Motivation notes


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Motivation notes

  1. 1. Motivation NotesChapter 1, 2, and 3Created by Badar-e-Alam10/13/2012 Page 1
  2. 2. Motivation NotesOct. 13 Chapter: 1 MOTIVATION: Motivation is an internal process that activates guides and maintains goal- oriented behavior. IMPORTANCE OF MOTIVATION: For Individuals 1. Motivation is central to individuals’ work life and creates goal-oriented energy. 2. Motivation supports career development. 3. Employee productivity depends on ability and motivation. 4. Improving ability requires learning which in turn depends on motivation IMPORTANCE OF MOTIVATION: For Organizations:  Motivation improves employee performance thereby enhancing organizational productivity.  Authority and financial rewards alone are not enough for enhancing motivation.  Creating internal motives is one of the strongest approaches to enhancing productivity.  “Performance-leading-to-rewards” is a powerful approach for employee motivation. ELEMENTS OF MOTIVATION:  Aroused Need which is a state of deprivation.  Motive which is the inner drive that activates and guides behavior.  Goal is the incentive or gratification. TYPES OF HUMAN BEHAVIOR:  Physiological Reflexes: automatic response to external stimuli  Frustrated Behavior: arises when actions or results are interrupted  Motivated Behavior: goal-oriented behavior guided by a drive or motive CLASSIFICATION OF INCENTIVES:  Substantive: financial, job security, working conditions etc.  Interactive: social, work group, leadership, supervision, structural factors etc  Effectance: Job content, growth, opportunity, responsibility etc. Page 2
  3. 3. Motivation NotesOct. 13 PROCESS OF MOTIVATION:  INPUTS: a. Needs (Internal Stimuli) b. Incentives (External Stimuli) c. Perception (E-P, P-I, I-N) E-P: Expectancy of Performance (Task Performance) P-I: Performance-incentive relationship (Instrumentality) I-N: Perceived value of incentives (Valence)  MOTIVATION: Behavioral process  OUTPUTS: Productivity, Performance, Reward, Satisfaction. EXTRINSIC AND INTRINSIC MOTIVATION:  Extrinsic Motivation is caused by external stimuli  Intrinsic Motivation is the result of an individual’s inner urge or internal stimuli Chapter: 2 FUNDAMENTAL CONCEPTS IN MOTIVATION:  Dualism  Determinants of Conduct: a. Knowledge b. Will and Free Will c. Hedonism d. Instinct e. Active Unconscious Factors  Theory of Evolution DUALISM The First Dimension (Russell): Primitive man was aware of two distinctions: a. Humans and animals had self- induced motion, while inanimate objects did not. Page 3
  4. 4. Motivation NotesOct. 13 b. Humans were better than animals in terms of the use of tools, foresight and rudimentary moral values The Second Dimension (Murphy):  Dreams form a foundation for self- concept.  In a dream, humans have motion and activity, while the body is immobile.  Leads to the concept of soul and body being different (difference between animate and inanimate bodies).  Soul is not dependent on body. The Third Dimension (Plato):  Human beings have perceptions about things around them that are imperfect impression of reality, resulting in two different “worlds”: a. Ultimate reality b. Perceptions  Perceptions lead to reasoning and ideas so that, again, there are two notions: a. Ideas based on Reasoning b. Perceptions of Material Objects The Fourth Dimension (Aristotle):  Doctrine of universal distinction of the form from the soul for all living things.  All living things have two entities: a. Body (which is in material form, and is mortal) b. Soul and Mind (which is non-material, has no form and is immortal) DETERMINANTS OF BEHAVIOR  Determinants of Behavior: 1. Knowledge 2. Will and Free Will 3. Hedonism 4. Instinct 5. Active Unconscious Factors Page 4
  5. 5. Motivation NotesOct. 13 KNOWLEDGE: Socrates: Knowledge equals virtue, right knowing leads to right actions.  Plato: “Ultimate Good” can be achieved by virtue of balancing the wisdom, will power and self-control.  Aristotle: The highest goal of human life is happiness, that can be achieved through a balance between virtue and reason. WILL AND FREE WILL:  Will is the strength to believe in an act.  Free Will is the will to choose freely without any pressure.  Aristotle: Reason+ Will+ Free Will = Balanced Action  Will and Instinct compete to rule the body.  Will compels a course of action based on feelings of duty and a sense of ethical and moral law.  Will controls passion and instinctive behavior.  Will generates intellect, consciousness and knowledge.  Will is used to practice meditation or nirvana to detach from life (evil). HEDONISM: Hedonism means the act of seeking pleasure and avoiding pain.  Pleasure and pain are determinants of behavior.  Seeking pleasure is the purpose of life and it leads to the good. Virtue is the ability to enjoy.  Cyrenaic Conception: The perfect man creates a balance between animal satisfaction, spiritual joy, riches and honor.  Life is a continuous struggle of seeking pleasure and avoiding pain.  Troland (1928): Identified three Hedonisms: a. Pleasure of the present b. Pleasure of the future (religion) c. Pleasure of the past.  Hedonism is a major foundation of the Modern Theory of Motivation. Page 5
