Nnbc update reco-final july 2009 - Recommendation for update of National Building Code of Nepal, Edited by Badan Lal Nyachhyon
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Nnbc update reco-final july 2009 - Recommendation for update of National Building Code of Nepal, Edited by Badan Lal Nyachhyon Document Transcript

  • 1. Recommendation for Update ofNepal National Building CodeFinal ReportJuly, 2009Submitted by:MULTI Disciplinary Consultants (P) Ltd.P.O. Box 5720, Kathmandu, NepalTel: (977)-1-5525076/5529304, Fax: (977)-1- 5523103E-mail: mdc@multinepal.com.np, Web Site: www.MultiNepal.com/mdcin associaton withK.D. Associates (P) Ltd.P.O. Box 686Tel: 425263, Fax: 4215341E-mail: kdapl@info.com.np,Web: www.hurarah.com.npandKhwopa Engineering CollegeLibali, Bhaktapur-2P.O. Box 84, Bhaktapur, NepalTel: 6614794, 6614798E-mail: khec@wlink.com.npThe Government of NepalMinistry of Physical Planning and WorksEarthquake Risk Reduction and Recovery PreparednessProgramme for Nepal(UNDP/ERRRP-Project: NEP/07/010)
  • 2. Recommendation for Update of Nepal NationalBuilding Code: Final ReportContentsExecutive Summary ........................................................................................................................ 61 Introduction......................................................................................................................... 101.1 General ................................................................................................................................... 101.2 The Project ............................................................................................................................. 101.3 The Assignment...................................................................................................................... 101.4 Objectives of the Assignment ................................................................................................ 101.5 Scope of Works ...................................................................................................................... 111.6 Methodology .......................................................................................................................... 111.7 The Project Team, Inputs and responsibilities ....................................................................... 111.8 Interaction with the Target Groups ........................................................................................ 121.9 Major Findings ....................................................................................................................... 122 Current Practices................................................................................................................ 142.1 National Policy....................................................................................................................... 142.2 Implementation of NNBC by Municipalities......................................................................... 142.3 Building Permit Process in LSMC......................................................................................... 142.4 Building Permit Process in KMC........................................................................................... 152.5 Data and information on building code implementation........................................................ 152.5.1 Government Buildings by DUDBC ........................................................................ 152.5.2 Practice in Municipalities........................................................................................ 162.6 Institutional Arrangements for Implementation of NNBC .................................................... 162.7 Jurisdiction of Application of NNBC..................................................................................... 172.8 Subscribed methods (PWD) of Seismic design consideration............................................... 173 Consideration of Problems and Issues of NNBC Application and Construction ......... 183.1 The Codes............................................................................................................................... 183.2 Hierarchy of Act, Bylaws, Codes and Standards, and References......................................... 193.3 Building bylaws...................................................................................................................... 193.4 Code Structure and Nepal Standards...................................................................................... 193.5 Need for Unified Code ........................................................................................................... 193.6 Criticism of NNBC................................................................................................................. 193.7 Family of Codes ..................................................................................................................... 203.8 Frequency of Update .............................................................................................................. 203.9 Commentary on Codes and Standards ................................................................................... 203.10 Conservation of Historic Building, Aesthetics, Planning Codes ........................................... 203.11 Relationship between Aesthetics and Structural Safety......................................................... 213.12 Change in Occupancy............................................................................................................. 213.13 High Rise Buildings ............................................................................................................... 213.14 Detailing of Joints .................................................................................................................. 213.15 Quality Monitoring and Advertisement Market..................................................................... 213.16 Supervision of Construction Works ....................................................................................... 213.17 Building Material Handling, storage and use......................................................................... 223.18 Specification of other Materials not mentioned in NNBC..................................................... 223.19 Mechanism for addressing Technical issues and data bank................................................... 223.20 Participation of masons, stakeholders, owners....................................................................... 223.21 Info dissemination and Interactions ....................................................................................... 223.22 Construction Safety................................................................................................................ 223.23 Ownership of Design and Intellectual Property rights ........................................................... 223.24 Education................................................................................................................................ 23
  • 3. 3.25 Capacity of personnel, qualification....................................................................................... 233.26 Licensing of Skill Labor......................................................................................................... 234 Implementation of Codes and Standards ......................................................................... 234.1 Water Supply and Sanitation.................................................................................................. 234.2 Electrical Code ....................................................................................................................... 234.3 Fire Safety Code..................................................................................................................... 234.4 Use of NNBC 205: MRT ....................................................................................................... 245 Review of NNBC ................................................................................................................. 245.1 Review of NBC 000: 1994 State-Of-The Art Design And NBC 105: 1994 Seismic DesignOf Buildings In Nepal ............................................................................................................ 245.1.1 General .................................................................................................................... 245.1.2 NNBC 000: 1994 Requirements For State-Of-The Art Design .............................. 255.1.3 NNBC 105: 1994 Seismic Design Of Buildings In Nepal ...................................... 275.2 Review of NNBC 101, 102, 103, 104, 106, 108, 109 (Loads, Occupancy, SiteConsideration, Unreinforced Masonry) ............................................................................. 355.2.1 NNBC 101:1994: Materials Specifications............................................................. 355.2.2 NNBC 102:1994: Unit Weight of Materials ........................................................... 365.2.3 NNBC 103:1994: Occupancy Load (Imposed Load).............................................. 365.2.4 NNBC 104:1994: Wind Load ................................................................................. 375.2.5 NNBC 106:1994: Snow Load ................................................................................. 385.2.6 NNBC 108: 1994 Site Consideration...................................................................... 405.2.7 NNBC 109: Masonry (Unreinforced) ..................................................................... 415.3 Review of NNBC: 107 (Fire Code)...................................................................................... 425.3.1 General .................................................................................................................... 425.3.2 Main Objectives and Purpose of Building Codes ................................................... 425.3.3 Compliance to the Fire Code of Nepal.................................................................... 435.3.4 Major Drawback...................................................................................................... 435.3.5 Requirement of Fire Safety in Building Codes ....................................................... 435.4 Review of NNBC: 110, 111, 112, 113, 114 (Masonry, PCC, Materials, ConstructionSafety).................................................................................................................................... 445.4.1 NNBC 110: Plain and Reinforced Concrete..................................................................... 445.4.2 NNBC-111: 1994: Steel....................................................................................................... 445.4.3 NNBC-112: Timber 1994.................................................................................................... 455.4.4 NNBC-113: Aluminum 1994.............................................................................................. 455.4.5 NNBC 114:1994 CONSTRUCTION SAFETY ................................................................ 465.5 Review of NNBC: 201, 202, 203, 204, 205 (MRT, Low Strength and Earthen Buildings)................................................................................................................................................ 465.5.1 General .................................................................................................................... 465.5.2 NNBC 201: Mandatory Rules Of Thumb - Reinforced Concrete Buildings withMasonry Infill.......................................................................................................... 475.5.3 NNBC 202: MRT-LOAD BEARING MASONRY................................................ 475.5.4 NNBC 203: 1994 - Guidelines For Earthquake Resistant Building Construction:Low Strength Masonry............................................................................................ 485.5.5 NNBC 204: 1994 - Guidelines For Earthquake Resistant Building Construction:Earthen Building (EB)............................................................................................. 495.5.6 NNBC 205: 1994 - MRT Reinforced Concrete Buildings without Masonry Infill 495.6 Review of NNBC 206: 2003 - Architectural Design Requirements ................................. 505.6.1 General .................................................................................................................... 505.6.2 High Rise Buildings ................................................................................................ 505.6.3 Other aspects ........................................................................................................... 505.7 Review of NNBC 207: 2003- Electrical Code..................................................................... 51
  • 4. 5.8 Review of NNBC 208: 1994 - Plumbing and Sanitation ................................................... 515.8.1 Water Supply........................................................................................................... 515.8.2 Waste Water Disposal ............................................................................................. 515.8.3 Rain Water Disposal................................................................................................ 526 Conclusion............................................................................................................................. 537 Recommendation.................................................................................................................. 54Appendix-1: List of NNBC...................................................................................................... 57Appendix-2: Check list of activities for the study................................................................. 57Appendix-3: Interaction with Target Groups and National Workshop............................. 57Appendix-4: Review of NNBC: 000, 105 (State of Art, Seismic Design) ............................ 57Appendix-5: Review of NNBC 101, 102, 103, 104, 106, 108, 109 (Loads, Occupancy, SiteConsideration)..................................................................................................................... 57Appendix-6: Review of NNBC: 110, 111, 112, 113, 114, (Materials) .................................. 57Appendix-7: Review of NNBC: 107 (Fire Code)................................................................... 57Appendix-8: Review of NNBC: 201, 202, 203, 204 and 205 (MRT).................................... 57Appendix-9: Review of NNBC: 206 (Architectural Code)................................................... 57Appendix-10: Review of NNBC: 207 (Electrical Code)...................................................... 57Appendix-11: Review of NNBC: 208 (Water Supply and Sanitation).............................. 57Reference Materials ...................................................................................................................... 57
  • 5. Abbreviations:ADRC Asian Disaster Reduction CenterADPC Asian Disaster Preparedness CenterASTM American Society for Testing of MaterialsAASHTO American Association of State Highway and Transport OfficialsAREMA American Railway Engineers and Maintenance-of-way AssociationACI 318 American Concrete InstituteAISC American Institute of Steel ConstructionAFPA American Forest and Paper AssociationsBPU Building Permit UnitBCPR Bureau of Crisis Prevention and RecoveryBSI British Standards InstitutionDDC District Development CommitteeDIN German StandardsDUDBC Department of Urban Development and Building ConstructionERRRPP Earthquake Risk Reduction and Recovery Preparedness ProgrammeESS Earthquake Safety SectionFSCN Fire Safety Code of Nepal (NNBC 107)HFA Hyugo Framework for Action (2005-2015)GON Government of NepalIRC Indian Road CongressISI Indian Standards InstitutionICC International Code CouncilIFC International Fire Code,IBC International Building CodeIRP International Recovery PlatformJSI Japanese Standard InstituteKMC Kathmandu Metropolitan CorporationKVTDC Kathmandu Valley Town Development CommitteeLSMC Lalitpur Sub-Metropolitan CityLSGA Local Self-Governance Act 1999LSGA Local Self Governance Act of Nepal, 1996 and Regulations 1997LSGR Local Self-Governance Regulations 1999LSM Low Strength MasonryNBCI National Building Code of India,NFPA National Fire Protection ActNNBC Nepal National Building CodeOBC Ontario Building CodePWD Public Works DirectivesSAARC South Asian Association for Regional CooperationUNDP United Nations Development ProgramVDC Village Development CommitteeUKBC UK Building Regulations 2000UDB Urban Development Byelaws of 2007, KVTDC, GON
  • 6. Executive SummaryIntroductionThe assignment for preparation of the recommendation report for Updating the National BuildingCode of Nepal is entrusted to MULTI Disciplinary Consultants (P) Ltd in association with KDAssociates (P) Ltd. and Khwopa Engineering College through a contract agreement signedbetween the consultant and Earthquake Risk Reduction Recovery Preparedness Programme forNepal - UNDP/ERRRP-Project: NEP/07/010 (The Project) on December 15, 2008.The ProjectThe “Earthquake Risk Reduction and Recovery Preparedness Programme for South AsianRegion” is supported by the Government of Japan under a grant assistance for disaster preventionand disaster reconstruction contributed through the United Nations Development Programme(UNDP). The Project is designed to seek regional cooperation through sharing of knowledge andexperience in Disaster Management and to utilize the knowledge of recent EarthquakeEngineering.Objectives of the AssignmentThe objectives of the Assignment are to: a) review and recommend technical additions, alterationsand modifications, to be made in the current code, b) study, analysis and justify for update of theCode, c) review general practice of NNBC [implementation] in some municipalities (Kathmanduand Lalitpur), and d) study the effectiveness of implementation of NNBC in construction.Scope of WorksThe scope of works related to above mentioned Objectives is to: a) interact with majorstakeholders and experts, b) study linkages with current building bylaws, c) analyze the problemsfaced by Kathmandu and Lalitpur in implementation of NNBC, d) study technical issues raised bydesigners and professionals, e) compare NNBC with other codes, e) review the specificEarthquake Safety specifications, f) specify the technical details in the code to be updated foroverall revision of NNBC, g) specify the names of codes to be urgently updated, and h) preparefinal recommendation report for updating of NNBC.Interaction with the stakeholdersThe interaction with the stakeholders such as UNDP/ERRRP, NEA, SEEN, SCAEF, SONA,SEANEP, Licensed Designers of LSMC and KMC was carried out in four different meetings. Anational level workshop was organized on June 29, 2009 by ERRRP to discuss on the Draft FinalReport. The outcome of the interaction and comments obtained during the workshop coveredvarious aspects of NNBC and presented in Appendix-3 and summarized in Section 2.8. Thecomments and suggestions relevant to the current assignment had been incorporated in the reportwhereas certain queries which are not related to the Terms of Reference were included inAppendix-3 for consideration during the actual revision of the Codes.Apart from the details on the provisions of NNBC, the important aspects raised were: Confusion of Hierarchy and Priority of Acts, Bylaws, Codes, Standards, Directives,specifications, manuals, and References and Priority of the documents; Need for mechanism to implement the codes as part of the Building Bylaws Need for application of the code all over the country including VDC and small settlements Need of Unified Code and other codes as Architectural Code, Residential Code, HistoricalBuilding Code, High Rise Building Code, Fire Code, Plumbing Code, Construction SafetyCode, Retrofitting and Building Strengthening Code, Disabled Accessibility Code, MechanicalCode, Fuel and Gas Code, Environmental Code and Commentary on Codes.
  • 7.  Anomalies of NNBC Frequency of Updates of Codes and Responsibilities Aesthetics, Change in Occupancy and Structural Safety, and annual Audit for compliancewith codes Use of MRT Regulation of Advertisement of construction materials Safety during handling and storage of materials Audit of Performance of Code implementing organisations, Ownership and Intellectual Property Right Education, Training, Qualification, Licensing of skilled labor.NNBC and NS SeriesThere are two sets of documents available which are known as Nepal National Building Code orNepal Standard. Actually, both of the series address the same issues. NNBC is presented asamendment to IS whereas NS are adaptation of IS or other standards into NS with relevantamendments.Normally, the codes and standards are revised and updated every 3 years. But for Nepalese case,this may not be pragmatic and frequency of updating may be adopted differently. TheInternational Code Council or other institutions dedicated for code development and updatingreview the codes at a regular interval, for example say 3 years. A regular process for recording ofoccurrence is carried out and forwarded to the standing committees for code updating. Nepal doesnot have a dedicated office for record of occurrence in relation to the need for updating of Codesand Standards.More detailed deliberations on specific codes are provided in Section 5 and Appendices.MRT not to be a part of NNBCStrong voices were noted for treating MRT as non-Code document since it is just an example ofdesign of various types of buildings and details following the provisions of NNBC. This documentis incomplete and do not include the requirements of other codes as Fire Code, Plumbing Code,Environmental Code etc. The quality assurance and construction complexities are not considered.Lalitpur Municipality from the very day of application of NNBC adopted certain changes in MRT.This document should be developed as model examples that fulfill the requirement of all codesand should be served as guide for proper design and shall not be a part of the Building Code.Implementation of NNBC by MunicipalitiesThe implementation of NNBC is made mandatory by issue of instructions by the Ministry of LocalDevelopment but the Building Act and Building Byelaws do not include NNBC provisions andhence remains ineffective and practically not applied in Building Permit Process. LalitpurMunicipality initiated the application of NNBC in the Building Permit Process in voluntarymanner since 2003. Kathmandu Municipality started implementation of NNBC only since 2007.The implementation of NNBC could not be initiated in other municipalities since the BuildingByelaws has not incorporated NNBC as part of it. It will be fundamental to include the NNBC andother relevant Family of Codes as described in Section 3 to be included in Building Bylaws.
  • 8. Mandatory Application of Bylaws through out the countryThe Building Byelaws are by legislation applicable in the areas of jurisdiction of themunicipalities. Most of the areas in country side and rural areas are not covered by Building Actand Building Bylaws making the rural areas more vulnerable for Construction Safety. This loophole in Building Act has prompted many builders and owners to shift to VDC areas forconstruction for avoiding the need for obtaining Building Permits and avoiding application ofNNBC. This provision has defeated the purpose of NNBC in general.Implementation of Architectural Design Requirements and Planning GuidelinesThough the Architectural Design Requirements (NNBC 206:2003) had been introduced in 2003,the actual design had not been checked for compliance with this code and coordination withPlanning Guidelines and zoning plans been very week. The effect of coordination is clearly visiblein the haphazard development of the urban areas.Institutional Arrangements for Implementation of NNBCThere is no single institution responsible for all earthquake related matters in Nepal. Variousinstitutions and agencies are responsible for various earthquake related matters, and thecoordination among them is practically not provided. For this reason, the issues related to NNBCremain unattended and keeps waiting for a particular project to start. There is a dire need forestablishing Nepal Code Council that will address the development issues of Codes and theirimplementation.Code Structure, Nepal Standards and Family of CodesThere is a gross confusion about the hierarchy and priority of the documents in relation to Act,Bylaws, Codes (NNBC), Standards (NS), and Directives (PWD), Specifications, ManualsInstructions and administrative circulars. This aspect needs to be clarified and clear demarcationand definition is required.NNBC is a collection of individual codes. May be it would be more effective when compiled intoa unified code that takes into account the family of various other codes as Urban Planning Code,Fire code, Plumbing Code, Electrical Code, Construction Code, Construction Safety Code etc (Seelist in Section 3.6 Box 2) including provision for adoption of administrative procedures forimplementation.Criticism on NNBCA series of positive criticism on NNBC was spelt out during the interaction with the stakeholders.The major issues are highlighted in Section 3.5 and details are provided in Appendix-3. Mostimportant of all criticism is that since the code is presented as amendment to Indian Code, it haslost its value since there is no need to refer to an incomplete code when Indian Code is handy. Thedependency of other code has to be eliminated otherwise the international codes shall be adoptedas reference codes only. The Code requires technical and literature editing to eliminate errors andmisprints.Review of NNBC 000 to 208 and Comparison with other CodesThe review of NNBC has been carried out and a number of issues had been identified that wouldrequired to be considered while updating the Building Code. Comments and suggestions to everySection of the Code are provided in Appendices. Particular attention is drawn on major issuespointed out and few disasters that have occurred recently due to the lack of provisions in the code.They are:
  • 9.  The provisions in the Codes have several ambiguous statements, Incomplete sentences,reference to the Indian Standard Codes of Practice, absence of the Commentary, designearthquake level is too un-conservative, Fire Hazard in rural settlements induced by poor planning of the settlements and inadequateconsideration of Fire Safety measures Changes in occupancy of buildings without confirming to Safety requirements, Electrical hazards associated with lack of adherence to Electrical Code Lack of coordination between Architectural Design Requirements and Planning and ZoningGuidelines Lack of Data base on Wind and Snow Loads Lack of Data base on Building permits granted that will highlight the use of NNBC.The updating of NNBC requires utilization of technological advancements and development ofinternational codes as IBC and Eurocode.Family of CodesApart from the NNBC series and NS serious, the need for a numerous other codes is identifiedwhich will be required to fulfill the purpose of achieving the safety of life and property andenhancing comfort of living. These additional codes are listed in Section 3.5.Environmental CodeThis Code is very specific and needs to be addressed while updating the Code. The important ofthis code is obvious since it affects the quality of life and its comfort. The code should introduce aseparate section for the Environmental Pollution Control covering following: Air Pollution (Indoor and Outdoor) Emission Control Sound Pollution Water Pollution Solar pollution Solid waste management Visual Pollution in Urban and rural Areas Landscaping Public Information for Safety of Life, Property and Peaceful LivingMandatory Rules of Thumb (MRT)The main objective of MRT is to provide ready-to-use dimensions and details for variousstructural and non-structural elements for up to three-storey reinforced concrete (RC), framed,ordinary residential buildings commonly being built by owner-builders in Nepal that include a)RCC framed with using brick infill walls, b) load bearing brick masonry, c) low strength ruralconstruction and earthen buildings.The details in MRT designs are provided without consideration of construction requirements forquality assurance (limitation of concrete placing from less than 1 m, allowing consolidation ofconcrete, preventing honey comb in concrete and smaller dia reinforcement (10mm and 12 mm infoundation and columns).The designs provided in MRT should serve as good illustrations of compliance to the requirementsof all codes (family of Codes) for the designers and owners. Hence, it is considered that MRTshould not be a part of the Code.
  • 10. Recommendation for Update of Nepal NationalBuilding Code: Final Report1 Introduction1.1 GeneralThe current assignment of preparation of recommendation report for Updating the Nationalbuilding Code of Nepal is entrusted to MULTI Disciplinary Consultants (P) Ltd inassociation with KD Associates and Khwopa Engineering College through a contractagreement signed between the consultant and Earthquake Risk Reduction RecoveryPreparedness, Programme for Nepal - UNDP/ERRRP-Project: NEP/07/010 (The Project) onDecember 15, 2008.1.2 The ProjectThe Government of Japan has decided to provide a grant assistance for disaster preventionand disaster reconstruction, with a view to contributing to the “Earthquake Risk Reductionand Recovery Preparedness Programme for South Asian Region” through the UnitedNations Development Programme (UNDP).The UNDP/BCPR, the leading agency of the International Recovery Platform (IRP, Office:Kobe City, Hyogo Prefecture), and Japan have extended cooperation in this programme tofulfill the requirement of the Hyugo Framework for Action (HFA 2005-2015) to reduce thedegree of damage and quickly restore earthquake damage by promoting quake-proofcapacity of buildings, taking into consideration the strengthened capability in the field ofdisaster prevention of the South Asian Association for Regional Cooperation (SAARC) forthe South Asian region, including India, Nepal, Pakistan, Bangladesh and Bhutan.The Project is designed to seek regional cooperation through sharing of knowledge andexperience in best practice on Disaster Management and utilize the knowledge of recentEarthquake Engineering.1.3 The AssignmentThe assignment is related to preparation of recommendation report for updating of theNational Building Code of Nepal. The report will serve as base for updating of the BuildingCode by the Government.1.4 Objectives of the AssignmentThe objectives of the Assignment are:To review and recommend technical additions, alterations and modifications, to be made inthe current code To study, analysis and justify for update of the Code To review general practice of NNBC [implementation] in some municipalities (Kathmandu and Lalitpur) To study the effectiveness of implementation of NNBC in construction
  • 11. 1.5 Scope of WorksThe scope of works related to above mentioned Objectives is: Discussion and interaction with ERRRP/DUDBC, stakeholder municipality and otherexperts Study linkages with current building bylaws prepared by DUDBC/Town DevelopmentCommittees Study and analyze the technical complications and problems faced by somemunicipalities (Kathmandu and Lalitpur) in the implementation process of NNBC Study Technical Issues raised by the designers and the professionals regarding therevision of the NNBC Study and Compare NNBC with other codes that are being practiced in Nepal such asIS Code and others Study other International Codes that are correlations with NNBC Study and review the specific Earthquake Safety specifications in building codes andguidelines already available in Nepal Specify the technical details in the code to be reviewed and updated for overall revisionof NNBC Specify the names of codes that have to be urgently updated Prepare final recommendation report for updating of NNBC Presentation of draft final report to ERRRP, UNDP,DUDBC, Municipalities and otherstakeholder organizations for comments and suggestions Preparation of Final Report1.6 MethodologyThe methodology adopted for meeting the requirement of above scope of works is: Collection and Study of data/information, documents on NNBC. The comprehensive listis given in Appendix-1; Collection and Study of data, information and documentation on building codeimplementation for government buildings by DUDBC Collection and Study of data, information and documentation on building codeimplementation in municipalities; Interaction with the users of the Codes as licensed designers of municipalities,professional consultants involved in the Earthquake engineering, municipal andgovernment authorities, professional organizations; Preparation of Recommendation for update of NNBC with detail information onamendments, revisions, alterations to be made.1.7 The Project Team, Inputs and responsibilitiesThe proposed team members are listed below in Table-1 along with the proposed taskassignmentTable-1: Proposed Team MembersSN Position Name Firm Input,MMTask Assignment1 ProjectDirectorMr. BLNyachhyonMulti 1 Administration, Quality ManagementCoordinationReview of Fire Code NNBC 107
  • 12. SN Position Name Firm Input,MMTask Assignment2 TLStructuralEngineerDr. PremNathMaskeyMulti 1 Discussion and interactionReview of Building Codes 000, 105Compare NNBC with other codesStudy Codes correlations with NNBCSpecify the codes to be urgently updatedPrepare final recommendation report3 StructuralEngineerMr. PMPradhan* /Dr.GovindaLamichhaneKhec 1 Discussion and interactionStudy linkages with building bylawsAnalyze the problems faced by somemunicipalitiesReview NNBC 110, 111, 112, 113Specify details to be updated for overallrevision of NNBC4 CivilEngineerDr. RekhaShresthaMulti 1 Discussion and interactionStudy Issues raised by the designersReview NNBC 101, 102, 103, 104, 108,109, 114, 201, 202, 203, 204, 205Review Earthquake Safety specificationsin building codes and guidelines alreadyavailable in Nepal5 ArchitectPlannerDevendraNath GongalMulti Discussion and interactionReview NNBC 206Architectural Code6 SanitaryEngineerShankherAgrawal/Kul DeepTuladharKDA 1 Discussion and interactionReview NNBC 208System Protection and SafetyUninterrupted Supply7 ElectricalEngineerShambhooBahadurShresthaMulti 1 Discussion and interactionReview NNBC 207,Electrical Safety, System Protection, ,Uninterrupted Supply* Mr. PM Pradhan could not contribute to the study since he has resigned from Khopa Engineering College.1.8 Interaction with the Target GroupsThe Appendix -3 lists the Target Groups for interaction for brain storming on updating ofNNBC. The interaction sessions were carried out as follows: Dec 28, 2008 - Brief interaction with UNDP/ERRRP National Program Coordinator Feb 5, 2009 – Institutional Target Groups Feb 9, 2009 – Licensed Designers registered with Lalitpur Sub-Metropolitan City Feb 27, 2009 – Licensed Designers registered with Kathmandu Metropolitan CityThe notes on the Interaction programs are presented in Appendix-3.1.9 Major FindingsThe NNBC, described in 20 independent volumes, is mostly comprises of editing of certainterminology of IS Codes and as such requires intensive revision and updating. Practically,this updating cannot be done at this stage in view of availability of resources for review andupdating.
  • 13. The revision and updating of NNBC are not done in a regular basis since there is nodedicated institution for this job. The revision and updating of Building Codes are verycomplex and cumbersome process that requires huge resources in terms of knowledgeaccumulation, institutional memory, time, research and development and statistics. The codeupdating assignment even for rich countries like USA and UK is very huge and requiresconsiderable investment. They have started standarisation at international level and todaymost of them use International Building Code. Those codes which are not included in theIBC are included by reference and used as a set of document agreed at international level.Each country or local governments are given rights to amend the parts which are not relevantto the local area and needs revision.There are no statistical records on the application of NNBC in recent construction of bothGovernment and Private Sectors. But it is evident that mostly used documents are MRT,which has good stories mentioned above and does not warrantee the safety of the Buildingdesign under it. With these facts in mind, it is required that MRT is taken away from thefamily of Building Codes but a separate standard design could be developed which could bereadily used by anybody without requiring to go through the Safety review procedures inMunicipalities.The provisions of NNBC are currently applicable within the Municipality boundaries andthere is no formal need to apply NNBC in rural areas. This weakness has to be changed andall buildings and infrastructures in the rural areas are also required to fulfill the requirementsof NNBC.It is recommended that as a priority MRT should be urgently discarded as part of the codeand replaced with standard design of typical buildings that complies with requirement of theFamily of Codes.The revision and updating of NNBC should replaced by adaptation of IBC with specificchanges of certain provisions that are relevant to the country and locality.A dedicated Institution as National Code Council shall be established urgently and entrustedthe task of development and implementation of NNBC and help to protect life and propertyfrom various risks of Natural and manmade disasters.The provision for implementation of NNBC shall be included in the Building bylaws whichgovern the external and internal design aspects of individual buildings and infrastructure andwarrant the least effect to the neighborhood.Though the building permit process according to Building Bylaws has granted certainpurpose to the buildings constructed in the urban areas, but there are considerable caseswhen the occupancy loads were changed without proper justification and without designrevision. They pose huge risks in terms of safety.Similarly, the case of high rise buildings needs to be looked very seriously and providespecific guidelines for comprehensive design.The Conclusion and recommendation are provided in Chapter 6 and 7.
  • 14. 2 Current Practices2.1 National PolicyNepal is considered one of most vulnerable country for earthquakes. The recent earthquakes(1988 in Udayapur, Nepal) have prompted serious concerns for the earthquake safety ofinfrastructure. Following the major earthquake event in 1988, the Ministry of Housing andPhysical Planning undertook a policy initiative jointly with UNDP and UNCHS to addressneed for changes in current building design and construction methods. The UNDP / UNCHS(Habitat) Project and the Ministry undertook “Policy and Technical Support to Urban SectorProject” under which national housing survey, shelter sector training needs assessment, draftnational housing policy formulation, draft national building code preparation etc. wereundertaken. The ‘Building Act’ was adopted to facilitate the regulation of building design /construction practice in Nepal. The ‘Engineering Council Act’ was formulated to facilitateself regulation of the profession by professionals themselves. The Nepal National BuildingCode was prepared in 1994. At the same time The Bureau of Standards and Metrology haddeveloped the NNBC as Nepal Standards under various Standard Codes. But in the absenceof the Parliament the Codes and Standards remained unimplemented. The GujaratEarthquake of Jan 2001 prompted the Society of Consulting Architectural and EngineeringFirms (SCAEF, Nepal) initiated joint collaboration with NBSM for implementation ofNNBC and NS. The collaboration prompted to form the National Forum of EarthquakeSafety that facilitated the Declaration by Lalitpur Sub-Metropolitan City for implementationof NNBC and initiation of Master’s Degree Course in Earthquake Engineering by KhwopaEngineering College.2.2 Implementation of NNBC by MunicipalitiesLSMC is the First Leading Municipality in Nepal to implement NNBC in the BuildingPermit Process through a declaration on the occasion of Earthquake Safety Day celebrationon January 16, 2003 (2059 BS).The Implementation of NNBC was initially facilitated by the Technical Cell (Group ofMunicipal Engineers & Engineers from DUDBC, NSET, NFES, NEA) which worked for 6months prior to the establishment of the Earthquake Safety Section 27th November 2003(2060 BS).2.3 Building Permit Process in LSMCThe Building Permit Application in LSMC is processed in following steps (ref….): Registration by the Building Permit Unit of Municipality Checking for compliance with Building Bye-Laws Review the design by the Earthquake Safety Section (Technical Cell in initial stage) forcompliance with NNBC Presentation of the design by the Licensed Designer in a public forum organized byLSMC, ESS for sharing experience, knowledge, methodology of application of NNBC,confirmation of compliance to NNBC. This process was dropped at later stage and notcontinued any more. Building Permit is granted in two stages: Initial Permit for construction upto Plinth Level Final Permit after inspection of construction upto Plinth Level
  • 15.  Inspection of Construction Progress by Municipality Staff Certification of Completion jointly by the Licensed Designer who supervised theconstruction and Building Permit Unit who inspected the construction.The general Building Permit process is provided in Section 2.4.2 below.2.4 Building Permit Process in KMCThe Building Permit process in KMC differs significantly. The compliance with NNBC forupto 3 storeys or 1000 sqft in area is reviewed by Building Permit Section and for Buildingsover 6 floors, it is checked by the National Building Code Implementation committee(NBCIC). The detailed procedure is described below. Kathmandu Metropolitan City (KMC)has started implementing building code-2060 from August 21, 2005, for the construction ofbuildings within the city. In October 2005 a National Building Code ImplementationCommittee was set up within KMC, it is comprised by six specialists who act on voluntarybasis.The general building permit process is as follows: Step 1: The Application for Building permit is checked for compliance with planningguideline as Guided Land Development, particularly for adequacy of accessibility; Step 2: For Buildings less than 3 storeys and less than 1000 Sqft, Computer checking byJunior Engineer for compliance with requirements of NNBC and Planning Bylaws;collection of revenue For Buildings more than 3 storeys and more than 1000 Sqft, checking by Engineer forcompliance with requirements of NNBC and Planning Bylaws; collection of revenue Step 3: Initial Registration and Computer Entry Step 4: Forward to Ward Office for Field Verification and Neighborhood Consent Step 5: Forward to Building Permit Section for Final Registration Step 6: Checking by Engineer and Issue of Building Permit for Construction upto DPCLevel Step 7: Checking of Construction upto DPC Level Step 8: Issue of Building Permit for Construction of Superstructure Step 9: Checking of Completion of Construction and Issue of Completion Certificate Step 10: Apply for water and sewerage service connections, Electricity andTelecommunication Step 11: The drinking and sewerage office sends their recommendation to the RoadsDepartment for permission to dig the road for the water and Sewerage connection. Step 12: The Department of Roads grants its permission to dig the road. Step 13: Inspection by water and sewage offices and Water and sewer connection iscarried out Step 14: Wiring Inspection before obtaining electrical power connection and telephoneconnection Step 15: Connection of Electrical Power Supply and Telephone connection2.5 Data and information on building code implementation2.5.1 Government Buildings by DUDBCDUDBC carries out implementation of certain government buildings through itsconstruction and Maintenance divisions. It is not known how far they comply with the
  • 16. requirement of NNBC and who does certify the compliance since design and constructionsupervision documents and As-Built Drawings are not readily available.2.5.2 Practice in MunicipalitiesBuilding permit system started after the endorsement of ‘Building By-Laws in 1994(2050)’. Simply a set of Architectural drawings consisting of plans, four side elevations,section, location plan and site plan were required for submission and this was dealt by theDrawing Cell. This cell was also responsible for checking the compliance with otheraspects such as coverage, FAR, GLD, zoning etc. After the introduction of NNBC, a set ofstructural drawing was added to the list of requirements.From 2003, the requirement for architectural, structural design analysis, electrical etcdrawing sheets was introduced for SOA type of buildings (Class A) while the requirementwas limited to architectural and structural drawings for Class B type buildings and Class Ctype building does not require any structural design. In some cases where the area isdesignated as heritage conservation area, additional design for preservation of traditionalstyle and vernacular architecture is emphasized and permission from the Department ofArcheology is required.Initially, the building permit process included the technical committee for review ofdesigns by a panel of external experts comprising of the representatives from DUDBC,KMC, IOE, NSET and SCAEF. This process gained very essential lessons that benefitedthe crystallizing the Building Permit Process and was a learning stage for many LicensedDesigners and Building Owners. But soon, the review process felt lot of resistance sincethe Licensed Designers were unable to defend their designs and the process was felt as aburden to the Municipality. Certainly, a thorough and detailed scrutiny required excellentpreparation of the design and drawings.There are two certificate systems one is temporary which is given after DPC check, but thistemporary certificate is postponed now. The other is the Permanent completion certificateas obvious from the name is given after the completion check of the building construction.Now the number of structural drawing sheets has increased from one to three and pillarfrom 9”x 9” to 12”x12”. All engineered building for residential purpose which is morethan 1000sq. ft and 3 storeys require analysis report. For commercial buildings there is afurther requirement of soil test report and other drawings such as electrical, sanitation,plumbing.NNBC was enforced through the endorsement of Building Act 1999, but formally it wasimplemented only in 2003 because the Building Bylaws did not make any reference to theimplementation requirements of the Building Code. NNBC has categorized buildings intofour categories namely type A, B, C and D.2.6 Institutional Arrangements for Implementation of NNBCThere is no single institution responsible for all earthquake related matters in Nepal. Thefollowing agencies are responsible for various earthquake related matters: Department of Mines and Geology is responsible for earthquake instrumentationnetwork in the country and preparation of the seismic zone map of the country.
