Solid waste - Environmental Health


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Solid waste - Environmental Health

  1. 1. Solid waste Al-Azhar University-Gaza Master Program of Water and Environmental Science
  2. 2. Outlines:  Introduction  Solid wastes Definition  Types of Solid Waste Solid wastes composition Health risks related to the inadequate management of solid waste Treatment and disposal of municipal waste Municipal Solid Waste Management (MSWM) Four Rs (Refuse, Reuse, Recycle, Reduce)
  3. 3. Introduction: The environment in the present age is exposed to major setbacks will change the chemical composition in most systems in the sea and ocean, air and soil. Has left many pollutants imprint on the environment, including solid waste, which had the role of environmental disruption in many of the elements of the environment. Cause the accumulation of solid waste a lot of health problems where garbage becomes a breeding ground for microbes and insects like flies, mosquitoes and rats, cats and dogs, which helps in the spread of the diseases that affect human health and infrastructure in addition to the psychological and social effects of the citizens .
  4. 4. Solid wastes Definition: Solid waste is material, which is not in liquid form, and has no .value to the person who is responsible for it Synonyms to solid waste are terms such as “garbage”, “trash”, “refuse” and “rubbish”.  Types of Solid Waste : Solid waste can be classified into different types depending on their source: • Household waste is generally classified as municipal waste . • Industrial waste as hazardous waste . • Biomedical waste or hospital waste as infectious waste .
  5. 5. Segregation of waste : 1. Biodegradable and 2. Nonbiodegradable. 1- Biodegradable waste include organic waste, e.g. kitchen waste, vegetables, fruits, flowers, leaves from the garden, and paper. 2- Nonbiodegradable waste can be further segregated into: a) Recyclable waste – plastics, paper, glass, metal, etc. b) Toxic waste – old medicines, paints, chemicals, bulbs, spray cans, fertilizer and pesticide containers, batteries, shoe polish. c) Soiled – hospital waste such as cloth soiled with blood and other body fluids. Toxic and soiled waste must be disposed of with utmost care.
  6. 6. Solid wastes composition: Type of waste Percentage % Organic 67 Paper 13 Plastic 12 Textile 3 Glass 2 Ferrous 1 Other Metals 1 Hazardous Waste 1 Total 100%
  7. 7. Organic 68% Metal 3% Glass 2% Cloth 1% Others 2% Source: UNRWA, 2000 Sand 22% Plastic 2%
  8. 8. There are different categories of waste generated, each take their own time to degenerate : Type of litter Approximate time it takes to degenerate the litter Organic waste such as vegetable and fruit peels, leftover foodstuff, etc. a week or two. Paper 10–30 days Cotton cloth 2–5 months Wood 10–15 years Woolen items 1 year Tin, aluminium, and other metal items such as cans 100–500 years Plastic bags one million years? Glass bottles undetermined
  9. 9. 1) Municipal solid waste :  Municipal solid waste consists of household waste, construction and demolition debris, sanitation residue, and waste from streets.  This garbage is generated mainly from residential and commercial complexes. With rising urbanization and change in lifestyle and food habits .
  10. 10. 2) Hazardous waste :  Industrial and hospital waste is considered hazardous as they may contain toxic substance.  Hazardous wastes could be highly toxic to humans, animals, and plants; are corrosive, highly inflammable, or explosive; and react when exposed to certain things e.g. gases. 1. Household waste that can be categorized as hazardous waste include old batteries, shoe polish, paint tins, old medicines, and medicine bottles.
  11. 11. 2. Hospital waste, contaminated by chemicals used in hospitals is considered hazardous. • These chemicals include formaldehyde and phenols, which are used as disinfectants, and mercury, which is used in thermometers or equipment that measure blood pressure. 3. In the industrial sector, the major generators of hazardous waste are the metal, chemical, paper, pesticide, dye, refining, and rubber goods industries. • Direct exposure to chemicals in hazardous waste such as mercury and cyanide can be fatal.
  12. 12. 3) Hospital waste :  Hospital waste is generated during the diagnosis, treatment, or immunization of human beings or animals or in research activities in these fields or in the production or testing of biologials.  It may include wastes like sharps, soiled waste, disposables, anatomical waste, cultures, discarded medicines, chemical wastes, etc.  These are in the form of disposable syringes, swabs, bandages, body fluids, human excreta, etc.  This waste is highly infectious and can be a serious threat to human health if not managed in a scientific and discriminate manner.
  13. 13. Plastics : •Plastic with its exclusive qualities of being light yet strong and economical, has invaded every aspect of our day-to-day life. • It has many advantages: it is durable, light, easy to mould, and can be adapted to different user requirements. • Once hailed as a 'wonder material', plastic is now a serious worldwide environmental and health concern, essentially due to its nonbiodegradable nature. • Plastics have use in all sectors of the economy -infrastructure, construction, agriculture, consumer goods, telecommunications, and packaging.
