Al-Azhar University-Gaza
Master Program of Water and Environmental
Science
Background
• The Gaza Strip is a semi-arid region.
• area of 365 Km2.
• Location: It is situated in the southern part of t...





Water table lowering
Depletion
Subsidence
Saltwater intrusion



Chemical contamination



Reduced stream flows
Water Pollution is the contamination of water bodies (eg.
Lacks, rivers, oceans, aquifers and groundwater).occurs
when ene...






We all need clean water. People need it to grow
crops and to operate factories, and for drinking and
recreation. ...



Point sources
Nonpoint sources
NONPOINT SOURCES

Rural homes

Cropland

Urban streets

Animal feedlot
POINT
SOURCE
S
Wastewater
treatment
plant

Suburban...


Marine Dumping



Industrial Waste



Sewage, mainly
from households


Nuclear waste



Oil pollution



Underground
storage leaks





Consequences of a warmer world
Pollution of freshwater streams
Dilution and biodegradatoin
Breakdown of pollutant...


Developing countries: half of world’s 500
major rivers are heavily polluted


Toxic water



Thermal heating

Our sources of water


Diseases caused by:
 Drinking
contaminated water
 Swimming in
polluted water
 Contact with
chemically polluted
water


200 turtles in Australia’s surround
waters die each year


Birds and mammals become
coated with oil







Number of colonies of fecal coliform bacteria
Bacterial source tracking (BST)
Measure biological oxygen deman...


tests of water include temperature, solids
concentrations (e.g., total suspended solids
(TSS)) and turbidity






methods include pH,
biochemical oxygen demand (BOD),
chemical oxygen demand (COD)
nutrients (nitrate and phosphor...


Biological testing involves the use of plant,
animal, and/or microbial indicators to
monitor the health of an aquatic e...
Ground water is the most precious natural
resource in the Gaza Governorates as it is the only
source of water supply for d...
Real problem of drinking water quality in
respect to Cl and NO3 was found among all
Governorates.
• Both Cl and NO3 concen...
Governorate

No. of
wells

Mean
Mg/l

WHO
Higher

WHO
Lower

Tested
wells

High Sig

North

24

126.9

1

23

22

1

Gaza
...
Governorat
e

No. of
wells

Mean
Mg/l

WHO WHO
Higher Lower

Tested
wells

High Sig

North

24

114.4

21

3

22

14

Gaza...





About 2.4 million tons of pesticides are used
600 active chemicals mixes with 1200
solvents, ‘inactive’ ingredient...
Source
 GHS, Institute of Environmental Assessment & Water Research
(IDAEA-CSIC), Jordi Girona 18-26, 08034, Barcelona, S...
The main sources of pollution and possible
pathways have been summarised in this
review. EOCs are likely to enter to the a...


However, some EOCs have sometimes been
detected at higher concentration levels in the
aquifer than in the rivers, indic...
Turn off running water









Be careful about what you throw down your
sink or toilet
Use environmentally household products
Take great c...
Be cautious of what you pour in your
sink/flush down your toilet
Fertilize correctly
Organize or participate in
a clean up
Join a special society devoted to the
prevention of water pollution
Spread awareness
Water pollution
Water pollution
Water pollution
Water pollution
Water pollution
Water pollution
Water pollution
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  • Water pollution