  • 17.  National Bureau of Standards and Metrology is responsible for the certification ofstandards and constituents of codes and guidelines on various public works includingearthquake matters. National Building Council is envisaged as an apex body to deal with the creation andupdating of the National Building Code of Nepal. Department of Urban Planning and Housing is responsible for the creation andimplementation of Nepal National Building Codes including earthquake matters. Kathmandu Valley Town Development Committees are responsible for formulation ofFormulation of urban development plans, planning and building byelaws. Local bodies (VDCs, DDCs and Municipalities) are responsible for formulation and/oradoption of bylaws, codes, norms, regulations and enforcing / policing theirimplementation in the areas of their jurisdiction. Professional Societies as NEA, SCAEF, SONA, SEANEP, SEEN, ESI, NSET and otherNon-Government Organisations are responsible for information dissemination,awareness campaigns, upgrading the knowledge and skill of their members to complywith these codes in their professional practice and occasionally provide training. Donor agencies involved in the area of earthquake safety include UNDP, UNCHS,UNESCO and JICA.There is no dedicated institutional arrangement for dealing with the Earthquake Safetymatters, follow up and updating of NNBC, for expert advice, and pursuance for applicationof NNBC by local Governments including Municipalities and VDCs.2.7 Jurisdiction of Application of NNBCThe Local Self-Government Act Part 2-VDC Clause 28 (f) (2) has made provision of thecriteria for construction of Buildings and Infrastructure. LSGA Part 3-Municipality Clause96 (b) (6) has made provision for approval of Building Construction. These provisions couldbe rationally utilized for application of NNBC in VDC and Municipality areas effectively.More specific and elaborate guidelines may be required.Building Act 2055 (amendment 1998) has given authority to all municipalities to implementthe NNBC for providing Building Permits. However, the Act do not specify a particularorganization that is authorized to follow up and monitor the compliance to NNBC by theMunicipalities.2.8 Subscribed methods (PWD) of Seismic design considerationPWD Part II Chapter has provided certain guideline for Earthquake Consideration inInfrastructure Project Sector. The guidelines for earthquake considerations apply to thefollowing categories of structures: All buildings having a plinth area greater than 20 m2 or height ranging from 5 m to 90m. All masonry and concrete walls having a height of greater than 1.5 m. All elevated water tanks and silos with capacity up to 200 m3. All public buildings having general public access. All civil engineering structures such as bridges, dams, earth structures, silos, water tanks,chimneys etc. All towers and electric or telecom or radio pylons.
  • 18. The requirements of these guidelines shall be followed at minimum. The designer ishowever free to exercise more stringent procedures if considered necessary considering themerit of the case.3 Consideration of Problems and Issues of NNBC Application andConstructionThe problems and issues related to the application of NNBC and construction quality arelargely discussed in various interaction programs with major stakeholders and brief notes onthe discussion points are described in Appendix-3. These issues are briefly highlightedherewith:3.1 The CodesA code is a set of technical specification and standards that control major details of analysis,design, construction and equipment. The purpose of the code is to produce safe andeconomic design so that people are protected from poor and inadequate design andconstruction.Two types of codes exist. One type of code is called “Structural Code” and is written byStructural Engineers and other specialists who are concerned with a particular class ofstructures (e.g., buildings, bridges, nuclear plants) or who are interested in proper use ofmaterials (Steel, Aluminum, Reinforced Concrete, Plastics or Wood). Typically, structuralcodes specify design loads, allowable stresses of various parts of structures, designassumptions and requirements of material. Examples of Codes frequently used by structuralengineers include following: AASHTO – Standard specification of Highway Bridges AREMA- Manual for Railway Engineering ACI 318 – Building Code requirement of reinforced concrete AISC – Manual for Steel Construction AFPA- National design Specification for Wood ConstructionThe second type of code, called Building Code, is established to cover construction in agiven region (a state, city or country). A building code contains provisions pertaining toarchitectural, structural, mechanical, electrical, requirements. The objective of a buildingcode is toprotect the public by accounting for the influence of the local conditions onconstruction. Those conditions of particular concern to the structural engineers cover suchtopics as soil conditions, live loads, wind pressure, snow load, and earthquake forces. Todaymany building codes adopt the provisions of Standard minimum design loads for Buildingsprepared by ASCE or more recent International Building Code by ICC.As new systems evolve, as new materials or new technology becomes available, or repeatedfailures of accepted design occur, the cont3ent of codes are revised and updated. In recentyears, a large volume of research on structural behavior and materials has resulted infrequent changes in both types of codes. For example, the ACI committee issues annualaddendum and produces revised codes every 6 years.Most codes make revision to depart from the provisions in the standard provision if thedesign can prove by the test or analytical studies that such changes can produce a safedesign.
  • 19. 3.2 Hierarchy of Act, Bylaws, Codes and Standards, and ReferencesThere is a gross confusion about the hierarchy and priority of the documents in relation toAct, Bylaws, Codes (NNBC), Standards (NS), and Directives (PWD), Specifications,Manuals Instructions and administrative circulars. This aspect needs to be clarified and cleardemarcation and definition is required.The reference to other international codes as IS, IRC, JSI, DIN, ASTM, Eurocode and othersshall be provided.3.3 Building bylawsThe building byelaws of municipalities do not include several codes which are consideredvery essential for enhancing safety and quality of Life. The safety of Neighborhoodbuildings such as supermarkets, high rise buildings, hospitals, schools, institutional building,water towers, electrical towers, communication towers etc requires special treatment anddeserves specific consideration. The existing bylaws do not deal with hazardous buildings asabandoned and dangerous houses. The Building Permits process shall include all codesrelevant to the safety of buildings and infrastructure. Apart from this, the bylaws shallinclude provisions for innovativeness in planning and design.3.4 Code Structure and Nepal StandardsThere are two sets of similar documents: One published by DUDBC under NNBC 000 toNNBC 208, and another set published by NBSM under NS series. NNBC is basically refersto IS with corrections made for internalizing with Nepal Requirements. So, NNBC is adependent code and requires intensive reference with IS. In the other hand, NS has adaptedthe NNBC provisions and replaced the references of NNBC with relevant clauses adaptedfrom respective international codes. This duplication of NNBC and NS has createdconfusion among the users of Nepal Codes. NNBC requires to be made more users friendly,warrantee safety compared to other codes and build confidence among the professionals andcommunity as a whole.3.5 Need for Unified CodeNNBC is a collection of individual codes. May be it would be more effective when compiledinto a unified code including provision for adoption of administrative procedures forimplementation.3.6 Criticism of NNBCSeveral experts and professionals have reported that NNBC contains several anomalieswhich make it unreliable and confidence on it could not be developed. These factors arerelated to: The Safety factors, Importance factors, Response spectra, Worse case of load combination Low Load factors, Load reduction provision, Load distribution of non-orthogonal plan Lateral earth pressure in basement Load distribution for high rise and low rise Time period < 0.1 N
  • 20.  Design Parameters as:- Settlement, deformation, strength, crack opening- Static and dynamic analysis- Retrofitting of existing buildings by laws / codes- Repair and maintenance of old existing buildings/ code- Disaster mitigation – building stock inventory3.7 Family of CodesThe International Code Council has adopteda series of codes that comprehensivelyprovide safety of life and property, andenhance the quality and comfort of thepeople. This aspect has not been covered byBuilding Act of Nepal and Byelaws of anymunicipalities and the building codesprepared have limited provisions. The list ofInternational Codes used is listed in Box-2.These codes are part of Building By-Lawsand required to be followed as the minimum.3.8 Frequency of UpdateThe Bylaws, codes and Standards requiredto be updated within a certain period inorder to address the dynamic technologicaldevelopment and requirement of theconsumers.3.9 Commentary on Codes and StandardsInclusion of Commentary on Codes andStandards is most important since itdevelops the confidence of the users, andprovides evidence of authenticity. Thecommentary shall be included in the samecode and standard where it is required to beprovided.3.10 Conservation of Historic Building, Aesthetics, Planning CodesNNBC includes a code on ArchitecturalDesign Requirement (NNBS 206:2003),but the important aspects of urban areas asconservationof historic buildings, aesthetics and context of urban areas affecting the neighborhood safetyare missing which has a huge toll on the urban safety. The building permit process in thevicinity of historic buildings and in the World Heritage Sites or Preservation areas are notsubject to the requirements of Department of Archeology which is the governing body forconservation of buildings and heritage sites.Box-2: List of International Codes in Use1. Building Code *,2. Residential Code,3. Mechanical Code,4. Plumbing Code *,5. Fuel Gas Code,6. Fire Code *,7. Property Maintenance Code,8. Private Sewage Disposal Code,9. Electrical Code10. Energy Conservation Code,11. Existing Building Code,12. Utility Codes (Lifts and Escalators, Lighting andventilation, Prefabrication and System buildings,Acoustics, Noise control, Air Conditioning andHeating, Communication and Networking)13. Urban Wild land Interface Code,14. Performance Code,15. Planning and Zoning Code16. Code and Commentary17. Elevator Safety Construction Code18. Historical Building and Conservation Code19. Reference Standards Code20. Disabled Accessibility Guidebook21. National Green Building Standard22. Nonstructural elements code23. Code for Special Buildings as high risebuildings, water towers, bridges.24. Construction Safety25. Environmental Codes (Indoor and OutdoorAmbience)26. Retrofitting and Building Strengthening Code* Codes included in NNBC
  • 21. 3.11 Relationship between Aesthetics and Structural SafetyIn several cases, the architectural shape and size artificially dictate the type of structures tobe used which violates the structurally safety provisions. The codes shall make a distinctionof the relationship between the architectural shape and structural safety requirement.Similarly, the building shape and configuration have effect on ductility of the building andoverall safety against Earthquake Hazard.3.12 Change in OccupancyThere are several occasions of change of occupancy category of the buildings that threatenthe safety of life and property. Recently, several of hotel buildings have changed occupancyto supermarkets and office buildings. The residential buildings are easily used foraccommodating lower class schools, warehouses, and offices. Such changes in occupancyrequired to be monitored and shall be governed by the provisions in Building Bylaws andcodes.3.13 High Rise BuildingsThe requirement of high rise buildings in terms of overall safety is different than that of lowrise buildings. The quality of materials and reliability of technology is much stringent andoperation and maintenance of the service require higher degree for reliability. Thisrequirement should be covered by NNBC.3.14 Detailing of JointsThe use of facede materials as granite, glass panels and traditional decorative bricks (DachiApa) requires inclusion of detailing of joints with main structure in order to warrantee thesafety during Earthquake. The details of connection of infill walls, parapet walls, sunshadesand main frames shall be considered.3.15 Quality Monitoring and Advertisement MarketThe current practice of quality assurance of materials and their use in construction is gettingin mess. There is no uniform method of quality monitoring exits except for the voluntaryapplication of quality standards at the large scale project level. The materials in the marketare dominated by commercial advertisement irrespective of applicability of the products tothe specific job and requirement of quality parameters. More the advertisement materials aremisleading to the consumers since the information provided in the advertisements are notcorrect or not applicable to the situation at the particular job. The business communityexploits the consumers for their lack of knowledge understanding and ignorance, and lack ofinstitutional approach towards monitoring the advertisement materials.3.16 Supervision of Construction WorksThis is one of the weakest parts of implementation of NNBC and NS. The qualification ofHuman resources being engaged in supervision and quality of materials and equipmentrequired to be addressed.
  • 22. 3.17 Building Material Handling, storage and useThe Safety of public and labor during material handling, storage and use is not taken care of.Use and handling of hazardous materials as fuel and electricity and other inflammablematerials shall be considered with special care. The sales of cement, steel, brick and sand atpublic places are harmful to health.3.18 Specification of other Materials not mentioned in NNBCThere are several other building materials that are commonly used in the market whereasthese materials are not included in the Codes or Standards. There should be a mechanismwhere these new materials and technology could be permitted for use under the codeprovisions.3.19 Mechanism for addressing Technical issues and data bankThe mechanism for addressing technical issues on provision of codes, standards,specification and construction technology is lacking. Similarly, data on experts onEarthquake Safety and Building Code matters are not consolidated. A data bank on Codeand Earthquake Safety matters will be extremely helpful including the development of alibrary for collection of important reports and research works.3.20 Participation of masons, stakeholders, ownersThe participation of stakeholders directly involved in the project as masons, owners andother stakeholders in code making and updating is lacking.3.21 Info dissemination and InteractionsInformation dissemination on code related issues are not adequately made. The informationrarely reaches the concerned stakeholders as professional societies and entities. Theinformation on the codes and standards shall be discussed with the stakeholders at length formaking the codes more effective and popular.3.22 Construction SafetyThe Construction safety is dealt in NNBC 114: 1994. However, it is limited to certain itemsand major safety issues as responsibility and accountability of safety is not considered. Atthe same time several items as formwork, reinforcement, concreting, equipment operationand many more are not included.3.23 Ownership of Design and Intellectual Property rightsThe ownership of the designer over the design and intellectual property right of the designer,the contractor and major technology suppliers is not covered by NNBC. This will be animportant aspect to be included in the Building Code.
  • 23. 3.24 EducationThe education in Engineering Colleges is based on course books and seldom referred to theNNBC or other codes and remained more academic and not pragmatic. The use of codeprovisions shall b encouraged for practical classes. The colleges are the best places forbuilding awareness on need for use of codes and standards.3.25 Capacity of personnel, qualificationThe qualification of the administrators of the codes at municipality level is another issue.The application of codes is ignored since there is lack of adequate human resources withknowledge of Codes. Equally, important is the qualification of the designers who arebasically responsible for compliance with the codes. This qualification requirement shall beapplicable to the contractor’s staff as well.3.26 Licensing of Skill LaborLicensing of Skilled construction workers, inspectors, supervisors and professionals shouldbe adopted with provision of appropriate training addressing the requirement of qualitymonitoring.4 Implementation of Codes and StandardsThe current practice of implementation of codes and standards is very poor. Particularly, thisis correct since there is no institution that is responsible for monitoring the implementation ofthe Codes and the roles and responsibilities of various entities involved are not defined incontext of application of NNBC and NS. Appropriate Institutional Arrangement forcontinuity of follow up for upgrading NNBC will be required. NNBC has certain provisionof Water Supply, Sanitation and Plumbing (NNBC208:2003), Electrical Safety (NNBC207:2003), and Fire Code (NNBC 107:1994) but these codes are seldom used for grantingthe Building Permit.4.1 Water Supply and SanitationThere is no code related to water supply.4.2 Electrical CodeElectrical Safety Code (NNBC 207:2003) provides certain guideline for electrical details tobe made. However the need for detailed electrical diagram including wiring details is notstrongly spelt out and monitoring of safety shall be considered. Nepal Electricity Authoritymakes certain verification of the house wiring prior to providing connection to the citysupply.4.3 Fire Safety CodeThe Fire Safety Code as provided by (NNBC 107:1994) is limited in application of certainprovisions as fire alarm and other appurtenances. The requirement for design considerationand selection of building material based on Fire Grading of the Building category is notincluded.
  • 24. 4.4 Use of NNBC 205: MRTThe municipality licensed designers widely use these codes for all construction beyond thelimit of MRT for building of larger sizes as well.Equally, MRT is extensively used for rural construction. It shall be said that this document isa very useful one but need to be very cautious since the designers in urban areas particularlyare misusing this document and threatening the safety. The minimum size of column of9”x9” recommended in NNBC is considered inappropriate for construction and LSMC isadapting 9”x12”, and changed the concrete grade from M15 to M20.It was referred that while better examples of standard typical designs to be made availablefor replication where permitted, MRT itself should not be a part of the Bylaws, Codes andStandards.5 Review of NNBC5.1 Review of NBC 000: 1994 State-Of-The Art Design And NBC 105: 1994Seismic Design Of Buildings In Nepal5.1.1 GeneralSeismic design of buildings constitutes the principal component of the building codes. Thepurpose is to reduce or mitigate the damage due to future earthquakes. It has been wellrecognized that the single most important development in reducing earthquake losses in theworld has been the incorporation of seismic design provisions into the building codes. Theseismic codes of various countries are in a state of continuous evolution in research andchanges in construction practice.The history of building code and hence the seismic design of buildings in Nepal is attender age compared to the same of other countries. The need for national building code inNepal was first strongly felt following the substantial loss and damage due to Udayapurearthquake of 1988. The preparation of the building code was initiated in early nineties andpublished officially only in 1994. The general response to the code has been lukewarmsince its inception, and is in a state of model building code rather than a national buildingcode in terms of legal status.Substantial advance have been achieved in the knowledge related to seismic resistantdesign of buildings and structures during the past 15 years since the publication of theNational Building Code of Nepal. Changes in seismic design provisions in seismic codesof different countries from 1994 to the present date are many and far reaching in theirimpact. Part of the reasons for such changes has been to incorporate the lessons learnedfrom the devastating large earthquakes. Inclusion of the lessons learnt from 1994Northridge and the 1995 Kobe earthquakes have been the major highlights of 1997 editionof Uniform Building Code with a considerable change in 1994 edition of UBC. Since thenthe large earthquakes of Gujarat (2001 January), Sumatra-Andaman (2004 December),Kashmir-Kohistan (2005 October) and China (2007) have resulted into devastating lossand damage, imparting the new lessons to be incorporated in the next future seismic codes.The lessons learnt from the past earthquakes, rapid development in the technology and
  • 25. researches in the area of Earthquake Engineering have resulted into sophisticated seismiccodes in developed countries. The recent editions of National Earthquake HazardsReduction Program (NEHRP) Provisions following the custom of updating in a cycle ofthree years substantiate the fact. The recommended provisions incorporated in ‘TheNEHRP Recommended Provisions for Seismic Regulations for New Buildings’ haveincreasingly been adopted in recent times by model codes and standards. If in UnitedStates, there is a custom of revising the codes every three years, it may be not that easy incase of developing countries like Nepal. The revised edition of the Indian standard Criteriafor earthquake resistant design of structures IS 1893(Part 1) 2002 came into light replacingIS 1893: 1984 only after a period of 18 years. However, it should be recognized that theupdating of design documents like the codes is a dynamic process, and shall bematerialized as soon as possible to further reduce and mitigate the possible losses in futureearthquakes. In view of this, it is urgently needed that the present code on seismic designof buildings in Nepal is carefully reviewed with an objective of removing any deficiencies,errors or scope for misinterpretation. Moreover, development of commentaries orexplanatory handbook on the code to explain the provisions with solved examples is ofutmost importance to solicit a favorable response from users.5.1.2 NNBC 000: 1994 Requirements For State-Of-The Art DesignNNBC 000: 1994 basically describes the preface of the building code preparation andphilosophy behind the need for seismic design of buildings in Nepal. It describes andadvocates for, in general, four different levels of sophistication of design and construction,namely, International state-of-art, Professionally engineered structures, Buildings of restrictedsize designed to simple rules-of-thumb, and Remote rural buildings where control isimpractical. Accordingly, the NNBC 000: 1984 contains four separate parts describing therequirements for each category of the design sophistication. The categorization of the designand construction is highly influenced by the typology of buildings prevalent then in Nepal andappears highly overwhelmed by the fact that the first ever building code should be generous toaccommodate the unsophisticated and un-engineered design. It implies the poor status ofdesign capability and exposure to building codes and standards. It calls for a need to not onlyto revise regularly but also ascertains that the provisions are drafts standards for adoption byNBSM. The content of NNBC 000: 1994 could have been a set of good guidelinesincorporated in local building regulations or byelaws. Since a national building code alsorepresents the status and sophistication of design and construction embracing latest researchand technological developments, it should not only emphasize but also concentrate only on theInternational state-of-art.A building code is a set of rules that specify the minimum acceptable level of safety forbuildings and other constructed objects. The main purpose of the building code is to protectpublic health, safety and general welfare as they relate to the construction and occupancy ofbuildings and other structures. The Building Code becomes the law of a particularjurisdiction when formally enacted by the appropriate authority. Generally the codes aremeant for regulating building activity which may be recommendatory or mandatorydepending upon the authorities issuing these. Compliance to the building code ismandatory when it is covered in Building Byelaws, Regulations, Acts, Rules, etc. issuedby the National Government and various regional or local authorities.Building Codes are generally intended to be applied by architects and engineers, but arealso used for various purposes by safety inspectors, environmental scientists, real estatedevelopers, contractors, manufacturers of building products and materials, insurancecompanies, facility managers, disaster management personals, and others.
  • 26. The practice of developing, approving, and enforcing Building Codes is different from onecountry to another. In some nations Building Codes are developed by the governmentalagencies or semi-governmental standards organizations and then enforced across thecountry by the national government. Such codes are the National Building Codes, and theyenjoy a mandatory nation-wide application. In the countries, where the power of regulatingconstruction is vested in local authorities, a system of Model Building Codes is used.Model Building Codes have no legal status unless adopted or adapted by an authorityhaving jurisdiction. In some countries, each municipality and urban development authorityhas its own building code, which is mandatory for all construction within their jurisdiction.Such buildings codes are variants of a National Building Code, which serves as modelcode proving guidelines for regulating construction activity. The degree to which nationalbuilding codes and standards are enforced by law varies from country to country, as stated inthe Foreword of the Code, however it was intended that its implementation be enforcedthrough the Parliamentary Bill Act and concerned, local authority by-laws. In the abovescenario, it has become very important to establish the status of the building code. It is to benoted that Building Byelaws, in relation with Building Codes, are mandatory rules andguidelines for construction activities, issued normally by governmental agencies orauthorities with jurisdiction. Byelaws reflect the legal status of the document, and areregulatory in nature. National Building Code or Model Building Code may be included asan essential part of Building Byelaws; however, building codes may not contain thebyelaws. In view of this the philosophy of various levels of requirements depending uponthe design sophistication are more relevant to the byelaws to be enforced by the central orlocal authorities. It is always preferable to maintain the distinct boundaries betweenexisting building byelaws/building regulations and building codes to avoid the confusion.The sanctity of the building code, different from building byelaws and buildingregulations, and in its turn, the seismic design of buildings shall be retained by focusing onthe international state-of-art.It is important to understand the expressed or implied purpose of a particular designdocument in order to fully appreciate its provisions. Although the basic purpose of anyseismic code is to protect life, the way that this purpose as well as any additional purposes,presented can provide additional insight into the reasons for the presence of specificprovisions in the body of the document and its intended audience. The document shall befree, as far as possible, of ambiguous or confusing statements or provisions. The followingparagraph describes some of issues to be resolved under NNBC 000: 1994: The background of the development of the building code and the philosophy of seismicdesign could be reasonably incorporated in the introductory part of Seismic Design ofBuildings or even in that of National Building Code itself. The requirements for theProfessionally engineered structures (Part II), Buildings of restricted size designed tosimple rules-of-thumb (Part III), and Remote rural buildings where control is impractical(Part III) along with minimum design requirements based on the flow chart (Figure 1) shallbe left out for building regulations or building byelaws. The requirements for theInternational state-of-art is the main part, based on which the Seismic Design ofBuildings evolves. The need for a separate code on the remaining issues is notjustifiable. Labeling the Building Code or part of it as draft standards belies the purpose of thedocument, and weakens the position of the code executing agencies in theenforcement of the building code.
  • 27.  Ambiguous statements shall be removed unless a necessary clarification is provided toavoid the scope for misinterpretation. The return periods mentioned for the onset ofdamage of a typical building and for the strength of building as 50 years and 300 yearsrespectively, in 1.2 Seismic Design under Part 1, need a clarification or rephrasing. Incomplete sentences in the document of importance shall be avoided. The sentencestarting with “The basic philosophy for…” and ending in blanks, in 1.2 Seismic Designunder Part 1, fails to express the principal objective of the seismic design. The language and the format of clauses and provisions in a building code deserve aformal/legal style rather than those of a technical report. The paragraphs following thesubheading 1.3 Other Loads under Part 1 appear like parts of a report with a littleregard for other Nepalese Standards. Mere referring the Indian Standard Codes of Practice for design in materials likeconcrete, steel and masonry does not serve the purpose of popular use and enforcementof Nepal National Building Code. IS 456: 1978 Indian Standard Code of Practice forPlain and Reinforced Concrete has been revised into the Fifth revision IS 456: 2000Indian Standard Code of Practice for Plain and Reinforced Concrete. Similarly thedetailing requirements included in IS 4326: 1993 Indian Standard Code of Practice forEarthquake Resistant Design and Construction of Buildings have been modified andincorporated in a separate detailing code IS 13920: 1993 Indian Standard Code ofPractice for Ductile Detailing of Reinforced Concrete Structures subjected to SeismicForces. Since the present building code of Nepal is not explicit about which IndianStandard Codes, referred ones or revised ones, to be adopted, the designers along withother stake holders obviously will be in dilemma. Due reference to Nepalese Standards without using the adjective – draft, and withoutthe background of their development, is most preferable. The Nepalese Standards, suchas for Wind Loads (NNBC 104: 1994), Steel Design (NNBC 111: 1994), Un-reinforced Masonry (NNBC 109: 1994) and others shall be reviewed and improved, nomatter assistance from which international codes or publications has been derived, sothat these could be treated with respect as Nepal’s own Standards and essentialcomponents of the National Building Code. Due weightage needs to be given to international coordination among the standards andpractices prevailing in different countries in addition to relating it to the practices in thefield in Nepal.5.1.3 NNBC 105: 1994 Seismic Design Of Buildings In NepalBackground and purpose of the codeThe important information regarding the preparation of the code including its history ofdevelopment, need of the document development/improvement and the purpose of seismicdesign shall be described under Foreword. Due credit shall be given to the documents andcodes, which have been used and referred in the development of the code.The present form of Foreword needs to be enhanced with changes in terms of content anddescription. The name of sub-heading - design procedure and its content stating as theminimum design requirements for the seismic design of structures do not match; referring justto the section under the scope does not say any thing about the design procedure nor about theminimum requirements.
  • 28. The special emphasis on the need for application of the code in conjunction with IS 4326 –1993, under sub-heading – Related Codes is not appreciable for two reasons. Firstly, the statusof IS 4326 – 1993 in India has been changed with most of the contents being separatelytransferred into newly developed codes. The statement in the para implies that NNBC 105:1994 can not be used without referring IS 4326 – 1993. In principle, emphasis should be on theneed of developing such basic standards or codes. Alternatively, the relevant provisions shallbe incorporated, separately as clauses, in the seismic design code itself. Naming recent editionsof IS 4326 – 1993 or other relevant national and international codes or documents as referencematerials will be more appreciated. Moreover, details of the Standards, preferably developedfor Nepal, which are necessary adjuncts to the Seismic Design of Buildings in Nepal shall belisted elsewhere in the code.The absence of the Commentary, forming an accompanying volume to the code, makes itdifficult to substantiate the requirement of using the code in association with the Commentaryas given under sub – heading- Commentary.ScopeThe requirements presented under the section of scope of the present code sound conservative.Instead, the scope of the code should be general and broad in terms of seismic load assessmenton various structures and seismic resistant design of buildings. The basic provisions shall beapplicable to buildings, elevated structures, industrial structures, dams, bridges and otherstructures. The scope may not include the construction features of those buildings for whichseparate standards will have to address.TerminologyThe terms used in the seismic design and their definitions given in the present code should beextended. Since the code is the sole principal document for earthquake resistant design ofbuildings it will be preferable to include basic terms and their definitions related withEarthquake Engineering in general to shed light on basic seismological aspects, as well asEarthquake Engineering related with buildings. Basic terms related with damping, modes,spectra, PGA, importance factor, intensity and magnitude of earthquake, liquefaction,maximum considered earthquake, normal modes and modal characteristics, seismic weight,zone factor and others related with basic Earthquake Engineering shall be included. It is alsonecessary to incorporate more terms related with building such as base, center of mass andrigidity, design eccentricity, base shear, bracing systems, lateral load resisting elements,principal axes, P- effect, storey drift, storey shear, soft storey and others.SymbolsThe symbols used in the present code may be retained with the extension or revision as themethod improved or altered. However, some terms used in the symbols may be changed, forexample, fundamental time period is more suitable than translational period Ti. There isperhaps a typographical error in meaning the symbol Fp –design seismic force for elementsand components designed in accordance with 8.General Principles of DesignThe general principles described under the present section 3 of the code could be elaboratedwith the important features of seismicity and basic assumptions of seismic design.
