Archiving and 
disseminating 
sound archives – 1: 
Processes and procedures 
in digitizing sound materials 
Alexandre Ager...
Who are we ?i suis-je ? 
Alexandre Abergel 
alexandre.abergel@gmail.com 
Sound operator at Radio France 
http://www.radiof...
Who are we ?suis-je ? 
Véronique Ginouvès 
veronique.ginouves@univ-amu.fr 
- Engineer at CNRS (French National Center for ...
The Maison Méditerranéenne des Sciences de 
l’Homme (MMSH) is a research center in the field of 
Social Sciences and Human...
THE MMSH SOUND ARCHIVES 
Founded in 1979 by scholars in humanities 
specialized in mediterranean studies : 
- To preserve ...
La phonothèque de la MMSH 
6500 hours (field records) 
5000 hours digitized 
1500 hours on line 
600 hours from radio broa...
Incentive practices 
lead to new deposits 
The MMSH sound 
archives set 
up 
best 
prac+ces 
and 
rules 
to 
receive 
new ...
The work of the MMSH 
Phonothèque is similar to our 
training program… 
• Collecting – clarifying ethical and legal issues...
Our program 
1. Processes and procedures in digitizing 
sound materials 
2. Managing sound data 
3. Analysis and treatment...
1. Process and procedures 
in digitizing sound 
1. Behind sound digitization : definitions and 
objectives. 
2. The sound ...
1. Process and 
procedures 
in digitizing sound 
1.1. Behind sound digitization: 
definitions and objectives.
What is a sound 
archive ? 
What is a 
sound 
archive ?
OBJECTIVE ELEMENTS 
- A unique document: when it is not copied for 
commercial purposes, it does not refer to any 
standar...
UNESCO : ABOUT SOUND AND 
AUDIOVISUAL ARCHIVES 
There is no expression, universally 
recognizable, to describe the concept...
DEFINITIONS IN FRANCE : 
THE NATIONAL ARCHIVES 
The word « archives orales / sound archive » is 
restricted to contemporar...
PRIMARY SOURCES VS SECONDARY SOURCES 
A primary source is a document or physical 
object which was written or created duri...
GIVING A NAME TO THE RECORDINGS 
Source orale – Oral sources 
Enquête orale enregistrée – Recorded inquiry 
Archives sonor...
THESE DEFINITIONS ARE LINKED 
TO THE TECHNICS 
1877, in April Charles Cros discovers the Paléophone but in 
November, Thom...
PHONOGRAPH 
Exemple : Exposition 
universelle de 1900 - chant de 
piroguiers (men on pirogues), 
Madagascar : 
http://arch...
GRAMOPHONE
REEL TO REEL TAPE
IDENTIFYING AUDIO – MAGNETIC 
Sound recordings on 
analog magnetic tape 
can be tape cassettes 
or reels. 
1/4 inch audio ...
IDENTIFYING DIGITAL MAGNETIC 
Sony Digital Audiotape 
(DAT) 
Introduced in 1987 
Most common digital 
magnetic audio forma...
IDENTIFYING ANALOG DISCS – 1 
Introduced in 1895 
Used primarily for 
professional, but amateur 
and dictation recordings ...
IDENTIFYING ANALOG DISCS – 2 
• 78rpms 
Manufactured between mid 1890s and 1950s - 
10” and 12” diameter sizes 
Nitrate or...
WEB SITES ABOUT HISTORY 
OF THE SOUND RECORDING : 
HTTP://WWW.RECORDING-HISTORY.ORG 
HTTP://WWW.AES.ORG/AESHC/DOCS/ 
RECOR...
The sound archives are deeply 
linked to the humanities and 
social sciences methodology 
Who uses field 
recording and 
w...
Field recording in sociology 
1920-1930 : Chicago school published The 
Polish Peasant in Europe and America (5 vol.), 
by...
Exemple : from the Rhodes- 
Livingstone Institute to INESOR 
Fondation: 1938 in North Rhodesia (Lusaka) by 
Godfrey Wilson...
Field recording in ethnology 
1900 : In France, the Anthropology society from 
records various ethnic groups in the “Expos...
