is worth highlighting that the market sees universities not only as a provider of skilled staff, but also a potential partner for applied technology problems. This opportunity should not be underestimated.126
    • Chapter 6 – Guatemala1 – Renewable energy market in GuatemalaThe electric subsector has been involved in a changingprocess ever since the General Law of Electricity(MEM, 1996) was passed. Nowadays, it evolves withina decentralization framework along energy generation,transport, commercialization and distribution activities,where their simultaneous development is carried out throughdifferent legal entities or companies. This context allowscompanies, in theory, to work in an environment of totalfreedom, competition and no privileges, with a clearly-definedregulatory framework in which the access of all agents to theopen market is fundamental. Based on the General Law ofElectricity (MEM, 1996), the development model of theelectric subsector is supported by three public institutionsthat have specific functions regarding commercial facilitation,regulation and coordination of the subsector companies’activities (MEM, 2007): „ Ministerio de Energía y Minas, (MEM, Ministry of Energy and Mines): this public body is the maximum authority of the electric subsector; it is in charge of granting authorizations for generating, transporting and distributing electric energy; „ Comité Nacional de Energía Eléctrica, (CNEE, National Committee of Electric Energy): the CNEE is a technical body of the Ministry of Energy and Mines with functional independence, in charge of formulating, implementing and controlling the electricity regulatory framework; 127
    • „ Administración del Mercado Mayorista, (AMM, Wholesale Market Manager): the wholesale market consists of electricity generators, carriers, distributors, commercial traders, importers, exporters and Large Scale Users. It is managed by an administrating body which is independent from CNEE. It has the legal form of a private corporation, established as a non- profit organization and it is in charge of the sales of potency and energy in block that would be carried out in the short and long term between market agents; and „ Wholesale Market Agents: there are market agents in the electricity wholesale market, which are generating, traders, carriers and distribution companies. Electricity generation develops in both a free and competitive environment, constituted by an opportunity market based in short-term marginal-cost service, and by a contract market where Agents and Large Scale Users freely negotiate contract terms, quantities and prices. Transmission and distribution are regulated activities. However, in those sectors in which economies of scale can induce natural monopolies, the prices are fixed by the regulatory entity, based on efficiency criteria. Nevertheless, thanks to eight pieces of legislation enacted in the last twelve years, the Guatemalan electric market system has evolved from a state-controlled centralized system to an open wholesale market system. 85% of the population has access to their benefits at present (MEM, 2008). The main renewable energy market indicators in Guatemala within the wider energy sector can be seen in Figure 6.1. The national production in 2007 was 7,936.74 GWh, with a 6.6% growth compared to 2006. In 2007 the production was as follows (National Association of Generators, 2007):128
    • „ private participation was 70% and public sector participation 30% for the whole energy sector; „ renewable energy stations’ production was 50.2%, while hydrocarbon-based plants generated 49.8%;  „ El Instituto Nacional de Electrificación, (INDE, The National Institute of Electrification) is the state electric company that participates in the national and regional electric energy market, competitively and self-financed, bringing this service to the poorest strata. It has remained as the main individual generating system with a generation of 2,238 GWh (99.9% hydroelectric generation and 0.1% thermal generation); „ private generators contributed 5,555.74 GWh (66.4% thermal-electric generation, 16.7% cogeneration, 12.8% hydroelectric generation and 4.1% geothermal generation); and „ exports increased compared to the year before, exporting 131.9 GWh, which represents an increase of 49.5%.Figure 6.1 – Electricity generation by source: derived hydrocarbon vs RE.Source: National Association of Generators, Electric Sector of Guatemala, Guatemala, May10, 2009. Based on data from the Wholesale Market Manager, 129
    • Guatemala has both the energetic potential as well as the legal framework that will allow the development of large- scale electric projects. The energy sector is one of the most dynamic and open sectors in Central America. It has a great deal of renewable natural resources with great potential as can be seen in Table 6.1. Potential Used Used Source MW MW Percentage Hydroelectric 5,000 650.3 13.01 Geothermal 1,000 26.5 2.65 Wind 7,800 0.1 0 Biomass N/C 187.8 N/C Table 6.1 – Summary of renewable resources potential in Guatemala. Source: Ministry of Energy and Mines, Renewable Energies in Guatemala, Guatemala. February 2007. Apart from 10 year legislative income tax and customs exemptions to expand the renewable energy, RE and energy sector, there is a set of principles in place that orient the objectives of the renewable energy policy sponsored by the public sector. The principles include: „ achieving economic development and social welfare in an environmentally friendly way; „ resource replacement must be faster than its use; „ safety and diversification of supply; „ energy products should have competitive prices and quality; „ energy efficiency;130
    • „ high percentage of renewable energies participation in the energy supply; „ high percentage of homes electrified at optimal cost; „ relatively sustainable management of wood; and „ climate change mitigation.The listed courses of action should make an impact in thepresent sources that generate energy. On the other hand,it takes care of environmental concerns about the limits ofgrowth and sustainability (Meadows et al., 1970).Research and teaching of RE at the Galileo University inGuatemalaIn 2009, the Instituto de Investigación y Desarrollo atthe Galileo University (IID, Institute of Research andDevelopment), among other tasks, presented a projectthat was approved by the Central American Alliance, aninternational non-governmental organization. This studyaims to generate biodiesel from the micro-seaweeds thatpollute the Amatitlán Lake, located just half an hour fromGuatemala City.There are three academic degrees in renewable energies: „ Master’s Degree in Renewable Energies (2007); „ Master’s Degree in Energetic Efficiency (2008); and „ five-year Bachelor’s Degree in Energetic Systems Engineering. 131
    • Since the inception of these programs, an emphasis has been placed on the collaboration between university programs and business firms. In addition to the collaboration of professionals from this sector in the classroom, students visit and study processes in many of these companies through internship programs. Students are oriented to specific needs of companies in the public and private sector through internships that are related to the university. The graduation requirement is a thesis that might include these experiences. The JELARE technical team also visited university departments that were involved in RE, which included: Universidad San Carlos, Universidad del Valle and Universidad Rafael Landívar. With the exception of Universidad San Carlos, which began its Master’s Degree in Energy and Environment in its Department of Engineering in 2006, the universities offered few courses on the subject. Moreover, RE research activities in these universities were found to be either absent or concerned mainly with some biofuel development, but without the needed large-scale support and investment, though Universidad San Carlos and del Valle had concrete limited low-budget projects underway. In this regard, Galileo University’s leadership in RE curriculum development, as shown by their academic degrees described above, must be acknowledged.132
    • 2 – The JELARE surveys in GuatemalaMethodologyPopulations and data recollection instruments’ definitionsIt was established that the study should target, throughan applied questionnaire, three specific populations. Thisdecision was made by the JELARE Project’s Steering Groupin Hamburg at its first meeting at the end of February 2009.The selected populations include: „ public and private companies and organizations in general with high incidence in the RE market; „ teaching and administrative staff in the RE courses and degrees at the Universidad Galileo; and „ departments, institutes or academic units in different universities that currently have, in one way or another, initiatives in the renewable energy field.Furthermore, each questionnaire contained specific variablesrelevant to each population. In addition, a focus group wasmade to complement the structured questionnaire. Thismethodology tried to get the qualitative aspects and ideasthat went beyond the questions in the questionnaire, butthat complemented it. 133
    • Sample design for market participants The case selection was based on a list belonging to the Ministry of Energy and Mines and enriched by key informants. Total cases in the list reached 123 companies and organizations, considered market participants. The relevant decisions were the following: „ it was agreed to apply the questionnaire to 50 of these companies to make up the cases selected in the sample and obtain information from them. This number is equivalent to 41% of the cases mentioned in the original list. In the end, our technical team was able to obtain data from 51 cases. An examination of key variables, such as number of employees and annual turnover, of the completed questionnaires, confirmed that the sample selected was a cross-section of organizations and companies in Guatemala. This fact makes us claim that our sample was highly representative of the universe of RE industries and organizations in Guatemala; „ three judges were asked to rate between 0 and 3 which of these 123 companies were the most relevant and important to be polled; „ a selection was made from the list of those 51 companies and organizations that attained the highest scores; „ in case any of the companies could not be reached, either because of its location or for any other reason, it was replaced by another one with a lower score; „ it was instructed that the required information should be given by the highest managerial authority or the one following in rank.134
    • Sample design for the teaching and administrative staffThe technical team was able to apply the questionnaireto twenty cases that are equivalent to a census of the REstaff at the Universidad Galileo when the survey was done.Problems around whether results are representative or notare then out of the question.Sample design for departments, institutes or units ofHigher Education Institutions involved in the field of REA list of departments, institutes or units involved in RE-related activities was made for this approach, based on thevisits made to universities in Guatemala. They were: „ Universidad de San Carlos de Guatemala; „ USAC; „ Universidad del Valle de Guatemala; „ UVG; „ Universidad Rafael Landívar; „ URL; and „ Universidad Galileo, GU.Once this list was done, we attempted to cover all the existingentities. Thus, a census was obtained and we were able toapply the questionnaire to 10 of them. We can thereforeclaim that this sample’s results are representative as well. 135
    • Data recording and analysis plan All questionnaires were pre-coded in the same sheet where the questions and answers were. Thus, the interviewer recorded this information immediately after finishing the questionnaire application. In order to process the questionnaires’ contents, the program Statistical Package for Social Sciences (SPSS) was used and three data bases were done belonging to the results of each sample. Results/analysis The three surveys mentioned in the methodology are aimed to focus the labour market, mainly covering those industries and organizations that are capable of influencing the offer and demand of qualified personnel. On this basis the market survey should be first in the analysis, because it highlights the demand for deriving consequences afterwards, in theOut of the 51 light of these results, for the universities, their staff andcases, one was the administrative units to which they are affiliated thata co-operative, represent the offer of qualified personnel for those firms. Forthree this reason, the analysis that follows, based on the samples,were non- examines first the market survey, second the staff survey andgovernmental third, the universities’ organizational units in the field of RE.organizations(NGOs) and36 belonged 2.1 – Market survey resultsto the privatesector. The evaluation of the sectors in which these industries and organizations work prove that the survey was, indeed, well focused towards private and public companies and organizations directly related to renewable energy. The following characteristics drawn from the data gathered should be highlighted:136
    • Guatemalan RE industries and organizations are mainlyoriented towards hydroelectric energy generation althoughwindpower is a rising star. The industries and organizationsworking with RE mainly do it with hydropower, biomass andsolar thermal energy; however, wind and photovoltaic energyis also being carried out in Guatemala, though on a smallerscale. When the RE sector in which companies plan to workis studied, hydropower and biomass strongly appear again,but windpower has a bigger projection of expansion. Datanot shown here put windpower in first place, both in absolutenumbers and in percentages.There is a bias favouring education and training plans buta more practical emphasis is advanced when companiesand organizations are confronted with energy generationactivities. Regarding the area in the value chain in whichcompanies plan to work, projections towards educationand training have priority. However, with regard to thosecompanies that already participate in this market, ‘planning,project management and marketing’ is first in preference,and ‘energy industry’ and ‘research and development’are second, followed by ‘mechanical engineering/plantconstruction’, leaving ‘education and training’ behind. Withregard to the way industries approach their activities, theirown development and joint development are preferred. Arepresentative of the RE private sector in a focus group onthe subject said: We should foster entrepreneurs and particularly the practical part and leave for later […] the academy. Because the RE subject is more for us who already have certain experience. We should be more practical […] RE is hydraulic, solar, photovoltaic, thermal including geothermal. If one asks individuals coming out of a RE Master’s Degree, why 137
