Training: A learning experience in that it seeks a relatively permanent change in an individual that will improve
his/ her ability to perform on the job. It involves changing of Skills, Abilities & Attitudes.
Development: A process of preparing employees for future position and improves their personal skills to handle
the critical situations in an organization.
Development is more future oriented & not only improves job performance but also brings about the growth of the
personality. Focus o personal growth as Human, Conceptual & Analytical Skills.
Increases Job Skills- Specific Skills Shapes Attitude – Overall Growth
Short Term Perspective Long Term Perspective
Job Centered Career Centered
Refers to Instruction in Technical and
Refers to Philosophical and Theoretical
Focus is on Non-Managerial
Focus is on Managerial Personnel
Specific Job Related Purpose General Knowledge Purpose
To improve Productivity Improving Performance by imparting
• Changing Attitudes
• Increasing Skills
To improve Quality
To improve Organizational Climate
To increase Health and Safety
Why Employees Training: To improve the skills and knowledge of the employees to perform the assigned task.
When Employees Training: New Hires + Change of Job (Job Rotation & Promotion), Change to Job
(Technologies) & Performance Deficiencies Detected.
Training Objectives: Building a common understanding of the organization’s purpose + Shows management's
commitment and loyalty to employees & Develop people so they can increase their responsibilities and contribute
to the organization in new ways.
Why Employees Development: To assist employee to sharpen their personal skills to handle the crucial situations
Training Process: Conduct Training Need Analysis + Develop Training Objectives + Design & Select Training
Methods + Implement Training + Evaluate Training & Measure Training Results.
Training Spirals: They are 12 in no, as shown in the following diagrammatic illustrations.
Training Need Assessment TNA: A process to find the Gap between the skills required to perform a job and
the skills the employee have.
Training Need = Required Skills-Skills Used
Need Assessment Process
Role of TNA in Training Process
• Organization Analysis: To align training with business strategy and to ensure there are resources and
managerial support for training.
• Task Analysis: To identify the important work-related tasks and knowledge, skills, behaviors, abilities
• Person/Learner Analysis: Determining whether performance deficiencies result from a lack of knowledge,
skill, or ability. To ensure that trainees have the basic skills, motivation, prerequisite skills or confidence.
Identifies who needs training.
Data Gathering Methods
1. Data Gathering Methods:
i. Pro: Generates data relevant to work environment and minimizes work interruptions.
ii. Con: Requires a skilled observer. Employees’ behavior may be affected by being observed.
In addition, it is time consuming.
i. Pro: Inexpensive and can collect data from a number of people.
ii. Con: Provides limited information. There are also anonymity concerns.
c. Focus Groups:
i. Pro: Good at uncovering details of training needs and the trainer can explore questions that
ii. Con: It is time consuming and difficult to analyze. To succeed, need a skilled interviewer.
i. Pro: Useful with complex or controversial issues that one person may be unable or unwilling
ii. Con: Time consuming to organize; status or position differences may limit participation.
e. Documents Review:
iii. Pro: Good source of information on procedure; objective.
iv. Con: May not be available, accessible, or valid; technical language might require SMEs to
Need Analysis Process:
Training of Trainers:
1. Outline Part A- Preparation:
i. Adult Learning:
1. Learn by doing.
2. Learn by solving practical problems.
3. Learn through the application of past experience.
4. Learn best in informal environment.
5. Through a variety of training method.
ii. Teacher vs Instructor:
a. Tell them what you are going to tell them
b. Tell them what you are telling them
c. Tell them what you’ve told them
a. Ask them what they’ve done.
b. Tell them what they are going to do.
c. Show them what they are going to do.
d. Let them do it.
e. Let them do it some more.
f. Ask them what they’ve just done.
iii. Create a Checklist:
1. Look at the example.
2. Work out in a group of 4.
3. Choose a leader.
4. Write it in a flipchart.
iv. Sample Outline:
v. Motivate Your Audience:
1. Tell a story.
2. Use natural humor.
3. Unusual statistics.
4. Know their level of knowledge.
5. Speak their language.
6. Variety in a presentation.
7. Create a need – WIIFM.
8. Get yourself excited – eye contact and available yourself before class, at breaks and
9. Establish a long range objective – see bigger pictures like the overall presentation.
10. Apply contents to life – role play and action plans.
vi. Create Lesson Plan:
2. Outline Part B- Training:
i. Gain Attentions:
1. Open with high energy, animation and enthusiasm.
2. Don’t apologize.
3. Give the audience an overview.
4. Be aware of your appearance.
5. Be aware of your voice – tone, enunciation, pace and speed, word choice.
7. Challenging questions.
8. Description of incidents.
10. Word games.
11. Visuals Props.
1. Physical movement.
2. Use of media.
3. Change of Media.
1. Tell them your big pictures.
i. Delivery Skills:
e. Easily heard.
2. Non Verbal Skills
a. Posture – confidence, alert.
b. Hand gesture.
c. Body movement – step forward, a step backward, lateral movement.
d. Facial expression.
e. Eye contact.
