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Assginment  1 int mgt Assginment 1 int mgt Document Transcript

  • Assignment #1 Group #4 Int. Management Report on Libya Culture Group Members Names : Reg. Nos 1. Badar-e-Alam-Anwar : 1432-212048 2. Arsalan Tahir Quraishi : 1452-411034 3. Mohammad Raza : 1432-411052 4. Hamza Ahmad Sheikh : 1434- 411008
  • ASSIGNMENT 1 INTERNATIONAL MANAGEMENT Q. Your boss is going on a meeting abroad. Write a report on business etiquettes of the country for her. My boss is a lady and is going to Libya to attend a three days’ conference. Being her staff officer, I will have to present a report on the business etiquettes of that country. Etiquette and Customs in Libya Meeting Etiquette • Greetings are enthusiastic and warm. • Handshakes can be long affairs and extended as long as the verbal niceties take to cover. Shake hands at the beginning and end of meetings. • Smiling and direct eye contact is important although the eye contact should be intermittent rather than constant. • Men shake hands. A man must wait for a woman to extend her hand first. • The most common greeting is "Aalaamu alaikum" ("Peace be with you") to which one would respond with “wa alaikum salam” (“and Peace be with you”). • Titles are important. Use the honorific Mister and any academic or political title. • Government officials will usually be addressed as "Your Excellency". • Do not use only the first name unless invited to do so.Libyans much prefer to have face-to-face (and sometimes long) meetings, rather than keep to contacts by phone or email, which are seen as more impersonal. Some Libyans also enjoy discussing business over an evening meal.
  • . Gift Giving Etiquette • If you are invited to a Libyan’s home bring something sweet such as pastries, fruit or a small gift from your home country. • If a man must give a gift to a woman, he should say that it is from his wife, mother, sister, or some other female relation. • A small gift for the children is always a nice touch. • Gifts are given with two hands or the right hand. • Gifts are generally not opened when received. Relationships and Communication • Libyans prefer to do business with those they know and respect, therefore expect to spend time cultivating a personal relationship before business is conducted. • Who you know is more important than what you know, so it is important to network and cultivate a number of contacts who may then assist you in working your way through the serpentine bureaucracy. Business Meeting Etiquette • Appointments are necessary and should be made as far in advance as possible and confirmed a day or two before the meeting. • It is best to avoid scheduling meetings during Ramadan since Muslims cannot eat or drink during the day. Besides, meetings should not be scheduled on Friday between 11:15 a.m. and 3 p.m. since most companies close for prayers. Office hours are from Sat-Wed 0700- 1400 (summer) and 0800-1600 (winter). • Try to arrive at meetings on time and be prepared to wait. Libyan businesspeople who are accustomed to dealing with international companies often strive to arrive on time, although it is often difficult for them to do so in such a relationship driven culture. • In general, Libyans have an open-door policy, even during meetings. This means you may experience frequent interruptions. Others may even wander into the room and start a different discussion. You may join in, but do not try to bring the topic back to the original discussion until the new person leaves. Language and Interaction Style • Arabic is generally the language of business, although English is widely used in business community after Arabic. Check which language your meeting will be conducted in, so you know if you should hire an interpreter. Keeping your hands in your pockets while in conversation with someone is usually seen as a lack of respect.
  • • If you admire something, like a work of art at a Libyan home, your host may insist that it be taken as a gift. It is considered rude to refuse this offer so be aware of how you compliment things. • When eating always use the right hand as the left hand is not used and considered unclean. This is especially the case when taking food from communal dishes. • Always pass and receive goods with your right hand. • Touching the thumb with the tips of the fingers is a common way of adding emphasis to a point during conversation. • It’s considered common behavior to stand when new guests arrive at a social gathering or when a high-ranking person enters or leaves. Men almost always stand when a woman enters the room. Dress • Most people are expected to dress conservatively and properly. Furthermore, some jobs require formal dress while others less so. • While most Libyans appreciate business suits, they do not expect a foreigner to wear one unless in marketing positions or in a position dealing constantly with managers/Directors/CEO of Libyan companies. • For women, wearing other things than long dresses/pants and long sleeves blouses would be inappropriate. Titles and Business Cards • When dealing with a superior or in formal meeting, one should use Mr. or Mrs. in front of the first or last name. If there is a friendship relation, the family name or the first name is enough. References http://www.kwintessential.co.uk/resources/global-etiquette/libya.html http://www.culturecrossing.net/basics_business_student_details http://www.secbe.org.uk/documents/doing_business_in_libya_guide2.pdf