    • don’t you calculate for 100 metres, 100 litres, the diameter and how the containers should be for a possible project. Have these professionals with higher education the capacity to make this calculation? (JELARE, 2009) Annual returns, industry size and employment diversification depicts a self-sustainable and increasing RE growth sector in Guatemala. Partial information given by a significant number of industries and organizations is proof that RE, when considering total turnover of these large-scale industries in 2008, can position itself in a high- income sector if the performance of these companies is followed. Although the turnover information was partial, as respondents chose not to answer the question, the variable regarding the number of employees, when considered, corroborates with prior statements. The most important conclusion that can be drawn from this data is that RE companies are sustainable across many sizes, especially when one can observe companies with ‘more than five hundred’ and between ‘two hundred and fifty to four hundred and ninety- nine’ employees in the RE sector (15.8% of the total). Work assignments that those industries and organizations give to their employees show that there is a wide diversity in their main occupations and qualifications needed, going from very concrete aspects such as production/manufacture to more abstract and responsible duties such as management, sales and research. Links to HEIs emerged from recruitment needs and direct hiring from a labour force that showed scarce availability of qualifications together with unequal and unsatisfactory performances in the job according to employers. Recruitment is clearly addressed to technicians and university graduates in the RE area of the market. Few organizations hire through external agencies. Almost all of138
    • the organizations use direct recruitment and few of them useboth. Most employers in the RE sector revealed that theyhave difficulties when searching and selecting appropriateemployees. The main problems faced when hiring are thelack of applicants, and the lack of specialized technicalcapabilities. Currently, multidisciplinary capabilities donot seem to appear among their problems as is seen inGraphic 6.1. This view contrasts with the need perceivedat the HEIs, where a greater emphasis in multidisciplinarysubjects is highlighted. Perceptions of employment in the LookingRE sector in the short term are critical and in the medium only to theterm are promising. percentage distributionWhich new qualifications in the field of renewable energy do you of the answerthink will be required of your employees in the future? ‘Yes’ in Table 6.2 that follows the graphic.Graphic 6.1 – Perceptions among Market Participants of New Qualifications.The felt need of RE workforce better qualifications comingfrom HEI is not a ‘blank cheque’ but specifies certainconditions along practical and ‘down-to-earth’ low-costtraining or externally financed which means less formaleducation around titles and production oriented witha less multidisciplinary perspective. In theory, there is anopenness of the interviewees towards training and education. 139
    • Nevertheless, the condition for the above is, mainly, the possibility of having access to external support, although would be favourable attitudes towards ‘education and training at work’ and ‘external training’, leaving behind ‘e-learning and blended learning’ and ‘long-term external continuous education courses’. Training is planned to be carried out at the companies and organizations. In contrast to the openness towards innovation inferred from other information, the preference is towards the ‘strengthening of basic existent capabilities’, followed, with a lower score, by ‘new specialized technical skills’ and with almost no preference is ‘multidisciplinary efforts’, confirming previous findings as can be seen in Table 6.2. There is almost a consensus in the main motivations for new requirements in RE capabilities which include product and process innovations followed by market needs. Finally, there is less emphasis in the legal framework, government incentives and basic innovations, as well as in the areas of information technology and communications. Multidisciplinary Enhancement qualifications New specialized of existing (communication Variable technical Others basic skills, foreign qualifications qualifications language skills and social skills) Responses f % f % f % f % YES 34 66.7 20 39.2 4 7.8 0 0.0 NO 8 15.7 23 45.1 39 76.5 42 82.4 N/A 9 17.6 8 15.7 8 15.7 9 17.6 TOTAL 51 100.0 51 100.0 51 100.0 51 100.0 Table 6.2 – New qualifications needed for organization’s employees in the future140
    • The profile required by companies and marketorganization forces HEIs to rethink their practices andsearch for greater synergies. There is almost unanimousawareness of the fact that universities need to develop newcourses and capabilities in RE. Nevertheless, the tendencyis towards additional capabilities in order to complementinitial professional education and is not aimed at newprofessions. An area emphasized by participants in the focusgroup was better coordination within the universities andexternally with the private and public sector. A participantin this exercise, who belongs to one of the universities in thecountry, expressed it this way: The problem is that we are starting from zero in all plans and support is not sought from someone that has already started that could give some ideas that could give support to what one is doing […] These attitudes continue the same without change […] In my university, there is a lab on atmospheric studies that is located in the Pharmacy Department but it has neither a relationship nor established any link with the Masters Degrees related to Energy and Environment that is at the core of the subject. I work in a Research Co-ordination Unit that covers the whole university, but the work of this Department has never been related to an Energy Programme. This practice is quite widespread.What is most expected from universities is ‘processesinnovation’, ‘training and education’ and ‘basic research anddevelopment’. In regard to services that could be expectedby the market from the HEIs, technology transfer has a 141
    • priority, besides the access to the latest knowledge. In any event, respondents perceive that the universities’ programs should be reconfigured, as shown in Graphic 6.2. The perception of HEIs by employers is that they are behind the market needs. The major challenges that the RE market faces, according to the respondents, include: limited financing, inadequate education and public policies, limited support from the government, environmental and social restrictions, lack of information about RE in the population, inadequate technology and the high costs associated with RE. Do universities need to develop new courses and qualifications in the field of Renewable Energy? Graphic 6.2 (part 1) – Respondents’ perception of HEIs. Universities need to develop: Graphic 6.2 (part 2) – Respondents’ perception of HEIs.142
    • 2.2 – Staff survey resultsThe findings that follow correspond to the sample drawnfrom all professors and administrators related to RE at theGU.Staff ’s profile shows a small number of teacher-administrators at the top, managing a greater numberof temporary professors heavily loaded with teachingactivities and other full-time jobs.Graphic 6.3 – Main activities and where staff are allocated.The profile of GU teachers’ teaching structure, as is seenin Graphic 6.3, is no different in its basic characteristicsfrom those of other HEIs in Guatemala, with a very smallsegment of teachers with administrative duties at the top 143
    • and a large group of temporary teachers, overwhelmingly in charge of teaching at the bottom. Most of the time, the latter work in other universities and/or dedicate limited time away from their primary job to these activities. Research activities show its absence in this context, as opposed to the teaching approach, which has almost a full-time dedication, with no room for other activities. On the other hand, the recent creation of programs related to RE reveals the fact that few teachers show a long-term connection with the GU and therefore the number of courses taught in the last cycle is lower than the number taught in the most recent cycle. Therefore their insertion as teachers is very recent. Hydroelectric energy generation is the preferred field of work as well as the respondents’ greater interest, followed by biomass, especially in this last instance while both expressed preferences towards attaining these goals with formal education higher degrees. Regarding teachers’ professional development, a shift towards training and education can be seen, when it is contrasted to other areas in the chain of value. This shift in behaviour can be attributed either to their academic background or their interest in these innovations, even when they come from professional areas or sectors different from RE. Among the sectors where teachers said they worked, there is hydraulics, which is highly correlated to the potential in Guatemala in this field, as described before. This preference is also present in the disclosed interest to work, although the biomass sector here is also relevant. Consistent with that, the interest in receiving training is more concentrated in hydropower and biomass, although wind, geothermal and solar thermal energy also get special attention. With respect to curiculum development, according to different forms, more formal degrees, such as Bachelor’s, Master’s or PhD, are preferred; the Technical degree follows these degrees as an option. It is important to observe that this preference is in contrast to the one expressed by participants in the market.144
    • Laboratories, research skills and access to scientificdatabases are urgent requirements, according to therespondents, including greater links with the REindustry and government, not only for learning butalso for funding these activities. In research, there wasa marked preference among respondents towards takingcourses in funding opportunities and research managementcapabilities, compared to fund management as such, whichseems reasonable given that lack of funding is perceived asa main concern regarding RE. There is no need for fundmanagement when there is none in the first place. Amongtraining requirements, the concern over infrastructure againemerges, as well as the right research infrastructure, mainlylaboratories and equipment, as the most perceived need.These results can be observed in Table 6.3.Expanding on the above, access to a scientific database alsocame up very strongly in data not shown here. However,to a lesser extent, significant percentages were also evidentrelated to the need for more collaboration with the REindustry and the ability to be updated in this field. There isalso, in the survey on GU teachers, a concern about research,either funded by the RE market or by government agencies,apart from the need to connect students’ practice with theRE industry through exchanges or internships. 145
    • How would How would you you describe describe your How would your need need to update How would you describe to keep up technical / you describe your need for to date with vocational your need for better researchVariables the major knowledge learning skills infrastructure, technological and skills in of RE curriculum such as changes in your area of development? laboratories and the field of teaching / equipments? renewable researching? energies?Responses f % f % f % f %Veryimportant 4 20 6 30 4 20 11 55needMajor need 6 30 9 45 4 20 4 20Definite 7 35 3 15 6 30 4 20needMinor need 3 15 2 10 5 25 0 0No need 0 0 0 0 1 5 1 5TOTAL 20 100 20 100 20 100 20 100Table 6.3 – Requirements in terms of training and qualification for RE.146
    • How would you How would you How would describe your need describe your you describe for participation in need for more your need networking events in collaboration Variables for access to RE, such as attendance between a scientific at workshops, Universidad database in seminars, conferences Galileo and the RE? and/or field visits to RE industry? the industry?Answer f % f % f %Veryimportant 9 45 5 25 7 35needMajor need 7 35 13 65 8 40Definite 3 15 1 5 5 25needMinor need 1 5 1 5 0 0No need 0 0 0 0 0 0TOTAL 20 100 20 100 20 100Table 6.3 (cont) – Requirements in terms of training and qualification for RE.2.3 – Benchmarking survey resultsData gathered through questionnaires applied to ten differentRE-related departments, institutions and units, equivalentto a census of all efforts made by Guatemalan universities inthe RE field, support this section’s statements. In addition,we visited these universities and one focus group. 147
    • RE’s innovation practices at HEIs in Guatemala mainly started from the year 2007 onwards. These innovations can be seen in graduate and pre-graduate programs. These programs use experienced staff from different areas of knowledge to transfer their know-how to students and teaching staff. Also, since 2007 there has been an attempt at collaboration between public and/or private organizations and existent multidisciplinary programs in the institutions. Other important innovations are planned for the next twenty-four months such as Research Labs financed by productive sector organizations and external cooperation. It is worthwhile to point out that other practices that are more related to basic research and information technologies, such as newly developed registered patents or technologies that allow virtual teams to develop, are not even considered in the near future, emphasizing again the weakness in the research area. Teaching through courses, books and conferences is by far the main approach, rather than research, while geothermal and solar thermal energy sectors are emphasized, followed by other RE sectors. As can be seen in Table 6.4, very little research is done at the universities in RE sectors. However, there is an emphasis, prioritized by respondents. The question required respondents to answer which sectors they considered when teaching or when doing research. Curiously enough, percentages were higher on teaching geothermal and solar thermal energy followed by hydroenergy, windpower, biofuel, biogas and photovoltaic energy. This observation contrasts with priorities around hydropower and biomass, expressed before. On the other hand, biomass and hydrogen/fuel cells remain less mentioned. Nevertheless, consistent with the findings shown above, the products offered through teaching, to reinforce the subject, revolve mainly around course materials, books and printed conferences.148
    • RE policies, strategies and culture or value systems arelittle practised at Guatemalan universities in the contextof low investment efforts. Policies, strategies or valuesinducement are rarely used by Guatemalan universities,and when they are used, results show percentages of 40%.The greater percentages appear when there is a referenceregarding the incorporation of this kind of practice for thefuture, reinforcing the former statement. Data not shownhere, but asked of Guatemalan respondents, confirm thisfinding, with respondents acknowledging that 50% of theseentities do not have a strategic plan and when they do, 50%of respondents find the degree of success in implementingthe strategic plan just ‘fairly fulfilled’ as opposed to ‘highlyfulfilled’. Hydro Type of RE Windpower Biofuel Biomass Biogas energySector f % f % f % f % f %Research 1 10 1 10 0 0 0 0 1 10Teaching 5 50 5 50 3 30 5 50 6 60Teaching and 1 10 2 20 3 30 1 10 2 20researchThere is none 0 0 1 10 2 20 2 20 1 10Doesn’t know 3 30 1 10 2 20 2 20 0 0Total 10 100 10 100 10 100 10 100 10 100Table 6.4 (part 1) – Research and teaching activities by sector. 149
    • Solar Geothermal Photovoltaic Hydrogen/ Type of RE thermal energy energy fuel cells energy Sector f % f % f % F % Research 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 Teaching 8 80 9 90 5 50 2 20 Teaching and 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 research There is none 1 10 1 10 2 20 6 60 Doesn’t know 1 10 0 0 3 30 2 20 Total 10 100 10 100 10 100 10 100 Table 6.4 (part 2) – Research and teaching activities by sector. A final question was asked: ‘Does your entity have a specific budget to invest in RE?’ The data indicates that 70% of those that responded answered ‘No’ to this question. When the respondents were asked to rate the investment in RE as ‘high, low or very low’, 50% of them responded ‘very low’. This observation reinforces previous statements about the place that RE occupies in Guatemalan universities.150