  • 29. It is necessary to include the general principle adopted regarding the ground motion, itsfeatures in relation with the earthquake source characterizations including the sizes of theearthquake.It will be favorable to describe the seismic design approach adopted in the code. The generallyaccepted principle of seismic resistant design of buildings is that structures should be able towithstand minor earthquakes without damage, withstand moderate earthquakes withoutstructural damage but with some non-structural damage, and withstand major earthquakeswithout collapse but with some structural as well as non-structural damage. These widelyquoted objectives, however, are unstated in many codes including the current NNBC 105:1994. Instead, the principal objectives are stated, for example, the Uniform Building CodeUBC 1997 states an overall objective of safeguarding life or limb, property and public welfare.Although the definitions of minor, moderate and major earthquakes are variable, theygenerally relate to the life of the structure, and the consequences of failure. The majorearthquake level defined in most of the codes of the world has a recurrence interval of 475years, which corresponds to a 10% probability of exceedence in 50 years that is commonlyaccepted to be the expected life of a building. The corresponding service level earthquake for atypical building would have a recurrence interval of 10 years and a 99.3% probability of beingexceeded in 50 years.There is also a need to mention about the design approach in relation with consideration oflateral force in each of the two orthogonal horizontal directions, and approach regardingconsideration of earthquake load in vertical direction. It shall also include the approach andcorresponding provision regarding simultaneous occurrence of wind or flood, soil-structuralinteraction and change in usage of the building.Design Methods and Load CombinationsThere must be a valid logical reason for need of Limit State Method of design for reinforcedconcrete design and recommending Working Stress Method for other structural materials. Atthis juncture of improvement, it will be preferable to explore the design methods available andrecommended in other codes and adopt the design method most appropriate for the country. Ingeneral, most of the countries have adopted Limit State Method or Strength Method replacingWorking Stress Method for Concrete as well as Steel, the two principle structural materials.The provision regarding the increase in allowable soil bearing pressure by up to 50 percentwhen earthquake forces are considered along with other design forces according to 4.3 of thepresent code may be too un-conservative and ambiguous in application. Elaboration of theclause is required about in what condition 50% increase can be considered, and in whatcondition lower values, which are to be mentioned, of increment can be considered. IS 1893(Part 1) : 2002 recommends the increase in allowable soil bearing pressure from 25 to 50%depending upon the soil type (hard, medium or soft ) and the type of foundations (piles, raft,combined, isolated and well).The design load combinations included in the present code for Working Stress Method as wellas for Limit State Method seriously require reworking. It is well recognized that the loadfactors, recommended are based on the reliability levels assumed in the structures. Forexample, it appears too un-conservative to have load factor for dead load as 1 and for live load1.3 in case of Nepal. The uncertainties due to non-uniformity of materials, workmanship,quality control seem to be ignored in the load factor for dead load. The uncertainties inoverloading is covered by maximum 1.3 may not be practical in the condition of Nepal. IS 456: 2000, for example, considers 1.5 for both the dead load and the live load. Similarly themaximum load factor value for seismic load considered is just 1.25, both in combination with
  • 30. 0.9 times dead load, as well as in combination with dead load and 1.3 times live load. Thevalue of 1.25 is too low in view of the large uncertainties involved in assessment of theseismic load. Furthermore, the recommendation for adoption of partial safety factors as perTable 12 of NNBC 110: 1994 contradicts the provision of 4.5 of Seismic Design Code.Method of Seismic DesignThe present seismic code recommends two methods of earthquake analysis, namely, SeismicCoefficient Method and Modal Response Spectrum Method.The bulk of seismic resistant buildings are designed using equivalent static lateral forces torepresent the effects of ground motion due to earthquake on buildings. It is from theassumption that equivalent static forces can be used to represent the effects of an earthquakeby producing the same structural displacements as the peak earthquake displacement response.The application of this method is limited to reasonably regular structures. The present coderestricts the use of this method for structures up to 40 m height, and should also mention thecondition of regularity.The dynamic analysis shall not be confined to the response spectrum method. There must bean optional provision for Time History Analysis also. The conditions for need of using ModalResponse Spectrum Method (Dynamic Analysis) are listed, which are basically related withirregular configuration. Due to absence of definition and classification of irregularity, the usersof the code will be confused. It is desirable to include clauses that define and describe differenttypes of irregularity (horizontal, vertical, stiffness, mass, geometric and others). By suchdefinitions a clearer picture and effect of soft storey and weak storey will be available.The formula for determination of seismic coefficient has been changing in the seismic codes ofthe world. However, the base shear due to ground motion has all the time been the product ofthe seismic coefficient and the mass of the structure. The principal code factors used inderiving static lateral forces, for a long time, have basically been:Z A numeric value representing the seismic zoningI An importance factor representing the importance of the structure,especially in terms of use following a major earthquake.C A factor representing the appropriate acceleration response spectrum value.S A factor representing the effect of local soil conditions on the spectralresponse of the groundW The mass of the structure, including an assessment of live loadK A factor representing the performance of the structure depending on thebrittleness or ductility of the structure These values are combined in generalform for base shear:V = ZICKSWThis formula for base shear has been for a long time popular. However in course ofevolution the formula for the seismic coefficient has been changing. The formula for theseismic coefficient presented in the present NBE 105: 1994 considers all the above factorsexcept S-the factor representing the effect of local soil conditions on the spectral responseof the ground. This effect has been considered, like in other codes, in the response spectradrawn for different (basically three) types of soil. Thus the expression for the seismiccoefficient is given in equation 8.1. Similarly, the equation 8.2 for the expression for the
  • 31. design response spectrum, in which the ordinate of the basic response spectrum for thenatural time period, is multiplied by ZIK.It has been a trend in the codes of the world to drop the performance factor K and replace itby reciprocal of R, response reduction factor, a factor dependant on the building type andits ductility level. The adoption of the response reduction factor leads to a realistic valuesof acceleration from which the design forces are obtained by dividing the elastic forces byit. It implies that the design force is much lower than what can be expected in the event ofa strong earthquake (Jain 2003).The replacement of the factor K by the factor 1/R may result into a logical estimation ofthe seismic coefficient, and alternate expressions derived in recent editions of codes ordocuments like NEHRP shall be given a thought for the new edition of the code.Computing dynamic response instead of using static forces is becoming increasinglycommon as higher powered computing facilities are being available in design offices.Since there is no restriction of building height and irregularity the dynamic analysisappears to be simpler in application and yields more logical and accurate results. However,special care shall be taken into consideration about conservative provision in someinternational codes. Some codes require checking of the dynamic analysis results byseismic coefficient method. Some documents like IS 1893 (Part 1) : 2002 requirecomparing the base shear with the base shear calculated using the fundamental time periodcalculated using the empirical formula recommended for static approach, and if the baseshear from dynamic analysis is less than the base shear calculated using the time periodfrom the empirical formula, all the dynamic responses shall be up-scaled multiplying bythe ratio of the two base shears. It again implies the dominance of the seismic coefficientmethod over the dynamic analysis.Seismic Hazard Level and Response SpectrumEstimate of the design ground motion is the most important and complicated part of theseismic design code development. Estimates of the design ground motion are necessarilycontroversial and uncertain. It is more important to the structural designer that this isunderstood than for him to attach some particular significance to any ground motionparameter used in his design. However there is a strong argument for conservatism in theassessment of ground motion input, and the use of high confidence level.NNBC 105: 1994 does not present any elaborate information on the seismicity of thecountry. It would be favorable to include at least maps showing epicenters of pastearthquakes, principle tectonic features, geological features including principal lithologicalgroups, and seismic zones, all of which are well documented by the Department of Minesand Geology, Nepal. Pandey et al. (2002) has presented seismic hazard map of Nepal as aresult of probabilistic seismic hazard analysis The document presents the contour ofseismic hazard at the bedrock of Nepal for a return period of 500 years, indicating 10%probability of exceedence in 50 years.The design values of ground motion parameter such as Peak Ground Acceleration (PGA)for different regions of the country are presented either in a tabular form (GB 50011-2001)or attaching relevant maps like in IBC 2006 in the codes. It is necessary to do the same inNNBC 105: 1994 also since the seismic hazard for the code was determined based on theprobabilistic seismic hazard analysis. The seismic codes adopting probabilistic approach ofhazard estimation use the hazard levels in terms of Maximum Considered/CapableEarthquake (MCE) as in NEHRP (2003) and IBC (2006), and Design Basis Earthquake(DBE) as in ATC (1978) and UBC (1997). The MCE and DBE represent 2% probability of
  • 32. exceedence in 50 years with a return period of 2500 years and 10% probability ofexceedence in 50 years with a return period of 475 years respectively.The seismic hazards considered in earlier editions of NEHRP and UBC 97 (1997) had arecurrence interval of 475 years (Design Basis Earthquake) corresponding to a uniform 10percent probability of exceedance in 50 years, which is commonly accepted to be expectedlife of a building. The NEHRP(1997) and IBC2000(2000) had changed the Design BasisEarthquake(DBE), and since then have been using the Maximum Considered Earthquake(MCE) to represent the seismic hazards in the provisions.. The MCE represents the seismichazard that has a recurrence interval of 2500 years corresponding to a uniform 2%probability of exceedence in 50 years. The design earthquake according to the provisionsof NEHRP(2003) and IBC 2006 (2006) is two-thirds of the MCE. Comparison of theprovisions of 1994 or older editions with 1997 or later editions of the NEHRP Provisionsreveals that, a structure designed by the 1994 or older editions of NEHRP Provisions isbelieved to have a low likelihood of collapse under an earthquake that is one and one-halftimes (reciprocal of two-third) as large as the design earthquake of those documents. Thesame change has taken place from UBC 97 (1997) to IBC 2000 (2000). This major changein association with other provisions indicates the newer versions of the documents tend tobe more conservative.The seismic loading in NNBC 105: 1994 is set at a seismic hazard level having a returnperiod of 50 years, which corresponds to a probability of exceedence less than 45% in 30years, which had been estimated as the economic life of a structure in Nepal, as presentedby Beca Worley International et al.(1993), The document as well reveals that the seismichazard level was set to be at a level approximately equal to that defined in the IndianStandard, that is, IS 1893: 1984. The design earthquake level set hence is too un-conservative and strongly needs a major revision for the following reasons:i. The service life of buildings in Nepal estimated as 30 years is far from reasonable,instead it must be 50 years.ii. It is unfair to set the seismic hazard level for Nepal heavily banking upon theearthquake level stipulated in IS 1893: 1984, which has already been revised into IS1893 (Part 1): 2002 with a different value of design earthquake value. The IndianStandard has yet to adopt probabilistic format of seismic hazard analysis.iii. The provisions in the present code have been developed in reference with mainly lowrise buildings with short natural periods, where as long period structures areincreasingly becoming prevalent.iv. The seismic design lateral load calculated for short period structures as 0.08, whencompared with the basic horizontal seismic coefficient for zone V of IS 1893: 1984,found the same as 0.08. But the value according to the revised IS 1893 (Part 1): 2002will be 0.09 against 0.08.The response spectra and the zoning factors largely depends on the design earthquakelevels, and hence will be different as the seismic hazard levels change.The broad classification of soil conditions into three types is universally accepted.However, the definition and requirements of each type of them shall be more practical andrecognizable.Static Method (Seismic Coefficient Method)The seismic base shear V along any principal direction is determined by the expression:
  • 33. V = Cd WtIn which Cd is the design horizontal seismic coefficient, and Wt is the seismic weight of thebuilding. However, the expression given by equation 10.1 is not supplemented with whatstands for the notation Wt . Moreover, it requires the definition of the seismic weight of thebuilding. There is also a need to describe how the seismic weight of the building iscalculated in terms of seismic weight of floors, which has to be referred, although brieflyintroduced under the section 6 Seismic Weight. It should further be elaborated with therules for lumping of weights.The distribution of the design base shear along the height of the building is carried out in alinear manner, that is, the design lateral force at floor level i is calculated by:Fi = V Wi hi/ΣWi hiThe Indian Standard IS 1893 has long been adopting the parabolic distribution,corresponding to which the design lateral force, equivalent to IS 1893 (Part 1):2002, atfloor level i is calculated by:212iiniiiihWhWVFBoth of the above distributions are at the extremes. The linear distribution is true forbasically stiff structures having a natural period of 0.5 seconds or less (approximately forup to 5 storeys of the building). The parabolic distribution is applicable basically forflexible structures having a natural time period of 2.5 seconds (approximately for 25storeys and more of the building).The distribution of the horizontal forces over the height of a building is generally a quitecomplex because these forces are the result of superposition of a number of natural modesof vibration. The relative contributions of these vibration modes to the total forces dependson a number of factors, which include shape of the ground motion response spectrum,natural periods of vibration of the building, and the vibration mode shapes, which in turndepend on the mass and stiffness distribution over the height of the building. Based on it,ATC 3-06 (1978) has provided the reasonable and simple formula to obtain the horizontalearthquake force distribution in buildings with regular variation of mass and stiffness overthe height as follows:kiinikiiihWhWVF1in which, k is an exponent related to the building period as follows:For buildings having a period of 0.5 seconds or less, k = 1.For buildings having a period of 2.5 seconds or more, k = 2.For buildings having a period between 0.5 and 2.5 seconds, k may be taken as 2 or may bedetermined by linear interpolation between 1 and 2.In view of the changing characters of the buildings, increasingly departing from the lowrise situation, the linear distribution provision in the code will be again un-conservative,and hence needs a change. It is to note that the American codes have been adopting thedistribution formula developed by ATC 3-06 (1978).
  • 34. The provision regarding the direction of forces under sub-heading 8.2.1 shall be rewrittento clarify to the effect that the structure shall be designed for design earthquake load in onehorizontal direction at time, indicating the design earthquake load will not be appliedsimultaneously in both of the orthogonal directions.The design eccentricity provision should have been provided together with the clause onthe horizontal shear distribution or under Torsion. The design eccentricity, ed isrecommended to be calculated depending upon the value of ec ( eccentricity between thelocations of the center of mass and the center of rigidity) in relation with b, the maximumdimension of the building perpendicular to the direction of the earthquake force. Threeseparate conditions and corresponding values to be used or calculated are presented. Thedesign eccentricity is required to calculate the design torsional moment to consider itseffect in the distribution of lateral forces at each level. The purpose of the provision on thedesign eccentricity would have better been served by a clause on Torsion to the effect “Thedistribution of lateral forces at each level shall consider the effect of the torsional momentresulting from eccentricity ec between the locations of the center of mass and the center ofrigidity”. It should be followed by a complimentary clause on Accidental torsion, to theeffect “In addition to the torsional moment, the distribution of lateral forces also shallinclude accidental torsional moments, caused by an assumed displacement of the masseach way from its actual location by a distance equal to 5% of the dimension of thestructure b, perpendicular to the direction of the applied forces. Alternatively, The designeccentricity would be algebraic sum of the factored eccentricity and the accidentaleccentricity each way. Accordingly, the expression for the design eccentricity for ithfloorwould be, assuming 1.5 as the factor for the eccentricity:edi = 1.5 eci ± 0.05 biDynamic Method (Modal Response Spectrum Method)equation for dyanamic MethodThe provisions presented in the present code are not adequate. There is a need for clausesfor free vibration analysis to obtain the natural periods (T) and mode shapes (φ). Thepresent provision for the numbers of the modes to be considered in 11.2 needs elaborationincluding explanation how to check if the 90% of the mass is participating or not. It shallbe done by introduction of formulae along with definitions of modal mass and modalparticipation factors. There are serious lapse of provisions for modal combination methods,methods for determination of design lateral forces at each floor in each mode and due to allmodes considered, and also expressions for storey shear forces in individual mode and dueto all modes considered.The para 11.3.1 mentions about need to use an established method for combination ofmodal effects. An ambiguous word like established method shall be avoided and replacedby the name of the method/s to be applied. The definition of closely spaced modes as givenin para 11.3.3 is incorrect. Closely spaced modes are defined as those of its natural modesof vibration whose natural frequencies differ from each other by 10 % or less of the lowerfrequency, not if their frequencies are within 15%.DeformationsThe primary clause for deformation due to earthquake forces is the storey drift limitation,which shall not exceed 0.004 times the storey height. The sense of this limitation may beimplied from the provision given under 9.2.2. For the purpose of displacementrequirements only, the seismic forces obtained from the fundamental time period of the
  • 35. building by static or dynamic approach may be used. The provision under 9.1 shall beapplicable for the separation between two adjacent buildings or two adjacent units of thesame building. The separation must be provided by a distance equal to the sum of thecalculated storey displacements multiplied by 5/k or by R, if the performance factor k isreplaced by response reduction factor R. rewritten as for the separation. It shall further besupplemented by the provision that if the floor levels of the two adjacent units or buildingsare at the same elevation levels, the factor 5/k or by R may be further replaced by 10/k orR/2 respectively. Accordingly it is preferable to rearrange the sub-clauses under thissection.Requirements for Other Components and ElementsThe provisions under section 12 shall elaborate, beyond the general statements, how therequirements are achieved. This section also shall present provisions for importantcomponents like foundations, projections and other parts of the buildings.5.2 Review of NNBC 101, 102, 103, 104, 106, 108, 109 (Loads, Occupancy, SiteConsideration, Unreinforced Masonry)5.2.1 NNBC 101:1994: Materials SpecificationsThis standard deals with the requisite quality and effectiveness of construction materials usedmainly in building construction.The code requires the use of materials confirming to NS or IS or any other approvedstandards agency to satisfy this Standard which is referred to IS. This provision has made thecode redundant and not useful.A list of such Nepal Standards and Indian Standards is provided for reference.The use of appropriate, adopted or new materials is encouraged, provided these materialshave been proven to meet their intended purposes provided that these materials comply withthe requirements of this code. But the code has no reference to any criteria (better in quality,strength, effectiveness, fire resistance, durability, safety, maintenance and compatibility) thatrequired to be checked.If recycled /used materials meet the requirements of the standard, they may also be used.The storage requirement for all building materials is mentioned in a vague way and do notgive any methods or reference to any guidance or Manual so that could provide methodologyof storage including limiting duration of storage. It requires to assure that during storage theproperties of materials should not be deteriorated or lossed.The code does not cover the health hazard or Fire Hazard induced by use, transport, storageor handling or hazard to urban life. A lot of sales depot operated in the cities do not consideror comply to any requirement of reduction of health hazard which is one of the key objectivesof any Building Codes. Lot of traffic accidents are induced by storage of materials at roads,transportation, and use at public places and roads. While updating, the safety and healthhazard issues induced by building materials should be considered.
  • 36. The terminology Nepal National Building Codes series NNBC and Nepal Standards NS arereferred with confusion. Some where NNBC is referred as Nepal Standard which isnominated with series 500.5.2.2 NNBC 102:1994: Unit Weight of MaterialsThis Nepal Standard for unit weight of Materials adopts the Indian Code IS:875(Part 1)-1987code of Practice for Design loads ( Other than Earthquake) for building and structures, Part 1-Dead loads-Unit weight of building materials and stored materials.(second revision).Since the table of unit weight of material not provided in the code, the code is not convenientto use. Unit weight of materials is provided in Nepal Standard, so it is better to use the tableof unit weight of material from NS.5.2.3 NNBC 103:1994: Occupancy Load (Imposed Load)This Code (or Standard?) is nothing more than statement of justification for adoption of ISCode and hence is not useful fro practical purposes.This Nepal Standard for Occupancy Load adopts the Indian Code IS:875(Part 2)-1987 codeof Practice for Design loads ( Other than Earthquake) for building and structures, Part 2-Imposed Load.(second revision).The occupancy classification should be provided. Table for the imposed floor load foroccupancies should be provided to make the convenient for user.In Nepal Standard NS , different tables such as table1-Imposed floor loads for differentoccupancies, reduction in imposed loads on floors, table 2- Imposed loads on various typesof roofs, table 3- horizontal loads on parapets, parapet walls and balustrades are providedwhich can be used in NNBC 103:1994 to make the independent code.Uniform live loads. The live loads used in the design of buildings and other structures shallbe the maximum loads expected by the intended use or occupancy but shall in no case be lessthan the minimum distributed loads required by provided table.Partition loads. In office buildings and in other buildings where partition locations aresubject to change, provision for partition weight shall be made, whether or not partitions areshown in construction documents, unless the specified live load exceeds 80 pound per squarefoot (3.83 kN/m2). Such partition load shall not be less than a uniformly distributed live loadof 20 pounds per square foot (0.96 kN/m2).As per occupancy classification, egress must be adequate for the uses to which it will be put.Changing use of occupanciesAs we know in Nepal, the uses of building are changed from one occupancy classification toanother occupancy, for example from residential to school or from a hotel to Super Market.In such cases the occupancy load will be changed. Its an important aspect of any buildingdesign. Occupancy load calculations are made as per different occupancies. This is verydangerous for the overall safety of the building unless such changes are justified by structuralanalysis. The Code requires to impose categorical prohibition on such change in use ofbuildings from one occupancy classification to another.
  • 37. 5.2.4 NNBC 104:1994: Wind LoadThis Nepal Standard on “Wind Load” comprises the Indian Standard IS:875(Part 3)-1987code of Practice for Design Loads ( Other than Earthquake) for building and structures(Second Revision) with amendments to ensure the requirements of Nepalese context,particularly wind zoning map of Nepal.The available wind data is inadequate both in terms of spatial distribution and duration.Modern wind design codes are based on the peak gust velocity averaged over a short intervalof about 3 seconds that has a 50 year return period. The available Nepalese wind data isinsufficient and irrelevant to prepare wind zone map.On the base of wind velocity, Nepal has been divided into two regions: (a) The lower plainsand hills and (b) the mountains. The first zone generally includes the southern plain of Tarai,the Kathmandu valley and those regions of the country generally below the elevation of 3,000metres and the second zone covers all the areas above 3,000 metres.For the Nepalese plains continuous with Indian plains, a basic velocity of 47m/s has beenadopted. In the higher hills, a basic wind velocity of 55 m/s is selected.Following observations on the Code are made:- Map of Nepal showing basic wind speed is missing;- Wind data table is missing (even though is is mentioned on page 2 second paragraph“Available wind data collected during the preparation of code is presented in appendicesNNBC 104:1 to 5”);-In the present code, some amendments to IS: 875 (Part 3)- 1987 was made to prepare NNBC104: 1994. The code is mostly replacement or editing of terminology e.g. addition, deletion orreplacement of words.This type of amendments has made the code very uncomfortable for use. The Nepal StandardNS 500 provides the map of Nepal showing basic wind speed and tables for the differentfactors. Nepal National Building Code needs to provide detailed data and documentation inthe code itself so that it becomes convenient for the user.Some comments and method of estimation of Wind Speed, Basic Wind Speed, Design WindSpeed, Design Wind Pressure based on altitude and building typology are provided inAppendix-5. The basic Wind speed is derived as a combination of probability factor (riskcoefficient), terrain, height and structure size factor, and topography factor. The Design WindPressure is derived as a function of design wind speed, Wind directionality factor, Areaaveraging factor, and Combination factor.The Russian Code and Standard (SNIP) recommends that wind load on tall building shall beestimated as the sum total of average and pulsation excitations.The Nigerian standard code of Practice (NSCP I) recommend to calculate Design wind loadas a function of nominal wind pressure, nominal wind velocity shape factor, and pressurecoefficient.Reference to these codes is provided for convenience at later stage while updating the codes.
  • 38. 5.2.5 NNBC 106:1994: Snow LoadThis code “Snow Load” comprises the Indian Standard IS: 875 (Part 4) 1987: CODE OFPRACTICE FOR DESIGN LOADS ( OTHER THAN EARTHQUAKE ) FOR BUILDINGSAND STRUCTURES (second revision) along with new improvements and amendments toensure the requirements of the Nepalese context.In this code, 0.1 to 0.3.2 has been deleted from the original version to match the code with theNepalese lifestyle. The added revisions are related to snow load in the northern snow-covereddistricts like Dolakha, Darchula, Bajhang, Humla, Mugu etc. The country is divided into fivecategories based on the physiographic regions. Of these five physiographic regions, the Tarai,the Siwaliks and the middle mountains do not experience snow fall. High mountains get snowtwo or three months of a year. Though the Code has considered the Middle mountain area as“no snow fall zone”, these areas had experienced snow fall sometimes. This fact has to betaken care in code updating, particularly for the areas within and around Kathmandu Valley.Detailed meteorological data should record these facts for more reliable updating of the code.The High Himalayas always have snow cover throughout the year.At high altitude in the North of Himalayas, flat roofs are built with mud placed over timberplanks or split pieces of wood. A slope is not provided because the wind speed is high and therainfall is sparse. Only a nominal slope that is just enough to drain the melted snow and rainwater. Snow is accumulated on the roof and the narrow space between the adjacent buildings.Snow accumulated on the roof is removed manually.No historical snow data exists. The Snow and Glacier Hydrology have just recently started tocollect data in higher region. Snow parameters as Depth, density and water equivalency aremonitored. However, the data obtained from the projects is far less than that of the verbalinquiry. So, the concerned personnel and institutions are being requested to collect data fromin-depth studies and from inquiries of knowledgeable people of the locality.Appendix-5 contains various data related to Snow Load such as: Snow Load in Roof most favorable roofComparison with other codesAs per National Building Code of Canada 1990, the snow load on roof is analysed withconsideration of various factors as ground snow load associated rain load factor, roof snowload, factor, wind exposure factor and accumulation factor. The Canadian Code considerssnow distribution factors on various types of roofs which can be applied universally withreliability and the only need would be to adjust the factors detail with local experience.Some properties of snow loadingA careful assessment of the snow load is required to avoid both unnecessary construction costand undue risk of failure. Snow loads on roofs vary widely according to geographicallocation, site exposure and shape of the roof.Snowflakes of falling snow consist of ice crystals with their well-known complex pattern.Owing to their large surface area to weight ratio they fall to the ground relatively slowly andare easily blown by the wind.
  • 39. Freshly fallen snow is very loose and fluffy, with a specific gravity of about 0.05 to 0.1(1/20thto 1/10thof water). Immediately after landing, the snow crystals start to change: thethin, needle-like projections begin to sublime and the crystals gradually become more likesmall irregularly shaped grains. The specific gravity of snow as a result of settlement afterfew days would usually increase to about 0.2. This compaction further increases and specificgravity would be about 0.3 after about a month even at below-freezing temperatures. Longerperiods of warm weather as well as rain falling into the snow (a possibility that must beincluded in proper design loads) may increase this density even further.As a simple rule for estimating loads from snow depths, the specific gravity can beconsidered to be about 0.2 to 0.3.Accumulation of Snow on RoofsIn perfectly calm weather, falling snow would cover roofs and the ground with a uniformblanket of snow. If this calm continues, the snow cover would remain undisturbed and theprediction of roof loads would be relatively simple; the design snow load could be considereduniform and equal to a suitable maximum value of the ground snow load.Truly uniform loading conditions, however, are rare. In most regions snowfalls areaccompanied or followed by winds, and the snowflakes, having a large surface area than theirweight, are easily transported horizontally by the wind. Consequently, since many roofs arewell exposed to the wind, little snow will accumulate on them.Over certain parts of roofs, the wind speed will be slowed down sufficiently to let the snow"drop out" and accumulate in drifts. The drift snow loads could be grouped into followingcategories:(a) Lean-to roofs, i.e. roofs situated below an adjacent higher roof, are particularlysusceptible to heavy drift loads because the upper roof can provide a large supply of snow.Canopies, balconies and porches also fall into this category and the loads that accumulate onthese roofs often reach a multiple of the ground load depending mainly on the size of theupper roof. The distribution of load depends on the shape of these drifts which varies from atriangular cross-section (with the greatest depth nearest to the higher roof) to a more or lessuniform depth.(b) Flat roofs with projections such as penthouses or parapet walls often experiencetriangular snow accumulations that reach the top of the projections on the building, butusually the magnitude of the load is less than in category (a).(c) Peaked and curved roofs subjected to winds at approximately right angles to the ridgeprovide aerodynamic shade over the leeward slope. This sometimes leads to heavyunbalanced loads, since most of the snow is blown from the windward slope to the leewardslope, producing loads that exceed the ground load on occasions. Curved roofs show similaror even more unbalanced distributions (little snow on top and heavy snow near the base of thearch).On the other hand it is true that many small peaked roofs on residences, in exposedareas, usually (but not always) accumulate little snow compared with that on the ground.Redistribution of LoadRedistribution of snow load can occur not only as a result of wind action. On sloped roofsthere are two problems connected with the melting of snow at temperatures slightly belowfreezing. Firstly, melt water can refreeze on caves and cause high ice loads (also water back-up under shingles). This can at least partly be solved by taking steps to, decrease the heat loss
  • 40. from the upper parts of the roof. Secondly, if a roof slopes and drains on to a lower one, meltwater sometimes accumulates by refreezing on the lower roof or it is retained in the snow.Since flat roofs in general do not provide as good drainage as that naturally obtained withsloped roofs, snow and ice will remain on flat roofs longer than on sloped roofs. On large flatroofs of industrial and commercial buildings, heavy loads are observed near projections suchas air ducts (which sometimes act like snow fences in retaining snow). When this snow meltsit sometimes drains into the lower areas in the centre of bays (i.e. areas of maximumdeflection) because usually the drains are located at columns (high points). This redistributionof load causes further deflection and can lead to a very dangerous situation.Failures due to Snow LoadThe number of building failures resulting from snow load is relatively high in Canada.Admittedly many of them occur in older and substandard constructions and should thus beattributed to faults of construction rather than to the snow load. Collapses occur mostfrequently in older buildings, farm buildings, and cottages as well as in some communitybuildings such as arenas built with a minimum of funds and professional supervision. Partialfailures, however, occur fairly frequently in those parts of roofs that accumulate high loadsfrom drifting, for example, porches, canopies and lean-to roofs. These partial failures indicatethe need for better design. Although many failures are probably averted each winter by theremoval of snow, this fact should never be relied upon and should never be used as a reasonfor a reduction in the design load.Responsibility of DesignerCode requirements for snow loads must necessarily be rather general, and consequently thedesigner should not apply the loads given in the Code without considering the effects of theshape and exposure of the roof. The designer should, therefore, consider in each case thebuilding site, size and shape, where drifts are likely to occur on the roof drainage, and so on.5.2.6 NNBC 108: 1994 Site ConsiderationThis document sets out some of the factors to be considered during site selection forbuildings in order to minimize the risks to the buildings from both normal and seismic loadconditions. It also outlines the fundamental requirements for site investigation for thefoundation design of buildings.Site consideration has been made for determining the potential of settlement, fault rupturehazard, liquefaction, landslides and slope instability of basic general concept. Necessarymitigation measures should be taken to minimize the potential risks.The Code very appropriately states that an appropriate level of site investigation and formalreporting of the design process should be carried out and shall be incorporated in the permitapplication documents for the State of Art Design and engineered buildings of all categoriesand for mandatory rules-of-thumb and/or advisory guidelines as an indication of goodpractice and apply same as appropriate. However, this provision was never materialized andapplication of Buildings in Building permit Process was not incorporated.For site investigations, the basic questions given to address are:- Is there any danger of inherent natural susceptibility of the land to the process of slidingand erosion?
  • 41. - Will the construction adversely affect the existing conditions and trigger landslide, erosion,land subsidence, pore pressure generation due to blockage of or otherwise the sub-surfaceflow of water; will the construction adversely affect the water table?- What will be the extent of settlement of the building?- Is the sub-surface capable of taking the load due to the proposed construction?- Is there any other natural/geological process likely to threaten the integrity of the building?- What are the possible engineering solutions for ensuring stability of the buildingfoundation in view of the identified condition?Answering these questions will make necessity of additional site investigation includingsubsurface exploration, in-situ and laboratory testing, geophysical surveys and testing,probing etc.The extent of site exploration depends upon the geological and geomorphological nature ofthe terrain, and on the importance of the building.The depth of exploration is based on the geological conditions at the site e.g. the depth andtype of subsurface soil, depth of weathering, depth of ground water fluctuation, depth offrost action etc.The code leaves the answers or requirements for liquefaction susceptibility, determination ofallowable bearing pressure and foundation design to the designer to follow the goodengineering practice.Again, this allows the designer to use other codes making the provisions of this coderedundant.5.2.7 NNBC 109: Masonry (Unreinforced)NNBC 109:1994 covers the structural design aspect of unreinforced masonry elements inbuildings. It also deals with some aspect of earthquake resistant design of buildings.Reference to seismic zoning, seismic coefficients, important factors and performancecoefficients are adopted as per NNBC 105-94 Seismic Design of Buildings in Nepal.The Code is fundamentally based on Indian Standard IS:1905-1987 Code of Practice forStructural Use of unreinforced Masonry (Third Revision).The materials used in masonry construction are taken in accordance with NNBC 101-94Material Specification and masonry units as per NS 1/2035 Brick Masonry.The code provides minimum requirements for the structural design and construction ofmasonry units bedded in mortar using both allowable stress design as well as limit statedesign (strength design) for unreinforced as well as reinforced masonry. The topic onstrength design is a new addition to the previous edition of this code (ACI 530-99/ASCE 5-99/TMS 402-99). In strength design, more emphasis is laid on reinforced masonry thanunreinforced masonry. An empirical design method applicable to buildings meeting specificlocation and construction criteria is also included.The review has considered the provisions made in various international codes asInternational Building Code, Euro Code 5, New Zeeland Standards, Indian Standard andBritish Standard. Various methods used by these codes were reviewed and the design
  • 42. methods were compared. A detailed account of these comparisons is provided in Appendix-5.The most important concerns as load combination and loading factors are no where indicatedin the code.Among the codes studied, only the New Zealand Standards contains provisions on ductilityof masonry structures. Regarding shear, it contains provisions on shear frictionreinforcement and also considers the case when masonry members are subjected to shear andflexure together with axial tension.IS:1905-1987 provides a semi-empirical approach to the design of unreinforced masonry.The masonry codes of other countries provide detailed provision for the design of reinforcedmasonry members.5.3 Review of NNBC: 107 (Fire Code)5.3.1 GeneralFire Hazard in Nepal is one of most common feature of disasters. Mostly during the dryseason in Nov – June, several fire disaster events were reported. According to Judha VarunaYantra, the oldest and only public fire-fighting unit in Kathmandu, there is one fire incidentevery day, causing irreparable damage to life and property.The reasons of these fire incidents could be attributed to various reasons covering from a)deficiencies in settlement planning, b)lack of preventive measures, c) lack of fire resistantconstruction, d) mishandling of inflammable substances, e) lack of awareness on fire hazard,f) criminal activities, g) lack of institutional arrangement to deal implement fire protectionpolicies, h) Lack of Safety code on use of electricity, gas, fuel, and i) lack of assessment offire safety of buildings and premises in urban areas and industries.The rapidly growing urbanization process in Nepal has created environment for over 132settlements to be recognized as emerging towns or new municipalities which means that therate of urban development including infrastructure will be rapid calling for enforcement ofUrban Development bylaws and National Building Codes, and capacity building of the newmunicipal administration.5.3.2 Main Objectives and Purpose of Building CodesThe main objectives of fire safety design of buildings should be: Assurance of life safety, protection of property and continuity of operations orfunctioning Building awareness among the designers for recognition of the type of danger posed byeach component of building and allows him to incorporate effective counter-measures,and To confine a hostile fire to a room or area of its origin.The purpose of the Fire Code is to provide minimum design regulations to safeguard life,property, and public welfare and to minimize injuries by regulating and controlling thedesign, construction, use of new materials as plastics, use and occupancy, location and
  • 43. maintenance of all buildings and structures within the jurisdiction and certain equipmentspecifically regulated herein. This has brought new fire and life safety challenges.5.3.3 Compliance to the Fire Code of NepalThe Fire Safety Code of Nepal (NNBC 107) was introduced in 1994 but not much experiencehas been gained from this code since the code has hardly been practiced and none of thebuilding permits issued so far was subject to the compliance of Fire Safety Code.5.3.4 Major DrawbackThe major drawback of the fire code is that the code was not been integrated into theBuilding Bylaws governing the Building Permit procedures followed by the Municipalitiesand the municipalities have not been institutionally reformed to take over the functionsrelated to Fire Code.5.3.5 Requirement of Fire Safety in Building CodesThe Fire Safety Code of Nepal National Building Code (NNBC 107) has made certain limitedprovisional recommendation on Fire Safety and covers ordinary buildings only. It deals onlywith the minimum requirements of limited provisions of a) Fire Places, b) Fire Extinguishers,c) Storage of Water for Fire Extinguishing, d) Need for demarcation of fire zones, e) GeneralRequirements for Provision of proper access, wide doors, fire escape ways –exit doors, fireescapes for buildings with 5 storeys and higher, fire stairs, Open Space, Access to a Building,provision of Lightning Arresters/Conductors.The Indian codes IS 1641 to IS 1648 have substantial coverage of various issues of FireSafety, but it cannot be considered as comprehensive and adequate for warrantee of FireSefety of Buildings and settlements as a whole. IS 1642-Materials and Construction hasprovided Specification of materials, structural components, and construction type based onthe Fire Resistance Grading ranging from Type 1 (6 hrs) to Type 5(½ hrs). The Indian Codesfurther specified the requirements for consideration of fire hazard form exposure to fire,personal hazard, specific structures related as Chimneys, flues, hearths etc., electricalinstallation. Non-electrical installations, fire fighting equipment, and Fire proof doors.The International Fire Code (IFC) published by International Code Council is much moreintensive and covers wide range of aspects which are not included in Indian Fire Code andNNBC. The structural outline of the IFC is listed in Table 1 in Appendix -11. The majorspecific features not covered by IS and NNBC are a) Administration, b) Emergency Planningand Preparedness, c) Fire Service Features, d) Building Service Features, e) Emergencyaccess gates, f) Tents, Canopy, membrane structures, g) Fire Safety during Construction andDemolition, h) Provision of Water Supply for Fire Fighting, i) Fire Evacuation Planning, andj) Identity of No-parking Fire Lane.The design of important buildings, especially for high rise and special buildings has become acomplex process that requires integrating many skills, products and techniques into itssystem. An intelligent building design is required to cater to various potential emergencysituations. NNBC 107 requires to be updated to the level of international code and needs toaddress the pragmatic conditions existing in the downtown area and new built up areas.
