Task 1Odometer :An odometer or odograph is an instrument thatindicates distance traveled by a vehicle, such as a bicycle orautomobile. The device may be electronic, mechanical, or acombination of electronical or mechanical. This function tosee velocity when bicyle or automobile runningTripmeter :Most modern cars include a trip meter (trip odometer).Unlike the odometer, a trip meter is reset at any point in ajourney, making it possible to record the distance traveled inany particular journey or part of a journey
Task 21. Accuracy : the different between when a measurement reading true value when in measurement or result of instrument lection is closed with the actually score from measuring2. Precision : Precision is the ability to produce the same result from the repeated measurement and identical measuring.3. Range : absolute magnitude of a measurement of a measuring instrument. Or the limit of measurement values that an instrument is capable of reading. The dimension being measured must fit inside range or absolute magnitude of a measurement of measuring instruments
4. Subdivision : is an area or part of something that the area itself is part of something bigger. Subdivision in the measurement system is a smaller unit than the other units are larger in the same process variables5. Error : The actual difference between a measurement value and the known standard value or amount of deviation6. Hysteresis : The delay between the action and reaction of a measuring instrument. Hysteresis is the amount of error that results when this action occurs.7. Stability : The ability of a measuring instrument to retain its calibration over a long period of time. Stability determines an instruments consistency over time.
8. Repeatability : The ability to obtain consistent results when measuring the same part with the same measuring instrument.9. Sensitivity : the ability to detect the smallest changes in the measurement instrument10. Resolution : The smallest change in a measured value that the instrument can detect. And resolution is also known as sensitivity.11. Thermocouple : a sensor for measuring temperature. It consists of two dissimilar metals, joined together at one end. When the junction of the two metals is heated or cooled a voltage is produced that can be correlated back to the temperature. The thermocouple alloys are commonly available as wire.
The voltage produced is dependent on, but not necessarily proportional to, the difference of temperature of the junction to other parts of those conductors. Thermocouples are a widely used type of temperature sensor for measurement and control and can also be used to convert a temperature gradient into electricity.12. RTD : sensors used to measure temperature by correlating the resistance of the RTD element with temperature and than RTD element is made from a pure material whose resistance at various temperatures has been documented. The material has a predictable change in resistance as the temperature changes; it is this predictable change that is used to determine temperature.
13. Pressure transmitter : used to make sure that no machinery is building up pressure that is beyond levels that are considered safe for the operators helps to accomplish two specific goals. First, pressure instruments monitor the amount of pressure applied to a part of the process that is required in order to achieve the desired result. Since the application of too much or too little pressure may result in product that cannot be sold, constant real-time measurements of the pressurized environment is absolutely necessary.14. Data logging : The process of using a computer to collect data through sensors, analyze the data and save and output the results of the collection and analysis. Data logging also implies the control of how the computer collects and analyzes the data.
15. Valve : Mechanical or electromechanical device by which the flow of a gas, liquid, slurry, or loose dry material can be started, stopped, diverted, and/or regulated.In general, can serve as an isolate valve, switch, and control fluid flow in piping systems. In an open valve, fluid flow direction from higher pressure to lower pressure and than type or example valve 1. Hidraulic Valve 2. Pneumatic Valve 3. Manual Valve 4. Selenoid Valve 5 Motor Valve
16. ADC and DAC : ACD : (Analog digital converter) is a device that uses sampling to convert a continuous quantity to a discrete time representation in digital form. The reverse operation is performed by a digital-to-analog converter (DAC). An ADC may also provide an isolated measurement such as an electronic device that converts an input analog voltage or current to a digital number proportional to the magnitude of the voltage or current. However, some non-electronic or only partially electronic devices, such as rotary encoders, can also be considered ADCs.
DAC : (Digital analog converter ) is a device that converts a digital (usually binary) code to an analog signal (current, voltage, or electric charge). An analog- to-digital converter (ADC) performs the reverse operation. Signals are easily stored and transmitted in digital form, but a DAC is needed for the signal to be recognized by human senses or other non-digital systems. A common use of digital-to-analog converters is generation of audio signals from digital information in music players. Digital video signals are converted to analog in televisions and cell phones to display colors and shades. Digital-to-analog conversion can degrade a signal, so conversion details are normally chosen so that the errors are negligible.