    • 3 – ConclusionsPriorities by sectors, drawn from the responses given, arestraightforward regarding the potential that hydroenergyhas in Guatemala, perhaps followed by biomass. If adifference is to be made in the future, research, teaching andtechnology transfer should concentrate on these sectors.Moreover, if the RE sector is to be modernized, four gapsmust be overcome: „ breaches between the ideal and present reality in the areas of research as opposed to teaching; „ environment in contrast to RE activities; „ specialization as opposed to a multidisciplinary approach; and „ lack of synergies due to poor coordination and networking among the private, public and university sectors in the RE field.Gap between research and teachingThe collected data illustrate this gap, which affects alluniversity activities in Guatemala and, in general, thesestatements may be extended to all developing countries. Inthe RE sector, this gap acquires particular characteristics.This disconnection between the ideal and reality appears inthe university sector when it is seen that the main responsesfrom Guatemalan universities towards this subject havebeen implemented since 2007, precisely when oil pricesbegan to increase to levels never seen before. New practiceshave arisen mainly in the design and implementation ofteaching units. Research and its results are systematicallyleft behind. 151
    • This gap is widened by the following facts: „ the lack of investment in research; „ the absence of laboratories to carry out these activities; „ the lack of specialized personnel who can fulfil quality of education standards when there are requests for teachers to write, do research, and teach; „ the difficulties to access knowledge and other research institutions advancing knowledge in the field; „ the weakness in offering appropriate and updated training; and „ the lack of specialized publications to encourage publishing and debate among scholars. This situation becomes relevant when it is verified that there is almost no connection between universities and the registration of patents, which is the product of the emphasis in research and development in Higher Education Institutions. On the other hand, it reinforces the lack of interest from the private and public sectors and the market in academic contribution. This situation has to be seen in the light of main deficiencies detected in Guatemalan HEIs, which are also affecting the RE sector. In general, the root of the problem is the reliance on temporary teachers who are also working in two or more universities to keep themselves solvent, and/or for the same reason, teachers that engage mainly in other occupations, who regard their involvement at the university just as a complement. This involvement does not provide the stimuli to devote time to research design projects and their implementation.152
    • Gap between RE and environmental studiesThis weakness arises from the study of the curricula ofdifferent programs related to environmental studies, whichshow a lack of connection and synergy with RE-relatedcourses. It also arises from the observation of the activitiesto which the groups related to environment devote theirefforts, compared to those more involved with RE. Therise and fall of the price of oil might be affecting this gap,because the interest in investing in RE is affected; moreinterest is shown when it is high and less when it is low.Furthermore, for those in environmental studies engagedin concerns regarding climate change, atmosphericpollution, sustainable development, social responsibilityconcerning fuel energy use, and preservation of theenvironment, among others, these subjects appear in apermanent and systematic way. These subjects are usuallyraised as warnings to discourage inappropriate behaviour oroversights regarding RE consequences. These characteristicscontrast in their projection and can widen the gap andprevent beneficial synergies between both activities.Gap between specialization and a multidisciplinaryperspectiveThis gap could be related to the previous one becauseboth environmental studies and RE programs incorporatemultiple disciplines. Nevertheless, this gap is wider than thegap between RE and environmental studies, because theRE sector develops in a scenario that requires knowledgeand capabilities that go beyond the ones strictly related toengineering. These other disciplines are more related toinformation technology, economics, sociology, anthropology,political science and law, among others. These courses areoften not shown in the curricula and, when is offered, littleemphasis is placed on them. 153
    • This vacuum is also shown in the data collected in the survey, when limitations are set in regard to the interdisciplinary programs implemented recently, such as: „ collaborations with public and/or private organizations; „ use of qualified personnel in different subject areas; „ RE-related policies and strategies, etc. Consensus is also needed between HEIs requesting new skills and market participants who are more concerned with basic and practical knowledge with less formal education and multidisciplinary influence. Gap among internal bodies within an entity and between these entities and other external ones, jeopardizing co- ordination and networking This observation clearly arises from visits to universities interested in RE, as well as from the results of the focus group. Attempts have been made to create networks that could stimulate coordination. However, coordination, in past experience, has led to problems of competition, as many bodies in the public sector carry out similar activities or duplicate existing ones, and eventually become rivals. Coordination is also complicated by political, academic as well as national changes. The lack of coordination discourages synergy that could move the RE sector forward in the short, medium and long term. The survey also documents the possibilities of collaboration that have not materialized, which would allow a follow-up and a systematic advance in this field. Encounters between154
    • sectors through events of mutual interest, trainings, workshopsor seminars are still too casual and without specific objectivesand time terms.This situation also weakens the financial flow from thegovernment and international cooperation towards theRE sector and universities. The HEIs have not yet realizedthe importance of having an appropriate academic inputfor their own purposes and demands. Although there aresome isolated efforts on RE agreements among universitiesand the public sector, together with the good use of thecompanies’ field for the teaching-learning process ofstudents, these innovations are limited and experimentalwith a low budget allocation. 155
    • Chapter 7 – Latvia1 – Renewable energy market in LatviaThe purpose of the policy regarding state renewable energyresources is to promote their exploitation while respectingthe neighbouring environment and diminishing CO2emissions. The Latvian Ministry of the Environment isresponsible for planning and working out the appropriatebasic documents in the area of renewable energy resources.A bill governing the electric power market was passedin 2005. It is the main normative act that regulates theexploitation and support of renewable energy resources inthe Republic of Latvia. According to the law, the proportionof electric power produced by renewable energy resourceshas to make up 49.3% of electric power consumption in2010.On 24 February, 2009 the Latvian Cabinet issued regulationsno. 198, “Regulations regarding electric power productionutilizing the renewable energy resources, and the rocedureof price determination”. On 10 March, 2009, the LatvianCabinet issued regulation no. 221, “Regulations regardingthe determination of electric power production and pricing,and the production of electric power cogeneration”.They regulate the production line in the field of electricpower and stipulate the following: „ conditions of electric power production, utilizing renewable energy resources; „ criteria in accordance with which the producer of electric power, utilizing renewable energy resources, can obtain the rights to sell the produced electric power in a volume necessary to buy electric power; 157
    • „ criteria in accordance with which producers of electric power at power stations utilizing biomass or biogas with capacity of over 1 MW can obtain rights to get a guaranteed payment for the adjusted electric capacity on the power station; and „ activities to promote electric power production from biomass. The main attainable aims of the renewable energy resources policy are the following: „ electric power, which will be obtained from renewable energy resources in 2010 will compose 49,3% of the total volume of electric power produced; „ specific share of renewable energy resources in the general energy mix is at least 37%; and „ specific share of biodiesel out of all transport fuels will make up 5.75% of market power in 2010. The purpose of the government policy is to achieve the balance between an electric power query and delivery potential from Latvian power stations in 2011 and 2012. To achieve the highest energy efficiency, activities and production by power stations that use local fuel and renewable energy resources in cogeneration and a high- efficiency cycle will be promoted. The remaining necessary part of production will be taken from other kinds of fossil fuel, to prevent the dominance of natural gas.158
    • The support from EU structural funds and the cohesionfund should attract better renewable energy resources forthe use and development of cogeneration stations for theuse biomass. 8.1 million lats from the state budget and 27million Ls from the European structural fund are foreseen toattract investment into biomass cogeneration power stationsby 2016. The renewable energy resources strategy is closelylinked to the introduction of energy efficiency activities,therefore an integrated approach to energy efficiency issuesis included in the policy of renewable energy resources.Utilization of additional renewable energy resources isregulated by the Business Control Law passed in 2002,which stipulates that support for renewable energyproduction amounted to 40% from environmentalprotection activities at facilities in 2005. The BiofuelAct was adopted, which designates the targets for Latviaconcerning the specific share of biofuel – 2% of themarketed energy transport fuel in 2005 and 5.75% in 2010.Researching and teaching renewable energy at RezekneHigher Education InstituteRezekne higher education institute prepares environmentalengineers and specialists in the professional Bachelorof Environmental Science, Master of EnvironmentalProtection and Doctor of Environmental Engineering.Study courses related to renewable energy resources and theiruse are mandatory and included in all these programmes. 159
    • Thus,the professional Bachelor’s Environmental Engineering programme includes the following components, associated with the renewable energy study courses: „ natural resources and technologies for the utilization of natural resources; „ energy and power supply; „ the basics of ecotechnology; and „ forest resources and management technologies. Additional students’ specialization in RE is provided during their practical training and preparation of degree work or theses. There are the following Master’s courses: „ Ecotechnology and industrial ecology; „ Physical and chemical processes in the environment; and „ Biological and biochemical processes in the environment. The courses in natural resources, including renewable resources, are taught in other degree programmes, for example, the course “Natural Resources and Sustainable development” –economic and pedagogical studies. Research at Rezekne Higher Education Institution is based on the Latvian Science Council-approved priorities in science from 2006. The Latvian Council of Science adopted priorities in scientific research for the 2006–2013 period in 2006. There is one related to energy resources out of nine priorities: the electricity industry should provide environmentally friendly renewable energy that is safe and efficient.160
    • The research into renewable resources at Rezekne HigherEducation Institution is concentrated in the nature andengineering departments and the Latgale sustainabledevelopment research institute. This institute is currentlyundertaking complex research: “Extraction, processingand efficient complex utilization of renewable energyecotechnologies”.Currently, research into solar and wind energy exploitationis not carried out at Rezekne Higher Education Institution,while at the level of the Bachelor’s and Master’s researchwork they are handled in the same way as the use of heatpumps. The research into wind and solar energy utilizationfeasibility at Latgale is planned during the next three-yearperiod.Rezekne Higher Education Institution does not onlyconduct research in renewable resources, but also everyother year it organizes the international scientific practicalconference “Environment. Technology. Resources”,containing papers on renewable energy resources and theiruse related to scientific and practical aspects. The conferencematerials are published in the conference paper volumes.The seventh volume of the conference was issued in June2009.2 – The JELARE surveys in LatviaSome important survey resultsThe survey itself was divided into 3 subcategories: „ university benchmarking survey; „ market survey; and „ university (Rezekne Higher Education Institution) staff survey. 161
    • The respondents included four university representatives, twelve companies that work or are planning to work in the renewable energy sector, and ten staff members at Rezekne Higher Education Institution. The next paragraph shows some important survey results obtained in Latvia for each of the aforementioned subcategories. Each graphic represents one of the survey questions. In all the universities, the study process and research are related to environmental science, energy and environmental protection study courses, which include renewable energy topics and have existed since before 2007 (see Graphic 7.1). Graphic 7.1 – How long has there been a focus on RE in the activities and programmes of your university?162
    • Graphic 7.2 shows that interdisciplinary programmesin renewable energy exist and have been developingthe policy and strategy of renewable resourceproblems at 75% of Higher Education Institutions.Graphic 7.2 – What kind of programmes in RE subjects does your universityprovide? 163
    • The degree programmes have dealt with almost all types of renewable energy (see Graphic 7.3). Graphic 7.3 – In which sector of renewable energies does your university have research and/or teaching activities? Taking into account that these types of energy are crucial for Latvia, this work needs to be intensified. Currently 75% of universities state the lack of funding for this research as one of the most serious disincentives to continue their work.164
    • Rezekne Higher Education Institution staff are mostinterested in receiving training in the following renewableenergy technologies: „ windpower; „ biomass; „ solar thermal energy; and „ hydropower (see Graphic 7.4).Graphic 7.4 – In which RE technologies would you be interested in receiving training?Graphics 7.5 and 7.6 show the types and sectors ofenterprises included in the survey.Graphic 7.5 – Type of organization. 165
    • Graphic 7.6 – In which sector does your organization operate? 64% of the companies consider as positive the availability of qualified specialists in renewable energy on the labour market of Latvia (Graphic 7.7). Graphic 7.7 – How do you rate the availability of qualified renewable energy staff on the labour market?166