  14. 14. Disadvantages : • Burning of plastics, especially PVC releases this dioxin and also furan into the atmosphere. • Thus, conventional plastics, right from their manufacture to their disposal are a major problem to the environment.
  15. 15.  Health risks related to the inadequate management of solid waste :  Waste is a serious health hazard and lead to the spread of infectious diseases. Unattended waste lying around attracts flies, rats, and other that in turn spread disease.  Air pollution is another factor to be considered. Sharp items such as needles and broken glass present a further hazard to people walking through the area. Wastes dumped along roads, riverbanks, abandoned quarries, seas, and lakes results in the inevitable effect of contaminating water supplies as well as the whole aquatic chain.
  16. 16. Normally it is the wet waste that decomposes and releases a bad odour.  Other than this, co-disposal of industrial/ residential hazardous waste with municipal waste can expose people to chemical and radioactive hazards.  Uncollected solid waste can also obstruct storm water runoff, resulting in the forming of stagnant water bodies that become the breeding ground for disease causing agents. Heaps of garbage present a fire risk and smoke can also be a health hazard if the burning waste contains items such as plastics or chemicals .
  17. 17. Treatment and disposal of municipal waste : 1.Composting 2. Open dumps 3.Landfills 4.Sanitary landfills 5.Incineration plants
  18. 18. 1) Composting : • One of the oldest forms of disposal. • It is the natural process of decomposition of organic waste that yields manure or compost organic matter constitutes 35%–40% of the municipal solid waste generated . •This waste can be recycled by the method of composting,, which is very rich in nutrients. • Composting is a biological process in which micro-organisms, mainly fungi and bacteria, convert degradable organic waste into humus like substance.
  19. 19. •This finished product, which looks like soil, is high in carbon and nitrogen and is an excellent medium for growing plants. • The process of composting ensures the waste that is produced in the kitchens is not carelessly thrown and left to rot. • It recycles the nutrients and returns them to the soil as nutrients.
  20. 20.  Composting - some benefits : Compost allows the soil to retain more plant nutrients over a longer period. •It supplies part of the 16 essential elements needed by the plants. •It helps reduce the adverse effects of excessive alkalinity, acidity, or the excessive use of chemical fertilizer. •It makes soil easier to cultivate. •It helps keep the soil cool in summer and warm in winter. •It aids in preventing soil erosion by keeping the soil covered. •It helps in controlling the growth of weeds in the garden.
  21. 21. Extend life span of existing landfill. Promote Compost Product Two Birds With One Stone Source: After Coad, 2000 Save Transportation & Landfilling cost of Organic Waste
  22. 22. 2) Open dumps : •Open dumps refer to uncovered areas that are used to dump solid waste of all kinds. •The waste is untreated, uncovered, and not segregated. • It is the breeding ground for flies, rats, and other insects that spread disease. •The rainwater run-off from these dumps contaminates nearby land and water thereby spreading disease. • In some countries, open dumps are being phased out.
  23. 23. 3) Landfills :  Advantages : • Landfills are generally located in urban areas where a large amount of waste is generated and has to be dumped in a common place. • Unlike an open dump, it is a pit that is dug in the groun. • At the end of each day, a layer of soil is scattered on top of it thus preventing the breeding of flies and rats and some mechanism, is used to compress the garbage, which now forms a cell. • After the landfill is full, the area is covered with a thick layer of mud and the site can thereafter be developed as a parking lot or a park.
  24. 24.  Disadvantages : • All types of waste is dumped in landfills . •when water seeps through them it gets contaminated and in turn pollutes the surrounding area. •This contamination of groundwater and soil through landfills is known as leaching.
  25. 25. Survey of Dump sites : Khan Yunis: 50 dunum with 20,000 ton of waste Gaza : Karamah st. : (4km along the street with 70,000 ton of waste) Yarmuk: (5 dunum with 40,000 ton of waste) Street #10: (100m along the street with 20,000 ton of waste) North: Um Nasser: (8 dunums with 50,000 ton of waste) Beit Lahia: (10 dunums with 50,000 ton of waste) Beit Hanoun: (50 dunum).