  • Report on Libya Parameters 1) Dress In Tripoli, a number of traditional dresses are worn by Libyan females. This article will define three types of dress that are used for different special occasions, and different age groups. The farashia, or white sheet-like cover is the dress worn on a daily basis, unlike the others. Though this is a dying tradition, the white cloth that covers everything but one peeking eye can still be spotted on a sidewalk in Tripoli. The sudra is an elaborate outfit with several layers, and worn only by married females in special occasions. There are two types of sudra, defined simply as the big sudra and small sudra. Both outfits are comprised of the following layers from skin out; draw-string pants, chemise with embroidered arms, vest with gold-plated buttons, a striped cloth in yards-length that is wrapped and draped over one arm, and finally a matching head wrap. Libyan men wear loose cotton shirts upon trousers and cover themselves with a cloak. They also wear a flat, brimless cap. Libyan women wear full-length robe. Most of the Libyan population living in cities is turning towards western styles of dress. Some older men and women continue their affiliation to traditional clothing, especially during festivals and celebrations. It is very common to see members of the same family dressed in traditional and in European styles. Urban girls of Libya wear bright colored western costumes while boys wear jeans and shirts. Though many resort to European styles, most women continue the Islamic tradition by covering their faces. 2) Appointment Appointments are necessary and should be made as far in advance as possible and confirmed a day or two before the meeting. It is best to avoid scheduling meetings during Ramadan since Muslims cannot eat or drink during the day. Never try to schedule meetings on Friday between 11:15 a.m. and 3 p.m. since most companies close for prayers. Try to arrive at meetings on time and be prepared to wait. Libyan businesspeople who are accustomed to dealing with international companies often strive to arrive on time, although it is often difficult for them to do so in such a relationship driven culture. In general, Libyans have an open-door policy, even during meetings. This means you may experience frequent interruptions. Others may even wander into the room and start a different discussion. You may join in, but do not try to bring the topic back to the original discussion until the new person leaves. 3)Business entering Libyans prefer to do business with those they know and respect, therefore expect to spend time cultivating a personal relationship before business is conducted. Who you know is more important than what you know, so it is important to network and cultivate a number of contacts who may then assist you in working your way through the serpentine bureaucracy.
  • 4) business cards Exchanging business cards is also of great importance in Libyan meetings, and you should ensure that your card is double printed, with one side in English, and the other in Arabic, specially for your Libyan business contacts. 5) titles and forms of address When in meetings, it is likely that you will be referred to by your title followed by your first name. For instance, John Borg would be referred to as Mr John, rather than Mr Borg. And don’t be in a rush to discuss business, since usually conversations will begin with a more informal general discussion and small talk. This enables you to build up a rapport with your Libyan contacts, and construct that relationship of trust which is so important in their culture. Learning polite greetings in Arabic may also be a good idea to convey respect. Avoid, at all costs, public displays of affection or anything that attracts unnecessary a attention to yourself as this will be frowned upon and will likely cause offence. Once the relationship has been established and the groundwork has been laid, you should expect to find yourself immersed in some tense negotiations, since the Libyan people, and perhaps most Middle-Eastern peoples, are widely known for their hard negotiation skills. In business, these negotiations are often used as a way of gaining honour and respect from counterparts. You should definitely allocate a considerable amount of time for such negotiations. 6) greetings Greetings are enthusiastic and warm. Handshakes can be long affairs and extended as long as the verbal niceties take to cover. Smiling and direct eye contact is important although the eye contact should be intermittent rather than constant. Men shake hands. A man must wait for a woman to extend her hand first. The most common greeting is "Alamo allium" ("Peace be with you") to which one would respond with “WA allium salam” (“and Peace be with you”).The handshake is commonly used. Shake hands at the beginning and end of meetings. Titles are important. Use the honorific Mister and any academic or political title. Government officials will usually be addressed as "Your Excellency”. Do not use only the first name unless invited to do so.Man greeting Man - Men usually greet one another using the phrase ‘Salaamu Aleikum’ (it means peace be upon you). The appropriate response is Wa'aleikum as-salamma, which means and on peace be you. This is accompanied by a warm handshake (always use the right hand). Handshakes usually linger a bit. One might also see the men kiss the other person‘s cheek and offer a hug. Woman greeting Woman - Women greet each other in a similar manner to men. During initial meetings, a verbal greeting is also acceptable for many people. One might also see the women kiss the other person‘s cheek and offer a hug. Man greeting Woman - Social interactions between non-related members of the opposite sex are not frequent, so as a result the handshake will usually not be included in the introduction. You will be able to tell if the person you are being introduced to is leery of a handshake as they will fold their