  • 44. A comprehensive comparison of various Fire Safety Codes is carried out and presented inAppendix-11. A brief review of plans and programs including Building Bylaws applied byKVTDC is also provided including the requirement of structural fire engineering,requirement of high rise buildings, Qualification of Fire Protection Services, model outline ofFire Protection Act.5.4 Review of NNBC: 110, 111, 112, 113, 114 (Masonry, PCC, Materials,Construction Safety)5.4.1 NNBC 110: Plain and Reinforced ConcreteThe code is represented as NEPAL AMENDMENTS TO IS 456 – 1978 and specifiesamendment of few terminologies as “ India” to “Nepal” , “Standard” to “Code”, etc.. Sincethe use of this code again requires intensive reference to IS 456, the essence of this code islost and is practically not used.Most of the references in IS 456-1978 to Indian Codes had been left unaltered and it wasstated that any subsequent revisions to IS 456-1978 will not be applicable to NNBC 110-94until specifically recognised and updated.Most important aspect of the code is that it has provided guidance for load combinationwhere Dead Load is treated with a loading factor of 50%. This factor needs to be harmonizedwith NNBC 000 and NNBC 105.The Table 12 provided the values of partial safety factors of various combinations of loads.One more combination DL + 0.9 WL is suggested to be added.When considering earthquake effects, the load combination requires WL to be replaced withEL.The code may include following points when updating: Limit State Method Provision of Two way slab design requirements Provision for cantilever slab (eg slab with 3 side support) Various types of slabs with necessary coefficients αx, αy, βx, βy and provide a table ofvariables. Design example of reinforced concrete structure, detailing of reinforced steel should beshown in NNBC to meet Earthquake Codes Provisions of Pre-stressed Concrete should be included Provisions for Precast Structures should be made.5.4.2 NNBC-111: 1994: SteelThe code comprises Indian Code IS 800-1984 Code of practice for General Construction inSteel (Second Revision) with amendments to ensure compatibility with NNBC 000 and NNBC105 - Seismic Design of Buildings in Nepal. It states that References to Indian material codeswill remain unaltered until such time as appropriate Nepal Standards or codes are developed.Extensive use of the New Zealand Standards NZS 3404: 1977 Code for Design of Steel
  • 45. Structures has been made. The code is specified as NEPAL AMENDMENTS TO IS 800 –1984.The Code applies to general construction in steel and structures such as bridges, cranes, tanks,transmission towers and masts are not considered. Similarly, materials less than 3 mm thickand cold-formed light gauge sections are not considered.The Code has made provisions for Seismic Design that include parameters as Ductile Moment-Resisting Frames and Ductile Braced Framed.Some specific comments to the clauses of the code are provided in Appendix-6.5.4.3 NNBC-112: Timber 1994This Code covers the general principle of design of structural timber and includesspecifications, classification of timber species and nail joint in timber construction.The code is based on Indian Standard IS: 883-1970: Structural Timber in Building” (Thirdrevision) and IS: 2366-1983: Nail-Jointed Timber Construction (First Revision).The Code does not cover anti-termite timber, plywood, and timber pile foundation.The Code could be considered as more comprehensive since it contains data and informationon general characteristics of timber species as durability, basic stress, Moisture Content, sizesof Sawn Timber, Data for Nailed Joints, bolted joints, and Glue Laminated Timber..The Code has made Design Considerations which include additional requirement of capacityfor sustaining the worst combination of all loadings apart from the requirement of IS Code.Some specific comments on the clauses of the code are provided in Appendix-6.5.4.4 NNBC-113: Aluminum 1994The document referred to as a series of guidelines intended only for design of simplealuminum structures. Currently use of Aluminum as a structural material in Nepal is verylimited and a Code has not been prepared. For actual design, the Codes from other countriesshould be referred.The Guidelines include structural properties as Strength, Modulus of Elasticity, Creep,Thermal Expansion and Contraction, Fatigue, Corrosion Protection, Fabrication, Welding,Mechanical Jointing, and Heating.In general it is assumed that the Code requires updating with indication of various propertiesof aluminum with appropriate formula to allow proper design of aluminum structure. The useof Aluminum in structures other than Buildings such as aircraft engineering and lightweightthin shell structures related to Aero dynamical aspects for design consideration should also beincluded. Supplementary examples of design and drawings will be very useful.Some specific comments on the clauses of the code are provided in Appendix-6.
  • 46. 5.4.5 NNBC 114:1994 CONSTRUCTION SAFETYThe purpose of this standard is to provide reasonable degree of safety to construction relatedpersonnel in building and civil construction works. The provisions in this code are theminimum requirements that are to be adopted during building and other civil construction ordemolition work.The Code has made provisions for the health and safety of workers in building constructionand demolition work, fire protection, equipment operation, material handling, trafficmanagement within the construction site, and any use of special materials such as chemicalsand blasting materials.The Code has made specific provisions for Material Handling, First Aid Facility and Health,Fire Fighting, Site Preparation Earthworks in Excavation, Construction of Foundations,Construction of Walls, Construction of Roofs, Electrical Works, Temporary Works,Demolition of Structures, Use of Explosives, and Labour Welfare. Apart from these factors,there are many items which require Safety Consideration and shall be included in the Codes orguidelines.Various international entities directly engaged in the construction have issued ConstructionSafety Manuals as part of their corporate responsibility and is governed by statutory laws, by-laws and Contract Documents and enforced by the appropriate authorities. Some of theimportant aspects covered by those Manuals are guiding principles and core functions of theIntegrated Safety Management System (ISMS).The manuals provide general information on the requirements and procedures for preventionof accidents, safety, loss of control in the construction, operation and maintenance, andservices. The safety objective is to foster a safety environment so that accident freeconstruction is achieved. The Contractors are charged with the responsibility for conductingsafe operations providing protection to all employees, the public, the client’s personnel, and allothers who may come in contact with the project. Safety should be a part of the project. TheManuals contain a) Definition, b) Construction Safety Program, c) Safety Requirements, d)Equipment and vehicle operation, and e)Reporting Procedures.5.5 Review of NNBC: 201, 202, 203, 204, 205 (MRT, Low Strength andEarthen Buildings)5.5.1 GeneralThe main objective of MRT is to provide ready-to-use dimensions and details for variousstructural and non-structural elements for up to three-storey reinforced concrete (RC),framed, ordinary residential buildings commonly being built by owner-builders in Nepal thatinclude a) RCC framed with using brick infill walls, b) load bearing brick masonry, c) lowstrength rural construction and earthen buildings.The Design guidelines presented in the MRT are for ordinary residential buildings with theseismic coefficient of 0.128 (equivalent to seismic Zone C (Terai and North of Himalayas).However, the MRT design is applied in other high seismic zones without any furtherimprovement and beyond the limitations described in the code. The Licensed designers usethese guidelines and designs provided in MRT for any shape, size and height of floors and
  • 47. building. The detailed designs provided are not founded by analysis and not compatible withother codes (Fire Code, Plumbing Code, Electrical Code, Construction methodology, etc.)resulting in smaller size of columns and beams.The details in MRT designs are provided without consideration of construction requirementsfor quality assurance (limitation of concrete placing from less than 1 m, allowingconsolidation of concrete, preventing honey comb in concrete and smaller dia reinforcement(10mm and 12 mm in foundation and columns).This has posed increased safety hazard. However, detailed account of these statements are notdetermined since no detailed data are available and recorded. These designs are in generalhad not been subject to any check for compliance with other codes as Fire Safety Code,Construction Code, Construction Safety Code, Architectural Code, Planning Code, and so on.The recent fire hazards in Nepal are associated with the buildings belonging to MRT categoryand pose a huge risk.It is assumed that the MRT is a kind of design examples prepared for ready to use, based onover design and hence should not be a part of NNBC. Further, it is assumed that a set ofdesign examples should be prepared for ready-to-use purpose that would fulfill therequirement of all applicable codes.The recommendations set forth in this code should be mandatory for all types of LSM to bebuilt throughout Nepal without limitation to public buildings irrespective of where they areto be built in Municipal and urban areas or in rural areas.It will be interesting to collect the data and information on the building construction in recentyears and understand how far the MRT has been meaningfully utilized.5.5.2 NNBC 201: Mandatory Rules Of Thumb - Reinforced Concrete Buildings withMasonry InfillThe practice of using such walls is predominant, but they are treated as non-structural (andhence not accounted for) in the design of the frames and pose a lot of safety hazard whenplaced in ad hoc basis. Hence, the objective of this MRT is to ensure the proper placement ofsuch walls in order to derive positive effects and to achieve economy.The MRT is intended for buildings of regular column-beam type with reinforced concreteslabs for floors and the roof. The MRT presents ready-to-use designs for all structuralcomponents, including detailing of structural as well as non-structural members, for infillframed buildings.5.5.3 NNBC 202: MRT-LOAD BEARING MASONRYThe MRT covers load-bearing masonry buildings meeting prescribed criteria. They do notcover wooden buildings, mud buildings (low-strength buildings), or those constructed inadobe.This MRT is valid (with certain limitations as to span, floor height, etc.) for: i) load-bearingbrick masonry buildings constructed in cement mortars up to three-storeys, ii) load-bearingstone masonry buildings constructed in cement mortar up to two-storeys, and iii) load-bearingbrick masonry buildings constructed in mud mortar up to two-storeys.
  • 48. The MRT for Load Bearing Masonry is assumed to contain several weaknesses that hasinfluence on structural requirements. Some of the examples are as follows: MRT is intended to cater primarily to the requirements of mid-level technicians (overseersand draughtspersons) and hence reference to other codes shall be eliminated since they don’thave access to these codes. MRT shall be made independent and all required details shall beprovided. The recommended minimum wall thickness of 230 mm is practically not followed since thesizes of the bricks used in such construction have large variations and practically fallsbeyond the tolerance limits, and one side of masonry walls could not be constructed toplumb line. Hence, these walls could not be considered in terms of compliance to structuralsafety requirement. The nomenclature used in this section as two storeys and three storeys are not correct. Sincethe stair case part is not included which actually, in terms of structural configuration, addsup to additional floor. So actually, two storeys Buildings are only one storey buildings andso on. In the Scope, it was mentioned that “the MRT does not cover wooden buildings, mudbuildings (low-strength buildings), or those constructed in adobe. No attempt should bemade to apply these rules to these latter buildings”, but the load bearing masonry in mudmortar is included in the design examples. The definition of “adobe” construction should beprovided and some consistency should be observed. The load bearing masonry in mudmortar should be taken to NNBC 203. The local size of bricks used in practice are not considered and the size of bricks used arenot consistent The indication of engineering properties of materials and masonry or mortar as cube strengthin MRT has “Less Sense” since MRT is made for non- engineered buildings without takingcare of quality assurance requirements, and dealt by inspectors and non-professional personsat site. They do not warrantee the safety envisaged by the Code. . No buildings categorized into “Important Buildings” should be allowed to design based onMRT since these buildings falls outside the limitations of MRT. Masonry Bonds shall be described in full details. The requirements of opening in walls are not checked properly by the Designers and theauthorities in Building Permit Section of Municipalities. The Reinforcement provision around the opening is impractical. A toothed joint shown in Fig 7.3 is wrong since the joint shall be made at corners at astepped configuration and not vertical. The introduction of horizontal reinforcement at several locations within the height of wallsis the best part of the code. The reinforcement Fe 550 for these small buildings of one or two storey buildings may notbe required in view of economy.5.5.4 NNBC 203: 1994 - Guidelines For Earthquake Resistant Building Construction:Low Strength MasonryThe MRT is prepared as the Guidelines for Earthquake Resistant Building Construction ofLow Strength Masonry (LSM). This is intended to be implemented by the owner/ builder withsome assistance from technicians.There are some points that need to be considered in updating of the Code. They are:
  • 49.  The attic floor in general is not taken as structural element and not taken into account instorey calculation. This is confusing and need to be elaborated. The provision of vertical reinforcement disturbs the masonry bond and in general createsweak zone The vertical reinforcement requires corrosion resistant treatment The need for provision of Diagonal Bracings is complicated and cannot be constructedproperly Bonding design and illustration should be provided. Other bonding not mentioned in thecode shall be permitted. The wall thickness of 300 mm (Clause 2.7) for stone and brick masonry is not consistent. The mix component of cement concrete shall indicate the water cement ratio as fourthcomponent (1:2:4:0.5), 0.5 being the water cement ratio. The use of Bamboo post at the centre of a wall is complicated and disturbs the masonrystructure and serves no purpose since it is not bonded with the masonry (Fig 6.1) Use of vertical steel around the opening is very complicated and practically not used (Fig10.1). The use of horizontal bands should be included. The provision in the Code for Fire Retardant Treatment of Bamboo, Timber and Thatch isthe best part of the code.5.5.5 NNBC 204: 1994 - Guidelines For Earthquake Resistant Building Construction:Earthen Building (EB)This guideline is prepared in order to raise the seismic safety of earthen buildings. This isintended to be implemented by the owner/builder with some assistance from technicians.Other comments referred above in NNBC 204-MRT are valid for this Code as well.5.5.6 NNBC 205: 1994 - MRT Reinforced Concrete Buildings without Masonry InfillThe MRT is intended for buildings of the regular column-beam type with reinforced concreteslabs for floors and the roof without any contribution of masonry infill walls in resisting thevertical or seismic loads. The frames are designed to resist earthquake forces as a bare frame.The MRT presents ready-to-use designs for all structural components, including detailing ofstructural as well as non-structural members for the specified building type.Some of the important aspects that need to be addressed are described herewith: The Code requires reviewing since in practice there are no buildings without infill walls. The design recommendations need to be reviewed in terms of possibility for maintainingQuality assurance requirements as consolidation of concrete, prevention of fragmentationof concrete ingredients, prevention of honey comb in concrete, maintenance of ratiocement ratio in concrete, The column size of 250 mm with orthogonal and diagonal stirrups and hooks do notallow any space for consolidation of concrete mass, The foundation pad with sloping top surfacing cannot be compacted The use of 10 mm and 12 mm bar in foundation and columns are not acceptable in viewof possibility of corrosion of steel in due course of time The provisions in this MRT for construction of infill wall are not different than that ofMRT with Infill Walls. The provision of Infill Walls in anyway does not make itpractically different from each other.
  • 50. 5.6 Review of NNBC 206: 2003 - Architectural Design Requirements5.6.1 GeneralThe Building by-laws for Greater Kathmandu Valley, prepared by Kathmandu Valley TownDevelopment Committee and NNBC 206: 2003 Architectural Design Requirements are thebasis for the recommendation to update the Architectural Design Code.The updated version of the existing code NNBC 206: 2003 Architectural DesignRequirements will serve the purpose of guiding the building designers and planners to fulfilltheir responsibilities of creating built environment that will be safe, healthy and beneficial tothe community as a whole.The code will not contradict the innovativeness and creativeness of the designer and theplanner. This will be the logical conclusion of the contents of the code, as it spells out theminimum requirements in the design of buildings and the surrounding in serving theobjective of the code.After much deliberation at different stages, the consultant did not receive any essentialcriticism or recommendation for change in the present documents, exclusion of neighborhoodplanning related articles and conservative approach in FAR values were, however, spelledout.As the elements of Zoning Regulation will not form the part of this code, therecommendations for updating of the code based on the above and certain new elements areprovided in more details in Appendix-9 to be considered while updating the existing NNBC206: 2003 Architectural Design Requirements.A building by itself cannot guarantee fulfillment the objective of a code. The building standsin a space of multiple of such objects. Therefore, certain aspects of neighborhood planningneeds to be included which are absent in the existing NNBC 206: 2003 Architectural DesignRequirements.Similarly, the code has implicitly relied heavily on Building by-laws. It should have been theother way round. The updated code is suggested to be the guide in preparing the by-laws. Theother aspect to be mentioned is the non-consideration of high rise buildings, which has to betaken into account in the new code.5.6.2 High Rise BuildingsThe above item wise recommendations will be applied to high rise buildings separatelyincluding the separating distance between high rise structures.The aspects of i) Light, ii) ventilation and iii) emergency exit (smokeless stairs) will bespecified for high rise buildings separately. The rest will be treated in the general designrequirement part of the code.5.6.3 Other aspectsAmple sketches and drawings will be included interpreting the articles wherever applicable.Definition of different parts of building which will be mentioned in the code needs to beclearly given in the new code.
  • 51. 5.7 Review of NNBC 207: 2003- Electrical CodeThe code generally referred to the Nepal Electricity Authority and makes the fundamental onElectricity Act 2049 and Electricity Regulations 2050 and general requirement of ElectricitySupply Authority which is very authentic. But again reference to Indian Codes makes itredundant and the use of NNBC becomes limited.The Code while had made trial to recommend the certain aspects of planning, it does notinclude the basic design aspects as Type of occupancy, type of supply required (voltage,phases and frequency level), Load Demand, atmospheric condition, degree of protection(Earthing, insulation), future increase of load, energy consumption and conservationrequirement, continuity of supply, need for suppression of radio and telecommunicationinterference; maintenance and safety aspects and comparison of costs of various alternativevariants.There are several important aspects which required to be addressed in the code. Appendix-10have provided certain description of short comings and provided facts and figures which maybe helpful for future code development.5.8 Review of NNBC 208: 1994 - Plumbing and SanitationThe code in general covers following main topics and deals with the internal requirementswithin a building or premise: Water Supply Waste Water Disposal Rain Water Disposal5.8.1 Water SupplyThe water supply section has generally covered: a) Water Supply Requirements forBuildings, b) Water Storage (General Water Storage Tanks, Underground Storage, OverheadStorage, c) Distribution System and Pipe Work, d) Fire Fighting Provision (Hydrant System).The code does not make provision for change of water demand based on the geographicregion and sub-climatic conditions, occupation, type of institution, and conditions of citysupply, sources of supply. The code also does not cover other important aspects as alternativesources of water supply, water reuse, water recycling and water conservation which iscommon in the place of water scarcity.The need for a systematic approach towards development of code is very essential and itprovides guideline for proper development of the code. In absence of the proper outlinestructure, the code has lost basic important aspects as water quality, water pollution control,control of leakage, safety (access to water storage by children, electrical safety, equipmentsand pumping systems). Several fatal accidents observed in relation to water pumping cannotbe ignored.5.8.2 Waste Water DisposalThe Section of NNBC comprises of scope describing various types of collection system(Single pipe, two pipes), methods of prevention of vermin and foul smells entering thebuilding. This code does not work, since there not a single building in Nepal which prevent
  • 52. foul smell of toilet and all rivers are polluted with waste water and has created hugeenvironmental damage. There is need for thorough review of this code.The code mentions about adequate sizing and slopes and other parameters required for properdesign of waste water system, but no particular data provided which is required to becomplied with. A proper table of minimum design parameters would be useful.The need for ventilation of pipe system and extending the vent pipes to roof levels isindicated but the need for ventilation of indoor space is not mentioned.The demand table for waste water appurtenance is well covered in various tables.5.8.3 Rain Water DisposalThe Scope of Rain water disposal comprises of need for rain water collection from roofs andbalconies and disposal through a gutter system. Free fall of rain water from roofs is notallowed for building above one storey. However, it shall be noted that this code is not used inpractice and is not effective.The code mentions about the need for disposal of storm water system but does not preciselydiscuss about the possibilities of connection to sewerage system or storm water drainagesystem or open disposal to street drains and public spaces. This aspect needs to be dealt inmore precise manner.The slope suggested for rain water drainage from various surfaces is considered inadequateand needs reconsideration.The restriction to connect the rain water pipe with a sewer is not practical since the sewagesystem in most part of the cities is based on combined (Sewage and Rain Water or Stormwater) system. Either a categorization or zoning of storm water drainage shall be introduced.In general, the following issues shall be taken into focus for updating of this code: Rationalization of definitions, and inclusions of more terms and terminology. Include first design parameters such as minimum flow through taps, residual head,minimum slope, minimum cover etc Include friction head loss diagram in form of nomograph, tables and appropriateequation. Make provisions related to domestic hot water supply installation Make provisions related to water supply and sanitation in high altitude and sub-zerotemperature regions of the country, Include inspection, testing maintenance requirement. Include sizing of rain water pipes for roof drainage in more rational basis, andtechniques for rainwater harvesting, Protection of joints between pipelines and structures for prevention of joint leakage ofrain water and other surface water Protection of pipelines from potential damages (corrosion, mechanical damage,chemical attack, fire) Requirement of refuse chute, if any
  • 53. A brief comparison of NNBC has been made with Water Treatment Hand Book: Degremont– 1979. The findings and inferences, problems and issues derived during study are writtenin commentary and suggestion form with articles related in the NNBC publication. All theseissues and problems are to be considered and shall be adopted in future in the revised code.Appendix-11 has included various data and information that would be useful for updatingthe code.6 ConclusionCode Structure, Nepal Standards and Family of CodesThere is a gross confusion about the hierarchy and priority of documents in relation to Act,Bylaws, Codes (NNBC), Standards (NS), and Directives (PWD), Specifications, ManualsInstructions and administrative circulars. This aspect needs to be clarified and cleardemarcation and definition is required.Institutional Arrangements for Implementation of NNBCThere is no single institution responsible for all earthquake related matters in Nepal.DUDBC has taken initiatives in drafting the NNBC, drafting Building Act andRegulations. But there are various institutions and agencies that are responsible for variousearthquake related matters, and the coordination among them is practically not provided.For this reason, the issues related to NNBC remain unattended and keeps waiting for aparticular project to start.MRT not to be a part of NNBCStrong voices were noted for treating MRT as non-Code document since it is just anexample of design of various types of buildings and details following the provisions ofNNBC. This document is incomplete and do not include the requirements of other codes asFire Code, Plumbing Code, Environmental Code etc. The quality assurance andconstruction complexities are not considered. Lalitpur Municipality from the very day ofapplication of NNBC adopted certain changes in MRT. This document should bedeveloped as model examples that fulfill the requirement of all codes and should be servedas guide for proper design and shall not be a part of the Building Code.Lessons Learned from Municipality ExperienceLalitpur and Kathmandu Municipalities have had accumulated very important experienceof implementation of Building Codes along with the grant of Building Permit process andinspection of Building Construction. But in absence of comprehensive reports on BuildingPermit process and Building inspection, no meaningful lessons could be derived.The information and data from other municipalities, DDC and VDC are rarely available.Reforms in Building Act and Building BylawsCurrent practice has indicated that in Nepal where construction inspection falls within thejurisdiction of local authority, the only way to successful implementation is to introducecode compliance requirement in the Building Bylaws adopted by Municipalities, andsubsequently by DDC and VDC.The Building Act requires to be amended to include the mandate of DDC and VDC tocomply with the requirements of NNBC (including whole family of codes).
  • 54. Application of Bylaws in VDCMost of the areas in country side and rural areas are not covered by Building Act andBuilding Bylaws making the rural areas more vulnerable for construction safety andremain vulnerable to the earthquake hazard. This loop hole in Building Act has promptedmany builders and owners to shift to VDC areas for construction for avoiding the need forobtaining Building Permits and avoiding application of NNBC. This provision hasdefeated the purpose of NNBC in general.Effect of neighborhood safety and Architectural Design RequirementThe important aspects of urban development as conservation of historic buildings,aesthetics and context of urban area development affecting the neighborhood safety aremissing which has a huge toll on the urban safety. The building permit process does notconsider the effect of neighborhood safety including historic buildings and World HeritageSites or Preservation areas. Similarly, the relationship between Architectural DesignRequirement, neighborhood planning and zoning requirements had not been co-related witheach other. This weakness is inherited in the haphazard urban development.Change of occupancyThere are several occasions of change of occupancy category of the buildings that threatenthe safety of life and property. Recently, several of hotel buildings have changedoccupancy to supermarkets and office buildings. The residential buildings are easily usedfor accommodating schools, warehouses, and offices. The safety of Such Buildings is inquestion. The municipalities and Government authorities are not in position to monitor andverify the safety of such buildings.High Rise BuildingsThe requirement of high rise buildings in terms of overall safety is different than that oflow rise buildings. The quality of materials and reliability of technology is much stringentand operation and maintenance of the service require higher degree for reliability. Therequirements for high rise buildings are not included in Building Bylaws and BuildingCodes.Abolishing MRTMRT is widely used document and if properly developed could be a good instrument toenhance the earthquake safety of the municipalities and rural areas. But, since MRT assuch is not complete, does not comply with requirement of various other codes and grosslymisused by the licensed designers of municipalities, it should be considered for abolishingand replaced with good example of standarised design of typical building.7 RecommendationDrafting of NNBC – a commendable jobThe drafting of NNBC and adoption by the government was a marvelous milestone in thehistory of Engineering and Nation Building. The Department of Urban Development andBuilding Construction, UNDP and UNCHR deserve high commendation including thoseinstitutions and organizations involved in preparation of the Codes (NNBC) and Standards(NS).Delays in Implementation of NNBCThe Codes (NNBC) was much delayed in implementation but it got its pace with theinitiatives of Lalitpur Sub-Metroplotan City for implementation of NNBC in their Building
  • 55. Permit Process in Jan 2003 and followed by Kathmandu Metropolitan City since Jan 2005.The implementation of NNBC, and particularly the Earthquake Safety issues, is still verydifficult since this aspect is still not institutionalized and no specific institution has beencreated who will be dedicated for Code Development and Implementation. No particularinstrument has been identified for implementation of the Code.Need for Nepal Code CouncilThere is a dire need for establishing Nepal Code Council that will address the developmentissues of Codes and their implementation. The Council needs to take care of theimplementation and legal issues, providing encouragement to the stakeholders, recordoccurrence of events, providing training to the professionals and designers, and buildingawareness of the stakeholders, regularly updating the Building Codes, conductingconsultation meetings and conferences. The Council also would be interested to developpartnership with private and public sectors to develop various codes.Family of CodesNNBC is a collection of individual codes which are not complete in itself. For this reason,the effect of implementation of NNBC was not felt effective. This is evident from thequality of construction in the society. May be it would be more effective when compiledinto a unified code that takes into account the family of various other codes as UrbanPlanning Code, Fire code, Disability Accessibility Code, Environmental Code, PlumbingCode, Electrical Code, Construction Code, Construction Safety Code etc includingprovision for adoption of administrative procedures for implementation.Reference CodesMost of the codes are developed by the institutions that are involved in primary research ormanufacturing products or services. Many of professional associations are the originatorsof the Codes. It is fundamental that these institutions and entities are included as referencecodes and allowed to refer as National Building Codes with full responsibility vested onthe Designers and the owners.Examples of Model DesignsIn order to enhance the application of the Building Code in a proper manner and making itmore popular, it would be imperative to prepare certain examples of Model Designs thatcould be followed by young generation and professionals and replicate the algorithm ofcompliance of Building Code requirements.Outsourcing Municipality ResponsibilityIt is obvious that the municipality authorities have limited capacity to check and monitorthe compliance with Family of Building Codes. For this reason, the Building By-laws andMunicipality Regulations should make provisions for outsourcing the municipalityresponsibility for monitoring the design and construction inspection activities andinvolving panel of experts as and when required.Audit of Procedures of Implementation of NNBC by MunicipalitiesThe Implementation of Building Codes by Municipalities is limited within the municipalityand no lessons are derived that would helps to improve the implementation procedures ofthe Codes and help to update them. For this reason, it would be essential to audit theBuilding Permit Process including implementation of Building Codes.
  • 56. Mandatory Application of Bylaws through out the countryThe need for enhancing the earthquake safety is fundamental. This calls for coordinatingthe simultaneous application of Building Bylaws and Building Code togethercomprehensively providing warrantee for compliance of Building Codes through out thecountry without limitation. This would require amendment to the Building Act andBylaws.Various Other IssuesThere are several issues that required to be addressed. They are related to skill andcapability of Human Resource as trained professionals, skilled labor and monitoringauthorities, method of handling of construction materials, quality of materials andequipment, specification of materials and workmanship, method of informationdissemination including acceptable manner of advertisement, education and licensing,intellectual ownership of designs and many other aspects described above in variouschapters.Priority of Updating NNBCThe priority of updating the Nepal National Building Codes could be listed as follows:Priority 1- Abolishing MRT as a part of Building Code and substituting with GoodExamples of Standardized Design of Typical Building that are popularlyconstructed in urban and rural areas. If some one adopts the typical designwithout change, the process of Building Permit Grant could be simplify andlimit to the verification of ownership and provision of Building bylaws.Priority 2- Identification of the gaps in the Code Structure including priority of BuildingAct, Building Byelaws, Standards, Specification, Manuals, Directives,Instructions,Priority 3- Adopt the International Building Code with suitable amendments whereverrequired. (Part 1: General and Part-2: Specific Changes pertinent to theCountry)Priority 4- Introduce new codes that are not covered by IBC and codes specific to thecountry and locality including Family of Codes described in Chapter 3.5above.Priority 5- Prepare Commentaries, guidelines, directives, Illustrations (MRT) andTraining Manuals shall be developed in order to enhance the effectiveness ofthe updated Codes.The End
  • 57. Appendix-1: List of NNBCAppendix-2: Check list of activities for the studyAppendix-3: Interaction with Target Groups and National WorkshopAppendix-4: Review of NNBC: 000, 105 (State of Art, Seismic Design)Appendix-5: Review of NNBC 101, 102, 103, 104, 106, 108, 109 (Loads,Occupancy, Site Consideration)Appendix-6: Review of NNBC: 110, 111, 112, 113, 114, (Materials)Appendix-7: Review of NNBC: 107 (Fire Code)Appendix-8: Review of NNBC: 201, 202, 203, 204 and 205 (MRT)Appendix-9: Review of NNBC: 206 (Architectural Code)Appendix-10: Review of NNBC: 207 (Electrical Code)Appendix-11: Review of NNBC: 208 (Water Supply and Sanitation)Reference Materials NNBC 000: 1994 to NNBC 205:1994, Nepal National Building Code Requirements, HMG ofNepal, Ministry of Physical Planning and Works, DUDBC, Kathmandu, Nepal, 2050. NNBC 206: 203 to NNBC 208:2003, Nepal National Building Code Requirements, GON ofNepal, Ministry of Physical Planning and Works, DUDBC, Kathmandu, Nepal, 2062. IBC 2006 International Building Code, International Code Council, USA. IS 13920: 1993 Indian Standard Code of Practice for Ductile Detailing of Reinforced ConcreteStructures subjected to Seismic Forces, Bureau of Indian Standards, New Delhi, India. IS 1893 : (Part 1) 2002 Indian Standard Criteria for Earthquake Resistant Design of StructuresPart 1 General Provisions and Buildings (Fifth Revision), Bureau of Indian Standards, NewDelhi, India. IS 1893: 1984 Indian Standard Criteria for Earthquake Resistant Design of Structures, Bureauof Indian Standards, New Delhi, India. IS 4326: 1993 Indian Standard Code of Practice for Earthquake Resistant Design andConstruction of Buildings, Bureau of Indian Standards, New Delhi, India. IS 456: 1978 Indian Standard Code of Practice for Plain and Reinforced Concrete, IndianStandards Institution, New Delhi, India. IS 800: 1984 Indian Standard Code of Practice for General Construction in Steel, Bureau ofIndian Standards, New Delhi, India. NEHRP 2003 Recommended Provisions for the Development of Seismic Regulations for NewBuildings, Building Seismic Safety Council, Federal Emergency Management Agency, USA. ACI 530-02/ASCE 5-02/TMS 402-02, (2002), Building Code Requirements for MasonryStructures, Masonry Standards Joint Committee, USA. ACI 530-99/ASCE 5-99/TMS 402-99, (1999), Building Code Requirements forMasonryStructures, Masonry Standards Joint Committee, USA. BS 5628: Part 1, (1978), Code of practice for structural use of masonry, Part 1 Unreinforcedmasonry, British Standards Institution Eurocode 6, (1996), Design of Masonry Structures – Part 1-1: General rules for buildings –Rules for Reinforced and Unreinforced Masonry, European Committee for Standardization,Brussels.