    • Company survey results show that, despite a 100% interestin corporate use of renewable energy in solving problems,the number of employees that directly deal with renewableenergy issues amounts to only five, including just 16% of thescientific staff (see Graphics 7.8 and 7.9).Graphic 7.8 – How many staff members does your organization employ inthe field of renewable energies?Graphic 7.9 – In which fields of activity, related to renewable energy, do youremployees work? 167
    • The majority of specialists working in the field of renewable energy have an university degree (Graphic 7.10). Graphic 7.10 – What are the professional and educational backgrounds of the employees you recruit in the renewable energy field? At the same time, only 25% of companies feel the need to expand the number of employees in this direction and to predict how many they will need. 42% believe that they have a sufficient number of employees in the field of renewable energy. 42% of companies already predict the need to increase the number of staff (Graphics 7.11 and 7.12). Graphic 7.11 – What future employment trends do you predict for your organization in the field of renewable energy in the short term for the next 2 years?168
    • Graphic 7.12 – What future employment trends do you predict for yourorganization in the field of renewable energy in the medium term for the next5 years?Graphic 7.13 shows that companies are interested in theirown personnel in terms of improving professional skills, butmost of them are considering training from external sources(generally 35%).Graphic 7.13 – Which further training opportunities does your organizationcurrently plan in the field of renewable energy? 169
    • Many businesses also support the need for new technical and multidisciplinary qualifications (Graphic 7.14). Graphic 7.14 – Which new qualifications in the field of renewable energy do you think will be required of your employees in the future? In addition, the main motivation for acquiring new qualifications is innovation (product and process). Graphic 7.15 – What are the drivers for new qualification in the field of renewable energy requirements at your organization?170
    • The companies consider that renewable energy problem-solving is of great importance to external factors suchas appropriate legislation, public policies and initiatives.Almost all companies are convinced that the specialistfield of renewable energy is necessary to develop newcourses and to develop new qualifications (Graphics 7.16and 7.17).Graphic 7.16 – Do universities need to develop new courses and qualificationsin the field of renewable energy?Graphic 7.17 – Which new courses and qualifications in the field ofrenewable energy do universities have to develop? 171
    • The companies primarily expect specialist skills, research and innovation from university activities (see Graphic 7.18). Graphic 7.18 – What do you expect from the Higher Education Institutions in the Renewable Energy sector? Consequently, the companies need to offer forms of co- operation with universities, including joint research, consultancy, monitoring and evaluation (see Graphic 7.19). Graphic 7.19 – What types of services offered by HEIs would you be interested in using?172
    • Each company has its own vision of services shown inGraphic 7.19. Table 7.1 gives a more detailed look at specificservices required by the companies. Services offered by HEI Relevant topic „ Comparative research results in RE area; „ Energy plants; Joint research and „ Participation in the 7th framework programme development projects – new technologies in RE for production process optimization; „ Processes, technology, optimization. „ Overview of different technologies and possibilities to use them in Latvia; Technology transfer „ Only if HEI staff are more qualified than other Latvian experts; „ Processes, technology, optimization. „ Possibilities to use biomass production scheme in Latvia; Consultancy, advisory service „ When something is not clear; „ Only if HEI staff are more qualified than other Latvian experts. „ Professional evaluation of energy plants; Monitoring, evaluation „ If it pays off. „ Discussion groups, conferences; Providing access to latest knowledge „ Scientific evaluation and explanation of possibilities to use latest RE technologies. „ Common database for partners in RE area; Linking with business or „ Exchange of experience; research partners „ Hydrology area. Table 7.1 – What types of services offered by HEIs would you be interested in using? 173
    • A major motive for academic and performance improvement, together with business expansion, is the fact that 50% of companies valued university activities in renewable energy as an area of non-market requirements, and no one believes that universities are at the forefront of market requirements. Graphic 7.20 – How up to date do you think the HEIs are in terms of RE? The major answers obtained from the question “What do you regard as the major challenges for the wider application of RE in your country?” are as follows: „ co-operation between companies, integrated government policy, lack of clear guidelines and stimulation of development; „ no support for RE projects, corruption, lack of integrated government policy and support; „ lobbying of gas, lack of integrated government policy; „ chaos and contradictions in legislation in the recent years, no support from the government, things are getting a little better now;174
    • „ lack of integrated government policy and support for entrepreneurship; „ political and economic situation; „ economic crisis, EU funding; and „ bureaucracy.3 – ConclusionsSurvey results demonstrate that all organizations, such aspublic institutions, enterprises and universities – focus onrenewable energy. In all universities, the study process orresearch are related to environmental science, energy andenvironmental protection study courses, which includerenewable energy topics and have existed since before 2007.Interdisciplinary programmes in renewable energy exist andhave been developing the policy and strategy of renewableresource problems at 75% of Higher Education Institutions.The degree programmes have been dealt with almost alltypes of renewable energy. Students have been developingpapers and projects related to those particular resources.Taking into account that these types of energies are crucialfor Latvia, this work needs to be intensified. Currently 75%of universities state the lack of funding for this research asone of the most serious disincentives to continue their work.Company survey results show that, despite a 100% interestin corporate use of renewable energy in solving problems,the number of employees that directly deal with renewableenergy issues amounts to only five, including just 16% of thescientific staff. 175
    • At the same time, only 25% of companies feel the need to expand the number of employees in this direction and to predict how many they will need, 42% believe that they have a sufficient amount of employees in the field of renewable energy. 42% of companies already predict the need to increase the number of staff. Companies are interested in their own personnel improve professional skills, but most of them are considering training with an external support. Many businesses also support the need for new technical and multidisciplinary qualifications. In addition, the main motivation for acquiring new qualifications is innovation (product and process). Companies consider that renewable energy problem- solving is of great importance to external factors such as appropriate legislation, public policies and initiatives. Almost all companies are convinced that the specialist field of renewable energy is necessary to develop new courses as well as new qualifications. Companies primarily expect specialist skills, research and innovation from university activities. Consequently, companies need to offer forms of co-operation with universities including joint research, consultancy, monitoring and evaluation. A major motive for academic and performance improvement, together with business expansion, is the fact that 50% of companies valued university activities in renewable energy as an area of non-market requirements, and no one believes that universities are at the forefront of market requirements. Currently, government has actively committed to the legislation and regulatory aspects of renewable energy resources. Survey results also demonstrate that it is necessary to stimulate higher and technical education in renewable energy, as so to provide a link between education and the renewable energy industry.176
    • Chapter 8 – JELARE survey reports: main variables8.1 – Questionnaire 1: market survey reportThis section concerns the illustration and analysis ofthe comparative results regarding the application ofQuestionnaire 1 in the countries of the JELARE project.General information about the organizationWhat typeof organization do you work for?Most of the surveyed organizations are private. The highestconcentration of private organizations, 88%, is in Chile, andthe lowest, 34%, in Latvia. Brazil is the only country amongthe surveyed organizations that does not have governmentalagencies. Latvia has the highest concentration, with 33%, andChile the lowest, with 6%. The highest distribution amongthe answers is in Latvia, which has the highest percentage ofnon-governmental organizations, 25%. The lowest, 4%, is inGuatemala. 177
    • In which sector does your organization operate? In Brazil, Guatemala and Bolivia the organizations work in nine different sectors; in Germany, Latvia and Chile, in five sectors. In Chile, Guatemala and Bolivia more than half of the researched institutions operate in the renewable energy sectors; in Germany 43% and only 20% in Latvia and Brazil. In the latter, there is a higher dispersion, with nine sectors presenting frequency higher than 5%. The organizations which operate in the non-renewable energy sector (oil and gas industries) represent, on average, 15% of the surveyed organizations. This sector presents the second highest percentages in all of the surveyed countries, with two exceptions: Brazil, where transport occupies the position with 11% and Chile, where 70% of the organizations operate in the field of non-renewable energies.178
    • Is your organization interested in the development ofrenewable energy-related projects?More than 90% of the organizations are interested in developingrenewable energy-related projects in Brazil, Bolivia, Chile andGuatemala. In Latvia, all the organizations are interested inRE-related projects. In Germany, all organizations in thesample already work with RE. 179
    • In which sector of renewable energies does your organization operate (part 1)? In which sector of renewable energies does your organization operate (part 2)?180
    • Among the RE sectors in which the organizations alreadyoperate, Germany seems to be advanced, showing percentagesequal to or higher than 10% in all surveyed sectors, mainlyin windpower and biogas, with which 80% and 50% of theorganizations operate respectively. Chile is the only othercountry with more than 10%.In which sector of renewable energies does your organizationplan to operate (part 1)? 181
    • In which sector of renewable energies does your organization plan to operate (part 2)? However, the percentages of organizations that intend to operate in renewable energy-related areas in Brazil, Bolivia, Chile and Guatemala are much higher than in Germany. In Latvia, few organizations already operate in renewable energy sectors. The highest frequency sector is biomass, with 26%. Oddly enough, however, the organizations in Latvia do not show interest in the sector. 11% of the organizations plan to operate in the windpower segment, the highest percentage. In Brazil, biogas is the main sector of interest to the organizations, with 19%, followed by biofuels, biomass and windpower, all with 15%. In the Bolivian and Guatemalan organizations, the segment of the highest interest is windpower, with 40% and 33% respectively. In Chile, it is estimated that half of the organizations perform in hydropower and windpower, and the geothermal sector is the most desirable (50%), followed by photovoltaic energy, with 42%.182
    • In which segment of the renewable energy value chaindoes your organization operate?In which segment of the renewable energy value chaindoes your organization plan to operate? 183
    • The segments of the renewable energy value chain in which there are the highest concentration of organizations operating are planning, project management and marketing. This does not occur only in Guatemala, where education and training present the highest percentage, and in Latvia, where the highest frequency of answers is for the research and development segment. In Germany, maintenance and repair segments are also the most frequently mentioned, with 45%, along with planning. Among the German and Latvian organizations, there is a low frequency of answers about the planning of which segment they should operate in. Operation and management is the highest percentage sector, with 18%, and, in Germany and Latvia, the preferred segment is education and training, with 7%. For the future, the highest proportion of organizations in Brazil, 15%, plan to operate in the segment of inspection and certification. In Guatemala, 21% of the organizations intend to enter into the planning, project management and marketing segment. In Chile, the goal of 17% of the surveyed organizations is to operate in the research and development segment. And in Bolivia, the operation in the energy trade is part of the plans of 22% of the organizations.184
    • How does your organization develop projects related torenewable energy?Only in Germany is self-development is the most commonmethod to develop renewable energy-related projects;among the German organizations surveyed, approximately70% use this procedure. In Chile, 67% of the organizationsdevelop both individual and joint projects. In Chile, 58%of the researched institutions use the three researchedmethods.The most common method in Brazil, Latvia and Bolivia isjoint development. 60%, 50% and 40% of the organizationsrespectively carry out this procedure. Tercerization ispractised by 52% of the Guatemalan organizations in thedevelopment of renewable energy projects. 185
    • What was your organization’s turnover in 2008? In Guatemala and Latvia, more than half of the organizations did not reveal their 2008 turnover. In Bolivia, the revenue of 23% of the organizations was up to €50,000, the highest rate for this income range among the countries surveyed. Guatemala follows, with 7% of the organizations with up to €50,000 of revenue. Nearly 60% of the Chilean organizations presented results above the €10 million. In Germany, 41% obtained a turnover higher than €10 million, with the same percentage of no- responses. It is estimated that 14% of the Guatemalan organizations reached this financial result. In Brazil, 14% obtained over €10 million of turnover in 2008. In Latvia, none of the organizations confirmed that they achieved more that €10 million, and the highest frequency ranged from €100,000 to €200,000.186
    • What was your organization’s turnover resultingfrom the renewable energy segment in 2008?In relation to the turnover resulting from the segmentof renewable energies, Germany presents the highestpercentage among the organizations, with revenue of over€10 million, equivalent to 27%. Brazil and Chile followGermany, with around 25%; and finally, Guatemala, with13%, and Bolivia, with 3% of the organizations.Once more, not many replies were received. In Latvia,86% of the organizations did not report their income. InBrazil and Guatemala, this percentage was higher thanfor the half of the surveyed organizations. In Bolivia, thepercentage of non-responses was 47%, in Chile, 42% and inGermany, 36%. Only in Brazil did no organization presentturnover lower than €100,000 in the renewable energy field.In Bolivia, 27% of the organizations involved in researchobtained revenue below €100,000 in 2008. 187
