Gift: What are the five biggest oceans in the world?Explain more about Point 3: some are only 6g/liter and some are 40g/liter.
Transcript of "Water and public health importance- Balasubramanya"
Seminar Topics Introduction- Balasubramanya Water Quality- Awais Mahaldar Water pollution- Ashish Kumar Water Borne Diseases- Ashwin. S. A Preventive measures- Basavaraj. Patil2
Water Forms and Distribution3About 71% of the earth’s surface is coveredwith water.
Sources of water1) Rain2) Surface wateri)Impounding reservoirsii)Rivers and streamsiii)Tanks ,ponds, lakes3) Ground water4
Oceans Contain more than 97% of the earth’s water. Can be used after being desalinated.5
Prime source of water Purest form of water Dissolved solids-0.0005% Becomes impure as itpasses throughatmosphere Acid rain6Rain
Dams across rivers and streams Characteristics:o Quality next to rain watero Impurities derived from catchment area7Impounding reservoirs
Rivers8 Most of the times polluted and unfit fordrinking without treatment Turbid during rainy seasons and clear in otherseasons Impurities from sewage, drainage fromagriculture, industrialwastes Self purification- byoxidation, dilution,aeration, sunlight
Tanks Tanks are large evacuations to store surfacewater Major water source in Indian villages Certain amount of natural purification bysunlight and oxidation Sand filtration prior to use Chlorination- additional protection9
An artesian well is apump-less watersource that uses pipes toallow underground waterthat is under pressure torise to the surface For centuries, people havedrilled artesian wells todrink filtered water thatdoesnt need to bemanually or mechanicallylifted up from the depths.16Artesian well
18 Tubes made ofGalvanized iron aredrilled and is fitted witha strainer. Lifted with hand-pump Shallow- Driven wells Deep- Bored wells Life- 5-30 yearsTube well
Sanitary well Properly located , well constructed, protectedagainst contamination Points to be considered in construction ofSanitary well1) Location2) Lining3) Parapet4) Platform5) Drain6) Covering7) Hand pump19
What is hard water?Hard water contains dissolved calcium and magnesiumcompounds such as : magnesium bicarbonate [Mg(HCO3)2] calcium bicarbonate [Ca(HCO3)2] magnesium sulphate [MgSO4] calcium sulphate [CaSO4]Hard water can be Temporary or Permanent.Temporary hard water contains magnesium bicarbonate andcalcium bicarbonate.Permanent hard water contains Magnesium sulphate andcalcium sulphate.22
Softening temporary hard waterTemporary hard water contains calcium bicarbonate.Temporary hardness can be removed by boiling the water.Lime-scale would be left behind.This is relatively easy to remove, because it decomposes onheating to form solid calcium carbonate:++calciumbicarbonateCa(HCO3)2 (aq)calciumcarbonateCaCO3 (s)waterH2O(l)carbon dioxideCO2 (g)++
Softening hard waterBoth temporary and permanent hard water can be softened byadding sodium carbonate (washing soda).The sodium carbonate reacts with the calcium compounds inthe water to form calcium carbonate and soluble sodiumcompounds, which do not contribute to hardness:+ +calciumbicarbonateCa(HCO3)2 (aq)sodiumcarbonateNa2CO3 (s)calciumcarbonateCaCO3(s)sodiumbicarbonate2NaHCO3(aq)+ +
Soft Water Water with very low concentrations ofminerals. Advantages: Soap lathers easily and is sometimes difficult to rinse off. Nominimal lime scale formation in pipes, vessels Potable i.e. fit for human consumption26
Why do we need water?2770%22%8%World Water UseIrrigation Industry Domestic
In-Stream Uses29Hydropower RecreationNavigation Ecosystem Support
Water- Human body needs Water’s roles in the body Carries nutrients and waste products Maintains the structure of large molecules Participates in metabolic reactions Solvent for minerals, vitamins, amino acids, glucoseand others Lubricant and cushion around joints, inside theeyes, the spinal cord, and in amniotic fluid duringpregnancy Regulation of body temperature Maintains blood volume30
Legislations concerned to WaterThe Water (Prevention and Control of Pollution)Act was enacted in 1974 to provide for theprevention and control of water pollution, and for themaintaining or restoring of wholesomeness of waterin the country. The Act was amended in 1988.The Water (Prevention and Control of Pollution)Cess Act was enacted in 1977, to provide for thelevy and collection of a tax on water consumed bypersons operating and carrying on certain types ofindustrial activities. This tax is collected toaugment the resources of the Central Board andthe State Boards for the prevention and control ofwater pollution constituted under the Water(Prevention and Control of Pollution) Act, 1974. The 33
Govt. of India Policies RAJIV GANDHI NATIONAL DRINKING WATERMISSION(RGNDWM)The Accelerated Rural Water SupplyProgramme(ARWSP) was introduced in 1972-73 by the Government of India (GOI), to assistthe States and Union Territories to accelerate thepace of coverage of drinking water supply.The Technology Mission on drinking water andrelated water management was launched in1986. It was also called the National DrinkingWater Mission (NDWM). The NDWM wasrenamed Rajiv Gandhi National Drinking 34
Rainwater Harvesting policies BangaloreIn order to conserve water and ensure ground waterrecharge, the Karnataka government in February 2009announced that buildings, constructed in the city will have tocompulsorily adopt rain water harvesting facility. Residentialsites, which exceed an area of 2400 sq ft (40 x 60 ft), shallcreate rain harvesting facility according to the new law. ChennaiRainwater harvesting has been made mandatory in threestoried buildings (irrespective of the size of the rooftop area).All new water and sewer connections are provided only afterthe installation of rainwater harvesting systems.Similar initiatives are also taken in other states.35
Water Day World Water Day has been observed on 22March since 1993 when the United NationsGeneral Assembly declared 22ndMarch as World Day for Water.37
2013 Water Day In designating 2013 as UN International yearof Water co-operation the UNO recognizes that co-operation is essential to strike a balance betweenthe different needs and priorities and share this precious resource equitably using as aninstrument of peace.38
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