Research method chp 1 to 9


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Research method chp 1 to 9

  1. 1. CHp 1 Ch- 1 : Introduction to Research 41.What is Research? 3. Types of Business Research: Research is the systematic and scientific process of 3.1 Applied Research: inquiry into a problem with the purpose of finding a solution It is undertaken to resolve a problem currently faced by an for it. organization. It is specifically focused on a current issue. 3.2 Basic Research or Fundamental Research:1.1. The Excitement of research and Why The primary purpose of basic research is to generate moreManagers Should Know about Research: knowledge and understanding of the phenomenon of interest and to create theories from research results. Results and With good understanding of the research theories of basic research can then be applied to other good computer skills, a manager can face decision situations. situations involving many sophisticated variables. 4. Managers and Research Through research managers can understand, predict and control events and behaviors in their environment. 2 3 Introduction to Research 2. Business Research Managers encounter problems that need solutions. Data Types: Business research is a systematic and organized effort to (i) Quantitative Data (structured questionnaire), investigate such problems. (ii) Qualitative Data (observation, interviews, open-ended questionnaire). 2.1 Definition of Research Business Research is defined as an organized, 2.2 Research and Manager systematic, data-based, critical, objective, scientific inquiry or investigation into a specific problem, Research investigation covers, accounting, finance, undertaken with the purpose of finding answers or management, and marketing, or an interrelated issue. solutions to it. Problems must be analyzed in the context of external environment (economic, political, demographic, The research is based on (i) Primary data: Gathered technological, competitive). first hand for the given problem (ii) Secondary data: Already available (company records, industry reports, publications, or on the net). 5 6 4.1 Benefits of Research and Research Methods for Managers: 5. The manager and the Consultant- Because of research and research methods, managers can: Researcher1. Identify and effectively solve minor problems. Managers are often required to engage consultants or2. Differentiate between good and bad research. researchers to investigate more complex and time-3. Understand the multiple influences and multiple effects of consuming problems. complex factors in the environment. 5.1 How to Locate and Select a Researcher4. Take calculated risk in decision making, based on known Sources of consultants and researchers; probabilities of various outcomes. a. Consulting and Research companies (from business5. Prevent influence of people with vested or personal interests. directories or the Internet)6. Relate to hired consultants and researchers more effectively. b. Individual Consultants or Researchers (by reference)7. Combine experience with scientific knowledge when making c. Universities (research faculties and departments) decisions. d. Full-Service Advertising companies (for marketing research)
  2. 2. 7 8 5.2 The Manager-Researcher Relationship 5.3 Values The manager must take care of the following aspects when When engaging a researcher or consultant, the dealing with researchers: manager should ensure that there is a congruence or matcha. The manager must inform the researcher of the relevant between the value systems of the organization and the variables involved in the problem or issue at hand. consultant company. Specifically, the manager must ensureb. The manager should provide insights into the problem. that:c. The manager must clearly identify and explain the roles of a. The roles and expectations of both parties are made the manager and the researcher in the assignment being explicit and understood. undertaken. b. Relevant philosophies and value systems (organizationald. The manager must clearly identify what kind of information culture) are clearly stated and any constraints or will be made available to the researcher. limitations are clearly communicated.e. The manager must identify what type of information and c. A good rapport is established between (i) the manager records are confidential or classified and will not be and the researcher, and (ii) researcher and the employees. provided to the researcher. 9 6.1 Internal Consultants/Researchers Large organizations have their own research departments with 10 in-house capacity to undertake management research.A. Advantages of Internal Consultants/Researchers 6.2 External Consultants/Researchers a. The Internal Researchers are readily accepted by the employees. External consultants/researchers are members of the team hired from b. The Internal Research Team already understands the outside. organizational structure and culture, reducing the orientation time. A. Advantages of External Consultants/Researchers c. Internal Researchers are available during implementation of the a. The External Research Team is more enriched in experience, brings recommendations. an outside, independent perspective, and is open to a wider variety d. The Internal Research Team costs much less. of alternatives.B. Disadvantages of Internal Consultants/Researchers b. The External Research Team, will have knowledge of more a. Internal Researchers may be inhibited in taking an independent sophisticated problem-solving techniques and trained in innovative external perspective, and may miss fresh ideas. theories and technologies. b. There may be internal coalitions to influence the Internal B. Disadvantages of External Consultants/Researchers Researchers to conceal, distort, or misrepresent facts. a. The External Research Teams are very expensive. c. Internal Researchers may be regarded in low esteem and their b. The External Research Team will take a considerable time in conclusions may not get full value. understanding the structure and the culture of the organization. d. The Internal Researchers may have their own biases because of c. External Researchers will charge additional fees for any help in the being employees of the same organization. implementation process. 11 Ch- 1 : Introduction to Research 7. Knowledge About Research and 8. Ethics and Business Research Managerial Effectiveness Ethics in business research refers to a code of conduct or a. Manager becomes more observant and sensitive to internal expected social norms of behavior. Ethical conduct applies to: and external factors. (i) the organization sponsoring the research, (ii) employees of the b. Manager is more effective in dealing with consultants and sponsor organization, (iii) researchers and their staff, and, (iv) the researchers. respondents who are required to provide data. c. A Manager who fully understands the research process will In general, ethics in business research require everyone be able to appreciate the use of modern research technology involved to show behavior in good faith, provide required level of and research models, such as simulation. attention, subdue ego, and place organizational goals above the d. Manager better understands the conclusions and personal goals. recommendations of the researchers. e. Manager is able to grasp the full scope and depth of the managerial decision making process.