  • 58.  Review of Design Codes for Masonry Buildings IITK-GSDMA-EQ10-V1.0 15 IS:1905-1987, (1987), Indian Standard Code of Practice for Structural Use of UnreinforcedMasonry, Bureau of Indian Standards, New Delhi. NZS 4230 Parts 1 & 2: 1990, (1990), Code of Practice for the Design of Concrete MasonryStructures and Commentary, Standards Association of New Zealand, Wellington, NewZealand. National Building Code of Canada IS:875(Part 4)- Snow load SP 20(S & T): 1991, (1991), Handbook on Masonry Design and Construction, Bureau ofIndian Standards, New Delhi. NNBC 109:1994, Nepal National Building Code, Masonry: Unreinforced BS 5628: Part 1, (1978), Code of practice for structural use of masonry, Part 1 Unreinforcedmasonry, British Standards Institution Eurocode 6, (1996), Design of Masonry Structures – Part 1-1: General rules for buildings –Rules for Reinforced and Unreinforced Masonry, Europea Committee for Standardization,Brussels. Review of Design Codes for Masonry Buildings IITK-GSDMA-EQ10-V1.0 15 Engineering, New Zealand, Paper No. 1790. Recently Modified Articles –Law and Database of ROC. Schneider Electric – Electrical Installation Guide-2009. National rules for Electrical Installations, Third Edition, Amendment No.1, Electro-TechnicalCouncil of Ireland Ltd,2001. National Electrical Code 2005, -Building code for the Village of Tinley Park, Cook .. North Dakota State Electrical Board, Laws, Rules and Wiring Standards of North Dakota. Distribution Code-Regulatory Framework of the Pakistan Distribution Electric Supply System. Nepal Electricity Regulation 2050 (1993), H.M.G., Nepal Nepal Electricity Act, 2049 Royal Seal: 17 December,1992 (2049/9/2) National Building Code Part VIII Building Service Section 2 Electrical Installation, Bureau ofIndian Standard. Fire protection and prevention act, 1997 Review of Fire Codes and Byelaws By G.B.Menon, Fire Adviser, Govt. of India {Retd.}Cochin Ex-Chairman CED-22 Fire Fighting Sectional Committee Bureau of Indian Standards.And J.N.Vakil, Asst.General Manager{Retd}, TAC/GIC, Ahmedabad Ex-Chairman CED-36Fire Safety Sectional Committee Bureau of Indian Standards. DEV KUMAR SUNUWAR , City fuel stations vulnerable to fire hazard
  • 59. List of NNBCAppendix-1:Nepal National Building Code Nepal StandardVol Code Title Page Standards Page1 NNBC000:1994Requirements for State-of-the-art Design 1-10 NS 504 1-192 NNBC101:1994Materials Specifications 1-37 NS 505 1-393 NNBC102:1994Unit Weight of Materials 1-1 NS 506 1-524 NNBC103:1994Occupancy Load 1-1 NS 507 1-255 NNBC104:1994Wind Load 1-4 NS 508 1-306 NNBC105:1994Seismic Design of Buildings in Nepal 1-26 NS 514 –EarthquakeResistant1-7 NNBC106:1994Snow Load 1-48 NNBC107:1994Fire Safety 1-4 NS 509 1-69 NNBC108:1994Site Consideration 1-12 NS 510 1-1010 NNBC109:1994Masonry: Unreinforced 1-37 NS 512 1-3811 NNBC110:1994Plain and Reinforced Concrete 1-4 NS 511 1-13912 NNBC111:1994Steel 1-813 NNBC112:1994Timber 1-1814 NNBC113:1994Aluminum 1-415 NNBC114:1994Construction Safety 1-916 NNBC201:1994Mandatory Rules of Thumb ReinforcedConcrete Buildings with Masonry Infill1-40 NS 1-4817 NNBC202:1994Mandatory Rules of Thumb Load BearingMasonry1-49 NS 517 1-5118 NNBC203:1994Guidelines for Earthquake Resistant BuildingConstruction: Low Strength Masonry1-54 NS 514 1-6919 NNBC204:1994Guidelines for Earthquake Resistant BuildingConstruction: Earthen Building (EB)1-42 NS 515 1-6020 NNBC205:1994Mandatory Rules of Thumb ReinforcedConcrete Buildings without Masonry Infill1-29 NS 1-3621 NNBC206:2003Architectural Design Requirements 1-922 NNBC207:2003Electrical Design Requirements For (PublicBuildings)1-1823 NNBC208:2003Sanitary And Plumbing Design Requirements 1-39
  • 60. Appendix-2: Check list of activities for the study• Collect Building Codes (NNBC, FEMA, IBC, AIJ, Eurocode, Chinese Code, NewZealand Code PWD)• Collect WHO Standard doe Sanitation Water Supply and Waste water Disposal• Collection and Study of data, information and documentation on building codeimplementation for government buildings by DUDBC• Collection and Study of data, information and documentation on building codeimplementation in municipalities;• Study of relevant codes by each team members and making notes• Summarise notes on study of codes• Categories the problems and issues• identify target group for interaction• invitation for participation in interaction program• Interaction with the users of the Codes as licensed designers of municipalities,professional consultants involved in the Earthquake engineering, municipal andgovernment authorities, professional organizations;• prepare questionnaires, check list for interaction and discussion materials• identify venue and time of following interaction sequences:• Initial Introductory Interaction• Interim Interaction• Draft report presentation• Prepare proposals for change in each NNBC codes• Review Building Permit process KMC, LSMC• Categorisation of Buildings – High, Medium and Low rise buildings• Preparation of Recommendation for update of NNBC with detail information onamendments, revisions, alterations to be made.• Formulate Code Structure
  • 61. Appendix-3: Interaction with Target Groups and National WorkshopGroup 1: ERRRP/UNDPGroup 2: DUDBC, SCAEF, NEA, SEANEP, NSET, SEEN, SOPHEN, SOMEN, FCAN, FNCCI,Group 3: LSMC and Licensed DesignersGroup 4: KMC and Licensed DesignersNational WorkshopNotes on the InteractionDec 28, 2008: Interaction with ERRRP/DUDBC (Group 1)The Initial Interaction with the National Program Coordinator Er Amrit Man Tuladhar and ErNiyam Maharjan, ERRRP covered following points:Attention is drawn on NNBC 205:MRT which iswidely used by the municipality designers andrural constructionThe Safety factors, Importance factors, Responsespectra recommended in NNBC have been aconcern for many professionals and experts whohave considered the factors as inadequatecompared to the outcome of other codesSeveral designers and specially Lalitpur Sub-Metropolitan City has recommended for changingthe NNBC recommended minimum size ofcolumn of 9”x9” to 9”x12”, and changing theconcrete grade from M15 to M20 or higher.
  • 62. Feb. 5, 2009: Interaction with Institutional Stakeholders (Group 2)IntroductionFormal Consultation with Stakeholders for sharing experience of implementation of NBCBriefing on Update Needs on NNBCInception Report on Dec. 31 – No CommentsCriticism on NBCAdequacy of Code Provision/ Guidelines/ Manual/ Specification – Construction PracticeObjectives of Updating of NBCUser friendlySafety AssurancesConfidenceWhat updating required in NBCCode structure – Hierarchy of ProvisionsAdditional Codes – International Codes have 16 various codes includedReasons for Using NBCConfidence: IRC, ISDemand for NBC is not feltMaintaining safety, Image, - make complete codeAccepted Codes (IS, BS, ASTM)Format of CodeIndividual codeCompiled code/ unified codestandards & building codes relationAdaptation of other codes/ IS code and otheruse of materials not mentioned in NBCProfessional and Administrative consistency of NBC and standardsImplementation of CodesInteraction with NBSM – standards making procedure – updating needsDUDBC is member of NBSMRegulation for implementation, and practicing is in messDesign is considered, but construction practices not mentionedControlling QualityApplicability of materials: TMT Fe 500 or TOR Fe 415 specification of parameters – strengthcharacteristics – elongation/ strengthPrefab materialsConstruction is mess: quality regulation not in placemonitoring value is getting less/ haphazard constructionUrgent mattersProduct dominant market/ Ad base marketMonitoring of AdMechanism for addressing Technical issues is lackingIntellectual property (limited)Mechanism to invite participation of masons, stakeholders, owners,info dissemination to massSupervision: maternal/ manpower monitoring is lackingSafety of public during material handlingElectrical SafetyRole of inspectors – NEA supplies, operationsElectrical hazards: standards of appliances – efficiency, economyDumping site for CFL luminaries – proven factors
  • 63. Miscellaneous mattersApplication of Water Supply, Sanitation, Electrification, Fire codes:More interactions required at institutional levelPlanning, aesthetics, architecture issues are missingCommunication, gas supply, Cement supply, storageArchitects dictate shape of structure –ductility of structure and building configuration;Old structure occupancy – change in occupancyIrregularity of shape in plan/ elevation/Old & new structure – existing stock/ heritage/ monumental/ Economy/Rules made for misbehavior to peopleMarket domination approachBuilding bylawsdo not include several disciplines:o health & hygiene;o Supermarket, high rise building, basement –o market forces dominate development: it has consequenceso Safety of neighborhood:o Nachgharo USAIDo Kathmandu District Courto Abandoned houses,o Hunting dangerous buildingo Bridge/ specific structure/ water towers, electrical towerso Hoarding board, FM tower, mobile tower,o Building permit for certain time, renewal of building permitConstruction Safetyformwork,AuditInsulation –Problem, complain by layman,Capacity of personnel, qualificationCertification of designer, contractor, ownerEducationUse of Code in Education/ Code based educationPanel review,Awareness – colleges are good venueInclude NBC education in collegesPurbanchal University; ME in EE in Khwopa Engineering CollegeAwareness of studentsNBC projects!Comments on NNBCNBC should include all aspects including innovativeMRT – Use by L, K & Dharan: 201, 202, 205 (1000 sq.ft. 3 floor)Driving force for executionNBC under Building Act; MRT should not be under NBCCommentary on all clauses of NBC
  • 64. Feb. 9, 2009; Interaction with Licensed Designers in LSMC (Group 3)Application of NNBC in LSMC from 2003o Effective implementation of NNBC as pilot case;o A lot of technology has been developed and need for updating NNBC is felt;o interaction with practitionerso Sharing the experience;o Initial exposure in use of NNBC; a lot of changes from 1994;o Need for Revision of NNBCMost of international codes are revised every 3 years based on technological achievements;High rise buildings are new things – materials changed,Building permit processUpgrading drawbacks;Historic/ monumental buildings, fire, sanitation, electrical safety, planning, environmentalcodes are not included;Design and construction differs (Residential Buildings, 2½ & 3½ storey designs)Standarisation of designs and consideration: client’s needs to be addressedInstruction of Department of Archeology not consideredLack of Proper Standard of detailsTie/ details: infill wall & frame TieDachi Apa – Decorative layer – Safety IssuesThink over before tying of frame with infill wallTie only may not be enough; projection, parapet wall, sunshade may not be dangerous;Prevention of structural collapse/ design consideration may be requiredLack of Awareness among contractors and laborDesigners + contractors: Joint design finalizationLicensing of contractors/ Owners to certify for safetyInvestment shall be based on available resources:Safety during constructionSafety of Glazed Façade, Granite facing and Anchorage, Architectural CodeHeating/ sound insulation/ indoor ventilationEnvironmental hazard;Lack of Design analysisSoil bearing capacity – location selection, bearing capacityMRT shall be abolished;MRT is limited to 4.5 m. and 2 storeys, but applied for other buildings under coverage ofMRTTypical designs – to be provided;NBC is not practically used- Application is difficult in various municipalitiesNBC to consider- Worse case of load combination- Load factors are low- Lateral earth pressure in basement- Load distribution for high rise and low rise- Top flow load? Flip effect- Time period < 0.1 N- Load distribution of non-orthogonal plan- Load reduction provision- Concrete quality: base shear;- Settlement, deformation, strength, crack opening- Tall buildings, shear wall- Static and dynamic analysis
  • 65. - Retrofitting by laws / codes- Repair and maintenance of old existing buildings/ code- Disaster mitigation – building stock inventoryElectrical Safety- Details for electrical wiring and safety of structureFire Safety to be Considered- Fire in Ostankin tower of MoscowOwnership of Design and Jurisdiction- Mayer’s bridge in Switzerland- Austria border: authors are designer, General contractorand Formwork Contractor- Whatever may be written, jurisdiction of designer is important- Codes with communityNNBC has not considered the requirements of sector asNew high rise apartment buildingsOccupancy Change from Hotel Building to Super marketsInstitutional Arrangement for Continuity of follow up for upgrading NNBCCollection of Thesis works of Master’s Degree from various institutesReview Material Quality requirementsQuality management requirement of ConstructionA number of Articles, comments and recommendation collected by ERRRP was also shared.The list of materials received was included in References.
  • 66. Feb. 27, 2009; Interaction with Licensed Designers in KMC (Group 4)Venue: United World Trade Centre, KathmanduAn interaction was held on Nepal National Building Code 2004 (amendments and update). Theconversation was chaired by Mr. Bimal Risal, Chief, Urban Development Department, KMC.After a short welcome speech by the chairperson, the floor was opened for the technicaldiscussion. Following issues were raised and discussed.Following the municipality building permit process for the design of buildings above six floors, itis mandatory to submit the design parameters (whether conducted for seismic design or not)following NNBC. The buildings with less than six floor, no design paprameters required to besubmitted.Mr. Ram Chandra Kandel from NSET stressed that MRT is a part of the code and it is required toprovide more Technical details of building with various types details. Dr. PN Maskey clarifiedthat MRT should not be part of the code while it ccould be developed as guideline handbook fornon-engineered building construction.As the present code lacks many technical aspects of design and implementation, the floor advisedto include as follows:• Planning code shall specify the Minimum size of stair case and safety.• Building for low income group• Code for Quality control and• Code of Ethics of Professionals, and Labor.Apart from above technical discussing, Mr. Devendra Dongol, The Technical chief, KMChighlighted the irrelevant building bye-laws which also require reviewing and updating. Heproposed that the code of building bye-laws should work in conjunction with each other and theconflict should not exist between these two. However, the Consultant proposed that the Codeshould be a part of bye-laws. And when bye-laws are to be made, no clause should supersede theclauses of the code.The content of the questionnaire for design parameter in Building permit process require revision(specially, on the seismic assessment) in Kathmandu Municipality.
  • 67. National Workshop, June 29, 2009 (2066-3-15) organised by ERRRP/DUDBCThe Workshop was organized by DUDBC with participation of DUDBC staff, UNDPrepresentatives, and representatives from SEANEP, EOI and others. Altogether there were 47participants.Most important photo documentation is presented herewith.The Comments and Suggestions obtained during the workshop and through the emails arerecorded as follows. The workshop also has had made audio record of the proceedings of theWorkshop. The comments are as follows:1. Code should include a Mechanism for regular updating of the Codes.2. The Report on Recommendation for updating of NBC includes codes as "Suitable/ Adequate"which shall be more specific.
  • 68. 3. Building Code and Building Bylaws are two different documents and any confusion shall beeliminated through additional studies.4. Commentary Report NBC on is available. The revision of code shall consider thecommentary as well.5. NBC 000 - The International State of Art should include the Own National State of ArtBuilding of the country.6. Acceleration value in NBC 105 needs review7. In the current context, promoting Performance Based Design will not be appropriate since it isjust introduced in Japan in 2003 for evaluate the structures. The knowledge in this field is notenough and the construction technology should also be considered.8. SP – Standard Practice, Standard publication, Design examples may be required9. Provision for checking of Wind Load or Earthquake Load or both shall be made.10. Limit state or working Stress method of design shall be included.11. Design check during Construction stage shall be made.12. EQ wave propagation destroys only certain buildings13. In NBC 202, Analysis Model type shall be clearly elaborated.14. In stead of referring to clear cover in IS 456, a separate Table shall be provided.15. In IS 456, in the table for finding TC is determined based on % of Steel (pt) grade of concrete,but TC refers to stress strain/ depth ratio.16. NBC 111 refers to IS 800 but there is less practice of utilizing, the rivet joint type of jointsshall be analyzed in depth.17. There are cases where TMT Rebar are cracked during Bending. This is the effect of PoisonsRatio.18. The Design Method prepared has suggested to use Super Element Method, but currently mostof the Tools have practice of using Finite Element Method. The effectiveness of SEM shouldbe more elaborated.19. In the Architectural code NBC 206, the Plinth level and storey level houses shall be correlatedin neighborhood.20. NBC 208 - Concealed plumbing and Electrical services may cause Structural Damages whichshall be considered in the code and provision shall be made to eliminate it.21. Row housing shall consider the separation joints.22. When considering Structural resonance, the Seismic coefficient method shall consider theresonance factor.23. The existing NBC is divided into four parties, but it may be made one document with variouschapters.24. Building Act has made clear directives to implement NBC. In such case, it implies thatBylaws also recognize NBC.25. NBC Implementation• Implementation/ updating is a big challenge• The study will provide direction to resolve the challenges• The experts, govt. offices Building Act: Policy included• Effectiveness in whole community• Safety of large buildings should be the responsibility of designers• Small residents: owners are not aware of the Safety requirements of the Codes• Updating with new technology and Materials are required.26. Construction safety is related with prevention of accidents at site and safety of the buildingunder construction. The safety issues are particularly related to• Electrical hazard• Gas hazard• Laser protection
  • 69. 27. EQ Safety Technology• Protecting old houses – retrofitting and making it cost effective• Chapter on Retrofitting should be included.28. New context: introduction of disabled accessibility and making user friendly:29. Building Act• The Building Act was formulated in 1994 and amended in 2006, and required that theBuilding Permits are granted based on Building bylaws issued by Town DevelopmentCommittees; Designers are registered in Municipalities• The Building Bylaws do not specifically make recommendation on High rise buildings,remains mainly the responsibility of the Designers to secure the Safety at all times.:important• In the changed context, it is imperative to consider that the Building Codes should takeprecedence to take over for ensuring the protection of life & property.30. Report Formatting & structure• It is obvious that the report was prepared by a team of experts which is appreciable but itwould be appreciable if it could be improved in terms of language structure andformatting.• The Detailing of joints as granite façade shall be included.31. MRT Issues• The issues raised in relation to MRT are OK but some of the points require rethinking• It would be wise to keep MRT within the Code since based on the experience of NNBC,other countries as Pakistan, Iran, Bangladesh have started to replicate. This is a pride forthe country. Based on MRT the building stock of over 28,000 has been surveyed.• MRT would be appropriate to including as a part of Code. But the name could be changedas required.• The case of Buildings with H/W < 3:1 is not mentioned. Why?• 10% lump• NBC 205 shall consider analysis of infill wall.32. NBC 107: Fire Code• Fire code should be reviewed in terms of National Perspective.• Effect of plaster and other elements that enhance the fire safety shall be considered.• IOE students had prepared M.Sc. thesis works in this topic.• IS 456 and NBC 110 may be referred• Fire resistance of Steel structures and chemical protection shall be included• Do not reduce structural strength
  • 70. Appendix – 4: Review of NNBC 000: 1994 REQUIREMENTS FOR STATE-OF-THE ART DESIGN and NNBC 105: 1994 SEISMIC DESIGN OFBUILDINGS IN NEPAL1. GeneralSeismic design of buildings constitutes the principal component of the building codes.The purpose is to reduce or mitigate the damage due to future earthquakes. It has beenwell recognized that the single most important development in reducing earthquakelosses in the world has been the incorporation of seismic design provisions into thebuilding codes. The seismic codes of various countries are in a state of continuousevolution in research and changes in construction practice.The history of building code and hence the seismic design of buildings in Nepal is attender age compared to the same of other countries. The need for national buildingcode in Nepal was first strongly felt following the substantial loss and damage due toUdayapur earthquake of 1988. The preparation of the building code was initiated inearly nineties and published officially only in 1994. The general response to the codehas been lukewarm since its inception, and is in a state of model building code ratherthan a national building code in terms of legal status.Substantial advance have been achieved in the knowledge related to seismic resistantdesign of buildings and structures during the past 15 years since the publication of theNational Building Code of Nepal. Changes in seismic design provisions in seismiccodes of different countries from 1994 to the present date are many and far reachingin their impact. Part of the reasons for such changes has been to incorporate thelessons learned from the devastating large earthquakes. Inclusion of the lessons learntfrom 1994 Northridge and the 1995 Kobe earthquakes have been the major highlightsof 1997 edition of Uniform Building Code with a considerable change in 1994 editionof UBC. Since then the large earthquakes of Gujarat (2001 January), Sumatra-Andaman (2004 December), Kashmir-Kohistan (2005 October) and China (2007)have resulted into devastating loss and damage, imparting the new lessons to beincorporated in the next future seismic codes. The lessons learnt from the pastearthquakes, rapid development in the technology and researches in the area ofEarthquake Engineering have resulted into sophisticated seismic codes in developedcountries. The recent editions of National Earthquake Hazards Reduction Program(NEHRP) Provisions following the custom of updating in a cycle of three yearssubstantiate the fact. The recommended provisions incorporated in ‘The NEHRPRecommended Provisions for Seismic Regulations for New Buildings’ haveincreasingly been adopted in recent times by model codes and standards. If in UnitedStates, there is a custom of revising the codes every three years, it may be not thateasy in case of developing countries like Nepal. The revised edition of the Indianstandard Criteria for earthquake resistant design of structures IS 1893(Part 1) 2002came into light replacing IS 1893: 1984 only after a period of 18 years. However, itshould be recognized that the updating of design documents like the codes is adynamic process, and shall be materialized as soon as possible to further reduce andmitigate the possible losses in future earthquakes. In view of this, it is urgently neededthat the present code on seismic design of buildings in Nepal is carefully reviewedwith an objective of removing any deficiencies, errors or scope for misinterpretation.Moreover, development of commentaries or explanatory handbook on the code toexplain the provisions with solved examples is of utmost importance to solicit afavorable response from users.
  • 71. 1.1 NNBC 000: 1994 REQUIREMENTS FOR STATE-OF-THE ART DESIGNNNBC 000: 1994 basically describes the preface of the building code preparation andphilosophy behind the need for seismic design of buildings in Nepal. It describes andadvocates for, in general, four different levels of sophistication of design andconstruction, namely, International state-of-art, Professionally engineered structures,Buildings of restricted size designed to simple rules-of-thumb, and Remote ruralbuildings where control is impractical. Accordingly, the NNBC 000: 1984 contains fourseparate parts describing the requirements for each category of the design sophistication.The categorization of the design and construction is highly influenced by the typology ofbuildings prevalent then in Nepal and appears highly overwhelmed by the fact that thefirst ever building code should be generous to accommodate the unsophisticated and un-engineered design. It implies the poor status of design capability and exposure to buildingcodes and standards. It calls for a need to not only to revise regularly but also ascertainsthat the provisions are drafts standards for adoption by NBSM. The content of NNBC000: 1994 could have been a set of good guidelines incorporated in local buildingregulations or byelaws. Since a national building code also represents the status andsophistication of design and construction embracing latest research and technologicaldevelopments, it should not only emphasize but also concentrate only on the Internationalstate-of-art.A building code is a set of rules that specify the minimum acceptable level of safety forbuildings and other constructed objects. The main purpose of the building code is toprotect public health, safety and general welfare as they relate to the construction andoccupancy of buildings and other structures. The Building Code becomes the law of aparticular jurisdiction when formally enacted by the appropriate authority. Generallythe codes are meant for regulating building activity which may be recommendatory ormandatory depending upon the authorities issuing these. Compliance to the buildingcode is mandatory when it is covered in Building Byelaws, Regulations, Acts, Rules,etc. issued by the National Government and various regional or local authorities.Building Codes are generally intended to be applied by architects and engineers, butare also used for various purposes by safety inspectors, environmental scientists, realestate developers, contractors, manufacturers of building products and materials,insurance companies, facility managers, disaster management personals, and others.The practice of developing, approving, and enforcing Building Codes is differentfrom one country to another. In some nations Building Codes are developed by thegovernmental agencies or semi-governmental standards organizations and thenenforced across the country by the national government. Such codes are the NationalBuilding Codes, and they enjoy a mandatory nation-wide application. In the countries,where the power of regulating construction is vested in local authorities, a system ofModel Building Codes is used. Model Building Codes have no legal status unlessadopted or adapted by an authority having jurisdiction. In some countries, eachmunicipality and urban development authority has its own building code, which ismandatory for all construction within their jurisdiction. Such buildings codes arevariants of a National Building Code, which serves as model code proving guidelinesfor regulating construction activity. The degree to which national building codes andstandards are enforced by law varies from country to country, as stated in the Foreword ofthe Code, however it was intended that its implementation be enforced through theParliamentary Bill Act and concerned, local authority by-laws. In the above scenario, ithas become very important to establish the status of the building code. It is to be notedthat Building Byelaws, in relation with Building Codes, are mandatory rules andguidelines for construction activities, issued normally by governmental agencies orauthorities with jurisdiction. Byelaws reflect the legal status of the document, and are
  • 72. regulatory in nature. National Building Code or Model Building Code may beincluded as an essential part of Building Byelaws; however, building codes may notcontain the byelaws. In view of this the philosophy of various levels of requirementsdepending upon the design sophistication are more relevant to the byelaws to beenforced by the central or local authorities. It is always preferable to maintain thedistinct boundaries between existing building byelaws/building regulations andbuilding codes to avoid the confusion. The sanctity of the building code, differentfrom building byelaws and building regulations, and in its turn, the seismic design ofbuildings shall be retained by focusing on the international state-of-art.It is important to understand the expressed or implied purpose of a particular designdocument in order to fully appreciate its provisions. Although the basic purpose ofany seismic code is to protect life, the way that this purpose as well as any additionalpurposes, presented can provide additional insight into the reasons for the presence ofspecific provisions in the body of the document and its intended audience. Thedocument shall be free, as far as possible, of ambiguous or confusing statements orprovisions. The following paragraph describes some of issues to be resolved underNNBC 000: 1994:• The background of the development of the building code and the philosophy ofseismic design could be reasonably incorporated in the introductory part ofSeismic Design of Buildings or even in that of National Building Code itself. Therequirements for the Professionally engineered structures (Part II), Buildings ofrestricted size designed to simple rules-of-thumb (Part III), and Remote ruralbuildings where control is impractical (Part III) along with minimum designrequirements based on the flow chart (Figure 1) shall be left out for buildingregulations or building byelaws. The requirements for the International state-of-artis the main part, based on which the Seismic Design of Buildings evolves. Theneed for a separate code on the remaining issues is not justifiable.• Labeling the Building Code or part of it as draft standards belies the purpose ofthe document, and weakens the position of the code executing agencies in theenforcement of the building code.• Ambiguous statements shall be removed unless a necessary clarification isprovided to avoid the scope for misinterpretation. The return periods mentionedfor the onset of damage of a typical building and for the strength of building as 50years and 300 years respectively, in 1.2 Seismic Design under Part 1, need aclarification or rephrasing.• Incomplete sentences in the document of importance shall be avoided. Thesentence starting with “The basic philosophy for…” and ending in blanks, in 1.2Seismic Design under Part 1, fails to express the principal objective of the seismicdesign.• The language and the format of clauses and provisions in a building code deservea formal/legal style rather than those of a technical report. The paragraphsfollowing the subheading 1.3 Other Loads under Part 1 appear like parts of areport with a little regard for other Nepalese Standards.• Mere referring the Indian Standard Codes of Practice for design in materials likeconcrete, steel and masonry does not serve the purpose of popular use andenforcement of Nepal National Building Code. IS 456: 1978 Indian StandardCode of Practice for Plain and Reinforced Concrete has been revised into the Fifthrevision IS 456: 2000 Indian Standard Code of Practice for Plain and Reinforced
  • 73. Concrete. Similarly the detailing requirements included in IS 4326: 1993 IndianStandard Code of Practice for Earthquake Resistant Design and Construction ofBuildings have been modified and incorporated in a separate detailing code IS13920: 1993 Indian Standard Code of Practice for Ductile Detailing of ReinforcedConcrete Structures subjected to Seismic Forces. Since the present building codeof Nepal is not explicit about which Indian Standard Codes, referred ones orrevised ones, to be adopted, the designers along with other stake holders obviouslywill be in dilemma.• Due reference to Nepalese Standards without using the adjective – draft, andwithout the background of their development, is most preferable. The NepaleseStandards, such as for Wind Loads (NNBC 104: 1994), Steel Design (NNBC 111:1994), Un-reinforced Masonry (NNBC 109: 1994) and others shall be reviewedand improved, no matter assistance from which international codes or publicationshas been derived, so that these could be treated with respect as Nepal’s ownStandards and essential components of the National Building Code.• Due weightage needs to be given to international coordination among thestandards and practices prevailing in different countries in addition to relating it tothe practices in the field in Nepal.1.2 NNBC 105: 1994 SEISMIC DESIGN OF BUILDINGS IN NEPAL1.2.1 Background and purpose of the codeThe important information regarding the preparation of the code including its historyof development, need of the document development/improvement and the purpose ofseismic design shall be described under Foreword. Due credit shall be given to thedocuments and codes, which have been used and referred in the development of thecode.The present form of Foreword needs to be enhanced with changes in terms of contentand description. The name of sub-heading - design procedure and its content statingas the minimum design requirements for the seismic design of structures do notmatch; referring just to the section under the scope does not say any thing about thedesign procedure nor about the minimum requirements.The special emphasis on the need for application of the code in conjunction with IS4326 – 1993, under sub-heading – Related Codes is not appreciable for two reasons.Firstly, the status of IS 4326 – 1993 in India has been changed with most of thecontents being separately transferred into newly developed codes. The statement inthe para implies that NNBC 105: 1994 can not be used without referring IS 4326 –1993. In principle, emphasis should be on the need of developing such basic standardsor codes. Alternatively, the relevant provisions shall be incorporated, separately asclauses, in the seismic design code itself. Naming recent editions of IS 4326 – 1993 orother relevant national and international codes or documents as reference materialswill be more appreciated. Moreover, details of the Standards, preferably developed forNepal, which are necessary adjuncts to the Seismic Design of Buildings in Nepal shallbe listed elsewhere in the code.The absence of the Commentary, forming an accompanying volume to the code,makes it difficult to substantiate the requirement of using the code in association withthe Commentary as given under sub – heading- Commentary.
  • 74. 1.2.2 ScopeThe requirements presented under the section of scope of the present code soundconservative. Instead, the scope of the code should be general and broad in terms ofseismic load assessment on various structures and seismic resistant design ofbuildings. The basic provisions shall be applicable to buildings, elevated structures,industrial structures, dams, bridges and other structures. The scope may not includethe construction features of those buildings for which separate standards will have toaddress.1.2.3 TerminologyThe terms used in the seismic design and their definitions given in the present codeshould be extended. Since the code is the sole principal document for earthquakeresistant design of buildings it will be preferable to include basic terms and theirdefinitions related with Earthquake Engineering in general to shed light on basicseismological aspects, as well as Earthquake Engineering related with buildings.Basic terms related with damping, modes, spectra, PGA, importance factor, intensityand magnitude of earthquake, liquefaction, maximum considered earthquake, normalmodes and modal characteristics, seismic weight, zone factor and others related withbasic Earthquake Engineering shall be included. It is also necessary to incorporatemore terms related with building such as base, center of mass and rigidity, designeccentricity, base shear, bracing systems, lateral load resisting elements, principalaxes, P-∆ effect, storey drift, storey shear, soft storey and others.1.2.4 SymbolsThe symbols used in the present code may be retained with the extension or revisionas the method improved or altered. However, some terms used in the symbols may bechanged, for example, fundamental time period is more suitable than translationalperiod Ti. There is perhaps a typographical error in meaning the symbol Fp –designseismic force for elements and components designed in accordance with 8.1.2.5 General Principles of DesignThe general principles described under the present section 3 of the code could beelaborated with the important features of seismicity and basic assumptions of seismicdesign.It is necessary to include the general principle adopted regarding the ground motion,its features in relation with the earthquake source characterizations including the sizesof the earthquake.It will be favorable to describe the seismic design approach adopted in the code. Thegenerally accepted principle of seismic resistant design of buildings is that structuresshould be able to withstand minor earthquakes without damage, withstand moderateearthquakes without structural damage but with some non-structural damage, andwithstand major earthquakes without collapse but with some structural as well as non-structural damage. These widely quoted objectives, however, are unstated in manycodes including the current NNBC 105: 1994. Instead, the principal objectives arestated, for example, the Uniform Building Code UBC 1997 states an overall objectiveof safeguarding life or limb, property and public welfare.