ETHNOMUSICOLOGY: 2010 LAUNCH OF 
TELEMETA
Ethnolinguistic 
1911 et 1916 : first cylinder records of Ischi, 
Yahi indian from Northern California by Alfred 
L. Kroeb...
The oral history departement of 
Columbia University 
1948, Alian Nevins and Louis Starr created in the 
Columbia Universi...
ORAL ASSOCIATIONS IN AFRICA IN 
LINK WITH THE IOHA 
Oral History Association of South Africa: http://www.ohasa.org.za 
Cen...
What‘s the use of 
sound archives ?
What is the uses 
of sound archives ? 
• Producing a document as written, audiovisual iconography 
• Collecting quickly an...
Among ethnologists recent 
interest in "their" archives 
• A 
genera+onal 
turnover 
among 
ethnologists; 
• A 
strong 
wi...
ETHNOLOGIST’ FIELD MATERIALS
A 
growing 
interest 
of 
the 
population 
recorded 
for 
"their" 
archives 
Populations that have been recorded 
in the f...
The anxiety of researchers on the 
consultation of "their" archives 
When 
socie+es 
surveyed 
by 
the 
ethnologists 
have...
1. PROCESS AND 
PROCEDURES 
IN DIGITIZING SOUND 
1.2. The sound digitization procedure 
in conjunction with document 
trea...
DOCUMENT PROCESSING CHAIN FOR A SOUND 
ARCHIVE : 3 LINKS – 3 GOVERNING PRINCIPLES 
Input: collecting – preserving 
Treatme...
CATALOGING TO MAKE ACCESSIBLE 
Université de l
VALUES NOT TO FORGET 
EACH AND EVERY ONE IS VERY 
IMPORTANT 
ü Ethics rules 
ü Collection integrity 
ü Contextualizatio...
1. PROCESS AND PROCEDURES 
IN DIGITIZING SOUND 
1. 3. How to make 
technical decisions to 
begin and carry out the 
digiti...
LOOK AROUND YOU ! 
- Is there a place dedicated to digitize ? 
- Is this place appropriate ? 
- Is all the equipment requi...
Any questions ?
Photo Credits 
Slide 1 and 8: Sound archives Marceau Gast, MMSH, photogr. Laure Principaud, janvier 
2010. 
Slide1: Digiti...
Archiving and disseminating  sound archives – 1. Processes and procedures  in digitizing sound materials
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Archiving and disseminating sound archives – 1. Processes and procedures in digitizing sound materials

  1. 1. Archiving and disseminating sound archives – 1: Processes and procedures in digitizing sound materials Alexandre Agergel, Radio France alexandre.abergel@gmail.com Véronique Ginouvès, MMSH veronique.ginouves@univ-amu.fr
  2. 2. Who are we ?i suis-je ? Alexandre Abergel alexandre.abergel@gmail.com Sound operator at Radio France http://www.radiofrance.fr http://www.ina.fr Freelance audioengineer for post production film editing and mixing http://www.avh.asso.fr *
  3. 3. Who are we ?suis-je ? Véronique Ginouvès veronique.ginouves@univ-amu.fr - Engineer at CNRS (French National Center for Scientific Research) at Aix-Marseille University, France - Head of the sound archives at the MMSH : Maison Méditerranéennes des Sciences de l’Homme – - Director of a professional Master about sound and audiovisual archives. Scholarly blog : http://phonotheque.hypotheses.org Twitter : @bagolina Articles in open access : HAL *
  4. 4. The Maison Méditerranéenne des Sciences de l’Homme (MMSH) is a research center in the field of Social Sciences and Humanities in Aix-en- Provence, focused on Mediterranean studies.
  5. 5. THE MMSH SOUND ARCHIVES Founded in 1979 by scholars in humanities specialized in mediterranean studies : - To preserve the source documenting their research: the inquiry recorded on the field - For a potential re use of the recordings for new research. A new responsability appeared since the ratification by France of the Convention for the Safeguarding of Intangible Cultural Heritage supported by UNESCO, which involve the managment of the cultural heritage of these archives.
  6. 6. La phonothèque de la MMSH 6500 hours (field records) 5000 hours digitized 1500 hours on line 600 hours from radio broadcast 2000 vinyls
  7. 7. Incentive practices lead to new deposits The MMSH sound archives set up best prac+ces and rules to receive new sound archives. It created a complete methodological package from the collect to the dissemina+on of the sound archives.