  3. 3. CHP 2 :- Scientific Investigation CH-2: Scientific Investigation 2. The Hallmarks or Main Characteristics of Scientific 1. Scientific Research Research Definition: 1. Purposiveness: Scientific Research has a specific goal and Scientific Research focuses on solving problems by well-defined purpose. following a logical, organized, and rigorous method to identify 2. Rigor: It means the research involves a good theoretical the problems, gather data, analyze that data, and draw valid base, a good methodology, and carefulness, scrupulousness, conclusions from it. and exactitude. Decisions based on scientific research are purposive, 3. Testability: Scientific Research can be used to test logically rigorous and effective. developed hypotheses. Scientific Research applies to both basic and applied research. 4. Replicability: Means results or conclusions drawn are such that they will withhold in other similar situations over and over again. 3 4 5. Precision and Confidence: Precision refers to the closeness of the findings to the “reality” based on the sample. 7. Generalizability: This means that the results of scientific It reflects the degree of accuracy of results of research. investigation will also be applicable with same results to other similar situation in other organizations. Confidence refers to the probability that our results are correct. The range in which the research results fall is known as the Confidence Interval. The probability that a certain result 8. Parsimony: This implies that research design should be will definitely be true at all times is known as the Confidence meaningful and simple. A more complex, elaborate and Level. cumbersome research model is more difficult to handle in scientific terms. 6. Objectivity: This implies that the conclusions drawn from the collected data must be based only on the facts and should not involve subjective or emotional values. The Building Blocks of Scientific Research or The Scientific Model 1.Observation 10. Refinement of theory (Pure Research) Or Implementation 5 (Applied Research) 3. Theoretical Framework 9.3. Obstacles in Conducting Management Research Interpretation of Data It is not possible to conduct 100% scientific research studies. It is due to human behavior being studied. Data collection in the 4.Hypotheses subjective areas of feelings, moods, attitudes and perceptions may not be 100% accurate. Sometimes, the obstacle is due to lack of a representative sample. 8. Analysis 5. Constructs of Data Concepts and Operational Definitions 7. Data 6. Research Collection Design
  4. 4. 5. The Hypothetic-Deductive Method 1. Observation 2. Preliminary Information Gathering 8 3. Theory Formulation4.1 Deduction and Induction Deduction and Induction are the two methods of drawing 4. Hypothesizing conclusions. a. Deduction: Deduction is a process of arriving at a 5. Further Scientific conclusion by applying known facts or principles to a specific Data collection situation. b. Induction: Induction is a process in which certain 6. Data Analysis observations are used to logically establish a general proposition from which we draw a conclusion. 7. Deduction 9 CH-2: Scientific Investigation5.1 Observation 5.4 Hypothesizing Manager observes that changes are occurring in the work A hypothesis is a statement that proposes a possibleenvironment showing variation in behaviors, attitudes, feelings, relationship or conclusion that can be tested. The researchcommunication pattern and styles, work performance and many process is undertaken to test this hypothesis.other variables. Inductive Research is used for hypotheses generation.5.2 Preliminary Information Gathering Deductive Research is used for hypotheses testing. This involves collecting of information in depth regarding the 5.5 Further Scientific Data Collectionobserved critical change. For each variable in the hypothesis, data needs to be5.3 Theory Formulation collected scientifically, so that it is valid and reliable. Data on It integrates all the information in a logical manner, so that every variable in the Theoretical Framework also needs to bethe factors responsible for the problem can be conceptualized and collected.tested. The Theoretical Framework is designed to assess theinfluence of the critical variables on the problem. CH-2: Scientific Investigation 12 6. Other Types of Research 5.6 Data Analysis 6.1 Case Studies The collected data are statistically analyzed to see if the data Case studies involve in-depth, contextual analyses of similar support the hypotheses. Qualitative data (narrative information situations in other organizations, where the nature and definition of through interviews, group discussions, observation etc.) and the problem happen to be the same as experienced in the current quantitative data (numerical information through structured situation. interviews, questionnaires, human and technology-based observations, etc.). 6.2 Action Research Action Research is used by trained and experienced consultants to 5.7 Deduction bring about a planned change. In Action Research, the researcher Deduction is the process of arriving at conclusions by begins with a problem that is already identified, and gathers interpreting the meaning of the results of the data analysis, relevant data to provide a tentative problem solution. This solution leading recommendations to solve the problem. is then implemented, with the knowledge that there may be unintended consequences as a result of this implementation. The effects are then evaluated, defined, and diagnosed.