    • In Bolivia, 27% of the organizations researched obtained turnover below €100,000, and in Guatemala, 16%, while in Germany 9% of the organizations presented results below €50,000 in the segment. In Chile, 25% of the organizations did not have any turnover in the renewable energy segment, and none of the organizations that obtained revenue made less than $2 million. Collaborators’ capacitation and qualification What is the total number of co-workers in your organization (part 1)?188
    • What is the total number of co-workers in your organization(part 2)?In Chile, over 50% of the organizations have more than 500co-workers. In Brazil, the number falls to 33%. Germanyand Guatemala follow, with 25% and 18% respectively andthen Latvia, with 8%. Bolivia does not have any organizationwith more than 500 employees in the research field. Amongthe organizations with up to five collaborators, Germanyand Latvia show the highest percentage (25%), followed byBolivia (27%) and Brazil and Guatemala (approximately12%). 189
    • What is the total number of co-workers in RE in your organization (part 1)? What is the total number of co-workers in RE in your organization (part 2)?190
    • The organizations with up to five collaboratorsrepresent 86% of the Latvian organizations, 48% of thesurveyed organizations in Bolivia and 43% in Brazil. InGermany and Guatemala these organizations representapproximately 30%, whereas in Chile it is 25%. 8% of theGerman and Guatemalan organizations have more than500 co-employees in the renewable energy area. Amongthe Brazilian organizations, this percentage is 7%. Noorganization surveyed in Bolivia and Chile has more than500 collaborators.What is the availability of qualified professionals forthe renewable energy area in the labour market?Through the analysis of the results, it is possible to observethat among the surveyed countries, it is Latvia where theavailability of qualified renewable energy professionalis perceived by organizations to be highest. 46% of the 191
    • organizations surveyed in Latvia evaluate the labour force as sufficient for renewable energy. However, the highest rate of organizations stating that there are no professionals available for the area is found in Chile with 17%. In Germany, half of the organizations surveyed consider the number of qualified professionals as low. Yet in Brazil and Guatemala, it is estimated that 47% of the organizations evaluate the professional availability for the renewable energy area as insufficient. In Chile, the proportion of organizations considering the availability of professionals to be enough is equal to the proportion of the organizations that believe otherwise. In which area of renewable energy do your employees work? Among the Chilean organizations, around 30% of the employees operate in the management and research and development sector. In Germany, most of the surveyed collaborators (18%) work in the management. Around 10% of the workforce in Guatemala, Bolivia and Latvia and around 15% in Brazil operate in this segment. The highest192
    • concentration of employees (25%) is in the productionsegment in Guatemala. This division represents 15% of theBolivian, 9% of the Brazilian and 4% of the German andLatvian workforce. Around 17% of the collaborators fromthe surveyed organizations operate in the sales segment inBolivia. In the other countries, between 9% and 10% workin that segment.What is the qualification level of the professionals recruited inthe area of renewable energy in your organization?Concerning the qualifications of the professionals hiredfor the renewable energy area, Bolivia and Guatemalapresented very similar responses. In both countries, 45%of the researched organizations recruited professionalswith technical qualifications. In Latvia, 64% of the hiredprofessionals have a university degree. In the other countries,this rate is around 45%, except for Chile, where it is 83%.People with qualifications in the business area represent21% of the professionals recruited in the Brazilian andGerman organizations, 12% in Latvia and 9% in Boliviaand Guatemala. 193
    • What are the mechanisms used by the organization to recruit professionals in the renewable energy area? In all the countries, the most common selection method is direct recruiting. In all of the countries it is used in more than 50% of the researched organizations.194
    • What are the main dificulties faced in choosing qualifiedprofessionals in the renewable energy area?According to the results, the only surveyed country whereit is not difficult to select qualified professionals is Latvia,stated by 62% of their organizations. In the other countries,the main difficulty is the lack of qualified technicalspecialization and few candidates. 195
    • In terms of recruiting, what are the perspectives for your organization in the renewable energy area in the short term (next 2 years)? For the next two years, most organizations from Brazil and Guatemala have positive perspectives in relation to the employment of professionals. In Germany, Bolivia and Latvia, it looks like the level of recruitment will remain constant. In Chile, the same percentage (42%) believes that the number of professionals to work in RE will remain constant and positive.196
    • In terms of recruiting, what are the perspectives for yourorganization in the renewable energy area in the medium term(next 5 years)?In the medium term, most organizations believe there is apositive outlook for professional recruitment. 197
    • Market requirements and needs Which training modalities does your organization plan for the renewable energy field? In relation to the planning of the training modality to be offered in the renewable energy field, the answers are very diverse. In Latvia, the highest concentration of answers indicate that training sessions are not needed. The organizations in all surveyed countries in general plan to use mainly on-the-job training, training with external support and continuing education in HEIs.198
    • Concerning future capacitations, what actions will youimplement for your professionals?The strengthening of employees’ qualifications is integratedinto the plans of most of the surveyed organizations, inparticular in Guatemala and Brazil, where 59% and 41%respectively intend to focus on capacitation. In Chile andBolivia, 75% and 45% of the organizations respectivelyimplemented actions for the acquisition of new technicalqualifications. Similar statistics are found in the othercountries too. 199
    • What drives for new qualifications does your organization need? Among the surveyed organizations, around 21% believe they need product innovations. The proportion of organizations that need new qualifications in process innovation account for 30% in Guatemala and approximately 25% in Germany and Bolivia. In Chile and Latvia, ‘Changes in the regulatory milestone is the most important requirement from the organizations’ standpoint. Additionally, some of Brazilian organizations state that they need more financial incentive from the government.200
    • Should universities develop new courses and qualifications inthe renewable energy field?The majority of the surveyed organizations in all countriesbelieve that the universities need to develop new renewableenergy-oriented courses. None of the countries returned anaffirmative response rate of less than 75%. 201
    • Affirmative cases: More than 60% of the organizations believe that the universities must develop additional qualifications to complement education. This is the model in all of the countries except for Brazil, where there is a similarity between the number of organizations that believe the universities should develop new qualifications and the ones that believe the HEIs should develop new professional profiles.202
    • The role of the Higher Education InstitutionsWhat do you expect from the Higher Education Institutions inthe renewable energy sector?From the organizations surveyed in Germany, Chile andGuatemala, the highest percentage expects the HEIs tooffer training and education in relation to the renewableenergy sector. In Bolivia, this expectation is also high, placingequal importance on basic research and development. Thislast expectation is found mainly among the Brazilianorganizations. In Latvia, the main expectation of theorganizations in the HEIs in the renewable energy field isbasic innovation. 203
    • What types of services offered by the Higher Education Institutions would your organization be interested in using? The service that most attracts the surveyed organizations is, in general, technology transfer. This service showed higher response rates in Germany, Brazil, Chile and Guatemala. Nevertheless, in Brazil and Chile, joint research and development also interests the same percentage of organizations. Joint research is the most interesting service for the organizations in Bolivia. And in Latvia, the organizations look for consultancy and advice from the HEIs.204
    • Do you consider that the Higher Education Institutions, interms of renewable energy, are...In all the surveyed countries, at least 50% of the organizationsconsider that the HEIs are behind the market requirements.At this point, particular attention should be given to Bolivia,where 93% of the organizations see this gap between themarket and the HEIs. In Germany, the respondents aredivided almost equally between organizations that believethe HEIs are updated, and those that believe that they fallbehind. 6% of Brazilian organizations affirm that the HEIsare ahead of the market. 205
    • 8.2 – Questionnaire 2: staff survey report This section concerns the illustration and analysis of the comparative results regarding the application of Questionnaire 2 in the countries of the JELARE project. Due to different forms of presenting the information, some graphics have not been included in this report. What is your current position within your HEI? Most of the staff interviewed in Chile work in research. In Germany, Guatemala and Latvia, the highest representativity is among the professionals in the teaching area. In Brazil and in Bolivia, there is a great dispersion in the responses, and it is not possible to characterize an area that is most representative. What type of HEI or department are you currently working in? Only in Chile and Guatemala were there professionals who operated directly with renewable energies – on MSc courses in both countries. In Brazil, most professionals work in engineering HEIs. In Latvia, the highest concentrations are in agriculture and engineering. In Bolivia, engineering is also one of the most frequently mentioned areas, together with economy and social sciences. In Germany, they were not concentrated in any specific area.206
    • Which of the following options best describes your currentposition within your HEI?Research and development is the area with the highestfrequency of responses in Germany, Bolivia and Latvia. InBrazil, there is again a high concentration in the engineeringfield, this time in electrical engineering. In Guatemala, theplanning and education areas represent the highest responserate. 207
    • Which of the RE sectors are you working / interested in (part 1)? Which of the RE sector are you working / interested in (part 2)?208
    • Windpower is the busiest renewable energy sector in termsof professional performance or interest in Germany, Bolivia,Chile and Latvia. The top position is shared with the biomassand photovoltaic sectors in Germany and Chile. In Brazil,solar energy is the busiest, with 27% of the professionalsengaged or interested in the area. In Guatemala, hydropowerhas the highest percentage, with 33% of employees.Which of the following options best describes the durationof your academic experience in renewable energies?In Chile and Guatemala, most of the surveyed professionalshave less than five years of academic experience in therenewable energies. 75% of the Brazilian professionalswho participated in the survey have less than nine years ofexperience. In Latvia, 40% of the employees are senior, withmore that ten years of experience. In Bolivia, the responseswere balanced, the three options – junior, expert and senior– represented 22% of the professionals. 209
    • How long have you been researching renewable energies? This question does not apply to most respondents in Brazil and Bolivia. Among the respondents, 25% of the Brazilian professionals and 40% of the Latvian professionals have been developing curricula in RE for more than ten years. In Bolivia, 44%, in Guatemala, 55% and in Chile 57% of the professionals have been developing curricula for less than five years. How long have you been researching renewable energy? In all the countries in the survey, most professionals have less than five years of experience in renewable energy research. However in Latvia, 40% of the professionals have less than five years of experience and 40% have more than ten years of experience.210
    • Training needsWould you be interested in being trained in RE technologies(part 1)?Would be interested in being trained in RE technologies(part 2)? 211
    • Most professionals in all surveyed countries are interested in receiving training in RE technologies. In Germany and Bolivia, the highest interest in training is, according to the employees, the biomass area. For the other countries it is distributed as follows: solar energy in Brazil; hydropower in Guatemala; geothermal power in Chile and windpower in Latvia. Would you be interested in receiving capacitation in curricula development in RE? More than 80% of the employees in Brazil, Bolivia and Guatemala are interested in receiving capacitation in curricula development in renewable energies. In Latvia, there is a 50:50 split between those professionals who are and who are not interested in receiving that kind of training. In Germany and Chile, more than half of the employees are not interested.212
    • The types of capacitation that appeal most strongly to theprofessionals are: the MSc (university Masters degree) inBolivia, Germany and Guatemala; the Bachelor degree inLatvia; and joint programmes with international institutionsin Chile. In Brazil, some professionals are interested inshort-term capacitation courses and others in seminars andcongresses.Would you be interested in receiving training in thedevelopment of teaching modules in RE?In Bolivia, Chile and Guatemala, more than half of theprofessionals who participated in the survey are interested inreceiving training to develop teaching modules in renewableenergies. In Latvia and Germany, 90% and 70% respectivelyare not interested in this kind of training, and in Brazil thenumber of employees interested in training is the same asthe number who are not interested in it. 213
    • Would you be interested in receiving capacitation in research management in RE? In all six countries, most professionals showed interest in qualifying in research management for funding. In addition, in Guatemala many stated they would also want to receive capacitation in management in research, and in Latvia in the management of research funding.214
    • Requirements in terms of training and qualificationfor REHow do you assess your needs regarding the update oftechnical knowledge in your teaching/research area?According to Brazil, Bolivia and Chile, the need to updatetechnical knowledge in their teaching/research area issignificant, whereas most professionals in Germany,Guatemala and Latvia responded that they needed updatingin technical knowledge. 215