  • 75. Although the definitions of minor, moderate and major earthquakes are variable, theygenerally relate to the life of the structure, and the consequences of failure. The majorearthquake level defined in most of the codes of the world has a recurrence interval of475 years, which corresponds to a 10% probability of exceedence in 50 years that iscommonly accepted to be the expected life of a building. The corresponding servicelevel earthquake for a typical building would have a recurrence interval of 10 yearsand a 99.3% probability of being exceeded in 50 years.There is also a need to mention about the design approach in relation withconsideration of lateral force in each of the two orthogonal horizontal directions, andapproach regarding consideration of earthquake load in vertical direction. It shall alsoinclude the approach and corresponding provision regarding simultaneous occurrenceof wind or flood, soil-structural interaction and change in usage of the building.1.2.6 Design Methods and Load CombinationsThere must be a valid logical reason for need of Limit State Method of design forreinforced concrete design and recommending Working Stress Method for otherstructural materials. At this juncture of improvement, it will be preferable to explorethe design methods available and recommended in other codes and adopt the designmethod most appropriate for the country. In general, most of the countries haveadopted Limit State Method or Strength Method replacing Working Stress Method forConcrete as well as Steel, the two principle structural materials.The provision regarding the increase in allowable soil bearing pressure by up to 50percent when earthquake forces are considered along with other design forcesaccording to 4.3 of the present code may be too un-conservative and ambiguous inapplication. Elaboration of the clause is required about in what condition 50%increase can be considered, and in what condition lower values, which are to bementioned, of increment can be considered. IS 1893 (Part 1) : 2002 recommends theincrease in allowable soil bearing pressure from 25 to 50% depending upon the soiltype (hard, medium or soft ) and the type of foundations (piles, raft, combined,isolated and well).The design load combinations included in the present code for Working StressMethod as well as for Limit State Method seriously require reworking. It is wellrecognized that the load factors, recommended are based on the reliability levelsassumed in the structures. For example, it appears too un-conservative to have loadfactor for dead load as 1 and for live load 1.3 in case of Nepal. The uncertainties dueto non-uniformity of materials, workmanship, quality control seem to be ignored inthe load factor for dead load. The uncertainties in overloading is covered bymaximum 1.3 may not be practical in the condition of Nepal. IS 456 : 2000, forexample, considers 1.5 for both the dead load and the live load. Similarly themaximum load factor value for seismic load considered is just 1.25, both incombination with 0.9 times dead load, as well as in combination with dead load and1.3 times live load. The value of 1.25 is too low in view of the large uncertaintiesinvolved in assessment of the seismic load. Furthermore, the recommendation foradoption of partial safety factors as per Table 12 of NNBC 110: 1994 contradicts theprovision of 4.5 of Seismic Design Code.
  • 76. 1.2.7 Method of Seismic DesignThe present seismic code recommends two methods of earthquake analysis, namely,Seismic Coefficient Method and Modal Response Spectrum Method.The bulk of seismic resistant buildings are designed using equivalent static lateralforces to represent the effects of ground motion due to earthquake on buildings. It isfrom the assumption that equivalent static forces can be used to represent the effectsof an earthquake by producing the same structural displacements as the peakearthquake displacement response. The application of this method is limited toreasonably regular structures. The present code restricts the use of this method forstructures up to 40 m height, and should also mention the condition of regularity.The dynamic analysis shall not be confined to the response spectrum method. Theremust be an optional provision for Time History Analysis also. The conditions for needof using Modal Response Spectrum Method (Dynamic Analysis) are listed, which arebasically related with irregular configuration. Due to absence of definition andclassification of irregularity, the users of the code will be confused. It is desirable toinclude clauses that define and describe different types of irregularity (horizontal,vertical, stiffness, mass, geometric and others). By such definitions a clearer pictureand effect of soft storey and weak storey will be available.The formula for determination of seismic coefficient has been changing in the seismiccodes of the world. However, the base shear due to ground motion has all the timebeen the product of the seismic coefficient and the mass of the structure. The principalcode factors used in deriving static lateral forces, for a long time, have basically been:Z A numeric value representing the seismic zoningI An importance factor representing the importance of the structure, especiallyin terms of use following a major earthquake.C A factor representing the appropriate acceleration response spectrum value.S A factor representing the effect of local soil conditions on the spectralresponse of the groundW The mass of the structure, including an assessment of live loadK A factor representing the performance of the structure depending on thebrittleness or ductility of the structureThese values are combined in general form for base shear:V = ZICKSWThis formula for base shear has been for a long time popular. However in course ofevolution the formula for the seismic coefficient has been changing. The formula forthe seismic coefficient presented in the present NBE 105: 1994 considers all theabove factors except S-the factor representing the effect of local soil conditions on thespectral response of the ground. This effect has been considered, like in other codes,in the response spectra drawn for different (basically three) types of soil. Thus theexpression for the seismic coefficient given in equation 8.1. Similarly, the equation8.2 for the expression for the design response spectrum, in which the ordinate of thebasic response spectrum for the natural time period is multiplied by ZIK.It has been a trend in the codes of the world to drop the performance factor K andreplace it by reciprocal of R, response reduction factor, a factor dependant on thebuilding type and its ductility level. The adoption of the response reduction factor
  • 77. leads to a realistic values of acceleration from which the design forces are obtained bydividing the elastic forces by it. It implies that the design force is much lower thanwhat can be expected in the event of a strong earthquake (Jain 2003).The replacement of the factor K by the factor 1/R may result into a logical estimationof the seismic coefficient, and alternate expressions derived in recent editions ofcodes or documents like NEHRP shall be given a thought for the new edition of thecode.Computing dynamic response instead of using static forces is becoming increasinglycommon as higher powered computing facilities are being available in design offices.Since there is no restriction of building height and irregularity the dynamic analysisappears to be simpler in application and yields more logical and accurate results.However, special care shall be taken into consideration about conservative provisionin some international codes. Some codes require checking of the dynamic analysisresults by seismic coefficient method. Some documents like IS 1893 (Part 1) : 2002require comparing the base shear with the base shear calculated using thefundamental time period calculated using the empirical formula recommended forstatic approach, and if the base shear from dynamic analysis is less than the base shearcalculated using the time period from the empirical formula, all the dynamicresponses shall be up-scaled multiplying by the ratio of the two base shears. It againimplies the dominance of the seismic coefficient method over the dynamic analysis.1.2.8 Seismic Hazard Level and Response SpectrumEstimate of the design ground motion is the most important and complicated part ofthe seismic design code development. Estimates of the design ground motion arenecessarily controversial and uncertain. It is more important to the structural designerthat this is understood than for him to attach some particular significance to anyground motion parameter used in his design. However there is a strong argument forconservatism in the assessment of ground motion input, and the use of highconfidence level.NNBC 105: 1994 does not present any elaborate information on the seismicity of thecountry. It would be favorable to include at least maps showing epicenters of pastearthquakes, principle tectonic features, geological features including principallithological groups, and seismic zones, all of which are well documented by theDepartment of Mines and Geology, Nepal. Pandey et al. (2002) has presented seismichazard map of Nepal as a result of probabilistic seismic hazard analysis. Thedocument presents the contour of seismic hazard at the bedrock of Nepal for a returnperiod of 500 years, indicating 10% probability of exceedence in 50 years.The design values of ground motion parameter such as Peak Ground Acceleration(PGA) for different regions of the country are presented either in a tabular form (GB50011-2001) or attaching relevant maps like in IBC 2006 in the codes. It is necessaryto do the same in NNBC 105: 1994 also since the seismic hazard for the code wasdetermined based on the probabilistic seismic hazard analysis. The seismic codesadopting probabilistic approach of hazard estimation use the hazard levels in terms ofMaximum Considered/Capable Earthquake (MCE) as in NEHRP (2003) and IBC(2006), and Design Basis Earthquake (DBE) as in ATC (1978) and UBC (1997). TheMCE and DBE represent 2% probability of exceedence in 50 years with a returnperiod of 2500 years and 10% probability of exceedence in 50 years with a returnperiod of 475 years respectively.
  • 78. The seismic hazards considered in earlier editions of NEHRP and UBC 97 (1997) hada recurrence interval of 475 years (Design Basis Earthquake) corresponding to auniform 10 percent probability of exceedance in 50 years, which is commonlyaccepted to be expected life of a building. The NEHRP(1997) and IBC2000(2000)had changed the Design Basis Earthquake(DBE), and since then have been using theMaximum Considered Earthquake (MCE) to represent the seismic hazards in theprovisions.. The MCE represents the seismic hazard that has a recurrence interval of2500 years corresponding to a uniform 2% probability of exceedence in 50 years. Thedesign earthquake according to the provisions of NEHRP(2003) and IBC 2006 (2006)is two-thirds of the MCE. Comparison of the provisions of 1994 or older editions with1997 or later editions of the NEHRP Provisions reveals that, a structure designed bythe 1994 or older editions of NEHRP Provisions is believed to have a low likelihoodof collapse under an earthquake that is one and one-half times (reciprocal of two-third) as large as the design earthquake of those documents. The same change hastaken place from UBC 97 (1997) to IBC 2000 (2000). This major change inassociation with other provisions indicates the newer versions of the documents tendto be more conservative.The seismic loading in NNBC 105: 1994 is set at a seismic hazard level having areturn period of 50 years, which corresponds to a probability of exceedence less than45% in 30 years, which had been estimated as the economic life of a structure inNepal, as presented by Beca Worley International et al.(1993). The document as wellreveals that the seismic hazard level was set to be at a level approximately equal tothat defined in the Indian Standard, that is, IS 1893: 1984. The design earthquakelevel set hence is too un-conservative and strongly needs a major revision for thefollowing reasons:i. The service life of buildings in Nepal estimated as 30 years is far from reasonable;instead it must be 50 years.ii. It is unfair to set the seismic hazard level for Nepal heavily banking upon theearthquake level stipulated in IS 1893: 1984, which has already been revised intoIS 1893 (Part 1): 2002 with a different value of design earthquake value. TheIndian Standard has yet to adopt probabilistic format of seismic hazard analysis.iii. The provisions in the present code have been developed in reference with mainlylow rise buildings with short natural periods, where as long period structures areincreasingly becoming prevalent.iv. The seismic design lateral load calculated for short period structures as 0.08, whencompared with the basic horizontal seismic coefficient for zone V of IS 1893:1984, found the same as 0.08. But the value according to the revised IS 1893 (Part1): 2002 will be 0.09 against 0.08.The response spectra and the zoning factors largely depend on the design earthquakelevels, and hence will be different as the seismic hazard levels change.The broad classification of soil conditions into three types is universally accepted.However, the definition and requirements of each type of them shall be more practicaland recognizable.1.2.9 Static Method (Seismic Coefficient Method)The seismic base shear V along any principal direction is determined by theexpression:
  • 79. V = Cd WtIn which Cd is the design horizontal seismic coefficient, and Wt is the seismic weightof the building. However, the expression given by equation 10.1 is not supplementedwith what stands for the notation Wt . Moreover, it requires the definition of theseismic weight of the building. There is also a need to describe how the seismicweight of the building is calculated in terms of seismic weight of floors, which has tobe referred, although briefly introduced under the section 6 Seismic Weight. It shouldfurther be elaborated with the rules for lumping of weights.The distribution of the design base shear along the height of the building is carried outin a linear manner, that is, the design lateral force at floor level i is calculated by:Fi = V Wi hi/ΣWi hiThe Indian Standard IS 1893 has long been adopting the parabolic distribution,corresponding to which the design lateral force, equivalent to IS 1893 (Part 1):2002,at floor level i is calculated by:212iiniiiihWhWVF=Σ=Both of the above distributions are at the extremes. The linear distribution is true forbasically stiff structures having a natural period of 0.5 seconds or less (approximatelyfor up to 5 storeys of the building). The parabolic distribution is applicable basicallyfor flexible structures having a natural time period of 2.5 seconds (approximately for25 storeys and more of the building).The distribution of the horizontal forces over the height of a building is generally aquite complex because these forces are the result of superposition of a number ofnatural modes of vibration. The relative contributions of these vibration modes to thetotal forces depends on a number of factors, which include shape of the groundmotion response spectrum, natural periods of vibration of the building, and thevibration mode shapes, which in turn depend on the mass and stiffness distributionover the height of the building. Based on it, ATC 3-06 (1978) has provided thereasonable and simple formula to obtain the horizontal earthquake force distributionin buildings with regular variation of mass and stiffness over the height as follows:kiinikiiihWhWVF1=Σ=in which, k is an exponent related to the building period as follows:For buildings having a period of 0.5 seconds or less, k = 1.For buildings having a period of 2.5 seconds or more, k = 2.For buildings having a period between 0.5 and 2.5 seconds, k may be taken as 2 ormay be determined by linear interpolation between 1 and 2.In view of the changing characters of the buildings, increasingly departing from thelow rise situation, the linear distribution provision in the code will be again un-conservative, and hence needs a change. It is to note that the American codes havebeen adopting the distribution formula developed by ATC 3-06 (1978).The provision regarding the direction of forces under sub-heading 8.2.1 shall berewritten to clarify to the effect that the structure shall be designed for design
  • 80. earthquake load in one horizontal direction at time, indicating the design earthquakeload will not be applied simultaneously in both of the orthogonal directions.The design eccentricity provision should have been provided together with the clauseon the horizontal shear distribution or under Torsion. The design eccentricity, ed isrecommended to be calculated depending upon the value of ec ( eccentricity betweenthe locations of the center of mass and the center of rigidity) in relation with b, themaximum dimension of the building perpendicular to the direction of the earthquakeforce. Three separate conditions and corresponding values to be used or calculated arepresented. The design eccentricity is required to calculate the design torsional momentto consider its effect in the distribution of lateral forces at each level. The purpose ofthe provision on the design eccentricity would have better been served by a clause onTorsion to the effect “The distribution of lateral forces at each level shall consider theeffect of the torsional moment resulting from eccentricity ec between the locations ofthe center of mass and the center of rigidity”. It should be followed by acomplimentary clause on Accidental torsion, to the effect “In addition to the torsionalmoment, the distribution of lateral forces also shall include accidental torsionalmoments, caused by an assumed displacement of the mass each way from its actuallocation by a distance equal to 5% of the dimension of the structure b, perpendicularto the direction of the applied forces. Alternatively, The design eccentricity would bealgebraic sum of the factored eccentricity and the accidental eccentricity each way.Accordingly, the expression for the design eccentricity for ithfloor would be,assuming 1.5 as the factor for the eccentricity:edi = 1.5 eci ± 0.05 bi1.2.10 Dynamic Method (Modal Response Spectrum Method)The provisions presented in the present code are not adequate. There is a need forclauses for free vibration analysis to obtain the natural periods (T) and mode shapes(φ). The present provision for the numbers of the modes to be considered in 11.2needs elaboration including explanation how to check if the 90% of the mass isparticipating or not. It shall be done by introduction of formulae along withdefinitions of modal mass and modal participation factors. There are serious lapse ofprovisions for modal combination methods, methods for determination of designlateral forces at each floor in each mode and due to all modes considered, and alsoexpressions for storey shear forces in individual mode and due to all modesconsidered.The para 11.3.1 mentions about need to use an established method for combination ofmodal effects. An ambiguous word like established method shall be avoided andreplaced by the name of the method/s to be applied. The definition of closely spacedmodes as given in para 11.3.3 is incorrect. Closely spaced modes are defined as thoseof its natural modes of vibration whose natural frequencies differ from each other by10 % or less of the lower frequency, not if their frequencies are within 15%.1.2.11 DeformationsThe primary clause for deformation due to earthquake forces is the storey driftlimitation, which shall not exceed 0.004 times the storey height. The sense of thislimitation may be implied from the provision given under 9.2.2. For the purpose ofdisplacement requirements only, the seismic forces obtained from the fundamentaltime period of the building by static or dynamic approach may be used. The provisionunder 9.1 shall be applicable for the separation between two adjacent buildings or two
  • 81. adjacent units of the same building. The separation must be provided by a distanceequal to the sum of the calculated storey displacements multiplied by 5/k or by R, ifthe performance factor k is replaced by response reduction factor R. rewritten as forthe separation. It shall further be supplemented by the provision that if the floor levelsof the two adjacent units or buildings are at the same elevation levels, the factor 5/k orby R may be further replaced by 10/k or R/2 respectively. Accordingly it is preferableto rearrange the sub-clauses under this section.1.2.12 Requirements for Other Components and ElementsThe provisions under section 12 shall elaborate, beyond the general statements, howthe requirements are achieved. This section also shall present provisions for importantcomponents like foundations, projections and other parts of the buildings.References1. ATC 3-06 (1978) Tentative Provision for the Development of the SeismicRegulations for Building, Applied Technology Council, USA.2. Beca Worley International in association with others (1993), Seismic hazard Mappingand Risk Assessment for Nepal, UNDP/UNCHS(Habitat) Subproject,Nep//88/054/21.033. GB 50011-2001 Code for Seismic Design of Buildings, National Standard of thePeople’s Republic of China, Beijing, PRC.4. IBC 2006 International Building Code, International Code Council, USA.5. IS 13920: 1993 Indian Standard Code of Practice for Ductile Detailing of ReinforcedConcrete Structures subjected to Seismic Forces, Bureau of Indian Standards, NewDelhi, India.6. IS 1893 : (Part 1) 2002 Indian Standard Criteria for Earthquake Resistant Design ofStructures Part 1 General Provisions and Buildings (Fifth Revision), Bureau of IndianStandards, New Delhi, India.7. IS 1893: 1984 Indian Standard Criteria for Earthquake Resistant Design of Structures,Bureau of Indian Standards, New Delhi, India.8. IS 4326: 1993 Indian Standard Code of Practice for Earthquake Resistant Design andConstruction of Buildings, Bureau of Indian Standards, New Delhi, India.9. IS 456: 1978 Indian Standard Code of Practice for Plain and Reinforced Concrete,Indian Standards Institution, New Delhi, India.10. IS 456: 2000 Indian Standard Code of Practice for Plain and Reinforced Concrete(Fourth Revision), Bureau of Indian Standards, New Delhi, India.11. IS 800: 1984 Indian Standard Code of Practice for General Construction in Steel,Bureau of Indian Standards, New Delhi, India.12. Jain, S. K. Review of Indian Seismic Code IS 1893 (Part 1): 2002, the IndianConcrete Journal, November 2003, India.13. NNBC 000: 1994 Nepal National Building Code Requirements for State-of-the artDesign an Introduction, HMG of Nepal, Ministry of Physical Planning and Works,DUDBC, Kathmandu, Nepal, 2060.14. NNBC 102: 1994 Nepal National Building Code Unit Weight of Materials, HMG ofNepal, Ministry of Physical Planning and Works, DUDBC, Kathmandu, Nepal, 2060.
  • 82. 15. NNBC 103: 1994 Nepal National Building Code Occupancy Load (Imposed Load),HMG of Nepal, Ministry of Physical Planning and Works, DUDBC, Kathmandu,Nepal, 2060.16. NNBC 104: 1994 Nepal National Building Code Wind Load, HMG of Nepal,Ministry of Physical Planning and Works, DUDBC, Kathmandu, Nepal, 2060.17. NNBC 105: 1994 Nepal National Building Code Seismic Design of Buildings inNepal, HMG of Nepal, Ministry of Physical Planning and Works, DUDBC,Kathmandu, Nepal, 2060.18. NNBC 106: 1994 Nepal National Building Code Snow Load, HMG of Nepal,Ministry of Physical Planning and Works, DUDBC, Kathmandu, Nepal, 2060.19. NNBC 109: 1994 Nepal National Building Code Masonry: Unreinforced, HMG ofNepal, Ministry of Physical Planning and Works, DUDBC, Kathmandu, Nepal, 2060.20. NNBC 110: 1994 Nepal National Building Code Plain and Reinforced Concrete,HMG of Nepal, Ministry of Physical Planning and Works, DUDBC, Kathmandu,Nepal, 2060.21. NNBC 111: 1994 Nepal National Building Code Steel, HMG of Nepal, Ministry ofPhysical Planning and Works, DUDBC, Kathmandu, Nepal, 2060.22. NEHRP 2003 Recommended Provisions for the Development of Seismic Regulationsfor New Buildings, Building Seismic Safety Council, Federal EmergencyManagement Agency, USA.23. Pandey, M. R., Chitrakar, G. R., Kafle, B., Sapkota, S. N., Rajaure, S. & Gautam, U.P. (2002), Seismic Hazard Map of Nepal, National Seismological Centre, Departmentof Mines and Geology, His Majestys Government of Nepal, Kathmandu24. UBC 1997 Uniform Building Code, INTERNATIONAL Conference on BuildingOfficials, Whittier, California, USA.
  • 83. Appendix 5- Review of NNBC 101, 102, 103, 104, 106, 107, 108, 109NNBC 101:1994Materials SpecificationsThis standard deals with the requisite quality and effectiveness of construction materials usedmainly in building construction. It also deals with the storage of materials where storage hasrelevance to strength.A list of Nepal Standards (NS) for key materials is provided. For those materials for which NepalStandard does not exist, a list of Indian Standard (IS) has been included. The use of appropriate,adopted or new materials is encouraged, provided these materials have been proven to meet theirintended purposes. Those materials which are not covered by the code also may be used in buildingrequiring National Building Code compliance provided these materials are equivalent, or better inquality, strength, effectiveness, fire resistance, durability, safety, maintenance and compatibility.Prior to the use of such materials, it shall be the responsibility of the building owner, or theauthorized representative of the building owner, to obtain proof of equivalency.If recycled /used materials meet the requirements of the standard, they may also be used. The codedoes not specify or refer to the methods of quality tests of materials and works. The referencemethods and Standard Operating Procedures shall be referred.NBC 102:1994Unit Weight of MaterialsThis Nepal Standard for unit weight of Materials adopts the Indian Code IS:875(Part 1)-1987 codeof Practice for Design loads ( Other than Earthquake) for building and structures, Part 1- Deadloads-Unit weight of building materials and stored materials.(second revision).Since the table of unit weight of material not provided in the code, the code is not convenient touse. Unit weight of materials is provided in Nepal Standard, so table of unit weight of materialfrom NS can be used.NBC 103:1994Occupancy Load (Imposed Load)The Nepal Standard for Occupancy Load adopts the Indian Code IS:875(Part 2)-1987 code ofPractice for Design loads ( Other than Earthquake) for building and structures, Part 2- ImposedLoad.(second revision).It is considered imperative that a table of the occupancy classification and corresponding loading isprovided in the code. The Table for the imposed load for occupancys should be provided forconvenience for the users.In Nepal Standard NS , different tables such as Table1-Imposed floor loads for differentoccupancies, reduction in imposed loads on floors, Table 2- Imposed loads on various types ofroofs, Table 3- horizontal loads on parapets, parapet walls and balustrades are provided which canbe used in NBC 103:1994 to make it independent.
  • 84. Uniform live loads. The live loads used in the design of buildings and other structures shall be themaximum loads expected by the intended use or occupancy but shall in no case be less than theminimum distributed loads required by provided table.Partition loads. In office buildings and in other buildings where partition locations are subject tochange, provision for partition weight shall be made, whether or not partitions are shown inconstruction documents, unless the specified live load exceeds 3.83 kN/m2. Such partition loadshall not be less than a uniformly distributed live load of 0.96 kN/m2.Change in occupancy loadAs we know in Nepal, the use of buildings is changed from one occupancy classification to anotheroccupancy, for example from residential to schools or store; from Hotel to Super Market or Office .In such cases, the occupancy load will be changed. Its an important aspect of any building design,and occupancy load calculations are made as per different occupancies. At all stages of theoperation of the building, it is essential that the safety of the life and p[roperty including thebuilding is safeguarded and comply with the requirements of the Code for the concerned class ofOccupancy Load. If the safety is not warranted, prohibition of change of occupancy class of thebuilding should be imposed. .NNBC 104:1994Wind LoadThe Nepal Standard on “Wind Load” comprises the Indian Standard IS:875(Part 3)-1987 code ofPractice for Design Loads ( Other than Earthquake) for building and structures (Second Revision)with amendments to ensure the requirements of Nepalese context, particularly wind zoning map ofNepal.The available wind data in Nepal is inadequate both in terms of spatial distribution, intensity andduration. Modern wind design codes are based on the peak gust velocity averaged over a shortinterval of about 3 seconds that has a 50 year return period.On the base of wind velocity, Nepal has been divided into two regions: (a) The lower plains andhills, and (b) the mountains. The first zone generally includes the southern plain of Tarai, theKathmandu valley and those regions of the country generally below an elevation of 3,000 metres.The second zone covers all the areas above the 3000 metres.For the Nepalese plains, a continuum with Indian plains, a basic wind velocity of 47m/s has beenadopted. In the higher hills, a basic wind velocity of 55 m/s selected.In the wind map of Nepal no basic wind speed is indicated. Similarly, wind data table is notprovided.While making the present code, some amendments have been done to IS:875(Part 3)- 1987comprising of replacement of terminology like “Indian” to “Nepal or “code” with “standard”,delation of some clauses and sentences, and so on.This type of amendments has created discomfort for using the NBC 104:1994. In Nepal StandardNS 500, the map of Nepal has indicated the basic wind speed and different factors. Nepal Nationalbuilding code may provide detailed required data and information in the code itself so that itbecomes convenient for th eusres.
  • 85. Wind Speed and PressureIn general, wind speed in the atmospheric boundary layers increases with height from zero at theground level to a maximum at a height called the gradient height. Wind speed at any height neverremains constant and it has been found convenient to resolve its instantaneous magnitude into anaverage or mean value and a fluctuating component around this average value. The average valuedepends on the averaging time employed in analyzing the meteorological data and this averagingtime varies from a few seconds to several minutes. The magnitude of fluctuating component ofwind speed which is called gust, depends on the averaging time. In general, smaller the averaginginterval, greater is the magnitude of the gust speed.Basic Wind SpeedBasic wind speed is based on the peak gust velocity averaged over a short time interval of about 3seconds and corresponds to a mean height above the ground level in an open Terrain. Basic windspeed for the zone is taken from map of Nepal.Design Wind Speed (Vz)The Design Wind Speed is expressed as follows:Vz = VbK1K2K3Where Vz – design wind speed at any height z in m/s;K1 – probability factor (risk coefficient)K2 – terrain, height and structure size factorK3 – topography factorDesign Wind PressureThe design wind pressure at any height above mean ground level is obtained from the expression:Pz = 0.6 Vz2Where pz – design wind pressure in N/m2at height z, andVz – design wind velocity in m/s at height z.In IS : 875(Part 3): Wind Loads on Buildings and Structures, the proposed draft commentaryprepared by Dr. Prem Krishna, Dr. Krishen Kumar, Dr.N.M. Bhandari suggested to analyses thedesign wind pressure pdassign following equation:pd= Kd. Ka. Kc. pzwhere Kd= Wind directionality factorKa= Area averaging factorKc= Combination factorKashould be taken as 1.0 when considering local pressure coefficients.Kd - Considering the randomness in the directionality of wind and recognizing the fact that pressureor force coefficients are determined for specific wind directions, it is specified that for buildings,solid signs, open signs, lattice frameworks, and trussed towers (triangular, square, rectangular) afactor of 0.90 may be used on the design wind pressure.For circular or near – circular forms, this factor may be taken as 1.0.For the cyclone affected regions also, the factor Kdshall be taken as 1.0.Area Averaging Factor, Ka
  • 86. Pressure coefficients are a result of averaging the measured pressure values over a given area. Asthe area becomes larger, the correlation of measured values decrease and vice-versa. The decreasein pressures due to larger areas may be taken into account as given in Table 1.Table 1: Area averaging factor (Ka)Tributary Area (A) (m2) Area Averaging Factor (Ka)≤ 10 1.025 0.9≥ 100 0.8The Russian Code and Standards (SNIP) recommend that wind load on tall building shall beestimated as the sum total of average and pulsation excitations. The design wind load can beexpressed as:w = wc + wpwc = wo.k.c,wp = 1.4 wph(z/h)ξwhere wc – average wind pressure, wp – wind pressure due to pulsation; w0- nominal windpressure; wph – nominal pulsation wind pressure at the top height of the building; k- height factor;ξ – dynamic coefficient;z- height at which pulsation wind pressure is being determined.Nigerian standard code of Practice (NSCP) suggest to analyse the design wind load using followingexpression:P = fs.qo.ceWhere qo – the nominal wind pressure;vo- the nominal wind velocity;fs – shape factorce – the pressure coefficientNBC 106:1994Snow LoadThe code on “Snow Load” comprises the Indian Standard IS: 875 (Part 4) 1987: CODE OFPRACTICE FOR DESIGN LOADS (OTHER THAN EARTHQUAKE) FOR BUILDINGS ANDSTRUCTURES (second revision) along with new improvements and amendments to ensure therequirements of the Nepalese context.In this code, 0.1 to 0.3.2 has been deleted from the original version to match the code with theNepalese lifestyle. The added revisions are related to snow load in the northern snow-covereddistricts like Dolakha, Darchula, Bajhang, Humla, Mugu etc. The country is divided into fivecategories based on the physiographic regions. Of these five physiographic regions, the Tarai, theSiwaliks and the middle mountains, do not experience snow fall. High mountains get snow two orthree months of a year. The High Himalayas always have snow cover throughout the year. Snowload could be experienced once in a whilw within Kathmandu Valley, and the areas aroundKathmandu Valley experience snow load quite often.At high altitude, roofs are built flat with mud floor placed over timber planks or split pieces ofwood. A slope is not provided because the wind speed is high and the rainfall is sparse. Only anominal slope that is just enough to drain the melted snow and rain water is provided. Snowaccumulates on the roof and the narrow space between the adjacent buildings also filled. Snowaccumulated on the roof is removed manually.
  • 87. No historical snow data exist. The Snow and Glacier Hydrology have just recently started to collectdata in high altitude region. Depth, density and water equivalent are monitored. However, the dataobtained from the projects is far less than that of the verbal inquiry. So, the concerned personneland institutions are being requested to collect data from in depth studies and inquiries of theknowledgeable people of the locality.Snow Load in RoofThe Design snow load is obtained by multiplying the snow load on the ground, S0 by the shapecoefficient µ,S= µ S0where s - design snow load in Pa on plan area of roof,µ - shape coefficient andS0 - ground snow loadThe code has done some amendments in IS: 875(Part 3)-1987 with replacement of someterminology, and sentencesIn the code, it is mentioned that the most favorable slope for both wind and snow is taken as 2:1.This type of amendments does make it convenient to the users.Since the middle mountain zones also experience snow fall sometimes, but the code hasdemarcated it as “no snow fall zone”. There is a gap in data as such in this region.Comparisons with other codesAs per National Building Code of Canada 1990, the Snow load on a roof or any other buildingsurface subject to accumulation shall be calculated from the formulaS = Ss(CbCwCa)+SrwhereSs - the ground snow load in kPaSr -s associated with rain load in kPaCb - the basic roof snow load factor of 0.8,Cw - the wind exposure factor,Ca - the accumulation factor. .The Canadian Code presents snow distribution factors on various types of roofs which can beapplied universally with reliability and need only be tempered in detail with local experience.In Russian code SNIP 2.01.07-85, the Snow load is calculated by formulaS=Sg x µSome properties of snowA careful assessment of the snow load is required to avoid both unnecessary construction cost andundue risk of failure. Snow loads on roofs vary widely according to geographical location, siteexposure and shape of the roof.Snowflakes of falling snow consist of ice crystals with their well-known complex pattern. Owing totheir large surface area to weight ratio they fall to the ground relatively slowly and are easily blownby the wind.