  5. 5. CHP 3 Ch- 3 : TECHNOLOGY AND BUSINESS RESEARCH Ch- 3: TECHNOLOGY AND BUSINESS RESEARCH 2. Commonly Used Technologies in Business Research1. Information Needs of Business 2.1 The Internet The Internet, is a vast global network of computers. To run a business, useful, timely, accurate, reliable, and • We can easily download and print secondary data.valid data are needed. When data in their raw from are • We can also conduct computer-interactive surveys veryevaluated, analyzed, and synthesized, useful information is efficiently with large global audiences.generated for managers. • Specialized companies like Survey Online offer specialized services to conduct Internet surveys for firms that needThe methods used to gather, analyze, and synthesize information of a confidential nature.information are becoming more sophisticated due to the • The LAN enables employees with computers in close proximityimmense scope of technology. to share information resources and files, and helps schedule, monitor, and process data from remote locations. • Search engines are software programs designed to help the search on the World Wide Web. Ch- 3 :TECHNOLOGY AND BUSINESS RESEARCH Ch- 3 :TECHNOLOGY AND BUSINESS RESEARCH2.2 Electronic Mail 2.4 Browsers The wide use of the internet is possible due to the enabling The Internet allows the exchange of electronic mail features of the browser, which front-ends the web sites and web (e-mail), which is the primary mode of business applications. Browser software (like Microsoft’s Explorer and communication. The easy global access to the Internet has enabled all organizations to have access to e-mail. E-mail is Netscape) allows even the nontechnical user easy access to and inexpensive, almost instantaneous, and has the added navigation through the web. In a sense, browsers ignited the advantage of guaranteed delivery. “Internet revolution.” 2.5 Web Sites Organizations create web sites to promote their image,2.3 The Intranet communicate with customers, build relationships, share The Intranet links internal data networks of the company, information, offer attractive inducements to prospective but prevents access to others outside the company. It also customers, provide online purchases by customers. The built-in facilitates data gathering from within the company. audit capability and push technology (using cookies) also provides feedback. Ch- 3 :TECHNOLOGY AND BUSINESS RESEARCH Ch- 3 :TECHNOLOGY AND BUSINESS RESEARCH3. Some Software Used in Business Research 3.3 CAM / CAD Computer-aided manufacturing (CAM) software helps engineers 3.1 Group Ware to design and manufacture components and products. Computer-Groupware is software that runs on a network so that teams can aided design (CAD) software creates and displays complexwork on joint projects. This software is of immense use for drawings with precision enabling experimentation with differentefficient and effective completion of specific team projects. designs. 3.2 Neural Networks 3.4 Enterprise Resource PlanningNeural Networks are designed to trace patterns in a set of data Enterprise-Resource Planning (ERP) packages offer all-in-oneand generalize from them. This software enables sales forecasts, integrated business applications, slowly replacing traditionalstock market predictions, employee behavior assessments, etc. manufacturing, finance, and order entry applications. ERP packages provide comprehensive solutions.
  6. 6. Ch- 3 :TECHNOLOGY AND BUSINESS RESEARCH Ch- 3 :TECHNOLOGY AND BUSINESS RESEARCH 4. Emerging Applications in Technology3.5 Data Analytic Software ProgramsSoftware programs are available to obtain, store, and analyze 4.1 Handheld Devicesraw data collected through surveys, using SPSS, SAS, Excel and The new computer technology using small, cost-effective,the like. handheld devices like the Palm, eases data gathering andGathering data is facilitated through audit capabilities in immediate analysis. Critical data the wireless devices furthersoftware that track and provide information on the extent of increase efficiency.usage of any function or feature. 4.2 Interactive Voice Technology, CD-ROM,Designing questionnaires, collecting data, data analysis, and weband e-mail surveys are facilitated by software programs, and Relational Databasesincluding SumQuest or SQ, Survey Software, Professional Quest These technological advances help businesses to conductand Perseus. research. Relational databases can be linked in any desired manner. Ch- 3 :TECHNOLOGY AND BUSINESS RESEARCH 5. Information Systems and Managerial Ch- 3 :TECHNOLOGY AND BUSINESS RESEARCH Decision Making 4.3 Digital Whiteboards Organizations with expanded functions and growing in size, Digital whiteboards allow contents on a board to be copied on to require good information system. Computerized information the PC and transmitted electronically to others. systems enable the efficient operation of different subsystems in 4.4 Group Videoconferencing finance, transportation, marketing, or human resources. Group videoconferencing reproduces the face-to-face meeting 5.1 Data Warehousing, Data Mining and effect by using large TV monitors or multimedia projectors. Operations Research 4.5 Virtual Reality a. Data Warehousing Virtual reality creates 3-D environments in which to create a A data warehouse that serves as the central repository of all data product in a computer and show it to interested groups with collected from different sources, The data warehouse can be details regarding price, materials, and other relevant accessed through various on-line analytical processing (OLAP) information. tools to support decision making. Data warehousing can be described as the process of extracting, transferring, and 4.6 Linkage of PCs to Electronic Devices integrating data from multiple external databases and operating Latest technologies available from Microsoft and Sony link PCs systems. and consumer electronic devices. Business transactions, communication, and research can be accelerated many fold.