3. Delivery the Content:
a. Step by step.
b. Clear and concise.
c. Tell them why.
d. Stress key points.
e. Avoid jargon and buzz words.
f. Speak at moderate speed.
ii. Use of Multimedia:
1. Flip Charts:
a. Write big and well.
b. Use color – red for underline, black/blue/green for main text, pink/brown,
purple and yellow: least visible.
c. Use exact words.
d. Face your audience.
e. Post them.
f. Use symbol, box and bullet points.
g. Reverse techniques.
iii. Discussion & Feedback:
1. Facilitation Skills:
a. Set ground rules.
b. Learn to wait before responding – count to 10.
c. Redirect questions to the group – Ping Pong.
d. Use the energy of the group – rest, humor, stretch break.
e. Avoid making judgment statements – Which’s not very funny? How can you
f. Listen attentively – look into their eyes.
g. Ask participants to summarize.
h. Ask others for opinion.
i. Summarize and move on.
1. Demo Training:
a. Position the employee correctly.
b. Explain the objective and steps.
c. Demo first the overall process.
d. Demo NEXT each step slowly, explain each step elaborately and verify
e. Practice and feedback.
v. Summary & Closing:
1. Ask questions.
2. Check parking lot.
3. Summarize any follow up action items required of you.
4. Summarize key points.
Andragogical – Learner centered method.
Pedagogical – Teacher centered method
Training is a System:
Characteristics of Adult Learners:
• Adults are autonomous and self-directed
• Adults are goal – oriented.
• Adults are relevancy-oriented.
• Adults are practical.
• Adults need to be shown respect
• Adults are capable of lifelong learning
• Adults want to know why it’s important (purpose) and how they can use it
• Adults like to participate in decision making regarding learning/training
• Learn in their own ways
• Are not children
• Need organization
• Preconceptions and abilities
• New vs. Old learning
Motivating the Adult Learner (Psychology of an Adult Learner:
Motivation is another aspect of adult learning. At least six factors serve as sources of motivation for adult learning:
• Social relationships: to make new friends, to meet a need for associations and friendships.
• External expectations: to comply with instructions from someone else; to fulfill the expectations or
recommendations of someone with formal authority.
• Social welfare: to improve ability to serve mankind, prepare for service to the community, and improve
ability to participate in community work.
• Personal advancement: to achieve higher status in a job, secure professional advancement, and stay abreast
• Escape/Stimulation: to relieve boredom, provide a break in the routine of home or work, and provide a
contrast to other exacting details of life.
• Cognitive interest: to learn for the sake of learning, seek knowledge for its own sake, and to satisfy an
• Lack of time
• Lack of money
• Lack of confidence or interest
• Lack of information about opportunities to learn
• Scheduling problems
• Red tape
• Problems with childcare and transportation
What Motivates an Adult Learner?
• Requirement for competence or licensing
• An expected (or realized) promotion
• A need to maintain old skills and learn new ones
• A need to adapt to job changes
• A need to adapt to new systems
• The need to learn in order to comply with company directives
Learning Tips for an Effective Instructor:
There are four critical elements of learning that must be addressed to ensure that participants learn. These elements
• Motivation: Instructors can motivate students via several means:
o Set a feeling or tone for the lesson
o Set an appropriate level of concern
o Set an appropriate level of difficulty
• Reinforcement: Instructors can also motivate adult learners through reinforcement.
o Positive Reinforcement
o Negative Reinforcement
• Retention: Students must retain information from classes in order to benefit from the learning.
• Transference: the ability to use the information taught in the course but in a new setting.
o Positive transference
o Negative transference
Transference is most likely to occur in the following situation:
• Degree of original learning
• Critical attribute element
Trainers Role: Facilitator + Presenter + Coach.
• Active: Participate + Field Tips + Hand on + Presentation.
• Passive: Read + Listen + Observe.
Selecting & Training the Trainers:
1. Selecting Trainers:
a. Selection Factors:
b. Education (College Degree).
c. Skills & Knowledge (Pblm Solving etc).
d. Scope of Responsibility.
2. Type of Training: Entry Level Training or Orientation Program.
3. Sources of Potential Trainers: Internal + External.
4. Selection Process: Screening + Final Selection.
5. Induction & Orientation:
a. Inducting the new Trainers.
b. Orienting the new Trainers.
c. Training the Trainers.
d. Establishing Objectives.
e. Developing the Program.
g. Audio-Visual Aids.
j. Training Facilities.
6. Evaluating Trainer Training Program: Internal Tests + Performance Tests + Participants Reactions.
1. Selection Process:
2. Recognition of Need.
3. Commitment of Mgmt.
5. Position Requirements.
6. Responsibility for Selection.
7. Selection Resources.
8. Job & Task Analysis.
9. Task Identifications.
10. Task Selection.
12. Use of Tests.
13. Trg & Dev.
14. Counseling Services.
15. Review & Revision.
16. Additional Considerations.
17. Type of Validations.
18. Establishing Norms.
19. Reaching all Potential Trainees.