  8. 8. The work of the MMSH Phonothèque is similar to our training program… • Collecting – clarifying ethical and legal issues • Preserving and digitizing • Analyzing and indexing • Disseminating
  9. 9. Our program 1. Processes and procedures in digitizing sound materials 2. Managing sound data 3. Analysis and treatment of sound data 4. Valorising digital sound archives 5. Collecting sound data for digital storage and dissemination
  10. 10. 1. Process and procedures in digitizing sound 1. Behind sound digitization : definitions and objectives. 2. The sound digitization procedure in conjunction with document treatment. 3. How to make technical decisions to begin and carry out the digitization process.
  11. 11. 1. Process and procedures in digitizing sound 1.1. Behind sound digitization: definitions and objectives.
  12. 12. What is a sound archive ? What is a sound archive ?
  13. 13. OBJECTIVE ELEMENTS - A unique document: when it is not copied for commercial purposes, it does not refer to any standard or rules making ; - Recorded on analog or digital media - The main information that describe it are provided by the individual(s) who have recorded it: the packaging of the box when there is one, the naming of the file attachments.
  14. 14. UNESCO : ABOUT SOUND AND AUDIOVISUAL ARCHIVES There is no expression, universally recognizable, to describe the concept of audiovisual archives, like the words "library" or "museum ». It is a major handicap… Audiovisual archives are organizations or departments within organizations that are dedicated to the collection, management, conservation and communication of a collection of audiovisual materials and audiovisual heritage.
  15. 15. DEFINITIONS IN FRANCE : THE NATIONAL ARCHIVES The word « archives orales / sound archive » is restricted to contemporary recordings, verbal character, made in the current and ordinary course of business of a corporation or individual, or speech broadcast interviews, speeches, conferences, arguments, debates, films, documentaries… => primary source The term « témoignage oral / oral testimony » is used for oral documents preserved for a heritage or historical usage => secondary sources
  16. 16. PRIMARY SOURCES VS SECONDARY SOURCES A primary source is a document or physical object which was written or created during the time under study. These sources were present during an experience or time period and offer an inside view of a particular event. A secondary source interprets and analyzes primary sources. These sources are one or more steps removed from the event
  17. 17. GIVING A NAME TO THE RECORDINGS Source orale – Oral sources Enquête orale enregistrée – Recorded inquiry Archives sonores – Sound archives Archives orales – Oral archives Témoignage oral – Oral testimony Histoire orale – Oral history Son enregistré – Recorded sound Enquête de terrain – Field recording What else ?
  18. 18. THESE DEFINITIONS ARE LINKED TO THE TECHNICS 1877, in April Charles Cros discovers the Paléophone but in November, Thomas Alva Edison invents the Phonograph 1888, Emile Berliner produces the Gramophone 1934, BASF and AEG Telefunken produce plastic tape, the « Magnetophone » (Tape recorder) 1950, Philips comercializes the first tape recorder for consumers 1964, Philips develops the Compact Cassette 1983, Compact Disc (CD) launch 1987 Digital Audio Tape (DAT) launch 1992, Minidisc (Sony) and DCC (Digital Compact Cassette, Philips) launch As of 2000 spread of digital recorders and direct-to-disc system.
  19. 19. PHONOGRAPH Exemple : Exposition universelle de 1900 - chant de piroguiers (men on pirogues), Madagascar : http://archives.crem-cnrs.fr/ archives/items/ CNRSMH_I_1932_001_035_02
  20. 20. GRAMOPHONE
  21. 21. REEL TO REEL TAPE
  22. 22. IDENTIFYING AUDIO – MAGNETIC Sound recordings on analog magnetic tape can be tape cassettes or reels. 1/4 inch audio tape (reel-to-reel) Used for professionals and amateur recordings 1/8 inch audiocassette aka Compact Cassette or Standard Audio Cassette Used for professionals and amateur recordings
  23. 23. IDENTIFYING DIGITAL MAGNETIC Sony Digital Audiotape (DAT) Introduced in 1987 Most common digital magnetic audio format Similar in shape to audiocassette, but thicker Used for professionals and amateur recordings Likely polyester substrate
  24. 24. IDENTIFYING ANALOG DISCS – 1 Introduced in 1895 Used primarily for professional, but amateur and dictation recordings exist. The dominant form of domestic audio in the 20th century Various coatings and substrates.