  7. 7. Ch- 3 :TECHNOLOGY AND BUSINESS RESEARCH Ch- 3 :TECHNOLOGY AND BUSINESS RESEARCHb. Data Mining d. Management Information SystemsData mining is a strategic tool for reaching new levels of Management Information Systems (MIS), Decision Supportbusiness intelligence. Using algorithms to analyze data in a System, the Executive Information System, and the Expertmeaningful way, data mining more effectively leverages the data System, are good decision making aids.warehouse by identifying hidden relations and pattern. 6. International Dimensions of Cyberspacec. Operations Research Cyberspace is not free of geographical boundaries or culturalOperations Research (OR) or management sciences (MS) is issues. Foreign governments can use the firewall and filteringanother sophisticated tool used to simplify and clarify complex technology to deter computer hackers. Unregulated cyberspaceproblems by quantification. OR uses higher mathematics and is a mythical notion. Local laws do indeed govern what can andstatistics to solve intricate problems of great complexity relating cannot appear in inventory, queuing, sequencing, routing, etc. Copyright laws can also be deemed to be broken. Ch- 3 :TECHNOLOGY AND BUSINESS RESEARCH Ch- 3 :TECHNOLOGY AND BUSINESS RESEARCH7. Data Storage and Surveillance7.1 Storage of Databases 8. Managerial Advantage of TechnologicalData is the lifeblood of companies and should be mirrored live in Advancementsat least two other locations, or at least backed up on tape and It is important for managers to take full advantage ofstored in other remote locations. information technology and software developments. Software technology can be used in the research process for problem7.2 Data Security identification, theory building, data collection, data analysis, andIncreasingly, organizations and their information systems are presentation of results..faced with security threats that include computer hacking,computer viruses, Internet fraud, and sabotage.To protect information digital IDs and firewalls are used.Authentication, authorization, and encryption are some basicsecurity methodologies used for this purpose. Ch- 3 :159. Ethics in Handling Information TechnologyUse of technology also imposes certain obligations on the part ofits users:1. It is important that the privacy of all individuals is protected.2. Companies also need to ensure that confidential information relating to individuals is protected.3. Care should be taken to ensure that incorrect information is not distributed in the company.4. Researchers collecting data should be honest, trustworthy, and careful in obtaining and recording the data in a timely fashion.
  8. 8. CHP 4 1 OBSERVATION Broad area of research interest identified 3 4 THEORETICAL 6 7 PROBLEM FRAMEWORK 5 SCIENTIFIC DATA DEFINITION GENERATION RESEARCH COLLECTION, Research OF DESIGN ANALYSIS, AND Problem Variables clearly HYPOTHESES INTERPRETATION Identified and Ch- 4 THE RESEARCH PROCESS delineated labeled1. The Research Process for Applied and Basic 2 8 DEDUCTION Research PRELIMINARY Hypotheses DATA GATHERING Substantiated? The hypothetico-deductive method has two distinct Interviewing Research Literature surveyaspects: (i) the process of developing the conceptual questionframework and the hypotheses; and, (ii) the design, including answered?the planning of the actual study, location of the study, theselection of the sample, and collection and analysis of the data. Yes NO 9 10 11 Report Report Managerial Diagram 4.1: The research process Writing Presentation Decision for basic and applied research. Making 5 3 Example 3: Conceptual Issue that Needs to be 1.1 Broad Problem Area Researched: The broad problem area refers to the entire situation A researcher may undertake basic research to study the where there is a possible need for research and problem phenomenon of punctuality so as to define that concept in solving. The specific issue might pertain to (1) problems precise terms. currently existing in an organizational setting that need to be solved, (2) areas that a manager believes need to be improved, Example 4: Empirical Answers: (3) conceptual or theoretical issue that needs to be researched A researcher may want to find answers empirically to the to understand certain phenomena, and (4) some research issue of perceived punctuality versus the actual punctuality and questions that a basic researcher wants to answer empirically. its impact on the consequences for the individuals (psychological stress) and for organizations (poor performance). Such research is done by gathering data and testing the relationships between variables. Ch- 4 THE RESEARCH PROCESS 4 Further Examples of broad problems areas: Example 1: Problem Currently Existing: 1. Training programs are perhaps not as effective as anticipated. 2. The sales volume of a product is not picking up. A General Manager receives complaints from 3. Minority group members in organizations are not advancing in Supervisory Managers that their subordinate staff is not their careers. punctual in attending office. From such statements the General Manager becomes aware that a punctuality-related 4. The daily balancing of accounting ledgers is becoming a continuing problem exists. Poor punctuality is a symptom, whereas the concern. true underlying problem may not be known. Research 5. The newly installed information system is not being used by the investigation is required to identify the problem and then fix managers. it. 6. The introduction of flexible work hours has created more problems. Example 2: Situation Requiring Improvement: 7. The anticipated results of a recent merger have not been If the company has already implemented measures to forthcoming. ensure punctuality, and some complaints of poor punctuality 8. Inventory control is not effective. continue to come in, then it is obvious that the policies are 9. The installation of an MIS keeps getting stalled. not bringing the full results. Through research, such policies 10. The management of a complex, multidepartmental team project is and procedures need to be redefined. getting out of hand in the R & D department of a firm.