  6. 6. Motivation NotesOct. 13 INSTINCT: Instinct is a natural impulse triggering a specific behavior.  Instinct is inherited through genes.  Instinct almost entirely controls animal behavior.  Instinct plays a partial role in determining human behavior.  Instincts have survival value and have evolved over long periods of time.  There are a variety of instincts in the mind. ACTIVE UNCONSCIOUS FACTORS:  Ideas compete for space in the conscious, failing which these become unconscious and continue to influence behavior.  Most humans are not rational. They construct reasons in the conscious to justify unconscious factors leading to actions.  Hypnotism and Psychoneurosis: are based on the concept that unconscious factors determine behavior.  Hypnotism: Hypnotist’s control of subject’s body through rational reasons so that the subject gives up will in favor of the hypnotist. EVOLUTIONARTY THEORY:  Charles Darwin (1859): All life forms compete for survival and continuation of their species; those that adapt to the changing environment survive; while others become extinct. Darwin’s Theory of Natural Selection was supported by massive scientific data.  Empedocles (500-430 BC): Life emerged form inert mater and evolved by adapting to the environment.  Charles Lyell (1797-1857): Earth must have existed for a long period of time for evolutionary process to take place.  Alfred Russell Wallace (contemporary of Darwin): Postulated evolution through adaptation of species to the encironment, without support of any data.  Outcomes of Evolutionary Theory: 1. There is continuity in development from lowest life forms to the highest. 2. Survival requires adaptation to the prevailing environment. 3. Above factors trigger motivation that leads to animal and human behavior. Page 6
  7. 7. Motivation NotesOct. 13 Chapter #3 DARWINIAN THEORY OF EVOLUTION “In competition among and within species for the earth’s limited resources, in a given environment, there will be modifications in a species based on the transmission of characteristics of survivors to their offspring, and extinction of characteristics of non- survivors. Species that are best able to adapt to the changing environment are able to survive and evolve.” The two factors affecting process of evolution are: a. Genetic Variation Genes carry information that determines the characteristics of a species as well as the growth and decline of its members. Occasionally, some genes get mutated (changed) so there is variation in the characteristics of the offspring. Such variation happens rarely but regularly in every new generation of a species. b. Selection Pressure (Environment Pressure) Changes in environment are favorable for some characteristics of a species while unfavorable for others. Favorable characteristics survive and are passed on to future generations. Unfavorable characteristics become extinct. Thus over several generations, a species may change significantly. This is evolution and was termed by Darwin as natural selection. Implications of Darwin’s Theory a. Adaptation to environment is critical for survival. b. Through mutations, there are changes in physical, physiological and behavioral characteristics of species; such that some changes promote survival while others defeat survival. c. Various animal species are not entirely separate but there is continuity among species. d. Continuity in species means if we go back several generations in time, we will come across a common ancestor of two or more apparently different species. e. This concept of continuity and evolution leads to a common ancestor of all life species and to a common origin of life. f. Humans are not totally separate from animals; there is continuity between humans and animal species, leading to a common ancestor several million years ago. Page 7