  26. 26.  Leachate : Number Parameters Results ( *WHO (2000 recent waste .1 pH 8.21 .2 Ec mS 32.6 .3 NO3 .4 aged waste 6.2 7.5 mg/l 43 mg/l 3 mg/l 1 PO4 mg/l 116 mg/l 0.73 mg/l 1.4 .5 Alkalinity as CaCO3 mg/l 10600 .6 BOD mg/l 1210 mg/l 11900 mg/l 260 .7 COD mg/l 3600 mg/l 23800 mg/l 1160 .8 Fats and Oils mg/l 3 10*8.5 9 Al mg/l 2.25 .10 Ba mg/l 0.49 mg/l 21.5 mg/l 0.4 .11 Cd mg/l 0.00 .12 Cr mg/l 0.42 .13 Cu mg/l 1.80 mg/l 0.12 mg/l 0.3 .14 Fe mg/l 18.66 .15 Mn mg/l 0.095
  27. 27. 4) Sanitary landfills :  Advantages : •An to landfills which will solve the problem of leaching to some extent. • is more hygienic and built in a methodical manner. • These are lined with materials that are impermeable such as plastics and clay, and are also built over impermeable soil. •In some countries, the methane being produced from sanitary landfills is tapped and sold as fuel.
  28. 28.  Disadvantages : •Constructing sanitary landfills is very costly. • Some authorities claim that often the plastic liner develops cracks as it reacts with various chemical solvents present in the waste. •The rate of decomposition in sanitary landfills is also extremely variable, because less oxygen is available as the garbage is compressed very tightly. • It has also been observed that some biodegradable materials do not decompose in a landfill. •Another major problem is the development of methane gas, which occurs when little oxygen is
  29. 29. 5) Incineration plants : •This process of burning waste in large furnaces is known as incineration. • In these plants the recyclable material is segregated and the rest of the material is burnt. • At the end of the process all that is left behind is ash. During the process some of the ash floats out with the hot air, this is called fly ash. •Burning garbage is not a clean process as it produces tones of toxic ash and pollutes the air and water. • In fact, at present, incineration is kept as the last resort and is used mainly for treating the infectious waste.
  30. 30. ‫‪Gases emitted as a result of the operation of‬‬ ‫‪(incinerators (eg Shifa Hospital incinerator‬‬ ‫الغازات‬ ‫الميثان‬ ‫نسبة التركيز‬ ‫%06-04‬ ‫غاز ثاني أكسيد الكربون‬ ‫أول أكسيد الكربون‬ ‫النيتروجين‬ ‫الهيدروجين‬ ‫المونيا‬ ‫كبريتيد الهيدروجين‬ ‫بخار الماء‬ ‫%03-02‬ ‫تركيزات بسيطة‬ ‫%53-51‬ ‫تركيزات بسيطة‬ ‫تركيزات بسيطة‬ ‫تركيزات بسيطة‬ ‫حسب درجة‬ ‫الحرارة‬ ‫تركيزات بسيطة‬ ‫أخرى‬ ‫الصفات العامة‬ ‫مشتعل و أخف من‬ ‫الهواء‬ ‫خانق أثقل من الهواء‬ ‫سام‬ ‫روائح كريهة‬ ‫روائح و سام‬ ‫: ‪Chronic diseases‬‬ ‫روائح‬ ‫,‪ Incineration operators are at risk of chronic respiratory diseases‬‬ ‫‪including cancers resulting from exposure to dust and hazardous‬‬ ‫.‪compounds‬‬
  31. 31. What is Solid Waste Management? It includes all activities that seek to minimize the health, environmental and aesthetic impacts of solid wastes. Municipal Solid Waste Management (MSWM) Is much more than a technological issue - it always also involves institutional, social, legal, and financial aspects and involves coordinating and managing a large workforce and collaborating with many involved stakeholders as well as the general public.
  32. 32. Challenges in Solid Waste Management : •Inadequate service coverage and operational inefficiencies of services, •Limited utilization of recycling activities, •Inadequate landfill disposal, and •Inadequate management of hazardous and healthcare waste.
  33. 33. Factors Influencing Solid Waste Management : 1- Waste amount and composition 2- Awareness and attitudes 3- Institutions and legislation
  34. 34. Four Rs (Refuse, Reuse, Recycle, Reduce) to be followed for waste management : 1. Refuse: Instead of buying new containers from the market, use the ones that are in the house. Refuse to buy new items though you may think they are prettier than the ones you already have. 2. Reuse: Do not throw away the soft drink cans or the bottles; cover them with homemade paper or paint on them and use them as pencil stands or small vases.
  35. 35. 3. Recycle: Use shopping bags made of cloth or jute, which can be used over and over again. Segregate your waste to make sure that it is collected and taken for recycling. 4. Reduce: Reduce the generation of unnecessary waste, e.g. carry your own shopping bag when you go to the market and put all your purchases directly into it.