  9. 9. Ch- 4 THE RESEARCH PROCESS Ch- 4 THE RESEARCH PROCESS 1.2 Preliminary Data Collection Secondary data are data that already exist and include 1.2.1 Nature of Data to be Gathered statistical bulletins, government publications, information The nature of information needed by the researchers published or unpublished and available from either within or outside the organization, data available from previous research, may be broadly classified as: case studies and library records, online data, web sites, and the1. Background information of the organization—that is, the internet. contextual factors.2. Managerial philosophy, company policies, and other Primary Data are the data collected first-hand by the structural aspects. researcher. It includes gathering such information as the perceptions and attitudes of employees by talking to them; by3. Perceptions, attitudes, and behavioral responses of observing events, people, and objects; or by administering organization’s employees or customers. questionnaires to individuals. Ch- 4 THE RESEARCH PROCESS Ch- 4 THE RESEARCH PROCESSa. Background Information on the Organization b. Information on Structural Factors and It includes the contextual factors: Management Philosophy1. The origin and history of the company. Information on company policies, structure, workflow,2. Size in terms of employees, assets, etc. management philosophy, and the like can be obtained from3. Charter—purpose and ideology. the management.4. Location—regional, national, or other. Some of the structural factors are:5. Resources—human and other. 1. Roles and positions in the organization and number of6. Interdependent relationships with other institutions and the employees at each job level. external environment. 2. Extent of specialization.7. Financial position during the previous 5 to 10 years, and 3. Communication channels. relevant financial data. 4. Control systems. 5. Coordination and span of control. 6. Reward systems. 7. Workflow systems. Ch- 4 THE RESEARCH PROCESS Ch- 4 THE RESEARCH PROCESSc. Perceptions, Attitudes, and Behavioral Responses (ii) Behavioral factors include actual work habits such as Employees’ perceptions of the work and the work environment and their attitudinal and behavioral responses can be recorded in the research industriousness, extent of absenteeism, performance on the process. job, etc.(i) Attitudinal factors comprise people’s beliefs about and reactions to thefollowing:1. Nature of the work. The main idea in gathering information on values, structures,2. Workflow interdependencies. and processes is that these might often reveal the root of the3. Superiors in the organization. real problem.4. Participation in decision making. Once the interviews have been conducted, the various types of5. Client systems.6. Co-workers. information that have been gathered during the interviews are7. Rewards provided by the organization, such as pay raises and fringe tabulated to determine if there is a discernible pattern in the benefits. responses.8. Opportunities for advancement in the organization.9. Organization’s attitudes toward employees’ family responsibilities.10. Company’s involvement with community, civic, and other social groups.11. Company’s tolerance of employees’ taking time off from the job.
  10. 10. Ch- 4 THE RESEARCH PROCESS Ch- 4 THE RESEARCH PROCESS A good literature survey thus ensures that: 1. Important variables that are likely to influence the problem situation are not left out.1.2.2 Literature Survey 2. A clearer idea emerges as to what variables would be most Literature survey is the documentation of relevant important to consider (parsimony), why they would bepublished and unpublished work from secondary sources. considered important, and how they should be investigated to solve the problem. It helps the development of thea. Reasons for the literature Survey theoretical framework and hypothesis for testing. An effective literature survey leads to comprehensive 3. The Problem Statement can be made with precision andtheoretical framework . clarity. 4. Testability and replicability of the findings of the current research are enhanced. 5. Efforts are not wasted in rediscovering something that is already known. 6. The problem investigated is perceived by the scientific community as relevant and significant. Ch- 4 THE RESEARCH PROCESS Ch- 4 THE RESEARCH PROCESS Conducting the Literature Survey The first step in this process involves identifying the various Basically, three forms of databases are used when reviewing published and unpublished materials. The second step is the literature: gathering the relevant information from a library or online sources. The third step is writing up the literature review. i. Identifying the Relevant Sources Bibliographic Databases display only the bibliographic Global business information, published articles in citations, that is, the name of the author, the title of the article newspaper and periodicals, and conference proceedings, are (or book), source of publication, year, volume, and page available on data bases. Computerized databases include numbers. bibliographies, abstracts, and full texts of articles on various Abstract Databases provide an abstract or summary of the business topics. Statistical and financial databases are also articles. easily accessible. Full-text Databases provide the full text of the articles. Ch- 4 THE RESEARCH PROCESS Ch- 4 THE RESEARCH PROCESSOnline searches provide a number of advantages. Besides iii. Writing Up the Literature Reviewsaving enormous amounts of time, they are comprehensive in The documentation of the relevant studies citing thetheir listing and review of references, and the researcher can author and the year of the study is called literature review orfocus on materials most central to the research effort. literature survey. The literature survey is a clear and logicalii. Extracting the Relevant Information presentation of the relevant research work done thus far in theBibliography: Accessing the online system and getting a area of investigation.printout of all the published works in the area of interest from abibliographical index will provide a comprehensive A point to note is that the literature survey should bringbibliography. together all relevant information in a clear and logical manner Abstracts: The abstract of such articles that seem to be instead of presenting all the studies in chronological order. A good literature survey also leads to a good problem statement.relevant can then be obtained through the online system. Full-Text: The full text of articles can then be printed out. There are several accepted methods of citing references in theWhile reading these articles, details can be systematically literature survey.noted.
  11. 11. Ch- 4 THE RESEARCH PROCESS Ch- 4 THE RESEARCH PROCESS 1.3 Problem DefinitionProblem Definition or Problem Statement is a clear, A “problem” could simply indicate an interest in an issue where precise, and succinct statement of the question or issue that finding the right answers might help to improve an existing is to be investigated with the goal of finding an answer or situation. solution. As mentioned earlier, problem definitions could Definition: A problem is defined as any situation where pertain to (1) existing business problems where a manager is a gap exists between the actual and the desired ideal looking for a solution, (2) situations that may not pose any current problem but which the manager feels have scope for states. improvement, (3) areas where some conceptual clarity is It is very important that symptoms of problems are not needed for better theory building, or (4) situations in which a defined as the real problem. researcher is trying to answer a research question empirically because of interest in the topic. Antecedent conditions or symptoms lead to a problem; whereas Consequences are the results of the problem.