  • hand up and across their chest to let you know they do not intend to shake hands. Always wait for the woman to initiate, if at all. NOTE: Failing to greet someone you meet is considered very unkind and rude. If you find yourself entering a room full of strangers, it would be very rude not to give a general greeting. Assalamu alikum (peace be upon you) is a common greeting, to which the appropriate response is Wa Alikum Assalam (and peace be upon you as well). Other common phrases include Kayf halak? (How are you?) with an answer being Al-hamdu lilah, bahi (Praise to God, very well). 7) gestures I would say that for gestures, facial expressions and tone of voice, if you keep your own style (like when you are in Canada) it will be fine. In the case in which you have a Libyan boss/manager, he will probably make a point of raising his voice once in a while to you. This does not especially means that he his unsatisfied with your performance or other aspect of your work, but rather he wants to send a message to the Libyan people in the offices next door; that message is “I am his boss” “I have the power”. When this happens, realise that it is not directed at you and just keep your calm; keep discussing the subject normally. 8) gift giving If you are invited to a Libyan’s home bring something sweet such as pastries, fruit or a small gift from your home country. If a man must give a gift to a woman, he should say that it is from his wife, mother, sister, or some other female relation. A small gift for the children is always a nice touch. Gifts are given with two hands or the right hand. Gifts are generally not opened when received 9) language and business The main language spoken in Libya is Arabic, which is also the official language. Tamazight (i.e. Berber languages), which do not have official status, are spoken by Libyan Berbers. Berber speakers live above all in the Jebel Nafusa region (Tripolitania), the town of Zuwarah on the coast, and the city-oases of Ghadames, Ghat and Awjila. In addition, Tuaregs speak Tamahaq, the only known Northern Tamasheq language. Italian and English are sometimes spoken in the big cities, although Italian speakers are mainly among the older generation. 10) interaction style Most Libyan people would not be categorized as being direct communicators. Many are not very comfortable with saying NO to the requests of people whom they are not so close to because they think this answer might hurt their feelings. As they get closer in their relationships they become more comfortable with saying what they really mean or have in mind. When communicating and interacting, a person's honor and reputation are of utmost importance. Loyalty to one's family tends to takes precedence over personal needs. Social class and family background are the major determinants of personal status, followed by individual character and achievement. Libyans may openly discuss money and even ask what someone what they paid for things or what their salary is. A Libyan may openly ask why one is not married as it is considered t
  • unusual for an adult to be unmarried and have no children. It’s best to not speak about family disagreements or any difficulty you may have had in your life. This is especially the case during initial meetings. Questions that may be considered too personal include those related to women in a family. It is best not to ask about a person's wife, sister or adult daughter. Just refer to the family as a whole. One way to avoid disclosing information that you may feel is too personal is by responding with a reference to the subject in general. For example, answering "why are you not married” by saying “ah, marriage is a wonderful thing.” This indirect approach should let your Libyan counterpart know that there is no interest in pursuing this line of conversation. They may employ similar tactics. 11) time for deals to close It is best to avoid scheduling meetings during Ramadan since Muslims cannot eat or drink during the day. Never try to schedule meetings on Friday between 11:15 a.m. and 3 p.m. since most companies close for prayers. Try to arrive at meetings on time and be prepared to wait. Libyan businesspeople who are accustomed to dealing with international companies often strive to arrive on time, although it is often difficult for them to do so in such a relationship driven culture. In general, Libyans have an open-door policy, even during meetings. This means you may experience frequent interruptions. Others may even wander into the room and start a different discussion. You may join in, but do not try to bring the topic back to the original discussion until the new person leaves. When it comes to time, Libyans tend to be relaxed about the timing of events, especially in social situations. In business situations, punctuality is desirable and appointments are usually necessary. Note that most Muslims pray five times a day: at dawn (4:30-5:00 a.m.), around noon, in the afternoon between 2:00 and 4:00, at sunset, and one hour after sunset (never later than 9:00 p.m.). Prayer times vary according to the time of year and the part of the country you may be in. At prayer time, everything stops. So if you are in a store, you would have to go outside and wait for approximately 10 to 15 minutes. It’s best to plan your schedule around prayer times. 12) potential reaction to women execution. Employment was estimated at 22% for Libyan women by the early 21st century,[8] and 27% by 2006, relatively high for an Arab nation.[9] This marked a 14% increase since 1986.[9] Employment by women in Libya is largely influenced by choice.[7] Positions in all fields of the economy were held, including lawyers, doctors, judges, and senior government positions.[8] In May 2011, the New York Times reported during the Libyan civil war that the rebels had begun rolling back this progress as their size increased. One Libyan woman, a 23-year old therapist, quit the rebel National Transitional Council saying when the revolution started, women had a big role, but it had disappeared.[8]After the 17th February revolution in Libya, women in Libya have enjoyed a far greater exposure in public life and government. Thirty-three women have were elected to serve in Libya’s General National Congress in the first free elections since the NATO backed revolt last year toppled the regime and the death of Moammar Gadhafi.