  • 88. Freshly fallen snow is very loose and fluffy, with a specific gravity of about 0.05 to 0.1 (1/20thto1/10thof water). Immediately after landing, the snow crystals start to change: the thin, needle-likeprojections begin to sublime and the crystals gradually become more like small irregularly shapedgrains. This results in settlement of the snow and after a few days the specific gravity will usuallyhave increased to about 0.2. This compaction further increases and specific gravities of about 0.3will often have been attained after about a month, even at below-freezing temperatures. Longerperiods of warm weather as well as rain falling into the snow (a possibility that must be included inproper design loads) may increase this density even further.As a simple rule for estimating loads from snow depths, the specific gravity can be considered to beabout 0.2 to 0.3. In other words, each inch of snow represents a load of about 5-8 Kg/m2.Accumulation of Snow on RoofsIn perfectly calm weather, the falling snow would cover roofs and the ground with a uniformblanket of snow. If this calm continued, the snow cover would remain undisturbed and theprediction of roof loads would be relatively simple; the design snow load could be considereduniform and equal to a suitable maximum value of the ground snow load.Truly uniform loading conditions, however, are rare. In most regions, snowfalls are accompanied orfollowed by winds, and the snowflakes, having a large surface area to their weight, are easilytransported horizontally by the wind. Consequently, since many roofs are well exposed to the wind,accumulation of snow will depend on the wind and configuration of the roof itself. Over certainparts of roofs the wind speed will be slowed down sufficiently to let the snow "drop out" andaccumulate in drifts.The roofs situated below an adjacent higher roof are particularly susceptible to heavy drift loadsbecause the upper roof can provide a large supply of snow. Canopies, balconies and porches alsofall into this category and the loads that accumulate on these roofs often reach a multiple of theground load depending mainly on the size of the upper roof. The distribution of load depends on theshape of these drifts which varies from a triangular cross-section (with the greatest depth nearest tothe higher roof) to a more or less uniform depth.Flat roofs with projections such as penthouses or parapet walls often experience triangular snowaccumulations that reach the top of the projections on the building.Peaked and curved roofs subjected to winds at approximately right angles to the ridge provideaerodynamic shade over the leeward slope. This sometimes leads to heavy unbalanced loads, sincemost of the snow is blown from the windward slope to the leeward slope, producing loads thatexceed the ground load on occasions. Curved roofs show similar or even more unbalanceddistributions (little snow on top and heavy snow near the base of the arch).On the other hand it istrue that many small peaked roofs on residences, in exposed areas, usually (but not always)accumulate little snow compared with that on the ground.Redistribution of LoadRedistribution of snow load can occur not only as a result of wind action. On sloped roofs there aretwo problems connected with the melting of snow at temperatures slightly below freezing. Firstly,melt water can refreeze on caves and cause high ice loads (also water back-up under shingles). Thiscan at least partly be solved by taking steps to, decrease the heat loss from the upper parts of theroof. Secondly, if a roof slopes and drains on to a lower one, melt water sometimes accumulates byrefreezing on the lower roof or it is retained in the snow.Responsibility of Designer
  • 89. Code requirements for snow loads must necessarily be rather general, and consequently thedesigner should not apply the loads given in the Code without considering the effects of the shapeand exposure of the roof. The designer should, therefore, consider in each case the building site,size and shape, where drifts are likely to occur on the roof drainage, and so on.NNBC 109:1994Masonry: Unreinforced1. Introduction1. NBC 109:1994 Masonry: Unreinforced1.1 IntroductionNepal National Building Code NBC 109:1994 covers the structural design aspect ofunreinforced masonry elements in buildings. It also deals with some aspect of earthquakeresistant design of buildings. Reference to seismic zoning, seismic coefficients, importantfactors and performance coefficients are adopted as per NBC 105-1994: Seismic Design ofBuildings in Nepal.It was quoted in the Code that this code should be read in conjunction with the IndianStandard IS:1905-1987 Code of Practice for Structural Use of Unreinforced Masonry(Third Revision). This provision makes it (Code NBC 109:1994) dependent on IS:1905-1987.Materials used in Masonry construction are taken in accordance with NBC 101-1994Material Specification and masonry units as per NS 1/2035 Brick Masonry.Special considerations for earthquake resistance considered for site consideration weremade as per NBC 108-1994: Site consideration.1.2 DESIGN CONSIDERATION OF DIFFERENT CODES:1.2.1 Building Code Requirements for Masonry Structures (ACI 530-02/ASCE 5-02/TMS402-02)The code provides minimum requirements for the structural design and construction ofmasonry units bedded in mortar using both allowable stress design as well as limit statedesign (strength design) for unreinforced as well as reinforced masonry. The topic onstrength design is a new addition to the previous edition of this code (ACI 530-99/ASCE 5-99/TMS 402-99). In strength design, more emphasis is laid on reinforced masonry thanunreinforced masonry. An empirical design method applicable to buildings meeting specificlocation and construction criteria is also included.
  • 90. 1.2.2 International Building Code 2000The International Building Code 2000 (ICC 2000) is designed to meet the need for modern,up to date building code addressing the design of building systems through requirementsemphasizing performance. The provisions of this code for the design of masonry membershave been borrowed from ACI 530-02/ASCE 5-02/TMS 402 -02.1.2.3 Euro code 6: Design of Masonry StructuresThis code specifies a general basis for the deign of buildings and civil engineering works inunreinforced and reinforced masonry made with clay and concrete masonry units laid inmortar. Limit State Design method has been adopted throughout this code. However, EuroCode 6 does not cover the special requirements of seismic design.1.2.4 Indian Standard – Code of Practice for Structural Use of Unreinforced Masonry (IS:1905-1987)The provisions of this code are similar to those of BS 5628: Part 1:1978. The IndianStandard provides recommendations for structural design aspect of load bearing and nonload bearing walls using unreinforced masonry only. Design procedure adopted throughoutthe code is allowable stress design, along with several empirical formulae. The code refersto IS: 4326 for strengthening unreinforced masonry buildings for seismic resistance anddoes not provide any calculation for the design of reinforcement.1.3 Design PhilosophiesThe specification laid down in clause 5.1 to 5.5.5 of Indian Standard IS:1905-1987 isadopted in this code.The design philosophies of various codes have been compared with regard to their designassumptions and assumed factor safety in following section:1.3.1 Empirical DesignEmpirical rules and formulae for the design of masonry structures were developed byexperience and traditionally, they have been used as a procedure, not as a design analysisfor sizing and proportioning masonry elements. This design procedure is applicable to verysimple structure with limitations on building height proportions and horizontal loads such asdue to wind and earthquake. Indian Standards mixes empirical procedure with allowablestress design method.1.3.2 Allowable stress designAllowable stress design states that under working loads, the stresses developed in a membermust be less than the permissible stresses. In case of unreinforced masonry, it is assumedthat tensile stresses, not exceeding allowable limits, are resisted by the masonry. For thereinforced masonry, tensile of masonry is neglected.
  • 91. 1.3.3 Strength Design of Limit State designStrength design requires that masonry members be proportional such that the design strengthequals or exceeds the required strength. Design strength is the nominal strength multiplied by astrength reduction factor (φ). The procedure has been adopted by the ACI code, IBC 2000 andthe New Zealand code, and more emphasis has been laid on reinforced masonry in all thesethree codes. In these codes, on the basis of the following assumptions, the strength of reinforcedmasonry members is calculated.a. There is strength continuity between the reinforcement, grout and masonry.b. The maximum usable strain (emu) at the extreme masonry compression assumed to be0.0035 for clay masonry and 0.0025 for concrete masonry. The New Zealand code specifiesthat the maximum usable strain will be 0.008 for confined concrete masonry.c. Reinforcement stress below specified yield strength (fy) shall be taken as Es times steelstrain. For strains greater than that corresponding to fy, stress in reinforcement shall be takenequal to fy.d. The tensile strength of masonry shall be neglected in calculating flexural strength but shallbe considered in calculating deflection.1.4 COMPARISON CONCEPTS FOR UNREINFORCED MASONRY1.4.1 Allowable Stress Design1.4.1.1 Axial CompressionAxial compression on masonry arises due to vertical loads, especially from dead load andlive load. Compression tests of masonry prisms are used as the Basis for determiningspecified compressive strength of masonry fm, which is further modified for slenderness,eccentricity, shapes of cross-section, etc. to derive allowable compressive stress values.In ACI code, calculated compressive stress (fa) should be less than the allowablecompressive stress Fa which is obtained by multiplying fm with 0.25 and slenderness ratio, R.The factor 0.25 accounts for material uncertainty and reduces fm to working stress level. R isthe capacity reduction factor for slenderness.Slenderness can affect capacity either as a result of inelastic buckling or because ofadditional bending moments due to the deflection. Applied axial load must be less than 25%of the Euler buckling load. Therefore, according to ACI code, the permissible value isfunction of slenderness ratio whereas the limiting value of axial load depends on bothslenderness ratio as well as eccentricity of the axial load.In IS: 1905 code a stress reduction factor (ks) is multiplied with the basic compressive stressfor slenderness ratio of the element and also the eccentricity of loading. The basiccompressive stress is either determined from prism test values or a standard table which isbased on compressive strength of unit and mortar type.1.4.1.2 Axial Compression with FlexureMasonry members are generally subjected to flexural stresses due to eccentricity of loadingor application of horizontal loads such as wind and earthquake. According to the ACI code,if a member is subjected to bending only, calculated bending compressive stress fb should be
  • 92. less than allowable bending stress fb in masonry, taken as 0.33fm which is 1.33 times thebasic compressive stress allowed for direct loads (0.25fm)IS: 1905 checks bending compression and tensile stresses independently against permissiblevalues. The permissible values for bending compression are obtained first by increasing thebasic compressive stress by 25% and then reducing it for eccentric loading causing flexure.The code provides permissible loads for three eccentricity values: (a) e< t/24, (b)t/24<e<t/6, (c) t/6<e. An applied moment can be converted into equivalent eccentricity.1.4.3 ShearMasonry load bearing walls also act as shear walls to resist in-plane lateral loads due towind or seismic forces. The lateral load carrying capacity of shear wall structures mainlydepends on the in-plane resistances of the shear walls because the in-plane stiffness of ashear wall is far greater than its out-of plane stiffness. Three modes of shear failure inunreinforced masonry are possible:1. Diagonal tension cracks form through the mortar and masonry units.2. Sliding occurs along a straight crack at horizontal bed joints.3. Stepped cracks form, alternating from head joint to bed joint.The ACI code recognizes these modes of failure and addresses them while specifyingpermissible shear stresses. For prevention of diagonal cracks, in-plane shear stress shouldnot exceed 0.125 fm . For sliding failure, the allowable shear stress is based on a Mohr-Coulomb type failure criterion ( τ=c′+σdtanφ ) and to resist failure due to stepped cracks,different values of permissible shear stress are given for various bond pattern of masonry.The IS: 1905 code only takes care of sliding failure by specifying that the permissible shearstress fs = 0.1 + fd/6, which is a Mohr-Coulomb type failure criterion, where fd iscompressive stress due to dead loads in N/mm2.1.4.2 Strength Design or Limit State Design1.4.2.1 Axial CompressionIn ACI code, the nominal axial strength is based on compressive strength of masonrymodified for unavoidable minimum eccentricity and slenderness ratio, in addition to thestrength reduction factor. The expression for effect of slenderness is the same as inallowable stress design.Eurocode 6 also considers the effect of slenderness and eccentricity by using capacityreduction factor. However, this capacity reduction factor is based on eccentricity not only atthe ends of member but also at middle one-fifth; wherever the moment may be maximum.1.4.2.2 Axial Compression with FlexureIn all the codes, the two failure modes of wall considered are parallel and perpendicular tobed joints. The codes require the section to be checked by calculating axial and flexuralstrength.
  • 93. 1.4.2.3 ShearFor ACI code considers the previously discussed three modes of failure in evaluating thenominal shear strength of masonry. Similarly IBC 2000 also considers those factors fordetermining nominal shear strength of masonry and differs only in magnitude from the ACIcode. Eurocode 6 only considers a sliding mode of shear failure and prescribes an equationof Mohr-Coulomb type (Fv = 0.1 +0.4σd).1.5 COMPARISON OF DESIGN CONCEPTS FOR REINFORCED MASONRYReinforced masonry is a construction system where steel reinforcement in the form ofreinforcing bars or mesh is embedded in the mortar or placed in the holes and filled withconcrete or grout. By reinforcing the masonry with steel reinforcement, the resistance toseismic loads and energy dissipation capacity can be improved significantly.1.5.1 Allowable Stress DesignOnly the ACI code contains provisions on allowable stress design for reinforced masonry.1.5.1.1 Axial CompressionIn ACI code, the allowable axial compressive load (Pa) shall not exceed (0.25fmAn+0.65AstFs) R, which is obtained by adding the contribution of masonry and reinforcement. Thecontribution of longitudinal steel is given by the term 0.65AstFs. The coefficient of 0.65 wasdetermined from tests of reinforced masonry columns. The coefficient of 0.25 provides afactor of safety of about 4 against the crushing of masonry. Strength is further modified forslenderness effects by the factor R, which is the same as for unreinforced masonry.1.5.1.2 Axial Compression with FlexureFor combined axial compression and flexure in reinforced masonry, the unity formula forinteraction is not used in designing masonry members. The unity formula is suitable forunreinforced masonry but becomes very conservative for reinforced masonry. Forreinforced masonry emphasis has been to compute nonlinear interaction diagram taking theeffect of reinforcement and compression behavior of masonry into account. The axial load-bending moment interaction diagram is developed using equations and assumptions verysimilar to those used in analysis and design of reinforced concrete members.1.5.1.3 ShearWhen reinforcement is added to masonry, the shear resistance of masonry is increased.Shear reinforcement is effective in providing resistance only if it is designed to carry the fullshear load. According to the ACI code, the minimum shear reinforcement is given by thefollowing:Av =dFVss
  • 94. 1.5.2 Strength Design or Limit State Design1.5.2.1 Axial CompressionThe nominal strength of a member may be calculated using the assumptions of anequivalent rectangular stress block as outlined in the design assumptions. Slenderness effecton axial load carrying capacity is also taken into account except in IBC 2000. In the NewZealand Standards, nominal axial strength of a load bearing wall is given by 0.5fmAgR’,where R’ is equal to [1-(h/40t) 2].1.5.2.2 Axial Compression with FlexureThese design assumptions vary from one code to another. According to the ACI code andIBC 2000, εmu shall be 0.0035 for clay masonry and 0.002 for concrete masonry. In walldesign for out-of-plane loads according to both the codes, the required moment due tolateral loads, eccentricity of axial load and lateral deformation are assumed maximum atmid-height of the wall. In certain design conditions, such as large eccentricities actingsimultaneously with small lateral loads, the design maximum moment may occur elsewhere.In Eurocode 6, it is mentioned that the maximum tensile strain in reinforcement should belimited to 0.01. According to this code, no redistribution of moment is allowed with normalductility steel. In this case, the ratio of depth of neutral axis to the effective depth should notbe greater than 0.4. Redistribution of moments in a continuous beam should be limited to15% when high ductility steel is to be used.The New Zealand Standards, which deals with only concrete masonry, specifies that εmushall be 0.0025 for unconfined masonry and 0.008 for confined masonry. Confinement isprovided to the masonry walls to impart ductility to them.1.5.2.3 ShearShear force is assumed to be resisted by both, masonry and reinforcement.In Eurocode 6, there is a maximum limit to the shear strength provided by masonry andshear reinforcement together, which is given by 0.3 fmbd/γm. It is mentioned in the NewZealand Standards that for masonry members subjected to shear and flexure together withaxial load, the shear stress provided by the masonry shall be multiplied by the factor (1 + 12Pu/Agfm), where P is negative for tension. Resistance to sliding along a potential shearfailure plane is provided by frictional forces between the sliding surfaces. The frictionalforces are proportioned to the coefficient of friction and the total normal force acting acrossthe joint, which may be provided by axial force, Pu, and distributed reinforcement, Avffy.The effective clamping force across the crack will be Avffy + Pu. Thus the dependable shearforce, Vu, which can be transmitted across the crack by shear friction, is φµf (Avffy + Pu).During the placing of grout, if the interface has been intentionally roughened, µf equals 1.0;else µf is taken to be 0.7.1.6. CONCLUSION ON DESIGN CONCEPTAmong the codes studied in this document, only the New Zealand Standards containsprovisions on ductility of masonry structures and confined masonry. Regarding shear, it
  • 95. contains provisions on shear friction reinforcement and also considers the case whenmasonry members are subjected to shear and flexure together with axial tension.IS:1905-1987 provides a semi-empirical approach to the design of unreinforced masonry.The masonry codes of other countries provide detailed provision for the design of reinforcedmasonry members. NBC109:1994 should adopt IS :1905-1987 and should be independentcode.REFERENCESNBC 109:1994, Nepal National Building Code, Masonry: UnreinforcedACI 530-02/ASCE 5-02/TMS 402-02, (2002), Building Code Requirements forMasonry Structures, Masonry Standards Joint Committee, USA.ACI 530-99/ASCE 5-99/TMS 402-99, (1999), Building Code Requirements forMasonry Structures, Masonry Standards Joint Committee, USA.BS 5628: Part 1, (1978), Code of practice for structural use of masonry, Part 1Unreinforced masonry, British Standards InstitutionEurocode 6, (1996), Design of Masonry Structures – Part 1-1: General rules forbuildings – Rules for Reinforced and Unreinforced Masonry, EuropeanCommittee for Standardization, Brussels.Review of Design Codes for Masonry BuildingsIITK-GSDMA-EQ10-V1.0 15International Building Code 2000, (2000), International Code Council, Virginia,USA.IS:1905-1987, (1987), Indian Standard Code of Practice for Structural Use ofUnreinforced Masonry, Bureau of Indian Standards, New Delhi.Masonry Designer’s Guide, (Third Edition), The Masonry Society.NZS 4230 Parts 1 & 2: 1990, (1990), Code of Practice for the Design of ConcreteMasonry Structures and Commentary, Standards Association of New Zealand,Wellington, New Zealand.SP 20(S & T): 1991, (1991), Handbook on Masonry Design and Construction, Bureauof Indian Standards, New Delhi.APPENDIX: List of symbolsAg Gross cross-sectional area of masonryAn Net cross-sectional area of masonryAs Total area of longitudinal reinforcing steel in a reinforced masonry wall, column or pilasterAv Cross section area of shear reinforcementAvf Area of shear friction reinforcementa Depth of equivalent compression zone at nominal strengthb Width of sectionbw Effective web widthc Distance from extreme compression fiber to neutral axisd Distance from extreme compression fiber to centroid of tension reinforcementdv Actual depth of masonry in direction of shear consideredEm Modulus of elasticity of masonry in compressione Eccentricityea Accidental eccentricityehi Eccentricity resulting from horizontal loads at top or bottom of wallehm Eccentricity at mid-height resulting from horizontal loads
  • 96. emk Eccentricity in the middle one-fifth of the wallek Eccentricity due to creepeu Eccentricity of PufFa Allowable compressive stresses due to axial load onlyFb Allowable compressive stresses due to bending onlyFs Allowable tensile or compressive stress in reinforcementFv Allowable shear stress in masonryfa Calculated compressive stresses due to axial load onlyfb Calculated compressive stresses due to flexure onlyfm Specified compressive strength of masonryfr Mean compressive strength of mortarfxk Characteristic flexural strength of masonryfu Compressive strength of masonry unitfu Compressive strength of masonry unitfxk1 Characteristic flexural strength in plane of failure parallel to bed jointsfxk2 Characteristic flexural strength in plane of failure perpendicular to bed jointsfy Specified yield strength of steel for reinforcementfyk Characteristic strength of steelh Effective height of columns, walls or pilastersh″ Dimension of confined masonry core measured perpendicular to the direction of confiningplate being consideredIn Moment of inertia of net cross-sectional area of a memberL Length of a panel between supportslc Length of compressed part of wall, ignoring any part of wall that is in tensionM Maximum moment at the section under considerationMcr Nominal cracking moment strengthMd Design momentMi Design moment at top or bottom of wall resulting from eccentricity of floor load at supportMm Design moment within the middle one-fifth of the wallMn Nominal moment strengthMu Factored momentNv Compressive force acting normal to shear surfaceP Axial loadPa Allowable compressive force in reinforced masonry due to axial loadPe Euler buckling loadPd Design axial strengthPi Design vertical load at top or bottom of the wallPm Design vertical load at middle one-fifth of the wallPn Nominal axial strengthPu Factored axial loadPuf Factored load from tributary floor or roof areasPuw Factored weight of wall area tributary to wall section under considerationPvf Factored axial load normal to cross-section occurring with Vu, taken positive forcompression and negative for tensionR Slenderness reduction factors Spacing of shear reinforcementt Thickness of wallV Shear forceVd Design value of applied shear loadVm Shear strength provided by masonryVn Nominal shear strength
  • 97. Vs Shear strength provided by reinforcementVu Factored shear force at sectionvi Total shear stress corresponding to Vivm Allowable shear stress of masonryZ Section modulus of wallα Bending moment coefficient depending on µ, degree of fixity at edge of panels andaspect ratio of panelsΦi,m Capacity reduction factorsφ Strength reduction factorsδu Deflection due to factored loadsεmu Maximum compressive strain in masonryµ Orthogonal ratio of characteristic flexural strengths of masonry, fxk1/fxk2µf Coefficient of frictionγf Partial safety factor for loadsγm Partial safety factor for materialsγs Partial safety factor for steelθ Angle of shear reinforcement to the axis of the memberσd Permanent vertical stress on wallωu Factored out-of-plane uniformly distributed loadφ∞ Final creep coefficientNEPAL NATIONAL BUILDING CODENBC 114:1994CONSTRUCTION SAFETYThe purpose of this standard is to provide reasonable degree of safety to construction relatedpersonnel in building and civil construction works. The provision in this standard are the minimumrequirements that are to be adopted during building and other civil construction or demolition work.This standard covers provisions for the health and safety of workers in building construction anddemolition work, planning for fire protection and any use of special materials such as chemicalsand blasting materials.In the code, in terminology, definitions are given which can arranged in alphabetical manner.In material handling, it is explained about material storage with safety.In the code, exact number of requirement should be provided not in tentative or just inadequatenumber for example First aid facility including an adequate number of stretchers shall bemaintained at site during execution of all types of construction and demolition works.For the fire fighting equipment also, the number of pieces should be maintained in the code, but notin general terms as “adequate number” of fire fighting equipment .In the code, the safety measurements are given for site preparation, Earthworks in Excavations,construction of foundations, construction of walls, construction of roofs, electrical works,temporary works, demolition of structures, use of explosives, labour welfare. It is maintained that“appropriate and adequate” precaution or measures shall be taken maintained in the code but itshould be maintained in detailed with exact explanation.
  • 98. NNBC 108: 1994SITE CONSIDERATION FOR SEISMIC HAZARDSThis document sets out some of the factors to be considered during site selection for buildings inorder to minimize the risks to the buildings from both primary and secondary seismic hazards.It also outlines the fundamental requirements for site investigation for the foundation design ofbuildings.Site consideration has been considered with considering the potential of fault rupture hazard,liquefaction, landslides and slope instability basic general concept.Necessary mitigation measures should be taken to minimize the potential risk.For the site investigation basic questions are given to address:- Is there any danger of inherent natural susceptibility of the land to the process of sliding anderosion?- Will the construction adversely affect the existing conditions and trigger landslide, erosion, landsubsidence, pore pressure generation due to blockage of or otherwise the sub-surface flow ofwater; will the construction adversely affect the water table?- What will be the extent of settlement of the building?- Is the sub-surface capable of taking the load due to the proposed construction?- Is there any other natural/geological process likely to threaten the integrity of the building?- What are the possible engineering solution for ensuring stability of the building foundation inview of the identified condition?Answering these questions will make necessity of additional site investigation including subsurfaceexploration, in-situ and laboratory testing, geophysical surveys and testing, probing etc.Extent of site exploration depends upon the geological and geomorphological nature of the terrain,and on the importance of the building.Depth of exploration is based on the geological conditions at the site e.g. the depth and type ofsubsurface soil, depth of weathering, the depth of ground water fluctuation, the depth of frost actionetc.For the analysis of liquefaction susceptibility, the actual requirement of the depth of explorationshall be mentioned.Determination of allowable bearing pressure and foundation design should be recommended as pergood engineering practice.
  • 99. NNBC 201:1994Mandatory rules of thumbReinforced concrete buildings with masonryThe objective of these mandatory rules of thumb (MRT) is to achieve the appropriate earthquakeresistant design of those buildings in Nepal which are:- not normally engineered- constructed of fired brick or stone masonry in cement or mud mortars- not more than two stories high if built in stone masonry in cement mortar or fired brick in mudmasonry- not more than three storeys high if built or fired brick in a cement mortar.LimitationsThe MRT only intends to achieve minimum acceptable structural safety, though it is alwayspreferable to undertake specific design.Non engineered buildingsThe term non engineered buildings may be defined as describing those buildings which arespontaneously and informally constructed in the traditional manner without intervention byqualified engineers or architects in their design. However, they may follow a set ofrecommendations derived from the observed behaviour of such buildings.The main objective of the Mandatory Rules of MRT is to provide ready to use dimensions anddetails for various structural elements for upto three storey reinforced concrete (RC), framedordinary residential buildings commonly built by owner builders in Nepal using brick infill walls.Design guidelines presented in the MRT are the ordinary residential buildings with the seismiccoefficient of 0.128 (equivalent to seismic zone C ). However, if a buildings in all other respectscomplied with the MRT were to be constructed in higher seismic zone, it would be expected tohave a better earthquake resistance than that of a similar non-engineered construction undertakensolely with the advice of craftsmen.In selection and investigation of site, it is recommended not to construct the buildings if theproposed site is water logged, a rock falling area, a landslide prone area, a subsidence and/ fill area,a river bed or swamp area.As per MRT it is given that site exploration shall be carried out by test pit two as minimum with thedepth of 2m. No exploration shall be required if the site is on rock or fluvial terraces with boulderbeds.METHOD OFANALYSISMost national codes recognize that structures with simple and regular geometry perform well duringearthquakes, and unsymmetrical placement of masonry infill walls may introduce irregularities into them.These codes permit static analysis methods for regular short buildings located in regions of low seismicity.NBC -201 adopts analysis procedure in which axial forces in the frame members are estimated by assuminga pin-jointed frame and representing masonry infill by compression diagonal struts. A method of distributing
  • 100. the lateral shear force on various masonry infill walls in a story is specified in the code, which depends uponthe seismic base shear on the frame and cross-sectional and material properties of masonry infill and RCframe members.The masonry infill wall in such structures are intended to resist seismic loads elastically inmoderate or severe earthquakes. However, in very large earthquakes, the infill walls could beseverely damaged. For such an event, steel is provided in the walls to reduce the risk to occupantsof the building from the uncontrolled collapse of the walls under shear loads. Seismic loads willhave to be resisted mostly by frame alone. Frame has been designed to resist the gravity loads andhas been for ductility,EMPIRICAL FORMULAE FOR NATURAL PERIODSeveral codes—IS-1893 (2002); NBC-105(1994); Algerian code 1988; suggest using an empirical formulato calculate the natural period of masonry infill wall with RC frame structure Ta.dhTa 09.0=Where h is the height of the building and d is the base dimension of building at the plinth levelalong the considered direction of the lateral force.In the Nepal code NBC-201 (1995), eccentricity between center of mass and center of rigidity along eachprincipal direction is limited to 10% of the building dimension along that direction. The above requirementmay be satisfied by adjusting thicknesses of walls.LATERAL DISPLACEMENT AND INTER STORY DRIFTLateral deformations at various levels in masonry infill -RC frame buildings depend upon the distribution ofMI walls in buildings. If more walls are present at the base, lateral deformations will be less and evenlydistributed along the height of buildings. On the other hand, if more walls are present on the upper stories,then lateral deformations will be concentrated at the bottom, where stories are lesser infilled. Lateraldeformations and interstory drift will also depend upon the ductility and damping of buildings.A few national codes, such as Eurocode 8 (2003), NBC-105 (1994), have restricted the interstory drift ratiofor masonry infill RC frames to about 1%. These drift ratios are calculated using displacements obtainedfrom elastic forces, which are amplified. FEMA-306 , ATC (1999) recommends the following inter storydrift limit states for different solid panels: for brick masonry, 1.5%; for grouted concrete block masonry,2.0%; and for ungrouted concrete block masonry, 2.5%. However, there is a concern that these values aretoo large and further experimental studies are needed to verify these limit states.STRENGTH OF MASONRY INFILLEffect of Openings in Masonry Infill on StrengthNepal code NBC-201 (1994) also requires masonry infill to be modeled as diagonal struts, withoutspecifying their cross-sectional properties. A minimum wall thickness of half brick is allowed to be used asinfill.Strength Associated with Out-of-Plane Collapse of Masonry InfillsAccording to the Nepal code NBC-201 (1994), only those walls with an opening area less than 10% of thegross panel area are considered as resisting seismic loads.Openings shall be outside the restricted zone and if these openings are located inside the middle two-thirdsof a panel, then they need to be strengthened by providing RC elements around them . RC tie beams at boththe top and bottom of openings along the full length and width of the wall, and vertical elements on bothsides of the opening shall be provided with longitudinal reinforcement of two bars of 8 mm diameter. Shear
  • 101. reinforcement in the form of minimum 6 mm diameter bars at every 150 mm is required in the elements.Such strengthening elements are not required for openings in a nonsignificant area.STIFFNESS OF MASONRY INFILLMasonry infill walls are laterally much stiffer than RC frames, and therefore, the initial stiffness of the MI-RC frames largely depends upon the stiffness of masonry infill. Stiffness of MI-RC frames significantlydepends on the distribution of MI in the frame. Generally, the MI-RC frames with regular distribution ofmasonry infill in plan as well as along height are stiffer than the irregular MI-RC frames. Lateral stiffness ofMI-RC frames reduces with the presence of openings in infills; however, this issue has not been addressedby the codes.Eurocode 8 (2003), Nepal code NBC-201 (1994), and FEMA-306 recommend modeling the masonry infillas equivalent diagonal struts. However, Eurocode 8 and Nepal code do not specify the width of strut.Nepal code specifies the modulus of elasticity of masonry infill as 2,400 to 3,000 MPa for various grades ofmortar. On the other hand, FEMA-306 recommends using modulus of elasticity as 550 times the masonryprism strength in the absence of tests. As per FEMA-306, the only masonry walls assumed to providestiffness are those that are in full contact with RC frames, or those that are structurally connected to RCframes.Code NBC 201 recommended the structural detailing for the building as specified in figure 1. Material gradeis taken M15 for the structural elements..Figure 1CONCLUSIONSInfilled frames also tend to be substantially stronger, but less deformable, than identical bare frames. Insymmetric buildings with vertically continuous infilled frames, the increased stiffness and strength mayprotect a building from damage associated with excessive lateral drift or inadequate strength. Because of itshigher stiffness, infill panels may attract significantly greater forces that may lead to premature failure ofinfill, and possibly of the whole structure. Therefore, it is essential for designers to consider the effects ofinfills in the design of RC buildings.The codes restrict the amount of eccentricity between center of mass and center of rigidity to safeguard thebuilding components against the adverse effects of plan irregularities. National codes specify lower values ofresponse reduction factors for MI-RC frame buildings as compared to the buildings without MI, such thatMI frames are required to be designed for 1.15–3 times the design forces for the corresponding bare frames.Lower value of response reduction factor is considered for MI-RC frames because of lower ductility and a
  • 102. higher degree of uncertainty and seismic vulnerability associated with MI. A few codes have specifiedlimitations on the elastic and inelastic deformations and interstory drift ratio of MI-RC frames for damagelimitation requirements.Few codes recommend modeling MI using equivalent diagonal struts; however, the required sectionalproperties for the struts are not specified. Strength and stiffness of MI reduces with the presence of openings.Various ways of reducing the damage in MI due to openings have been discussed.In few codes, e.g., framing the openings using RC elements, full strength and stiffness of MI is not utilizedwhen out-of-plane collapse of infills takes place. A few codes specify limits on slenderness ratio (ratio oflength or height to thickness) to prevent outof- plane failure of masonry infill. Some national codesrecommend using light wire mesh and RC tie-bands along the length of walls at various locations to avoidout-of plane collapse of MI.In NNBC 201, it is demonstrated the examples for the building structure for maximum three storey and spanlength not more than 4.5 m. It can not be used for other structure not following these parameters.NNBC 202:1994Load Bearing Masonry BuildingsApplicabilityThese mandatory rules of thumb (MRT) cover load bearing masonry buildings. They do not coverwooden buildings, mud buildings (low strength buildings) or those constructed in adobe.LimitationsThis MRT is valid (with certain limitations as to span, floor height, etc., as prescribed in Table 1.1) for :i) Up to three-storeyed load-bearing brick (and other rectangular building units) masonrybuildings constructed in cement mortars.ii) Up to two-storeyed load-bearing stone masonry buildings constructed in cement mortar.iii) Up to two-storeyed load-bearing brick masonry buildings constructed in mud mortar.However, these limitations shall not bar anyone wishing to employ qualified professionals to producean appropriate design. Structures falling outside these limitations will require the appropriate specificdesign.Floor Min. WallThickness(mm)Max. Height(m)Max. short span offloor(m)Cantilever(m)2nd 230 2.8 3.5 1.01st230 3.0 3.5 1.0Load-Bearing BrickMasonry in Cement MortarGround 350 3.2 3.5 No1st230 3.0 3.2 NoLoad-Bearing StoneMasonry in CementMortar, or Load-BearingBrick Masonry in MudMortarGround 350 3.2 3.2 NoThe refers to the General Construction Aspects as Opening in walls, Masonry Bond ,Mortars and ConcreteVertical Joints Between Orthogonal WallsFor convenience of construction, builders prefer to make a toothed joint which is later often left hollowand weak. To obtain full bond, it is necessary to make a sloped or stepped joint. It should be constructed
  • 103. so as to obtain full bond by making the corners first to a height of 600 mm, and then building the wall inbetween them. Alternatively, the toothed joint shall be made in both the walls in lifts of about 450 mm.Roof BandThis band shall be provided at the eave-level of trussed roofs (Figure 8.2) and also below gable levelson such floors which consist of joists and covering elements - so as to integrate them properly at theirends and fix them into the walls. Gable Band  Masonry gable ends must have the triangular portion of masonry enclosed in a band, the horizontal partof which will be continuous with the eave-level band on the adjacent longitudinal walls .Vertical Reinforcement in WallsSteel bars shall be installed at the critical sections (ie., the corners of walls, junctions of walls, andjambs of doors) right from the foundation concrete. They shall be covered with cement concrete incavities made around them during the masonry construction. This concrete mix should be kept to 1:2:4by volume, or richer.The vertical steel at openings may be stopped by embedding it into the lintel band, but the vertical steelat the corners and junctions of walls must be taken into either the floor and roof slabs or the roof band.NNBC 203:1994GUIDELINES FOR EARTHQUAKE RESISTANT BUILDINGCONSTRUCTION: LOW STRENGTH MASONRYThis document provides basic guidelines for the earthquake resistance of low- strength masonryconstruction.1. BackgroundThe devastating earthquakes in the past have proved the vulnerability of most of thevernacular buildings of Nepal. Enormous life and property were lost due to the collapse ofbuildings which LSM as the their main load-bearing element. Earthquakes can neither beprevented nor predicted precisely. But the large-scale destruction can be minimized byemploying seismic-resistant measures in buildings. This can be achieved by the use ofexisting building materials in appropriate ways. This Guideline for Earthquake-ResistantBuilding Construction : Low Strength Masonry shows the improved techniques that canraise the level of seismic safety of low strength masonry buildings.2. LimitationLSM buildings required to conform to this standard shall not exceed two storeys in heightwith an additional attic floor.The guideline provides details for foundations, walls, opening in the walls, structure (postand capitals), and roof details for low strength masonry buildings.The guidelins also recommend harvesting and preserving bamboo for construction, fireresistant treatment for thach roof.NNBC 204: 1994GUIDELINES FOR EARTHQUAKE RESISTANT BUILDING CONSTRUCTION:EARTHEN BUILDING
  • 104. IntroductionThis guideline is prepared in order to raise the seismic safety of earthen buildings. This is intended to beimplemented by the owner/builder with some assistance from technicians. This could also act as a basicguideline for architectural design and construction detailing of Earthen Buildings (EB).This Guideline for Earthquake-Resistant Building Construction : Earthen Buildings provides theimproved techniques that can raise the level of seismic safety of earthen buildings.The guideline provides the details of planning, foundation , wall and roof details.NNBC 205MANDATORY RULES OF THUMBREINFORCED CONCRETE BUILDINGS WITHOUT INFILLIn this NNBC 205 , structural detailed has been presented for the three storeyed building example.This code is same as NNBC 201 REINFORCED CONCRETE BUILDINGS WITH INFILL butwithout infill. Generally building contains infill wall, so we have to consider the infill also in RCconstruction.