  12. 12. CHP 5 Ch- 5 THE RESEARCH PROCESS: Steps 4 & 5 Ch- 5 THE RESEARCH PROCESS: Steps 4 & 5 2. Variables A variable is anything that can take on differing or varying values. 2.1 Types of Variables Four main types of variables are discussed in this chapter: a. The dependent variable (also known as the criterion variable). b. The independent variable (also known as the predictor variable). c. The moderating variable. d. The intervening variable. Variables can be discrete (e.g., male/female) or continuous (e.g., the age of an individual).Ch- 5 THE RESEARCH PROCESS: Steps 4 & 5 Ch- 5 THE RESEARCH PROCESS: Steps 4 & 5 Independent Dependent Managerial values Power distance Variable Variable Independent variable Dependent variable Diagram 5.1: Variables Diagram 5.2: VariablesCh- 5 THE RESEARCH PROCESS: Steps 4 & 5 Ch- 5 THE RESEARCH PROCESS: Steps 4 & 5 Availability of Independent Dependent Reference # of Rejects Variable (IV) Variable (DV) Manuals Moderating Interest Variable & (MV) InclinationDiagram 5.3: Moderating Variable Diagram 5.3B: Moderating Variable
  13. 13. Ch- 5 THE RESEARCH PROCESS: Steps 4 & 5 Ch- 5 THE RESEARCH PROCESS: Steps 4 & 5 Willingness to learn Workforce Organizational diversity effectiveness Independent Variable Dependent variable Managerial expertise Training programs Growth needs Moderating Variable Diagram 5.5 A: Influence of Independent Diagram 5.4:Moderating Variable Variable on Dependent Variable Ch- 5 THE RESEARCH PROCESS: Steps 4 & 5 Willingness to learn Effects for those high in growth needs Effects for those low in growth needs Training programs Diagram 5.5 B: Influence of Interviewing Variable Ch- 5 THE RESEARCH PROCESS: Steps 4 & 5 Ch- 5 THE RESEARCH PROCESS: Steps 4 & 5 Time t₁ t₂ t₃ Time t₁ t₂ t₃ Organization Organizatio Workforce Creative al Workforce Creative nal diversity synergy effectiveness diversity synergy effectivenes s Independent Variable Intervening Variable Dependent VariableIndependent Variable Intervening Variable Dependent Variable Managerial expertise Diagram 5.7: Relationship Between IV, DV, MV Diagram 5.6: Relationship Between IV, DV & MV & Interviewing Variable
  14. 14. Ch- 5 THE RESEARCH PROCESS: Steps 4 & 5 Ch- 5 THE RESEARCH PROCESS: Steps 4 & 5 3.1The Components of the Theoretical Framework3. Theoretical Framework There are five basic features that should be incorporated in the theoretical framework. The theoretical framework is the foundation on which the entire research project 1. The variables considered relevant to the study should be clearly identified andis based. It is a logically developed, described, and elaborated network of labeled in the discussions.associations among the variables deemed relevant to the problem situation and 2. The discussions should state how two or more variables are related to one another.identified through such processes as interviews, observations, and literature This should be done for the important relationships that are theorized to existsurvey. Experience and intuition also guide in developing the theoretical among the variables.framework. 3. If the nature and direction of the relationships can be theorized on the basis of the findings of previous research, then there should be an indication in the discussionsThe relationship between the literature survey and the theoretical framework as to whether the relationships would be positive or negative. 4. There should be a clear explanation of why we would expect these relationships to exist. The arguments could be drawn from the previous research findings. 5. A schematic diagram of the theoretical framework should be given so that the reader can see and easily comprehend the theoretical relationships. Communication among Cockpit members Communication among Cockpit members Communication between Communication between Ground control and cockpit Ground control and cockpit Air-safety Air-safety violations violations Decentralization Decentralization Nervousness Training of cockpit crew Training of cockpit crew And diffidence Independent Variables Dependent Variable Independent variables Intervening variable Dependent variable Diagram 5.8: Schematic diagram for the theoretical Diagram 5.9: Schematic diagram for the theoretical framework framework in Example 5.13. including the intervening variable. Communication among Cockpit members Ch- 5 THE RESEARCH PROCESS: Steps 4 & 5 Communication between Air-safety Ground control and cockpit violations 4. Hypotheses Development 4.1 Definition of Hypothesis Decentralization A hypothesis can be defined as a logically conjectured relationship between two or more variables expressed in the form of a testable statement. Relationships are conjectured on the basis of the network of associations established in the theoretical framework formulated for the research study. By testing the Training hypotheses and confirming the conjectured relationships, it is expected that solutions can be found to correct the problem encountered. Independent variables Moderating variable Dependent variable Diagram 5.10: Schematic diagram for the theoretical framework including a moderating variable.