  25. 25. IDENTIFYING ANALOG DISCS – 2 • 78rpms Manufactured between mid 1890s and 1950s - 10” and 12” diameter sizes Nitrate or acetate coated, metal or glass based metal or glass based - Manufactured between mid 1890s and 1950s - Used as instantaneous recording discs - 16’’ diameter size Vinyl based Introduced in 1948 - 33 1/3rpms, 45rpms & 78rpms – 7”, 10” or 12” diameter
  26. 26. WEB SITES ABOUT HISTORY OF THE SOUND RECORDING : HTTP://WWW.RECORDING-HISTORY.ORG HTTP://WWW.AES.ORG/AESHC/DOCS/ RECORDING.TECHNOLOGY.HISTORY/ NOTES.HTML HTTP://WWW.AVPRESERVE.COM
  27. 27. The sound archives are deeply linked to the humanities and social sciences methodology Who uses field recording and why ??
  28. 28. Field recording in sociology 1920-1930 : Chicago school published The Polish Peasant in Europe and America (5 vol.), by W. I. Thomas et F. Znianiecki From this school a student Howard Becker : http://www.canal-u.tv/producteurs/canal_socio_universite_paul_verlaine_metz/ dossier_programmes/trois_lecons_de_sociologie/ trois_lecons_de_sociologie_1_sur_le_travail_de_terrain …Never ask “why ?”
  29. 29. Exemple : from the Rhodes- Livingstone Institute to INESOR Fondation: 1938 in North Rhodesia (Lusaka) by Godfrey Wilson After the independence of Zambia, it became the Institute for Social Research (1966-1970), in 1971 the Institute for African Studies (University of Zambia) and in 1996 (to date), INESOR, the Institute for Social and Economic Research. http://www.unza.zm/institutes/inesor/index.php? option=com_content&view=article&id=80&Itemid=126
  30. 30. Field recording in ethnology 1900 : In France, the Anthropology society from records various ethnic groups in the “Exposition universelle” and Léon Azoulay (ethnomusicologist) begin a sound archive 1902 : Publication of a list of the sound archives of the Phonograph museum of the Anthropology society : liste des phonogrammes composant le Musée phonographique de la Société d'Anthropologie => Listen a sound archive from Zanzibar recorded in 1900 “Qama bibi wa nipenda” http://archives.crem-cnrs.fr/archives/items/CNRSMH_I_1900_001_300/
  31. 31. ETHNOMUSICOLOGY: 2010 LAUNCH OF TELEMETA
  32. 32. Ethnolinguistic 1911 et 1916 : first cylinder records of Ischi, Yahi indian from Northern California by Alfred L. Kroeber, T.T. Waterman and Edward Sapir Listen an archive recorded in 1900 in Swahili (from the Comoros islands): sang, spelled, - http://archives.crem-cnrs.fr/archives/items/ CNRSMH_I_1900_001_301
  33. 33. The oral history departement of Columbia University 1948, Alian Nevins and Louis Starr created in the Columbia University the first oral history department: Columbia University Oral History Research Office : life stories of cultural, political, economic, military ... elites 1967, creation of the American oral history Association, followed by the IOHA - International oral history association, http://www.iohanet.org
  34. 34. ORAL ASSOCIATIONS IN AFRICA IN LINK WITH THE IOHA Oral History Association of South Africa: http://www.ohasa.org.za Centre for Popular Memory (CPM), University of Cape Town: www.popularmemory.org.za The Sinomlando Centre for Oral History and Memory-Work, University of Kwa-Zulu Natal: http://www.ukzn.ac.za/sorat/sinomlando SA History On-Line: http://www.sahistory.org.za International Society for Oral Literature in Africa (ISOLA): http://isola.binghamton.edu South African Archives: http://www.national.archives.gov.za
  35. 35. What‘s the use of sound archives ?