  8. 8. Motivation NotesOct. 13 g. Since evolutionary process is very slow, the origin of life must be hundreds of millions of years ago; thus, the life of earth must be in billions of years, and not just a few thousand years. IMMEDIATE IMPACT OF DARWIN’S THEORY In the late nineteenth century, Darwin’s Theory caused an intellectual revolution with major consequences in the following disciplines:  Biological sciences  Social sciences  Humanities and Theology  Philosophy  Psychology COMPARATIVE PSYCHOLOGY  Darwin’s Theory led to the development of comparative psychology emphasizing continuity between humans & animals.  Prior to Darwin’s Theory, it was believed that: - Humans have minds - Animals have instincts  Darwin’s Theory led to the following dimensions in Comparative Psychology: 1. Study of animal behavior involving human characteristics (reason, intelligence) 2. Study of human behavior involving animal characteristics (instinct, irrational behavior) 3. Comparative study of emotions in humans and animals. (Darwin established this discipline, 1872) 4. Theories of instinct evolved in the field of psychology.  Thus, Evolution led to developments that became central to the study of Motivation. A. Animals Having Minds  Research showed that animals have human characteristics (e.g. Learning) Page 8
  9. 9. Motivation NotesOct. 13  Law of Effect (Thorndike): The effect of an animal’s actions determines what the animal will learn to do. If a behavior is rewarded it will be reinforced, while behavior leading to punishment will be weakened.  Thus, animals show learning (human trait). B. Humans Having Instincts  Research showed (William James) that humans depicted behavior that was unlearnt and innate (inherited).  James proved that instinctive behavior was close in nature to reflex action and that humans had a lareg variety of instincts.  These conclusions explained certain negative behaviors of humans (destructiveness, cruelty, etc.)  This aspect has serious consequences for the study of human behavior and motivation. INSTINCT  Instinct is a natural tendency that triggers a specific kind of behavior.  Instincts are always innate (inherited).  Instinctive behavior is unlearnt.  There are a very large number of instincts that humans inherit from their parents.  Instincts play a strong role in survival.  The effect of many instincts is subdued due to social development and learning. VITALISM  Definition: Vitalism implies that the life in living organisms is caused and sustained by a vital force distinct from physical and chemical forces and that life is self- determining and self-evolving.  Vitalism as an inherent force determines the growth, propogation and decline of the organism.  Vitalism refers to the existence of a force or entity beyond physical or material properties that governs the life of organisms. Page 9
  10. 10. Motivation NotesOct. 13  Islamic Definition: Life in all organisms (including humans and animals) is dependent on the existence of a non-physical entity (spirit or soul) and a divine will (that of Allah).  Modern Concept : Life in organisms and their development, growth and decline is controlled by a non-physical determinant (highly sophisticated information) present in the organism’s genes (DNA). TELEOLOGY  Definition: Teleology means that all behaviors have a purpose and that the knowledge of this purpose determines course of actions and behavior. Teleology implies that there is an overall design or purpose in nature and all developments lead to it.  Islamic Concept: Allah has created this universe with an overall design and purpose.  Psychology uses Teleology to explain role of instinct and its consequences for motivation.  Darwin’s Theory is an embodiment of teleology.  Concepts of Evolution and Teleology propose the strong role of instincts in determining behavior. McDougall’s Theory of Instincts and Teleology Premises of McDougall’s Theory: 1. Instincts and their associated emotions are the prime movers of conduct. 2. Instincts are inherited or innate psychophysical dispositions that determine man’s perception of certain objects or ideas, cause an emotional excitement, and trigger a certain action, or at least generate an impulse for such action. 3. All behaviors have purpose, direction and striving. 4. Instincts are not just a combination of reflexes but are innate action tendencies with specific goals. McDougall gave a list of ten instincts of which seven had their corresponding associated emotions. Many common emotional experiences (pleasure, pain,) are a combination of these primary emotions. Page 10
  11. 11. Motivation NotesOct. 13 Instincts 1. Flight 2. Repulsion 3. Curiosity 4. Pugnacity 5. Self-abasement 6. Self-assertion 7. Reproduction 8. Gregariousness 9. Acquisition 10. Construction Associated Emotions 1. Fear 2. Disgust 3. Wonder 4. Anger 5. Subjection(-ve self-feeling) 6. Elation (+ve self-feeling) 7. Tender emotion 8. - 9. - 10. - Page 11
  12. 12. Motivation NotesOct. 13 Further Implications of McDougall’s Theory  Sentiments: Sentiments are clusters of several instincts and associated emotions around specific objects, persons, ideas or events.  Control of Instincts: The control of instinct is accomplished through sentiments, such as self-regard. Sentiments about values and beliefs of culture or religion prevent negative behaviors. Page 12