  15. 15. Ch- 5 THE RESEARCH PROCESS: Steps 4 & 5 Ch- 5 THE RESEARCH PROCESS: Steps 4 & 54.2 Statement of Hypotheses: Formats 4.3 Directional and Nondirectional Hypotheses If, in stating the relationship between two variables or comparing twoa. If—Then Statements groups, terms such asTo examine whether or not the conjectured relationships or differences exist, positive, negative, more than, less than, and the like are used, then thesethese hypotheses can be set either as propositions or in the form of if—then hypotheses arestatements. The two formats can be seen in the following two examples. directional because the direction of the relationship between the variables (positive/negative) is indicated, as in Example 5.17 below, or the nature of the difference betweenExample 5.15 Employees who are more healthy will take sick leave two groups on aless frequently. variable (more than/less than) is postulated, as in example 5.18.Example 5.16 If employees are more healthy, then they will take Example 5.17sick leave less frequently. The greater the stress experienced in the job, the lower the job satisfaction of employees. Example 5.18 Women are more motivated than men. Ch- 5 THE RESEARCH PROCESS: Steps 4 & 5 Ch- 5 THE RESEARCH PROCESS: Steps 4 & 5 4.4 Null and Alternate HypothesesOn the other hand, nondirectional hypotheses are those that do postulate a The null hypotheses is a proposition that states a definitive, exactrelationship or difference, but offer no indication of the direction of these relationship between two variables. That is, it states that the populationrelationships or differences. In other words, though it may be conjectured that correlation between two variables is equal to zero or that the difference in thethere would be a significant relationship between two variables, we may not be means of two groups in the population is equal to zero (or some definiteable to say whether the relationship would be positive or negative. number). In general, the null statement is expressed as no (significant) relationship between two variables or no (significant) difference between twoExample 5.19 groups, as we will see in the various examples in this chapter. The alternateThere is a relationship between age and job satisfaction. hypothesis, which is the opposite of the null, is a statement expressing a relationship between two variables or indicating differences between groups.Example 5.20There is a difference between the work ethic values of American and Asianemployees. Ch- 5 THE RESEARCH PROCESS: Steps 4 & 5 Ch- 5 THE RESEARCH PROCESS: Steps 4 & 5 For the nondirectional hypothesis of the mean group differences in work ethicThe null hypothesis in respect of group differences stated in our Example 5.18 values in Example 5.20, the null hypothesis would be:would be: H0: µm = µw H0: Meanm = Meanw H0: AM = ASor H0: µm - µw = 0 H0: Meanm - Meanw = 0 or H0: 0The alternate for the above example would statistically be set as follows: AM - AS = where H0 represents the null hypothesis, AM is the mean work ethic value of HA: µM < µW H0: Meanm is less than Meanw Americans and AS is the mean work ethic value of Asians.which is the same as The alternate hypothesis for the above example would statistically be set as: HA: µW >µM H0: Meanw is greater than Meanm HA: AM AS where HA represents the alternate hypothesis and AM and AS are the mean work ethic values of Americans and Asians, respectively.
  16. 16. Ch- 5 THE RESEARCH PROCESS: Steps 4 & 5 Ch- 5 THE RESEARCH PROCESS: Steps 4 & 5The null hypothesis for the relationship between the two variables in Example5.17 would be The alternate hypotheses for the above null, which has been expressed directionally in Example 5.17, can be statistically expressed asHO: There is no relationship between stress experienced on the job and the job HA: < 0 (The correlation is satisfaction of employees. negative.)This would be statistically expressed by For Example 5.19, which has been stated nondirectionally, while the null H0: = 0 hypothesis would be statistically expresses as: H0: = 0where represents the correlation between stress and job satisfaction, which inthis case is equal to 0 (i.e., no correlation). The alternate hypothesis would be expressed as: H0: 0 Ch- 5 THE RESEARCH PROCESS: Steps 4 & 54.5 Steps in Hypothesis Testing1. State the null and the alternate hypotheses.2. Choose the appropriate statistical test depending on whether the data collected are parametric or nonparametric (discussed in a later chapter).3. Determine the level of significance desired (p= 05, or more, or less).4. See if the output results from computer analysis indicate that the significance level is met. If, as in the case of Pearson correlation analysis in Excel software, the significance level is not indicated in the printout, look up the critical values that define the regions of acceptance on the appropriate table [(t, F, χ2)—see tables at the end of the book]. This critical value demarcates the region of rejection from that of acceptance of the null hypothesis.5. When the resultant value is larger than the critical value, the null hypothesis is rejected, and the alternate accepted. If the calculated value is less than the critical value, the null is accepted and the alternate rejected.