    1. 1. Al-Azhar University-Gaza Master Program of Water and Environmental Science
    2. 2. Background • The Gaza Strip is a semi-arid region. • area of 365 Km2. • Location: It is situated in the southern part of the Mediterranean Sea of the Palestinian coastal plan Egypt borders the Strip from the south, the Negev desert from the east and the Mediterranean Sea from the west. • It consists of five Governorates: North, Gaza, Middle, Khan Younis, and Rafah.
    3. 3.     Water table lowering Depletion Subsidence Saltwater intrusion  Chemical contamination  Reduced stream flows
    4. 4. Water Pollution is the contamination of water bodies (eg. Lacks, rivers, oceans, aquifers and groundwater).occurs when energy and other materials are released into the water, contaminating the quality of it for other users.
    5. 5.    We all need clean water. People need it to grow crops and to operate factories, and for drinking and recreation. Fish and wildlife depend on it to survive. Many different pollutants can harm our rivers, streams, lakes, oceans and growndwater. The three most common are soil, nutrients and bacteria. Rain washes soil into streams and rivers. The soil can kill tiny animals and fish eggs. It can clog the gills of fish and block light so plants die. Nutrients, often from fertilizers, cause problems in lakes, ponds and reservoirs. Nitrogen and phosphorus make algae grow and can turn water green. Bacteria, often from sewage spills, can pollute fresh or salt water. Environmental Protection Agency
    6. 6.   Point sources Nonpoint sources
    7. 7. NONPOINT SOURCES Rural homes Cropland Urban streets Animal feedlot POINT SOURCE S Wastewater treatment plant Suburban development Factory
    8. 8.  Marine Dumping  Industrial Waste  Sewage, mainly from households
    9. 9.  Nuclear waste  Oil pollution  Underground storage leaks
    10. 10.     Consequences of a warmer world Pollution of freshwater streams Dilution and biodegradatoin Breakdown of pollutants by bacteria— oxygen sag curve
    11. 11.  Developing countries: half of world’s 500 major rivers are heavily polluted
    12. 12.  Toxic water  Thermal heating Our sources of water
    13. 13.  Diseases caused by:  Drinking contaminated water  Swimming in polluted water  Contact with chemically polluted water
    14. 14.  200 turtles in Australia’s surround waters die each year
    15. 15.  Birds and mammals become coated with oil
    16. 16.       Number of colonies of fecal coliform bacteria Bacterial source tracking (BST) Measure biological oxygen demand (BOD) Chemical analysis Indicator species Genetic development of indicator organisms
    17. 17.  tests of water include temperature, solids concentrations (e.g., total suspended solids (TSS)) and turbidity
    18. 18.    methods include pH, biochemical oxygen demand (BOD), chemical oxygen demand (COD) nutrients (nitrate and phosphorus compounds), metals (including copper, zinc, cadmium, lead and mercury), oil and grease, total petroleum hydrocarbons (TPH), and pesticides.
    19. 19.  Biological testing involves the use of plant, animal, and/or microbial indicators to monitor the health of an aquatic ecosystem.
    20. 20. Ground water is the most precious natural resource in the Gaza Governorates as it is the only source of water supply for domestic and agricultural use. •There are an estimated 4000 wells within the Gaza Strip. Approximately 90 wells are owned and operated by individual municipalities and are used for domestic supply. • Ensuring the Safety of our drinking water is one of the most importance and critical issues for public health protection
    21. 21. Real problem of drinking water quality in respect to Cl and NO3 was found among all Governorates. • Both Cl and NO3 concentrations have been significantly decreased in spring season. •The overall quality of drinking wells water in Governorates of Gaza is in a very real danger if no solution is found and quickly acted upon. 
    22. 22. Governorate No. of wells Mean Mg/l WHO Higher WHO Lower Tested wells High Sig North 24 126.9 1 23 22 1 Gaza 26 402.4 18 8 20 13 Mid Zone 6 488.9 5 1 3 3 Khanyounes 11 777.8 11 0 11 11 Rafah 6 514.7 5 1 5 3 Total 73 397.1 40 33 61 31
    23. 23. Governorat e No. of wells Mean Mg/l WHO WHO Higher Lower Tested wells High Sig North 24 114.4 21 3 22 14 Gaza 26 121.3 24 2 20 17 Mid Zone 6 65 6 0 3 2 Khanyounes 11 190 11 0 11 10 Rafah 6 110 5 1 5 4 Total 73 126.2 67 6 61 47
    24. 24.    About 2.4 million tons of pesticides are used 600 active chemicals mixes with 1200 solvents, ‘inactive’ ingredients About 25000 commercial pesticide products
    25. 25. Source  GHS, Institute of Environmental Assessment & Water Research (IDAEA-CSIC), Jordi Girona 18-26, 08034, Barcelona, Spain; GHS, Dept Geotechnical Engineering and Geosciences, Universitat Politècnica de Catalunya, UPC-Barcelona Tech, Jordi Girona 1-3, 08034, Barcelona, Spain. Electronic address: annajuradoelices@gmail.com. Abstract  This paper reviewed the presence of emerging organic contaminants (EOCs) that have been found in the groundwater in Spain in both, rural and urban areas. The list of compounds included pesticides, pharmaceutical active compounds (PhACs), selected industrial compounds, drugs of abuse (DAs), estrogens, personal care products and life-style compounds
    26. 26. The main sources of pollution and possible pathways have been summarised in this review. EOCs are likely to enter to the aquifer mainly through the effluents of waste water treatment plants (WWTPs) and are present in groundwater at concentrations of ng/L to μg/L. The most studied compounds in Spanish groundwater were pesticides followed by industrial compounds and PhACs. It is important to mention that compared to other water bodies, such as rivers, groundwater is considerably less contaminated, which may be indicative of the natural attenuation capacity of the aquifers.
    27. 27.  However, some EOCs have sometimes been detected at higher concentration levels in the aquifer than in the rivers, indicating the need for further research to understand their behavior in the aquifers. For a wide array of compounds, their maximum concentrations show values above the European groundwater quality standard for individual pesticides (0.1μg/L). Therefore, to preserve groundwater quality against deterioration it is necessary to define environmental groundwater thresholds for the non-regulated compounds.
    28. 28. Turn off running water
    29. 29.      Be careful about what you throw down your sink or toilet Use environmentally household products Take great care not to overuse pesticides and fertilizers By having more plants in your garden you are preventing fertilizer Don’t throw litter into rivers, lakes or oceans
    30. 30. Be cautious of what you pour in your sink/flush down your toilet
    31. 31. Fertilize correctly
    32. 32. Organize or participate in a clean up
    33. 33. Join a special society devoted to the prevention of water pollution
    34. 34. Spread awareness

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