Chapter 4 Fetter Principles of groundwater flow

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Principles of Groundwater Flow

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Chapter 4 Fetter Principles of groundwater flow

  1. 1. Al-Azhar University-Gaza Master Program of Water and Environmental Science Principles of Groundwater Flow Ayat Atef Mahdy Heba harara
  2. 2. Forms of energy that ground water possesses
  3. 3. Mechanical Energy of a fluid
  4. 4. Bernoulli Equation
  5. 5. Hydraulic head
  6. 6. Head in water with variable density
  7. 7. Force potential and hydraulic head
  8. 8. Darcy law
  9. 9. Reynolds number
  10. 10. Specific discharge and Average Linear Velocity
  11. 11. Equations of Ground-Water Flow
  12. 12. Gradient of Hydraulic Head
  13. 13. Flow net: flow net must show boundaries:
  14. 14. Boundary condition is important when the effect of transient stresses reach the boundary 1.Physical boundaries (impermeable rock formation) 2.Hydraulic boundary ( groundwater divide , partly aquifer penetrating water bodies and streamlines ) 3.No flow boundary (fault zones and salt water interface)
  15. 15. Formula: q = K *p* h /f , • where: q= = total discharge per unit width of aquifer (L3/T) • K = hydraulic conductivity • p = number of flow tubes • h = total head drop • f = number of squares, covering length of flow
  16. 16. Equations of groundwater flow A) Steady flow in a confined aquifer - Flow implies that the aquifer has a gradient (Remember: water flows downhill)
  17. 17. B) Steady flow in an unconfined aquifer: Aquifer isn't always fully saturated. Gradient is not constant now. Gradient increases in the direction of flow .
  18. 18. 2 problems: - Equation for this sloping surface is much more complicated - Also: recharge from the surface affects the gradient - The solution: make some assumptions about boundary conditions, calculate discharge through a section of the aquifer:
  19. 19. The equation for discharge (Dupuit equation):
  20. 20. Sieve analysis:
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