    • How do you assess your requirements for updates due to technological changes in RE? Most employees in Brazil, Bolivia, Guatemala and Latvia define the requirements for updates due to technological changes in the renewable energy field as quite necessary. Yet in Germany, 44% responded that this is a defined necessity, and in Chile 57% of the professionals define the requirement for updating expertise due to technological changes as very important.216
    • How do you assess your needs with regards to developingskills in curricula elaboration in RE?Most surveyed professionals in Brazil, Bolivia and Chile rankthe need to develop skills in the elaboration of curricula inrenewable energies as quite necessary. In Latvia, it is rankedas less necessary, whereas in Guatemala and Germany30% rank it as a defined necessity. The same percentage ofGermans consider it unnecessary. 217
    • How do you assess your needs in research infrastructure (laboratories and equipment) in RE? Only in Brazil the need for improved infrastructure in research (laboratories and equipments) in renewable energies is regarded as quite necessary by most professionals. In the other countries, most respondents define that necessity as very important.218
    • How do you assess the requirement for you to have accessto a database in RE?In Brazil and in Chile, approximately 70% of the employeesconsider the need to access a database in renewable energiesas important. In Germany and Latvia, around 40% of theprofessionals evaluate this necessity as defined, whereas inChile and Bolivia they find it very important. 219
    • What are your requirements for events in the renewable energy area (workshops, seminars, conferences and field visits to companies and industries in the area)? In Brazil, Bolivia and Guatemala, more than half of the surveyed professionals evaluate the need to participate in events in the RE area as important. In the other countries needs in this area are assessed as undefined.220
    • How would you describe the necessity for better interactionbetween your HEI and the RE market?Most professionals in Bolivia, Guatemala and Latviadescribe a closer interaction between their HEIs and themarket of renewable energies as important. In Germanyand Chile, most professionals consider it very important.In Brazil, half of the professionals rank it as very importantand the other half as important. 221
    • Specify what kind of training would be more suitable to meet your needs in the renewable energy area? Distinct responses. Improving the interaction between your HEI and the renewable energy market From your standpoint, must this relationship be enhanced in your HEI? In all the surveyed countries, 90% or more professionals believe that the relationship between HEIs and the renewable energy market must be strengthened.222
    • How do you assess the need for more market-orientedacademic programmes?The necessity of more market-oriented academicprogrammes are ranked as very important by 50% of theBrazilian professionals. 40% in Germany and Chile rankedthem as defined. In Bolivia, such programmes are consideredto be important by more than half of the interviewedprofessionals, and in Latvia, 40% rank the need as definedwhilst the same percentage consider it an important need. 223
    • How do you assess need for exchange programmes between the HEI and RE market? Professionals in Brazil, Guatemala and Chile are divided as follows: the ones who consider exchange programmes between the HEIs and the RE to be important, and those who consider them very important. In Latvia, some consider them very important, while some consider them a defined need. Most professionals in Germany and Bolivia estimate this kind of action as important.224
    • How do you assess the need for partnerships between theHEI and RE market with the aim of sharing knowledge ?Around 40% of respondents in Germany, Guatemala andLatvia rank the partnerships between the HEIs and the REmarket as important as regards knowledge transfer. This isalso the evaluation of all the Brazilian professionals, and of90% of Bolivian professionals. In Chile the responses aredisperse. 225
    • How do you assess the need for company-sponsored RE applied research conducted within the HEI? Only in Germany was the practice of RE applied research, conducted within the HEIs and funded by enterprises, ranked as important by the majority of the surveyed professionals. In all of the other countries it was considered as very important by more than 40%.226
    • How do you assess the need for government-sponsored REapplied research conducted within the HEI?In Brazil, 75% of the professionals assess the practice of REapplied research conducted within the HEIs and fundedby government agencies as important or very important.Most professionals in Bolivia, Germany and Latvia assessthis practice as very important. More than half of theprofessionals from Guatemala and Chile evaluate thispractice as important. 227
    • How do you assess the need for a higher number of RE internship vacancies for students in the companies? An increase in the number of internships in the RE area for students is considered very important by 70% of the professionals in Latvia and 40% of the professionals in Guatemala. In Germany and Chile, at least half of the interviewed consider this need as defined, and among the Brazilian and Bolivian professionals, 50% and 40% respectively consider it an important necessity.228
    • How do you assess the need for continuous monitoring inpeople management due to technological changes and tothe socio-economic environment?The continuous monitoring in the people management is apractice ranked as very important by most of the interviewedprofessionals in Bolivia, Guatemala and Chile.In Germany, 42% of the professionals evaluated themonitoring as a defined necessity for the HEIs. 37% of theprofessionals in Brazil and 40% in Latvia share the sameopinion. The same percentages represent the professionalsthat in Brazil and Latvia, respectively, estimate thecontinuous monitoring as very important and important. 229
    • 8.3 – Questionnaire 3: benchmarking survey report This section concerns the illustration and analysis of the comparative results regarding the application of Questionnaire 3 in the countries of the JELARE project. Renewable energy at university Do you have teaching programmes (undergraduate and postgraduate) in the RE field? The focus of the institutions occurs through undergraduate and postgraduate programmes in all the surveyed universities in Latvia since before 2007. In Germany, Bolivia and Guatemala, most institutions also have these programmes, while in Brazil only 12% of the institutions have had the programmes since before 2007, and 75% of the institutions do not use this tool.230
    • Do you have research projects on RE with foreign investment?Research projects on renewable energies with foreign fundingare a common practice in most institutions in Germany andLatvia. In Brazil, half of the surveyed HEIs are involved inthese projects. 60% of the institutions teaching research inBolivia do not utilize this practice and in Chile the figurecomes to 80%. In Guatemala, however, there is an identicaldistribution among all the response options. 231
    • Do you have research laboratories funded by organizations from the manufacturing sector? It is only in Germany and Brazil that most HEIs use research laboratories funded by organizations from the manufacturing sector in the renewable energy area. In Latvia, half of the institutions have such laboratories, and, in Guatemala, half intend to establish them within the next two years. No research institutions in Bolivia or Chile have research laboratories funded by organizations from the manufacturing sector in the RE area.232
    • Do you have partnerships with national and internationalnetworks for research on RE?In all the countries surveyed, at least 60% of the HEIs havepartnerships with national and international networks forresearch in renewable energies, except for Brazil, whereonly 25% of the institutions have such partnerships, andmore than half do not use them or do not know how toanswer. In Chile, 17% of the organizations have this kindof partnership. 233
    • Have you registered patents or new technologies? The registration of patents or new technologies in the RE field is only observed in the German (60%), Latvian (75%) and Bolivian (20%) institutions. In Guatemala, 20% of the institutions plan to do it, but 80% do not know the procedure or do not use it. The same percentage occurs in Bolivia. In Brazil and Chil,e none of the institutions are familiar with or use the patent register in the renewable energy field.234
    • Do you collaborate in work by project teams that areseparated geographically (“virtual teams”)?The use of virtual teams in renewable energies is commononly in Germany, Chile and Latvia. In Brazil, Bolivia andGuatemala, most institutions are not familiar with or do notuse this tool. 235
    • Does your institution have interdisciplinary programmes on RE? Interdisciplinary programmes on renewable energies are provided by most institutions in all the countries in the survey, but only in Brazil and Chile are they not used in most teaching institutions. In Chile, only 25% of the HEIs offer these programmes and the same percentage of institutions plan to have them implemented in Brazil, where there are currently no interdisciplinary programmes on RE.236
    • Do you partake in collaborative work with public andprivate organizations?All of the surveyed institutions in Latvia and Germanycollaborate on work in partnership with private and publicorganizations. In the other countries, at least 75% of theorganizations also do this kind of work. 237
    • Do you provide advice and training? The provision of formal advice and training is common in the teaching institutions in Chile, Latvia and Guatemala. In Bolivia, 40% use this practice and 20% plan to introduce it in the next two years. In Germany, none of the HEIs are familiar with this kind of practice or utilize it, and in Brazil, 75% of the institutions responded in the same way as Germany.238
    • Do you share expertise from different scientific areas forknowledge transfer to students and new co-workers?The sharing of expertise from distinct scientific areas forknowledge transfer to students and new co-workers is donein all the teaching institutions surveyed in Latvia and 60%of the institutions in Guatemala. In Germany and Chile,half of the institutions do it, while the other half is notfamiliar with it or does not do it. In Brazil, once more, mostHEIs state that they do not do it or are not familiar withsuch a practice. 239
    • Do you offer scholarships and incentives in the RE area? In Chile, half of the teaching institutions offer scholarships and incentives in studies in the RE field. In the other countries, this result is lower than 40%. In Bolivia, there is an extreme situation, with none of the Bolivian HEIs offering scholarships or incentives. In Germany and Guatemala more than 60% are in the same situation. In Brazil, 62% of the institutions intend to offer such incentives within the next two years.240
    • Do you provide external training to capacitate collaborators,aiming at updating knowledge resulting from technologicalchanges in RE?External training for the capacitation of collaborators,aiming at updating expertise due to technological changesin renewable energies is done in at least half of the teachinginstitutions in Guatemala, Chile and Latvia, while in Braziland Bolivia at least half of the HEIs do not do it or are notfamiliar with it. It could be observed that the most commonsystem used by the institutions is to carry out work incooperation with public and/or private organizations. Thescholarship and incentive programmes are the least used bythe teaching institutions from the surveyed countries. 241
    • Do you have policies for renewable energies? Since before 2007, more than half of the teaching institutions in Latvia and Bolivia have had policies regarding renewable energies. In Germany, half of the institutions have had policies since before that, and in Chile and Guatemala, 25% and 10% of the institutions respectively have policies. As from 2007, 50% of the HEIs in Germany started engaging in renewable energy policies. In Chile this happened in 25% of the institutions, and in Guatemala, in 30%. In Brazil, there are no teaching institutions that have followed renewable energy policies before or after 2007. However, 25% plan to adopt a RE policy within the next two years.242
    • Do you have strategies for renewable energies?There have been strategies for renewable energies sincebefore 2007 in 75% of the Latvian and German institutions,and in 80% of the Bolivian ones. In Chile and Guatemala,25% and 20% of the institutions respectively have hadstrategies since before that. Nowadays, all institutionsin Bolivia and Germany have strategies in renewableenergies. In Brazil, 75% of the HEIs state that they do notuse or are not familiar with them. 243
    • Do you apply a policy of values and organizational culture which promotes RE? Generally speaking, the most common policy among the teaching institutions is organizational values and a culture which promotes renewable energies. At least 50% of the institutions in Germany, Bolivia, Chile and Latvia adopted it before 2007. In Guatemala, this percentage falls to 30%, and 20% began to adopt such a policy after 2007. In Brazil, none of the institutions had any policy to promote renewable energies before, but 37% of the institutions adopted one after 2007.244
    • Do you use knowledge about RE obtained through othermarket sources, such as companies and organizations?The use of renewable energy expertise obtained throughother market sources, such as enterprises and organizations,is a common practice in all teaching institutions in Germany,Bolivia and Chile. In Germany, however, all institutionshave used this method since before 2007, whereas in Boliviathe percentage is 60%, and in Chile 50% started to use thisknowledge after 2007. In Guatemala, the use of RE know-how obtained through other market sources is a commonpractice. Since before 2007, 75% of the teaching institutionsin Latvia have used that method, and in Brazil the samepercentage ignores or does not use this type of know-how. 245
    • Do you use RE knowledge obtained through research institutions? Know-how obtained from research institutions has been used by all surveyed institutions in Germany and Latvia since before 2007. In Brazil and Chile, half of the institutions present the same characteristics, and in Bolivia, the rate is 60%. In Guatemala, only 10% of the HEIs have used this know-how since before 2007 and from that year on, 40% started to use it.246
    • Do you use supply investments to obtain external know-how in RE?The investment reserve is not frequent among the surveyedinstitutions, although in Latvia, half of the HEIs adopt thepractice. For the other countries, the highest concentrationof responses were “Not currently available” or “Don’t know”.In Chile, 100% stated that they are not familiar with thepractice. 247
    • Do you use information technology (Internet) to obtain external knowledge about RE? Internet is a very popular tool for RE knowledge acquisition in all surveyed countries. More than 60% use the Internet for this purpose.248
    • Do you encourage collaborators to participate in projectteams or conferences with external experts?The motivation for employees to participate in project teamswith external expertise is common in half of the organizationsin Germany and in Brazil. In Chile, Guatemala and Latvia,more than 70% use this policy, while the rate for Bolivia is40%. 249