  17. 17. CHP 6 1 Ch- 6 THE RESEARCH PROCESS OBSERVATION Broad area Step 6: Elements of Research Design of research interest identified 4 Ch- 6 THE RESEARCH PROCESS 3 PROBLEM THEORETICAL FRAMEWORK 5 6 SCIENTIFIC 7 DATA Step 6: Elements of Research Design DEFINITION GENERATION RESEARCH COLLECTION, Research OF DESIGN ANALYSIS, AND Problem Variables clearly HYPOTHESES INTERPRETATION delineated Identified and labeled 1. The Research Design 2 8 DEDUCTION PRELIMINARY Hypotheses Having identified the variables in a problem situation and DATA GATHERING Interviewing Substantiated? development the theoretical framework, the next step is to design the Research research in a way that the requisite data can be gathered and analyze to Literature survey question answered? arrive at a solution. Yes NO 9 10 11 Report Report ManagerialDiagram 6.1: The research process Writing Presentation Decision Making Ch- 6 THE RESEARCH PROCESS Step 6: Elements of Research Design DETAILS OF STUDY MEASUREMENT Ch- 6 THE RESEARCH PROCESS Purpose of the Types of Extent of researcher Study setting Measurement Step 6: Elements of Research Design study investigation interference and measures DATA ANALYSIS 2. Purpose of the Study: Exploratory, Descriptive, Operational Exploration Establishing: Minimal: Studying Contrived definition Description Causal relationships events Noncontrived Items (measure) Hypothesis testing Correlations Group differences, as they normally occur Manipulation and/or Scaling Categorizing 1. Feel for data Hypothesis Testing ranks, etc. control and/or Coding (Analytical and Predictive), Case Study AnalysisPROBLEM STATEMENT simulation 2. Goodness 2.1 Exploratory Study of data Unit of Sampling Time Data collection analysis design horizon method 3. Hypotheses An exploratory study is undertaken when not much is known about the testing (population situation at hand, or no information is available on how similar problems or to be studied) research issues have been solved in the past. In such cases, extensive preliminary Individuals Observation Dyads Probability/ One-shot Interview work needs to be done to gain familiarity with the phenomena in the situation, and Groups nonprobability (cross-sectional) Questionnaire Organizations Sample Longitudinal Physical understand what is occurring, before we develop a model and set up a rigorous Machines size (n) measurement etc. Unobtrusive design for comprehensive investigation. Diagram 6.2: The research design. Ch- 6 THE RESEARCH PROCESS Ch- 6 THE RESEARCH PROCESS Step 6: Elements of Research Design Step 6: Elements of Research Design Example 6.2 2.2 Descriptive Study A bank manager wants to have a profile of the individuals who have load A descriptive study is undertaken in order to ascertain and be able to payments outstanding for 6 months and more. It would include details of describe the characteristics of the variables of interest in a situation. their average age, earnings, nature of occupation, full-time/part-time employment status, and the like. Descriptive studies are undertaken in organizations to learn about and Example 6.3 describe the characteristics of a group of employees, as for example, the A CEO may be interested in having a description of organizations in her age, educational level, job status, and length of service of Hispanics or industry that follow the LIFO system. In this case, the report might include Asians, working in the system. Descriptive studies are also undertaken to the age of the organizations, their locations, their production levels, assets, understand the characteristics of organizations that follow certain common sales, inventory levels, suppliers, and profits. practices. Descriptive studies thus become essential in many situations. Whereas qualitative data obtained by interviewing individuals may help the understanding of phenomena at the exploratory stages of a study, qualitative data in terms of frequencies, or mean and standard deviations, become necessary for descriptive studies.
  18. 18. Ch- 6 THE RESEARCH PROCESS Step 6: Elements of Research Design2.3. Hypotheses TestingStudies that engage in hypotheses testing usually explain the nature ofcertain relationships, or establish the differences among groups or theindependence of two or more factors in a situation. Hypothesis testing isundertaken to explain the variance in the dependent variable or to predictorganizational outcomes. Example 6.5A marketing manager wants to know if the sales of the company willincrease if he doubles the advertising dollars. Here, the manager would liketo know the nature of the relationship that can be established betweenadvertising and sales by testing the hypothesis: If advertising is increased,then sales will also go up. Ch- 6 THE RESEARCH PROCESS Ch- 6 THE RESEARCH PROCESS Step 6: Elements of Research Design Step 6: Elements of Research Design 2.4. Case Study AnalysisExample 6.7The testing of a hypothesis such as: More men than women are inotivated, 2.5. Review of The purpose of the Studyestablishes the difference between two groups—men and women—in It is not difficult to see that in exploratory studies, the researcherregard to their inotivated behavior. is basically interested in exploring the situational factors so as to get a grip on the characteristics of the phenomena of interest.Example 6.8 Also, pilot studies on a small scale, by interviewing individuals orThe independence between two variables that are qualitative in nature can gathering information from a limited number of occurrences, arealso be established through hypothesis testing. Consider the hypothesis: not uncommon in exploratory research.Working the night shift (as opposed to the day shift) is related to whether or Descriptive studies are undertaken when the characteristics or thenot one is married. A chi-square test of independence will easily provide the phenomena to be tapped in a situation are known to exist, andanswer to this question. one wants to be able to describe them better by offering a profile of the factors. Hypothesis testing offers an enhanced understanding of the relationship that exists among variables. Ch- 6 THE RESEARCH PROCESS Ch- 6 THE RESEARCH PROCESS Step 6: Elements of Research Design Step 6: Elements of Research Design 3. Type of Investigation: Casual VersusIt could also establish cause-and-effect relationships.Methodological rigor increases as we move progressively from an Correlationalexploratory study to a hypothesis-testing study, and with this, the costs of A correlational study is done when it is necessary to establish a definitiveresearch also increase. Increases in sample size, multiple methods of data cause-and-effect relationship. However, if all that the manager wants is acollection, development of sophisticated measuring instruments, and the mere identification of the important factors “associated with” the problem,like, add to research costs, though they contribute more to testability, then a correlational study is called for.accuracy, precision, and generalizability. Example 6.9 A casual study question: Does smoking cause cancer? A correlational study question: Are smoking and cancer related? OR Are smoking, drinking, and chewing tobacco associated with cancer? If so, which of these contributes most to the variance in the dependent variable?