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11

  1. 1. Marketing Management, 12/e A South Asian Perspective 11 Crafting the Brand Positioning Kotler Koshy Keller Jha
  2. 2. Chapter Questions <ul><li>How can a firm choose and communicate an effective positioning in the market? </li></ul><ul><li>How are brands differentiated? </li></ul><ul><li>What marketing strategies are appropriate at each stage of the product life cycle? </li></ul><ul><li>What are the implications of market evolution for marketing strategies? </li></ul>
  3. 3. Marketing Strategy <ul><li>Segmentation </li></ul><ul><li>Targeting </li></ul><ul><li>Positioning </li></ul>
  4. 4. Positioning Act of designing the company’s offering and image to occupy a distinctive place in the mind of the target market.
  5. 5. Value Propositions <ul><li>Scorpio, Mahindra & Mahindra </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Luxury of a Car and thrill of an SUV </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Domino’s </li></ul><ul><ul><li>A good hot pizza, delivered to your door within 30 minutes of ordering, at a moderate price </li></ul></ul>
  6. 6. Writing a Positioning Statement Mountain Dew: To young, active soft-drink consumers who have little time for sleep, Mountain Dew is the soft drink that gives you more energy than any other brand because it has the highest level of caffeine.
  7. 7. Defining Associations <ul><li>Points-of-difference (PODs) </li></ul><ul><li>Attributes or benefits consumers strongly associate with a brand, positively evaluate, and believe they could not find to the same extent with a competitive brand </li></ul><ul><li>Points-of-parity (POPs) </li></ul><ul><li>Associations that are not necessarily unique to the brand but may be shared with other brands </li></ul>
  8. 8. Conveying Category Membership <ul><li>Announcing category benefits </li></ul><ul><li>Comparing to exemplars </li></ul><ul><li>Relying on the product descriptor </li></ul>
  9. 9. Consumer Desirability Criteria for PODs <ul><li>Relevance </li></ul><ul><li>Distinctiveness </li></ul><ul><li>Believability </li></ul>
  10. 10. Deliverability Criteria for PODs <ul><li>Feasibility </li></ul><ul><li>Communicability </li></ul><ul><li>Sustainability </li></ul>
  11. 11. Examples of Negatively Correlated Attributes and Benefits <ul><li>Low-price vs. High quality </li></ul><ul><li>Taste vs. Low calories </li></ul><ul><li>Nutritious vs. Good tasting </li></ul><ul><li>Efficacious vs. Mild </li></ul><ul><li>Powerful vs. Safe </li></ul><ul><li>Strong vs. Refined </li></ul><ul><li>Ubiquitous vs. Exclusive </li></ul><ul><li>Varied vs. Simple </li></ul>
  12. 12. Addressing Negatively Correlated PODs and POPs <ul><li>Present separately </li></ul><ul><li>Leverage equity of another entity </li></ul><ul><li>Redefine the relationship </li></ul>
  13. 13. Differentiation Strategies <ul><li>Product </li></ul><ul><li>Personnel </li></ul><ul><li>Channel </li></ul><ul><li>Image </li></ul>
  14. 14. Product Differentiation <ul><li>Product form </li></ul><ul><li>Features </li></ul><ul><li>Performance </li></ul><ul><li>Conformance </li></ul><ul><li>Durability </li></ul><ul><li>Reliability </li></ul><ul><li>Reparability </li></ul><ul><li>Style </li></ul><ul><li>Design </li></ul><ul><li>Ordering ease </li></ul><ul><li>Delivery </li></ul><ul><li>Installation </li></ul><ul><li>Customer training </li></ul><ul><li>Customer consulting </li></ul><ul><li>Maintenance </li></ul>
  15. 15. Identity and Image Identity: The way a company aims to identify or position itself Image: The way the public perceives the company or its products
  16. 16. Product Life Cycle <ul><li>Introduction </li></ul><ul><li>Growth </li></ul><ul><li>Maturity </li></ul><ul><li>Decline </li></ul>
  17. 17. Facts about Life Cycles <ul><li>Products have a limited life. </li></ul><ul><li>Product sales pass through distinct stages. </li></ul><ul><li>Profits rise and fall at different stages. </li></ul><ul><li>Products require different marketing, financial, manufacturing, purchasing, and human resource strategies in each stage. </li></ul>
  18. 18. Marketing Program Modifications <ul><li>Prices </li></ul><ul><li>Distribution </li></ul><ul><li>Advertising </li></ul><ul><li>Sales promotion </li></ul><ul><li>Services </li></ul>
  19. 19. Market Evolution Stages <ul><li>Emergence </li></ul><ul><li>Growth </li></ul><ul><li>Maturity </li></ul><ul><li>Decline </li></ul>
  20. 21. Product Life Cycle <ul><li>Style </li></ul><ul><li>Fashion </li></ul><ul><li>FAD (as in short term trends) </li></ul>
  21. 22. Emerging Markets <ul><li>Latent </li></ul><ul><li>Single-niche </li></ul><ul><li>Multiple-niche </li></ul><ul><li>Mass-market </li></ul>

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