    • Is there any practice or initiative in RE used by your university that is not included in the questionnaire? None of the teaching institutions in Brazil and Latvia use any other kinds of practices or initiatives in the renewable energy area other than those mentioned above. In Germany and Chile, the rate is 75%, and 60% for Guatemala. 80% of the institutions in Bolivia use other kinds of practices and initiatives not included in the previous questions.250
    • In which sector of the RE area does your university conductresearch activities (part 1)?In which sector of the RE area does your university conductresearch activities (part 2)? 251
    • In which sector of the RE area does your university conduct teaching activities (part 1)? In which sector of the RE area does your university conduct teaching activities (part 2)?252
    • In Chile and Germany, institutions focus more on theteaching than research, contrary to what happens in Latviaand Guatemala. In Brazil and Bolivia, both areas are wellbalanced.Windpower, biofuels and hydropower are the most studiedareas in Chile at the same time as solar thermal energy isthe most researched one.In Latvia, there is no one sector that is more intensivelyresearched or taught, and the percentage of responses areidentical in many sectors. Windpower, biogas, geothermalenergy, solar energy and biofuels are researched by half ofthe surveyed universities in Latvia. All sectors included inthe survey are taught by 25% of the Latvian universities.The most intensively taught energy sectors in Boliviaare: hydropower, geothermal and photovoltaic power. Inresearch, many sectors are researched by the same amountof institutions.Solar thermal energy is the most intensively taught sector inGuatemala, and the most intensively researched sectors arebiomass and hydropower energies.In Germany, biofuels and biogas are the sectors withhigher percentages of research institutions. In the field ofteaching, the sectors of windpower, solar thermal energyand photovoltaic energy are the most intensively exploredby the German institutions.The dispersion of the sectors is seen in the graph ofresponses from the teaching institutions both in researchand in teaching activity. However, attention should also begiven to the biofuels, biogas and hydrogen sectors. 253
    • Does your university have specific programmes/courses in the RE area? Does your university have specific programmes/courses in the RE area?254
    • Among all the surveyed countries, Brazil is the only countrywhere most teaching institutions do not have specific coursesin the RE area. In Latvia, there is a 50:50 split between theHEIs that have and the ones that do not have these courses.Among the countries where most HEIs have this kind ofprogramme, there is a predominance of the Bachelor course,except for Germany, where there are more MSc courses inthe RE area.Does your university have specific departments orinstitutes in the RE area?In Brazil and Latvia, only half of the HEIs have specificdepartments in the renewable energy area. In Chile, noneof the teaching institutions have this kind of department.In Germany, Bolivia and Guatemala, however, more than80% of the HEIs have specific departments or institutionsin the RE area. 255
    • What kind of materials does your university produce concerning RE research/teaching activities? In Germany, Bolivia and Guatemala, the main materials produced by the HEIs on renewable energies are materials for courses. And in Germany and Chile, this type of product, together with conference documents, are the main products of the institutions. Brazilian and Latvian HEIs produce mainly laboratory prototypes and conference documents, and Latvia also produces, to the same extent, books on renewable energies.256
    • Does your university have a specific budget to invest inrenewable energies?The investment reserve to be used in activities related torenewable energies is not common in any of the surveyedcountries. In Germany 40% of the HEIs use this strategy. 257
    • Chapter 9 - ConclusionsMarket surveyProfiles of the companies surveyedThe research revealed that most of the surveyed companiesoperate or intend to operate in the sector of renewableenergy (RE). We draw attention to Germany, where themajority of the companies plan to work in at least one REsegment. In Bolivia, most respondents (21.57%) work withphotovoltaic energy, while in Brazil the distribution amongrenewable energy sources is more even. In Chile, Germanyand Latvia, the focus is on biomass, whereas in Guatemalamost companies (32%) work with hydropower. Anotherinteresting point is Germany’s potential in solar energy,with which 80% of the respondent companies work.Concerning RE activity, most enterprises in Bolivia, Brazil,Chile and Germany operate in the planning and projectsectors. The country that stands out is Guatemala, wheremany companies work with education and training. Itshould also be noted that there are companies working inresearch and development in Brazil, Germany and Latvia.Training and qualification of the labour forceThe main goal of this section is to identify, according tothe standpoint of the companies, what kind of labour forceshould be present in the labour market.When Bolivian companies were asked about the qualificationof future employees, the survey revealed that only 3% ofthe current staff would meet proposed qualifications. Ofthe Bolivian respondents, 47% of them answered that aninsufficient number of potential employees is available;however, 30% reported sufficient staff availability. 259
    • With respect to the problems faced by companies in finding and selecting a skilled labour force, 54% of Bolivian companies said that the main problem is lack of technical expertise. Only 2% answered that they face no problems in finding appropriate candidates. When asked about the future trends in contracting new employees, 53% of the Bolivian companies said that such problems will remain constant. In Brazil, as in the other countries involved, most companies want to participate in the RE market. Concerning staff availability in the labour market, 73.3% of the companies in Brazil answered that availability is scarce. None of the companies said that it is easy to find skilled workers in the labour market, which means that there is a wide gap between what is offered in the labour market and the requirements of the companies. As for the difficulties that companies face in finding prepared workers in the labour market, 32% said that there is lack of technically skilled personnel. Another 32% said that they find people without multidisciplinary skills. In terms of near-future labour force hiring trends in Brazil, 73.3% of the firms said that there is a positive trend, corroborating the view that it is one of the main sources of RE on the planet. In Chile, 33% of the interviewed companies answered that skilled personnel are scarce and other 33% said that skilled workers are lacking in the labour market. When asked about problems faced in finding specialized employees in the labour market, 50% answered that there are not enough applicants. 33% said that the main problem is the level of technical expertise desired. Concerning future trends, 42% of the companies said that the hiring trend is positive, and another 42% answered260
    • that it will remain constant. This shows the complexity ofestablishing a hiring trend for the RE market in Chile.In Germany, only 10% of the interviewed companiesanswered that skilled staff is available to a satisfactory extentin the labour market; 50% said that staff is scarcely available,and 40% said that employees are lacking.With respect to problems that German companies facewhen selecting skilled workers, 36.3% of the firms said thatthere is a need for specialized technical qualifications; 26.3%responded that there are not enough applicants, and another26.3% said that applicants do not have multidisciplinaryqualifications.Concerning future hiring trends, only 36% of Germanfirms said that there is a positive trend in the near future,possibly due to the global economic crisis of 2008–2009.Nevertheless, the responses were more positive whencompanies were asked about the long term.In Guatemala, 48% of the interviewed companies answeredthat skilled staff is scarce in the labour market, and 36%of them said staff (of any kind) is scarcely available in themarket, which means that companies have great difficultiesin finding qualified workers.Regarding the problems that Guatemalan companies find inselecting appropriate employees, 83% stated that candidatesdo not have specialized technical qualifications or that thereare not enough applicants.Concerning future hiring trends, 94% of the companiesanswered that they will hire personnel in the area, both inthe short and long term.In Latvia, 46% of the interviewed companies answered thatqualified staff is sufficiently available in the labour market, 261
    • with 18% responding that staff is readily available in the market. On the other hand, 36% of them find that skilled staff is insufficiently or scarcely available. Contrary to other countries, 62% of the Latvian companies said that they have no problems in finding and selecting new employees. 30% of them said that candidates do not have specialized technical qualifications or multidisciplinary skills. Concerning future trends, only 25% of the companies responded that they will hire more people over the next two years. As in Germany, this number increases in the long term. Again, this could be due to the consequences of the economic crisis in Europe. Qualification requirements and market needs In Bolivia, concerning further training opportunities, 27% of the companies said that they need on-the-job coaching and training, while 28% answered that they need external training at universities and long-term external education. With respect to new qualifications in the Bolivian RE market, 45% of the companies said that their employees need new specialized qualifications and 33% said that their employees need to enhance their existing basic qualifications. Concerning the stimuli for new qualifications in the RE field, 26% of Bolivian firms said that the main driver was product innovation. To 25%, market needs were considered important drivers, while process innovations and government policies were also quoted. In Bolivia, 97% of the firms want to have more partnerships with the universities, especially in developing additional qualifications to complement initial vocational education.262
    • Of the firms interviewed in Brazil, 24.2% said that theywant on-the-job coaching and training; however, it isimportant to mention that all kinds of training were quotedas necessary by these companies.With respect to future training, 42% of the firms want toenhance their employees’ qualifications, while 29% want todevelop new types of skills.To 22% of Brazilian companies, the main driver for newRE qualifications was governmental policies. Process andproduct innovations were also reported as drivers of newqualifications.86% of these firms want to have closer partnership withthe universities, especially in developing additionalqualifications to complement initial vocational education.In Chile, 50% of the organizations plan to give theiremployees opportunities to achieve new qualifications in theRE field, especially through coaching, in-company trainingand in-house training with external support.92% of Chilean companies want to develop new qualificationsfor their employees in the RE field. Concerning drivers ofnew qualifications, the most quoted was modification to thelegal framework. However, innovation and governmentalpolicies were also reported as important in this process.Moreover, 83% of the firms want to develop courses andnew qualification programmes through the universities.Concerning further training opportunities in Germany, 55%of the companies responded that they need more training,either external or in-house coaching, while 28% answeredthat they want external training at universities and long-term external education. 263
    • With respect to new qualifications in the German RE market, 38% of the companies said that their employees need new specialized qualifications, with 29% reporting the need for their employees to enhance their existing basic qualifications. Concerning drivers of new qualifications in the RE field in Germany, 28% of the firms said that process innovation stands out. Nevertheless, product innovation and government policies were also reported to play a key role as drivers of new qualifications. The desire for greater partnership with universities was quoted by 83.3% of these companies, especially for developing additional qualifications to complement initial vocational education. In Guatemala, concerning further training opportunities, 33% of the companies said that they need coaching and training on the job, while 51% answered that they would like external training at universities and long-term external education. With respect to new qualifications in the Guatemalan RE market, 59% of the companies stated that their employees need new specialized qualifications, while 34% said that their employees need to enhance their existing basic qualifications. Concerning drivers of new qualifications in the RE field, 30% of the companies affirmed that the main driver was process innovation. Other important drivers mentioned were government policies and product innovations. 94% of Guatemalan firms want to improve their partnership with the universities, especially in developing additional qualifications to complement initial vocational education. In Latvia, 37% of the surveyed companies stated that there is no need for further training opportunities. 21% said that it is important to have coaching and on-the-job learning.264
    • With respect to new qualifications in the RE market,38% stated that their employees need to enhance basicqualifications. Only 28% said that employees need newqualifications, while another 28% said that their staff needsmultidisciplinary qualifications.As for drivers of new qualifications in the RE field, 26%of the companies said that the main driver is modificationto the legal framework, while 38% stated that the mostimportant driver is either process or product innovation.93% of Latvian companies want to improve their partnershipwith the universities, especially in the development of newcourses in the RE field. The main priority for 82% was todevelop courses that add qualifications to complementinitial vocational education.The role of Higher Education InstitutionsRegarding this topic, the surveyed companies respondedregarding their expectations in relation to the role of theuniversities in the RE field. The companies from the sixcountries involved stated that they want mainly educationaland capacity-building programmes created at universities,and on a smaller scale, research and development.According to the responses collected, Chile showed thehighest interest in partnerships with HEIs, since thecompanies’ demands range from basic innovations toresearch and development.Concerning the relationship between HEIs and the REsector, the answers varied. While in Bolivia, Chile andGuatemala, most of those interviewed consider thatcompanies had fallen behind market needs, in Germany therate was 50%. In Brazil, 53% believed that companies havefallen behind the market. Only Brazil and Guatemala hadrespondents who stated that the companies are ahead of therenewable energy market. 265