  36. 36. What is the uses of sound archives ? • Producing a document as written, audiovisual iconography • Collecting quickly and effectively information (prevents error in note taking) • Recording data that can be collected only in oral : languages, practices, experiences, emotional, or symbolic representations of the imaginary, sensitive issues on which there is no printed archives, musical pieces that have never been effect transcripts • Giving voice to anonymous • Completing sources including print sources
  37. 37. Among ethnologists recent interest in "their" archives • A genera+onal turnover among ethnologists; • A strong will for archives, heritage and memory; • Evolu+on of the discipline and its research objects; • Closure of fields and globaliza+on. http://africanistes.revues.org/2542
  38. 38. ETHNOLOGIST’ FIELD MATERIALS
  39. 39. A growing interest of the population recorded for "their" archives Populations that have been recorded in the field wish to get back these documents that reflect their history and their culture, sometimes to restore their traditions that may have been, or risk to be, forgotten.
  40. 40. The anxiety of researchers on the consultation of "their" archives When socie+es surveyed by the ethnologists have changed abruptly, the researcher is in a posi+on of informant of tradi+ons which, when they where collected, evolved over +me. But these archives are not those of the socie+es studied, they are the product of a project, the result of a mee+ng with informants. How will the materials be viewed and interpreted by the communi+es for whom they were produced? Rather than a heritage to be restored, they are seen by researchers as objects of research, informa+on to share. hHp://www.ufoevidence.org/documents/doc127.htm http://ateliers.revues.org/2902
  41. 41. 1. PROCESS AND PROCEDURES IN DIGITIZING SOUND 1.2. The sound digitization procedure in conjunction with document treatment
  42. 42. DOCUMENT PROCESSING CHAIN FOR A SOUND ARCHIVE : 3 LINKS – 3 GOVERNING PRINCIPLES Input: collecting – preserving Treatment: analyzing – digitazing Released: consultation – dissemination Legal and ethical issues Preservation in the long term Information watch
  43. 43. CATALOGING TO MAKE ACCESSIBLE Université de l
  44. 44. VALUES NOT TO FORGET EACH AND EVERY ONE IS VERY IMPORTANT ü Ethics rules ü Collection integrity ü Contextualization ü Rights of present users as well as of future users ü Rational use of available tools ü Standards and catalogs (ISAD-G, EAD, RDF…) Maybe you will dream about them J
  45. 45. 1. PROCESS AND PROCEDURES IN DIGITIZING SOUND 1. 3. How to make technical decisions to begin and carry out the digitization process ?
  46. 46. LOOK AROUND YOU ! - Is there a place dedicated to digitize ? - Is this place appropriate ? - Is all the equipment required to play the media available ? - How to store the medias ? - Are there similar medias ? - Among these media is it possible to categorize them ? We are going to talk about in the coming days…
  47. 47. Any questions ?
  48. 48. Photo Credits Slide 1 and 8: Sound archives Marceau Gast, MMSH, photogr. Laure Principaud, janvier 2010. Slide1: Digitizing sound, MMSH, photogr. Serge Mercier, 2012. Slides1 and more : July 12, 1967 in northwest Burundi, Sekere, Emile Mworoha and Jean-Pierre Chrétien. Slide 5: MMSH, 2000, photogr. Pierre Monteil Slide 15: http://www.unesco.org/webworld/publications/philof/philof3.htm Slide 20: Wikipedia Norman Bruderhofer, www.cylinder.de Slide 21: Wikipedia, Norman Bruderhofer — Collection of John Lampert-Hopkins and no information for the « gramophophe valise » Slide 22: pas d’information sur l’image (reel to reel tape) and Wikipedia, Pittigrilli, 2006 Slides 24 to 26: California audiovisual preservation project, 2006 http://calpreservation.org/projects/audiovisual-preservation/ Slide 39: documents from thee ethnologists of the french laboratory LESC Slide 44: Boîtes de conserve, http://www.preparationmariage.com/spip.php?article11 Slides about archives ethnologists: many thanks to Marie-Dominique Mouton, Bibliothèque Dampierre http://www.mae.u-paris10.fr/lesc/spip.php?article21 Slide 48:National archives UK, Hong Kong fisherman's two sons listen to an up-to-date children's story on a very old transistor radio, 1969, No known copyright restrictions.

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