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Age determination ayman

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  • 1.  
  • 2.
    • Why do we need to estimate age ?
      • Criminal claims – as in sexual assault
      • Civil conditions as in
        • Improper birth registration: for marriage, work, military recruitment
        • Amnesia
        • Refugees
  • 3.
    • 3 Bs:
      • B elongings: IDs, birth certificate
      • B ehavioral markers:
        • Mentality and behavior: infant developmental milestones: motor, cognitive, language, social
        • Education
        • Voice and language
      • B iological markers:
        • Non-skeletal
        • Skeletal
  • 4.
    • Biological:
      • Non-skeletal:
        • General appearance: e.g. height, weight
        • Development :
          • Infant developmental milestones: physical
          • Sexual development:
            • Primary sex characters
            • Secondary sex characters
        • Aging: skin wrinkles, hair color
  • 5.
    • Biological:
      • Skeletal:
        • Teeth examination
          • Dentition
          • Attrition
        • Ossification centers
        • Closure of epiphysial plates
        • Skull:
          • Dimensions
          • Closure of fontanels
          • Closure of sutures
  • 6.
    • Most important methods:
      • General development in children
      • Secondary sexual characters
      • Teeth examination
      • Ossification centers
      • Obliteration of growth plates
  • 7.
    • Age during intrauterine life:
      • In claims of criminal abortion, maternal deaths, and rape.
      • Estimated during pregnancy by ultrasonography and date of the last menstrual period
    • Age from birth up to 18 years
    • Age after 18 years
  • 8.
    • From 0-15 days (neonatal period)
      • By umbilical stump examination
    • From 15 days - 2 years (Infancy period)
      • By primary dentition
    • From 2- 6 years
      • Closure of metopic suture
      • Appearance of ossific centers
    • From 6-12 years
      • Secondary dentition
    Childhood period: rapid dental and bony growth and development
  • 9.
    • From 12- 18 (Adolescence period).
      • Closure of epiphysial plates
    • Adulthood
      • Early stage: bone remodeling and maintenance
      • Late stage: bone wear and tear
  • 10. Milky Permanent Characters Smaller, weaker & darker Larger, stronger & whiter Number 20 32 Start age 6m 6y Timing Every 2m Every 1y Sequence 6m Lower central incisors Mama 6y 1 st M olar 8m Upper central incisors Is 7y Central I ncisors 10m Lateral incisors In 8y Lateral I ncisors 12m 1 st molar Pain 9y 1 st P remolar 18m Canines Papa 10y 2 nd P remolar 24m 2 nd molar Can 11y C anines Make 12y 2 nd M olar Medicine 18-25y 3 rd M olar (wisdom)
  • 11.  
  • 12.  
  • 13.  
  • 14.  
  • 15.  
  • 16.  
  • 17.  
  • 18.  
  • 19.  
  • 20.  
  • 21.  
  • 22.  
  • 23.  
  • 24.
    • 1 year : head of humerus ,femur, tibia
    • 2 years : lower radius
    • 3 years : patella
    • 4 years : upper fibula, greater trochanter
    • 5 years : lower fibula
    • 6 years : upper radius, calcaneus
  • 25.
    • Below1 year as ossific center of the head of femur not appeared .
  • 26.
    • > 1 year (ossific center at head of femur)
  • 27.
    • Below 2 years (no ossific centre in the wrist)
  • 28.
    • Above 2 years: ossific center of lower radius
  • 29.  
  • 30.  
  • 31.  
  • 32.  
  • 33.  
  • 34.
    • <19 (not united head of humerus with the body)
  • 35.
    • >19 years (united head of humerus)
  • 36.
    • >17 y (completely developed elbow)
  • 37.
    • < 19 ( non united lower ends of radius and ulna)
  • 38.
    • > 19 years ( closed lower ends of radius and ulna)
  • 39.  
  • 40.  
  • 41.  
  • 42.  
  • 43.  
  • 44.  
  • 45.  
  • 46.  
  • 47.  
  • 48.  
  • 49.
    • < 15 y (non-united segments)
  • 50.  
  • 51.
    • Two pubic rami of the hip (6y)
    • Suture at the acetabulum (15)
    • Ischeal tuberosity with the ischium (21y)
    • Iliac crest with the ilium (23y)
  • 52.
    • > 1 y (ossific center at femoral head)
    • <4 y (ossific center at greater trochanter)
  • 53.
    • >4 y (ossific center at greater trochanter)
    • <15 y
    • (triradiate suture is opened)
  • 54.
    • >4 y (ossific center at greater trochanter)
    • <15 y (opened triradiate suture)
  • 55.
    • <23 y (iliac crest)
  • 56.
    • >23 y (iliac crest)
  • 57.
    • 6 years
      • Age of education
      • (1 st molar and pubic ramus)
    • 7 years
      • Age of discrimination : committing crime below this age is the responsibility of guardian, above this age child will have trial in front of Child Court but will not be punished (until age of 12).
      • (Central incisors)
  • 58.
    • 12 years
      • Under this age, the child training for work is illegal
      • Above this age, the child is partly responsible, i.e. punished but not imprisoned (until age of 15).
      • (2nd molar)
    • 14 years:
      • Under this age
        • The child cannot commit the crime of rape
        • Child work is illegal
      • (Union of the trochlea and capitulum, calcaneus body and epiphysis)
  • 59.
    • 15 years
      • The custody of the mother ends for both son and daughter and they are allowed to choose their custodian till age of 21 for son or marriage for daughter
      • Above this age he is sentenced as adults but by reduced sanctions (no execution, life sentence, hard labor or aggravated prison).
      • (Union of trochlea and capitulum with lower end of humerus.+ acetabular suture union)
  • 60.
    • 16years
      • Identity card
      • (Metecarpals in females)
    • 18 years:
      • Legal marriage
      • Legal age for consent
      • Governmental employment
      • Driving license
      • Full criminal responsibility: trial in front of adult court
      • Voting
      • Military recruitment
      • ( Metacarpals)
  • 61.
    • 21 years
      • Civil rights
      • (X - ray knee)
    • 30 years
      • Member of people assembly
      • (Sagittal suture)
    • 35 years
      • Legal age of the president of the public
    • 60 years
      • Pension
      • (Union of body and manubrium of sternum)
  • 62.
    • Ques. 1
    • Write the estimated age for the following:
    • Pic.1
  • 63.
    • Pic 2
  • 64.
    • Pic 3
  • 65.
    • Pic 4
  • 66.
    • pic5
  • 67.
    • Pic 6
  • 68.
    • a
    • b
  • 69.
    • For more precise age estimation for the pic a I need to ask for x ray:
      • Knee
      • Ankle
      • Elbow
      • pelvis
  • 70.
    • For more precise age estimation for the pic b I need to ask for x ray:
      • Sternum
      • Knee
      • Shoulder
      • hip
  • 71.
    • a
    • b
  • 72.