  36. 36.  Recycling and Reuse :involves the collection of used and discarded materials processing these materials and making them into new products . Waste recycling has some significant advantages. It:  Leads to less utilization of raw materials.  Reduces environmental impacts arising from waste treatment and disposal.  Makes the surroundings cleaner and healthier.  Saves on landfill space and money .  Reduces the amount of energy required to manufacture new
  38. 38. Waste Disposal Statistics in the Gaza Strip : Governorate Gaza North Gaza Gaza Middle Area Khan Younis Rafah Sub-total North Sub-total South Total Disposal Site Gaza Deir ElBalah Rafah Population Waste quantity (Inhabitants) tons /day (2011) 309,400 381 551,800 710 230,600 300,000 195,600 861,200 726,200 404 170 1,091 574 1,587,400 1,665
  39. 39. Diversity of Cellulolytic Microbes and the Biodegradation of Municipal Solid Waste by a Potential Strain S. P. Gautam,1 P. S. Bundela,2 A. K. Pandey,3 Jamaluddin,4 M. K. Awasthi,2 and S. Sarsaiya information ► Article notes ► Copyright and License information ► Author © 2012 S. P. Gautam et al. Go to: Abstract Municipal solid waste contains high amounts of cellulose, which is an ideal organic waste for the growth of most of microorganism as well as composting by potential microbes. In the present study, Congo red test was performed for screening of microorganism, and, after selecting a potential strains, it was further used for biodegradation of organic municipal solid waste. Forty nine out of the 250 different microbes tested (165 belong to fungi and 85 to bacteria) produced cellulase enzyme and among these Trichoderma viride was found to be a potential strain in the secondary screening. During the biodegradation of organic waste, after 60 days, the average weight losses were 20-10% in the plates and 33-35% in the piles. There was an increase in pH until 20 days. pH however, stabilized after 30 days in the piles. Temperature also stabilized as the composting process progressed in the piles. The high temperature continued until 30 days of decomposition, after which the temperature dropped to 40°C and below during the maturation. Good quality compost was obtained in 60 days.
  40. 40. Municipal solid waste management for total resource recycling: a case study on Haulien County in Taiwan. Chang YM, Liu CC, Dai WC, Hu A, Tseng CH, Chou CM. Source Graduate Institute of Environmental Engineering and Management, National Taipei University of Technology, Taipei, Taiwan. Abstract This work presents the enforcement performance of recent Haulien County, Taiwan municipal solid waste (MSW) recycling management programs. These programs include: Mandatory Refuse Sorting and Recycling, Diverse Bulk Waste Reuse, Pay-as-you-Discharge, Total Food Waste Recycling, Restricted Use on Plastic Shopping Bags & Plastic Tableware, Recycling Fund Management, and Ash Reuse. These programs provide incentives to reduce the MSW quantity growth rate. It was found that the recycled material fraction of MSW generated in 2001 was from 6.8%, but was 32.4% in 2010 and will increase stably by 2-5% yearly in the near future. Survey data for the last few years show that only 2.68% (based on total MSW generated) of food waste was collected in 2001. However, food waste was up to 9.7 % in 2010 after the Total Food Waste Recycling program was implemented. The reutilization rate of bottom ash was 20% in 2005 and up to 65% in 2010 owing to Ash Reuse Program enforcement. A quantified index, the Total Recycle Index, was proposed to evaluate MSW management program performance. The demonstrated county will move toward a zero waste society in 2015 if the Total Recycle Index approaches 1.00. Exact management with available programs can lead to slow-growing waste volume and recovery of all MSW.
  41. 41. Activated carbon treatment of municipal solid waste incineration flue gas. Lu S, Ji Y, Buekens A, Ma Z, Li X, Yan J. Source State Key Laboratory of Clean Energy Utilization, Institute for Thermal Power Engineering, Zhejiang University, Hangzhou, China. Abstract Activated carbon injection is widely used to control dioxins and mercury emissions. Surprisingly little attention has been paid to its modelling. This paper proposes an expansion of the classical Everaerts-Baeyens model, introducing the expression of fraction of free adsorption sites, f(s), and asserting the significant contribution of fly ash to dioxins removal. Moreover, the model monitors dioxins partitioning between vapour and particulate phase, as well as removal efficiency for each congener separately. The effects of the principal parameters affecting adsorption are analysed according to a semi-analytical, semi-empirical model. These parameters include temperature, contact time during entrained-flow, characteristics (grain-size, pore structure, specific surface area) and dosage of activated carbon, lignite cokes or mineral adsorbent, fly ash characteristics and concentration, and type of incinerator plant.
  42. 42. :References / › ... › Solid Waste Management Geology and Environment science at Islamic University of Gaza "Removing food remains to reduce waste". Prakriti, Centre for Management Studies, Dibrugarh University
  43. 43.