    • Analysis of the benchmarking survey Renewable energy in universities Five HEIs in Germany responded to the survey, five in Bolivia, four in Brazil, seven in Chile, four in Guatemala and four in Latvia. Both traditional institutions and institutions of applied sciences were among the respondents. The results of this survey revealed that most of the HEIs involved that were developing research in RE before 2007 have undertaken research projects using foreign investments, and they have partnerships with national and international networks, including laboratories sponsored by companies. With respect to research, we call attention to the following aspects: „ collaborative work carried out by physically separated university teams (virtual groups) has been widely used in Germany since 2007, where no formal mentoring practice has been verified; „ in Brazil, 12.5% of universities and departments that had been working in RE before 2007 participated in graduate programmes and research projects with foreign support, in addition to work with laboratories sponsored by companies. For institutions that have started to work with RE since 2007, 62.5% have done so through laboratories, since they participate in national and international RE research networks; „ in Bolivia, many universities were offering undergraduate and postgraduate programmes on topics linked to renewable energy before 2007. On the other hand, most of them do not have research266
    • programmes with external sponsoring in the field, showing a gap in the technological development chain. Most RE activities financed by external capital are in rural areas. Although there is low- cost technological transference, most are already outdated; „ in Chile, 25% of the external funds assigned to RE research projects have been scheduled to be used within the next two years, and the remaining 75% have not yet been clearly scheduled. 100% of the respondents are not sure whether the research laboratories are likely to be sponsored by external cooperative organizations; and „ in Guatemala, almost 60% of the RE programmes were established due to oil prices in 2007, and are linked to national and international networks.Almost all HEIs involved have been using informationtechnology (Internet) to obtain foreign knowledge aboutRE since 2007.The present survey showed that, in almost all of theuniversities involved in RE projects, the main means ofdevelopment is joint work with public and/or privateorganizations, and the utilization of experts from differentscientific areas for knowledge transference to recent studentsand collaborators.HEI research/teaching activities in RE sectorsThis portion of the survey showed great diversificationamong the HEIs concerning research and educationalpractices. The most significant point from each country 267
    • involved illustrates this: „ in Germany, windpower is the least researched area. Among the RE technologies, biomass is the most investigated. Research is concentrated on all bioenergy areas as well as on geothermal technology. As far as education is concerned, wind energy, photovoltaic and solar energy are the most studied, followed by hydropower and hydrogen/ fuel cells; „ in Bolivia, RE education prevails over the research activities in all the investigated HEI, focusing on hydroelectric, solar and photovoltaic energy sectors, followed by wind and biogas power. Research about geothermal energy and hydrogen/ fuel cells was not observed; „ historically, Brazilian electrical energy production has been based on hydropower generated by dams. Research and education in this area is an international highlight, but because only one HEI that participated in the survey has been involved in this work, the percentage was low (12%). In relation to other RE modalities, emphasis is given to biomass-generated energy, especially from sugarcane, which has not been discussed here. The HEIs involved in this study concentrates more on biogas and hydrogen/fuel cell research (20% each), with no related educational activity at the undergraduate or postgraduate level; „ it is important to observe that, in Chile, 75% of the participating HEIs have both research and educational activities about windpower. The other 25% focus on education;268
    • „ in Guatemala, the two main areas of research are biomass and hydroelectricity, with 27% of the HEIs involved. No investigation into solar, photovoltaic and hydrogen/fuel cell energy was registered. Regarding education, the most significant RE modalities were hydroelectricity and geothermal power, with 14.55% of the participating HEIs involved; and „ in Latvia, no research was registered among the HEIs about energy from photovoltaics and hydrogen/fuel cells. In education, no activity was found regarding hydroelectricity.Programmes/specific university courses in renewable energyThis survey demonstrated that most of the participatinguniversities have at least one specific programme or courseon renewable energy, in the following proportions: „ Germany (80%); „ Bolivia (100%); „ Brazil (25%); „ Chile (75%); „ Guatemala (90%); „ and Latvia (50%). 269
    • Research about university staff Respondents’ profile Teachers and researchers from the surveyed universities were the most representative sample from the six countries involved. The study revealed that, in the six countries, most of the respondents are involved or intend to get involved in RE. In Brazil, for example, 75% of the respondents said they were somewhat involved in the RE value chain, whereas in Germany 76% were, followed by similar numbers in Chile, Guatemala, Latvia and Bolivia. In the six countries questioned, the interviewees showed very similar interests regarding the kinds of renewable energy in which they act or would like to act upon. Three areas in particular stood out in five countries: windpower, photovoltaic solar energy and bioenergy. In Guatemala, the highlight was hydropower. Other kinds of renewable energy were less frequent, such as hydrogen/fuel cell and geothermal energy. Capacity building in renewable energy Most of the respondents from the six countries showed some interest in RE capacity building: developing their present competence as well as acquiring new competence in the field. For example, in Brazil 87.5% of those interviewede.g., Germany, said they were interested in being trained in RE, with82.4%; Chile, emphasis ranging from basic and advanced concept75%; and training to application and development of RE. The sameGuatemala, 85% trend was noticed in the other countries. Other specific requirements quoted by the participants were training in the socio-political framework, waste energy technology and possibilities for connecting RE to the existing grid.270
    • The survey also demonstrated the participating faculty’sinterest in curriculum development training, focusing onvarious aspects such as graduate MSc work in renewableenergy (Germany) and international cooperationprogrammes (Chile). Brazil, however, remained mostlyfocused on seminars, congresses, events, and courses ofshort duration.Generally, we can affirm that the respondents in the sixcountries confirmed their need to improve technical andoperational knowledge in teaching, research and extensionareas related to RE.Infrastructure and laboratoriesConcerning infrastructure for RE research, the respondentsin all six countries observed the need for substantialimprovements in laboratories, equipment and databaseaccess. They similarly pointed out, with only a slightpercentage of variation, the necessity to participate inscientific events and social networking in the RE field.University/market relationshipIn relation to the university/RE market relationship, mostof those interviewed observed a wide gap between the needsof industry and the market in general and attributed this tothe three focus areas offered by the universities: teaching,research and extension. 100% of the respondents in Brazil,for example, understand that there is either a need or anurgent need for greater interaction between the industry/market and the universities. In Germany 64% agreed, inBolivia 93% and in Chile, 75%. The trend is the same forthe other countries. 271
    • Reinforcement of RE in universities Regarding the need for RE investment/reinforcement in universities, most respondents answered positively to almost all proposed initiatives, as follows: When asked if academic programmes impact the market, most answered positively: in Germany, 80.95% stated that they have a very important effect or that there is a great necessity for more of such programmes; in Chile the percentage fell to 75%, in Bolivia it was 77.78%, and it was 100% in Brazil. With respect to the need for collaboration programs between universities and the market, the respondents followed the same trend: 85.72% answered positively in Germany, 77.78% in Bolivia, 100% in Brazil, and 75% in Chile. Regarding the need for partnerships between universities and the market for the promotion of RE, 88.88% of the researchers in Bolivia answered positively, and the same trend was seen in the other countries: Brazil, 100% Germany, 85.71%; and Chile, 75%. Moreover, most respondents agreed that market-sponsored applied technological research is very important as an RE reinforcement measure in universities: 85.72% in Germany; 100% in Brazil; 63%, in Chile; and 77.78% in Bolivia. Participants also answered positively that applied research financed by the government would be helpful to reinforce RE in the universities involved: 85.71% in Germany; 63% in Chile; 100% in Brazil; and 77.78% in Bolivia. Concerning the RE qualification programmes offered by companies to university students, many respondents in all six countries understood that it is a must, or at least very important: Brazil, 100%; Chile, 50%; Germany, 45%; and Bolivia, 88.88%.272
    • When respondents were questioned if, due to technologicalchanges and the socio-economic environment, continuoushuman resources monitoring would reinforce the issue ofRE in universities, the respondents gave positive feedback:Brazil, 100%; Chile, 38%; Germany 76.19%; and Bolivia,77.78%.Conclusions and recommendationsThese three studies, simultaneously conducted in sixcountries, enabled all the investigators involved toexperience an atmosphere of transnational cooperation anda favourable attitude towards greater cultural and technicalknowledge exchange on RE.The surveys enabled researchers to rank the HEIs in relationto the RE market from the standpoint of the enterprises. Itwas observed that, regarding this aspect, there were moresimilarities than differences between the six countriesinvolved.The survey disclosed some extremely important points: „ most participating companies already operate or intend to operate in the RE sector; „ most companies in the six countries involved stated that candidates for vacancies in RE positions are not prepared for the market, which means that there is a need for additional qualification programmes; „ all additional training methods, therefore, are acceptable to the companies, including: company- designed courses, university postgraduate courses, and specialization courses. This allows a broad range of research and teaching options for universities; and 273
    • „ with few exceptions, the companies stated that the universities are behind the RE market curve. The second study, which was about benchmarking, attempted to rank the HEIs in relation to RE, allowing in-segment analysis at different interaction levels. The results clearly presented the differences between the countries involved as well as the fact of the irreversibility of RE in both research and teaching. The survey also revealed some other very important points: „ most HEIs are not tuned in to the technological demands of the RE market, despite presenting research projects sponsored by external investment; and „ most HEIs do not have budget planning for the development of teaching and research in RE, which means that there is no sustainability for those processes. In an atypical approach, the benchmarking analysis research carried out in Guatemala produced a chart in which the same kind of problem faced by several countries in relation to RE development can be described as follows: „ the technology is inappropriate; „ there is little government support; „ there are environmental and social restrictions; „ there is no skilled workforce; „ the population is poorly informed about RE; and „ RE costs are high.274
    • As we can see, on one hand, government action togetherwith an energy policy that increases investments in the REfield is imperative. On the other, it is recommended thatHEIs develop courses and carry out research in the sector.Such actions should help meet popular expectations andhopes for a sustainable planet.The surveys of university staff brought out important dataindicating that, although there is a gap between marketneeds and the services offered by the university, there is agrowing conscience in the institutions about the proceduresneeded to steadily decrease this distance. The investigationalso unveils an urgent need for a broader restructuring in theacademy, following the evolution of the market demandswith interdisciplinary professionals who are able to design,operate and manage the new technologies in the RE field.Another important finding from the research is that,although there are different stages of development for REin the investigated countries, the demands and gaps seem tobe very similar. The analysis showed that there are commoninternal university demands in terms of enabling a betterresponse to the market, not only in infrastructure but alsoin faculty and staff training and qualification.Furthermore, the analysis carried out by partners of theJELARE project also showed the need for better integrationwith industry in various fields and activities related to RE,for example in applied research sponsored by industry, aswell as courses, seminars and internship offers for universitystudents.The study also revealed that the staff of the universitiesinvolved believe that there must be government financialsupport for RE research, together with a constant monitoringof professional trends and market needs. 275
    • Thus, it can be concluded that the staff of the universities involved are conscious of the discrepancy between market reality and academia. This consciousness is manifested in current proposals to decrease the existing gap through substantial investments in human resources and in teaching and researching infrastructure in the field of RE. Thus, based on a transversal and transnational analysis of the surveys carried out by the universities participating in the JELARE partnership, the following actions are recommended: „ the promotion of greater integration between university and market through specific actions such as products and services that meet market demands in terms of RE; „ giving a multidisciplinary and transdisciplinary dimension to the topic of RE in universities so as to offer a holistic approach which integrates the processes of teaching, research and extension and which must be accountable to market needs; „ the allocation of higher investment in university staff qualification for the development of new products and services aimed at meeting RE market needs; „ investment in the creation of infrastructure for teaching and researching that suits the present RE demands; „ the development of alliances and partnerships with enterprises from private and public RE sectors; „ the development of national and transnational pilot programmes for the expansion of new teaching modalities in RE; and276
    • „ the creation of a multidisciplinary forum in universities to promote debate about RE in all sectors and departments, with the objective of developing an integrated institutional vision about the topic.These actions, along with other institutional initiatives, mayhelp reduce the gaps that this study unmistakably disclosedin all six countries investigated. The results also pointed outthat, regardless of the varying degrees of RE technologicaldevelopment in the studied countries, the gaps are very similarwhen the relationship “university X market” is discussed. Thissituation demands immediate action mainly on the universityside, so as to follow market trends in the field. 277
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