  • 105. Appendix-6: NBC 110, 111, 112, 113, 114:1994NBC-110:1994 Plain and Reinforced concrete MaterialNNBC 110:1994 comprises the Indian Code IS 456-1978 Code of Practice for Plain andReinforced Concrete (Third Revision) amended so as to meet the conditions of Nepal. Inparticular, these amendments were made to ensure compatibility with NNBC 105-94: SeismicDesign of Buildings in Nepal. The Code contains the amendments that were felt necessary to IS456-1978 for its use in Nepal.Most of the references in IS 456-1978 to Indian material Codes had been left unaltered and itwas stated that any subsequent revisions to IS 456-1978 will not be applicable to NNBC 110-94until specifically recognised and updated.The Code mostly contains the alteration, replacement, deletion and additions to IS 456-1978The Table 12 provided the values of partial safety factors of various combinations of loads. Onemore combination DL + 0.9 WL is suggested to be added.When considering earthquake effects, the load combination requires WL to be replaced with EL.The amendments to IS 456-1978 are limited to Structural Design with Working Stress Methodonly. No further amendment is given.Further there is a felt need to consider for inclusion of• Limit State Method• Cantilever slab Design (slab with 3 side support)• Various types of slabs with necessary coefficients αx, αy, βx, βy and provide a table ofvariables.• Pre-stressed Concrete should be included• Pre-cast Structures should be made• Adequate detailing of reinforced steel should be shown in NNBC to meet Earthquake Codes.NBC-111:1994 SteelThe Code comprises the Indian Code IS 800-1984: General Construction in Steel (SecondRevision) with amendments as set out to ensure compatibility with NBC for Seismic Design ofBuildings in Nepal. References to Indian material codes have been left unaltered until such timeas appropriate Nepal Standards are developed. Extensive use of the New Zealand Standards NZS3404: 1977 Code for Design of Steel Structures has been made.The Code is designated as NEPAL AMENDMENTS TO IS 800 – 1984 and mostly comprise ofreplacement of terminology and references. The Code applies to general construction in steel butexcludes structures such as bridges, cranes, tanks, transmission towers and masts, and materialsless than 3 mm thick and cold-formed light gauge sections.The Code has made provisions for Seismic Design that include parameters as Ductile Moment-Resisting Frames and Ductile Braced Framed.
  • 106. NBC-112:1994 TimberThis Code covers the general principle of design of structural timber and includes specifications,classification of timber species and nail joint in timber construction.The code is based on Indian Standard IS: 883-1970: Structural Timber in Building (Thirdrevision) and IS: 2366-1983: Nail-Jointed Timber Construction (First Revision).The Code does not cover anti-termite timber, plywood, and timber pile foundation.The Code could be considered as comprehensive since it contains data and information ongeneral characteristics of timber species as durability, basic stress, Moisture Content, sizes ofSawn Timber, Data for Nailed Joints, bolted joints, and Glue Laminated Timber..The Code has made Design Considerations which include additional requirement of capacity forsustaining the worst combination of all loadings apart from the requirement of IS Code.NBC-113:1994 AluminumThe document referred to as a series of guidelines intended only for design of simple aluminumstructures. Currently use of Aluminum as a structural material in Nepal is very limited and aCode has not been prepared. For actual design, the Codes from other countries should bereferred.The Guidelines include structural properties as Strength, Modulus of Elasticity, Creep, ThermalExpansion and Contraction, Fatigue, Corrosion Protection, Fabrication, Welding, MechanicalJointing, and Heating.The code states the designers should refer to other codes if actual design.In general it is assumed that the Code requires updating with indication of various properties ofaluminum with appropriate formula to allow proper design of aluminum structure. The use ofAluminum in structures other than Buildings such as aircraft engineering and lightweight thinshell structures related to Aero dynamical aspects for design consideration should also beincluded. Supplementary examples of design and drawings will be very useful.NBC 114:1994 CONSTRUCTION SAFETYThe purpose of this standard is to provide reasonable degree of safety to construction relatedpersonnel in building and civil construction works. The provisions in this code are the minimumrequirements that are to be adopted during building and other civil construction or demolitionwork.This standard covers provisions for the health and safety of workers in building construction anddemolition work, planning for fire protection and any use of special materials such as chemicalsand blasting materials.In terminology, definitions are given which can be arranged in alphabetical manner.In material handling, it is explained about material storage with safety.First aid facility including an adequate number of stretchers shall be maintained at site duringexecution of all types of construction and demolition works.
  • 107. For the fire fighting equipment, the number of pieces should be maintained in the code, not likeadequate fire fighting equipment should be provided as maintained in the code.In the code safety measurements are given for site preparation, Earthworks in Excavations,construction of foundations, construction of walls, construction of roofs, electrical works,temporary works, demolition of structures, use of explosives, labour welfare. It is maintainedappropriate and adequate precaution or measures shall be taken maintained in the code but itshould be maintained in detailed with exact explanation.
  • 108. Appendix 7- Review of Fire Safety Codes1. Recent Fire Incidents............................................................................................................ 22. Reasons of Fire...................................................................................................................... 33. Background, Objectives and Purpose................................................................................ 4a. Background.............................................................................................................................................................................4b. Main Objective.....................................................................................................................................................................4c. Purpose of Fire Codes...................................................................................................................................................4d. Compliance to the Fire Code of Nepal.........................................................................................................44. Methodology......................................................................................................................... 5a. Critical study and review..........................................................................................................................................5b. Consultation meetings with major stakeholders...............................................................................55. Fire Safety Requirements In Building Codes - An Overview........................................ 56. Fire Safety Requirements In Other Sector Codes - An Overview ................................. 7a. Fire Safety of City fuel stations............................................................................................................................77. International Trends And Practices................................................................................... 7a. Existing Buildings and Structures....................................................................................................................7b. Unsafe Buildings................................................................................................................................................................7c. Water Supply for Fire Fighting...........................................................................................................................8d. Fire Fighting Shafts .........................................................................................................................................................8e. Width of Escape Stairs..................................................................................................................................................8f. Evacuation Strategies....................................................................................................................................................9g. Evacuation Using Lifts.................................................................................................................................................9h. Dry Riser....................................................................................................................................................................................9i. Emergency Lighting and System.......................................................................................................................9j. Escape Lighting...................................................................................................................................................................9k. Fire Resistance Rating...................................................................................................................................................9l. Fire Stop....................................................................................................................................................................................10m. Means of Egress................................................................................................................................................................108. Comparison of Fire Safety Codes..................................................................................... 109. Special Consideration ........................................................................................................ 11a. Fire fighting in High Rise Buildings ............................................................................................................1110. Local Regulations and Organisations.............................................................................. 11a. Local Governance Act.................................................................................................................................................11b. Tenth Development Plan.........................................................................................................................................11c. Building Byelaw for Municipalities in KV, 2007..............................................................................12d. Building Byelaws for High Rise Buildings............................................................................................12e. Fire Fighters Voluntary Association of Nepal....................................................................................12f. Firefighters volunteer Association of Nepal (FAN, www.fan.org.np) is a non-governmental organization established in year 2000 with objectives ofcreating awareness among the public about fire and drawing attention of theconcerned authorities on this matter. .........................................................................................................1211. Structural Fire Engineering............................................................................................... 1212. Qualifications, Experience, and Responsibilities Of Fire Protection Services........... 1313. Fire Protection and Prevention Act ................................................................................. 13
  • 109. Review of NNBC 207: Fire Safety Codes1. Recent Fire IncidentsFire Hazard in Nepal is one of most common features of disasters. Mostly during the dryseason in Nov – June, several fire disaster events were reported in media. According toJudha Varuna Yantra, the oldest and only public fire-fighting unit in Kathmandu, there isone fire incident every day.Some of the recent events are quoted herewith:• Apr 01 09: Separate fires that spread in Tikuliya and Bishahariya villagesWednesday afternoon have gutted at least 150 houses in Saptari district. The fire hasrendered some four dozen families homeless and destroyed property estimated to beworth NRR 12 million. Fire started about 1 pm today from a fire-hearth. It wasspread quickly due to a windy weather.• Mar 25 09: About 185 Yaks have been killed and a Yak-herd has gone missing in awild fire that spread in the forests of eastern mountainous district Sankhuwasabha.The misfortune occurred when a wildfire that started from Thotanekhola a few daysago had spread to Jumlingkharka and Aibhakhkharka. Wangduk Sherpa of Taplejungwho had gone to tend the Yaks has gone missing after the fire.• 18 Mar 2009 Tuesday: The Fire at Ratna Rajya Campus in Kathmandu destroyeddocuments including degree certificates. It was not clear what caused the fire.• On March 12, 2009, the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS)on NASA’s Aqua satellite caught a glimpse of a relatively rare event: large–scaleforest fires in the Himalaya Mountains of Nepal. Places where the sensor detectedactive fires are outlined in red. The numerous small fires in southern Nepal may notbe wildfires, but rather agricultural or other land-management fires. Nepal commonlyexperiences some small forest fires each spring, which is the end of the dry seasonthere. However, conditions during the fall and winter of 2008 and 2009 wereunusually dry, and fires set by poachers to flush game may have gotten out ofcontrol.• 02 March 2008. A fire that swept the Goldhap refugee camp left homeless more than10,000 Bhutanese refugees and more than 1,300 makeshift homes were destroyed.Four people were seriously injured in the fire, and dozens suffered minor injuries. Itwas unclear what sparked the blaze.• Mar 01 09: At least one person has been burnt alive and over 200 houses gutted byfire in various parts of the country on Saturday. Sukraraj Yoktangden of SubhangVDC in Panchthar died when he got trapped in a raging fire in Salleri forest as hewas returning home from work. The fire that started three days ago has still not comein control. In another incident, five people have been reportedly killed in fire inMyagdi. The names of the deceased and the extent of damage are not known. Thefire started from a house at 8 pm. Some 200 houses belonging to 76 families ofMahuwa Tole in Saptari’s Chhinnamasta VDC were gutted and property worth Rs 15million damaged when the fire spread from the house of a local, Laxmi Raut,Saturday morning. With the advent of the dry season coupled by the prolonged dryspell, incidents of fire have been frequent in the recent days. An entire village inKapilvastu with about 80 houses had been reduced to a pile of ashes by fire only aweek ago.
  • 110. • On Feb 14, 2009, at least one person was killed and six others injured when a gas-operated passenger van they were traveling on caught fire at Mugling in westernNepal Saturday morning.• On Feb 13, 2009, at least 42 houses were destroyed in a fire breakout at SankarpurVDC in Sarlahi district allegedly set fire by a group of people from a neighbouringvillage. Every year several villages in Terai are subject to fire hazard resulting inhuge toll of life and property.• Jan 2009, Nepalganj. The recent fire of Nepal Police commercial building inNepalganj is another example.• April 10, 2008. At least 522 families on Tuesday rendered homeless when 1,169houses caught fire in four wards of the Belhi Chapena Village DevelopmentCommittee (VDC) in Saptari district with an estimated property loss worth NRS. 30million.• Dec 9, 2002 Sunday evening. Myanglung Bazar, the district headquarters ofTehrathum District, was engulfed with fire. About 300 families were renderedhomeless and property worth NRs 2 billion reduced to a cinder, after a blazing firegutted down at least 80 houses and several government offices.2. Reasons of FireVarious fire incidents observed mentioned above are clearly indicated the reasons ofFire. Some of the important reasons are as follows:• Windy weather and dry season induced fire which is aggravated by:o lack of proper planning,o inadequate fire reserve between adjacent houseso houses made of inflammable materials as thatch roof, bamboo partition• Relatively rare event: large–scale forest fires, wild Fire in forests• Blackout induced fire that caught due to negligence of house owner• Blackout induced Fire that caught due to accident with burning candles, incense andoil lamp burning• Fire was aggravated since the access for Fire Fighting Vehicle was found blockedwith parking of vehicles, motorbikes, street vendors• Accidental sparks from carelessly thrown cigarette butts• Electrical short circuit• Lack of safety measures in handling inflammable fuel• Lack of Safety code on use of Gas Cylinder• Fire induced by criminal activities• Unknown Reasons• Fire-fighting preparedness is not a priority for the government compared toearthquakes• Fire Vulnerability of existing building stock is not known and not regulated• Unsafe Buildings were not identified• Fire safety of Gas Depots, Fuel Depots and stations, and Industries are notconsidered.
  • 111. 3. Background, Objectives and Purposea. BackgroundAccording to the National Census 2001, about 14 % of the total population of Nepallives in urban areas, and this figure is expected to reach 24 % in next ten years. Besides58 municipalities, there are 132 towns in Nepal among which, many towns are likely tobe transformed into municipalities. Due to various services, facilities and opportunities incities, the rate of migration from rural to urban areas in Nepal has sharply increasedbecause of which the existing, limited social and physical infrastructures in cities areunder added pressure. The study review and comments relating to NNBC 107 Fire Safetywere undertaken in very short duration and was not comprehensive as it should be due tothe time limitation.b. Main ObjectiveThe main objectives of fire safety design of buildings should be:Assurance of life safety, protection of property and continuity of operationsor functioningBuilding awareness among the designers for recognition of the type ofdanger posed by each component of building and allows him to incorporateeffective counter-measures, andTo confine a hostile fire to a room or area of its origin.c. Purpose of Fire CodesIn developed countries, the Fire Codes are made to provide minimum design regulationsto safeguard life, health, property, public welfare from fire hazard and to minimizeinjuries by regulating and controlling the building permit process, design, construction,quality of materials, use and occupancy, location and maintenance of all buildings andstructures within the jurisdiction and certain equipment specifically regulated herein.Likewise, various kinds of new materials as roofing, walls, doors and false ceiling, wallpanels and other interior finishing materials are being increasingly used which are basedon inflammable materials as plastics. This has brought new fire and life safetychallenges.d. Compliance to the Fire Code of NepalThe Fire Safety Code of Nepal (NNBC 107) was introduced in 1994 but not muchexperience has been gained from this code since the code has hardly been practiced andnone of the building permits issued so far was subject to the compliance of Fire SafetyCode. These codes were not been integrated into the Building Permit proceduresfollowed by the Municipalities.This Report has been prepared keeping in view the objectives, terms of reference andmethodology to be adopted, as laid down in the Inception Report (December 31, 2008).
  • 112. 4. MethodologyFor preparation of this report on Fire Code, the following methodology was followed:a. Critical study and reviewCritical study and review of the provisions relating to:Fire safety and fire protection in Nepal National Building Code (NNBC). The reportcontains comments on the existing deficiencies/inadequacies in the document andcompared with the International Codes as National Building Code of India,International Fire Code, International Building Code and Ontario Building Code.The Urban Development Byelaws of Kathmandu Valley Town DevelopmentCommittee 2007,Local Self Governance Act of Nepal, 1996 and Regulations 1997.b. Consultation meetings with major stakeholdersConsultation meetings with major stakeholders as DUDBC, ERRRP/UNDP, KMC,LSMC, SCAEF, NEA, SEANEP, NSET, SEEN, SOPHEN, SOMEN, CAN, FCAN,FNCCI/CCI, Chief Fire Officers, Water and Sanitation Authority, Licensed Designers ofMunicipalities and other Civil Societies.Feb 5, 2009 ERRRP/UNDP: Present: SEANEP, SEEN, FCAN, NSET, NEC, SCAEF,IOE, KathECFeb 9, 2009 LSMC EQ Safety Section: Licensed DesignersConsultation with secondary stakeholders as Department of Forest, Contractors’Association, was not carried out due to time limitations5. Fire Safety Requirements In Building Codes - An OverviewThose responsible for Building Codes formulation recognize the need for a modern andup-to-date Fire Code addressing conditions hazardous to life and property from:Fire, explosion, use of hazardous materials, andChange in occupancies of buildings and premises.The Fire Safety Code of Nepal National Building Code (NBC 107) has made certainlimited provisional recommendation on Fire Safety and covers ordinary buildings. Itdeals only with the minimum requirements of:Fire PlacesFire ExtinguishersStorage of Water for Fire ExtinguishingNeed for demarcation of fire zonesGeneral Requirements for Provision of:o Proper Accesso Wide Doorso Fire Escape Ways –Exit Doors, Fire Escapes for buildings with 5 storeys andhigher, Fire Stairso Open Space
  • 113. o Access to a Building should be 4m wide to facilitate unconstrained movement ofFire engineo Lightning Arresters/Conductors.The need for application of higher levels of firesafety in the designs by following other relevant[international] reference, Standards or Codes isstrongly cited.The Indian Standards have developed a series ofFire related codes which are listed in the Box.IS 1642-Materials and Construction has provided Specification of materials, structuralcomponents, and construction type based on the Fire Resistance Grading ranging fromType 1 (6 hrs) to Type 5(½ hrs). The Indian Codes further specified the requirements forconsideration of fire hazard form exposure to fire, personal hazard, specific structuresrelated as Chimneys, flues, hearths etc., electrical installation. Non-electricalinstallations, fire fighting equipment, and Fire proof doors.The British Codes (BS 476-Fire Tests on Buildings and Structures) have also specifiedthe methods for Fire Tests on buildings and structures.The International Fire Code (IFC) published by International Code Council is muchmore intensive and cover wide range of aspects which are not included in Indian FireCode and NNBC. The structural outline of the IFC is listed in Table 1. The majorspecific features not covered by IS and NNBC are as follows:AdministrationEmergency Planning and PreparednessFire Service FeaturesBuilding Service FeaturesEmergency access gatesTents, Canopy, membrane structuresFire Safety during Construction and DemolitionNo Parking Fire Lane Sign SpecificationsThe design of important buildings, especially for high rise and special buildings hasbecome a complex process that requires integrating many skills, products andtechniques into its system. An intelligent building design is required to cater to variouspotential emergency situations. NNBC 107 requires to be updated to the level ofinternational code and needs to address the pragmatic conditions existing in thedowntown area and new built up areas.List of Indian Fire CodesIS 1641-Fire GradingIS 1642-Materials and ConstructionIS 1643-Exposure HazardIS 1644-Personal HazardIS 1645-Chimneys, Flues, Fluepipes, HearthsIS 1646-Electrical InstallationIS 1647-Non-electrical installationsIS 1648-Fire Fighting Equipment, Fire ProofDoorsIS 1256-Height condition for separating walls
  • 114. 6. Fire Safety Requirements In Other Sector Codes - An Overviewa. Fire Safety of City fuel stationsBasic safety norms to deal with possible fires in petrol pumps across the country aredealt by Nepal Oil Corporation (NOC). The major issue is the capability to implementthese norms. Some of the problems encountered in Safety of Fuel stations are:• A number of Fuel Stations do not adhere to the norms, risking a major fire mishap atany time• Safety monitoring system and preparedness for any disaster are not existent;• Mechanism for regular inspection of compliance to the safety requirements are notexistent;• Knowledge and Training on ways to use the fire fighting equipment is not adequate;The NOC norms require that a petrol pump must keep at least two fire extinguishers,four dry, sand-filled buckets, a spade, a fire-axe, and safety gear like fire-proof clothing,and masks.According to the NOC, there are 74 petrol pumps in Kathmandu, 19 in Lalitpur and 14 inBhaktapur.Fire Safety of Gas (cylinder) depotsThe Fire code is silent about the fire safety of gas (cylinder) depots..7. International Trends And Practicesa. Existing Buildings and StructuresThe provisions of the Building Construction and Safety Code are applicable to “existingbuildings” where any one of the following conditions applies:i) Any of the use or occupancy classification occursii) A repair, renovation, modification, reconstruction, or addition is madeiii) The building or structure is relocatediv) The building is considered as unsafe building or a fire hazardv) Use or Occupancy is changed.b. Unsafe BuildingsAs per NFPA 5000, “all buildings that are, or that hereafter become as follows shall beconsidered unsafe:Structurally unsafeInsanitaryDeficient in means of egressA hazard from fire or natural or man-made threatsDangerous to human life or public welfare by reasons of illegal or improper use,occupancy or maintenanceNon compliance with the provisions of the applicable CodesSignificantly damaged by fire or explosion or other natural or manmade causeIncomplete buildings for which building permits have expired
  • 115. The falling away, hanging loose; or loosening of any sidings; block or otherbuilding material; structural member, appurtenance, or part thereof of a building; orthe deterioration of the structure or structural parts of the building, a partiallydestroyed building, or any part of a building when caused by deterioration oroverstressing.The existence of unsanitary conditions by reason of inadequate or malfunctioningsanitary facilities or waste disposal systems.c. Water Supply for Fire FightingWater requirement for fire fighting is a big concern. The city water networks generallyinclude fire hydrants at certain locations. But of late years, the fire hydrant systems aremore in disarray and the emergency supply of water is in jeopardy. The attack on WorldTrade Center has raised serious question on the amount of water required for fightingfires effectively in high-rise buildings.d. Fire Fighting Shafts(i) As per UK Building Regulations, buildings with a floor at more than 18m above fireservice vehicle access level, or with a basement at more than 10m below fire servicevehicle access level, should be provided with fire fighting shafts containing firefighting lifts, fire fighting stairs and fire fighting lobbies which are combined in aprotected shaft known as the fire fighting shafts. Again, buildings with two or morebasement storeys each exceeding 900m2 in area, should be provided with firefighting shafts, which need not include fire-fighting lifts.(ii) Currently, several classes of buildings (industrial, storage, and commercial buildings)less than 18m in height are also required to have a fire-fighting shaft.(iii) An event tree analysis which was developed showed that the probability of firespread and casualties varies between building categories, and that other classes ofbuilding, such as multi-storey public entertainment premises, have high rates of firespread and will benefit from the provision of fire fighting shafts.e. Width of Escape StairsAs per UK Building Regulations 2000 Approved Document B, FIRE SAFETY, thewidth of escape stairs has been regulated as below:(i) Stairs with a rise of more than 30m should not be wider than 1400mm unlessprovided with a central hand rail(ii) Stairs wider than 1800mm should be provided with a central handrail.(iii) Provision of a central hand rail for wider stairs was found necessary for safeevacuation especially for tall buildings to avoid possible jostling, collision etc. aswell as the tendency for people to stay within reach of a hand rail, especially duringprolonged descent.
  • 116. f. Evacuation StrategiesEnsuring life safety is the most essential aspect of Building Codes. High rise and multistorey assembly buildings pose particular challenges due to the large number ofoccupants and large vertical travel distances. Traditionally the means of escape strategymostly is based on the principle of single stage evacuation. To achieve this, buildings aredesigned with stairways of sufficient width to enable all the occupants to evacuatesimultaneously. In high-rise buildings with large number of occupants it has been foundthat single-phase evacuation is a time consuming process and is impracticable. This hasled to a system of evacuation known as phased evacuation in which the building isevacuated in different phases in the event of fire. This method is today recognized as thebest method for evacuation in high-rise buildings.g. Evacuation Using LiftsIn Nepal, most of general lifts are not used during a fire. Since the lifts themselves arenot fire resistant and succumb to smoke and fire hazard. The introduction of fire fightinglifts had not been provided.In UK and Hong Kong, fire fighters as well as disabled people use fire fighting lifts intall buildings. However, there is a much wider potential use for fire protected lifts inordinary buildings for general evacuation purposes.This method is particularly useful in super high-rise structures where the large verticaltravel distances result in a number of significant problems like possible increasedexposure to smoke and fire, increased fatigue during evacuation and difficulty in safeevacuation of injured, infants, aged or disabled occupants.h. Dry RiserAn arrangement for fire fighting within the building by means of vertical rising mainsnot less than 100 mm internal diameter with landing valves on each floor/landing whichis normally dry but is capable of being charged with water usually by pumping from fireservices appliances.i. Emergency Lighting and SystemEmergency Lighting is provided for use when the supply to the normal lighting fails withpower being supplied from a standby power source.j. Escape LightingThat part of emergency lighting which is provided to ensure that the escape route isilluminated at all material times (for example, at all times when persons are on thepremises), or at times the main lighting is not available, either for the whole building orthe escape routes.k. Fire Resistance RatingThe time that a material or construction will withstand the standard fire exposure asdetermined by fire test done in accordance with the standard methods of fire tests ofmaterial/structures.
  • 117. l. Fire StopA fire resistant material, or construction having a fire resistance rating of not less thanthe separating elements, installed in concealed spaces or between structural elements of abuilding to prevent the spread/ propagation of fire and smoke through walls, ceilings andthe like as per the laid down criteria.m. Means of EgressA continuous and unobstructed way of travel from any point in a building or structure toa place of comparative safety8. Comparison of Fire Safety CodesBasically three codes are taken into consideration – NNBC, IS Code, and IFC. TheNNBC has made a brief provision of requirement of access, doors, and appliancewhereas Indian Code is much elaborated and includes Fire Grading, materialclassification, and utilities as electrical installations. The IFC is very comprehensive andstarts with the administration of Fire Code, Emergency Planning, Fire services,Protection systems, means of egress, fire safety during construction, protected parkingfor fire engines during fire events. The Euro Code is specifically focused on structuralfire safety and the features included in IFC.NNBC 107 IS Code International Fire Code0 Foreword IS 1641- Fire Grading 0010 Adoption.1 Scope IS 1642: Materials andConstructionChapter 1 - Administration.2 Interpretation IS 1643- Exposure Hazard Chapter 2 - Definitions.2.1 General IS 1644 - Personal Hazard Chapter 3 - Generalprecautions against fire.2.2 Terminology IS 1645 -Chimneys, Flues,Fluepipes, HearthsChapter 4 - Emergencyplanning and preparedness.3 Types ofConstruction andAppliancesIS 1646 -ElectricalInstallationChapter 5 - Fire ServiceFeatures.3.1 Fire Places IS 1647 - Non-electricalinstallationsChapter 6 - Building servicesand systems.3.2 Fire Extinguishers IS 1648 - Fire FightingEquipment, Fire Proof DoorsChapter 9 - Fire protectionsystems.4 Fire Zones BS 476 - Fire Tests onBuildings and StructuresChapter 10 - Means ofegress.5 GeneralRequirementsChapter 14 - Fire safetyduring construction anddemolition.5.1 Provision of aProper AccessChapter 24 - Tents, canopiesand other membranestructures.5.2 Provision of WideDoorsChapter 33 - Explosives andfireworks.5.3 Provision of FireEscape WaysAPPENDIX C - FireHydrant locations anddistribution.
  • 118. NNBC 107 IS Code International Fire Code5.4 Provision of OpenSpaceAPPENDIX H - Emergencyaccess gates and barriers.6 Exit Requirements Exhibit A - Fire hydrantspecifications.6.1 GeneralRequirementsExhibit B. - Standard fenceand hydrant locations.6.2 Number of Exits Exhibit #1 (C) No ParkingFire Lane SignSpecifications6.2.1 Stairs6.2.2 Fire Escapes6.2.3 Exit Doors7 Access to aBuilding8 LightningArresters/Conductors9. Special Considerationa. Fire fighting in High Rise BuildingsWhen a fire gets out of control in a skyscraper it tests fire fighters to their limits.Predicting how a fire is behaving high up in a building is almost impossible. The firefighters who entered the Twin Towers on 11 September 2001 and came out live haveadvocated for new system of fire protection which is called Fire grid, which keeps thefire limited to a small area where it was generated and do not allow to spread to otherareas.10. Local Regulations and Organisationsa. Local Governance ActThe LOCAL SELF-GOVERNANCE ACT, 2055 (1999), which describes the basicmandate of the local governments as VDC, Municipalities and DDC, has made a verybrief provision for operating and managing Fire Brigade in their area of jurisdiction. Nofurther provisions with regard to Fire Safety and Fire Protection are made.b. Tenth Development PlanThe Tenth Plan Annex 21.1 has very briefly included a program to implement theBuilding Codes Act, 1998 after making necessary amendments subsequent to theincorporation of international norms in the areas of natural disaster including fire, flood,and landslide to put the building construction technologies in order (BuildingConstruction). This provision of the Tenth Plan was dropped out in the Three YearInterim Plan without much achievements being made.
  • 119. c. Building Byelaw for Municipalities in KV, 2007The Building Bylaw in general has made mandatory provisions for BuildingConstruction within Kathmandu Valley including municipalities and VDCemerging to towns. Apart from the land use zoning and provisions for buildingconstruction, the bylaw also has given guidelines in relation to access,construction along the access, conservation areas, electrical installationregulation, and installation of Fueling stations, Cinema Halls, Housing and RealState. The bylaws have not made any considerations in respect to disastermitigation, fire safety and protection, traffic management, epidemics, etc.Similarly, the Building Bylaws do not provide guidelines for urban wastemanagement as solid waste, waste water, air pollution, noise pollution, andenvironmental protection as nature preservation.d. Building Byelaws for High Rise BuildingsIn May 2007, DUDBC prepared the recommendations for preparing the BuildingByelaws for High Rise Buildings in Nepal. The study recommended limiting thesettlement coverage at 40% of land and population density to be limited to 300persons per hectare. The Building safety and Building Fire Safety were limited tothe provision of NNBC 107. This would call for more careful consideration forupdating of NNBC and adopt strong approach for implementation of NNBCthrough inclusion in Building Byelaws and Building Permit Process. Therecommendation has given high priority on the provision of water supply forfire fighting. The recommendations for Fire protection for Hise Rise Buildingsare reprinted in Appendix –A.e. Fire Fighters Voluntary Association of NepalFirefighters volunteer Association of Nepal (FAN, www.fan.org.np) is a non-governmental organization established in year 2000 with objectives of creatingawareness among the public about fire and drawing attention of the concerned authoritieson this matter.11. Structural Fire EngineeringFire Protection Engineering comprises active and passive ways of providing satisfactoryprotection level to buildings and/or its contents from fires. Active fire protection forbuildings includes fire detection and alarm systems, sprinkler, and other automatic firefighting systems.Passive fire protection deals with the design of a building for adequate load bearingresistance and for limiting fire spread under fire conditions. Structural Fire Engineeringis generally categorized in this discipline.The structural fire resistance must be demonstrated that the structure will retain adequatestrength and stability for the required fire resistance period by considering individualelements or a more complete assembly. The assessment may be made using prescriptivemethods or more advanced calculations either, to determine thicknesses of appliedprotection or to demonstrate that some or all structural elements do not require
  • 120. protection. Structural connections may require special consideration. Because each unitis generally treated as a separate compartment, it is possible to examine the effects oflocalised heating on the structure; significant savings on the cost of fire protection canthus be achieved. It is important to consider the effect of local deformations oncompartment boundaries, such as the dividing walls between adjacent units, to ensurethat they are able to maintain their function.The fire safety measures of buildings must satisfy the fire safety objectives specified bycodes and standards, property owners, designers, insurance bodies and approvalsauthorities.Structural Fire Engineering deals with specific aspects of passive fire protection in termsof analysing the thermal effects of fires on buildings and designing structural membersfor adequate load bearing resistance, i.e. the structural fire resistance. SFE allows fireprotection measures to be integrated into structural design. If SFE could be applied in thedesign process from the very beginning of a building project, it can bring significantbenefits to the project.12. Qualifications, Experience, and Responsibilities Of Fire ProtectionServicesA specific reference in the Codes shall be made to define the minimum qualification,skill and responsibility of the Fire Protection services for operating the Fire Safety andProtection operations.13. Fire Protection and Prevention ActAn outline of a sample of Fire Protection and Prevention Act may include followingaspects:• Municipal Responsibilities (Community Fire Safety Officer, Fire Departments, Fire Chief,Fire Co-Ordinators, Municipal By-Laws)• Rights Of Entry In Emergencies And Fire Investigations• Entry On Adjacent Lands By Firefighters, Etc.• Entry Where Fire Has Occurred Or Is Likely To Occur• Inspections (Inspection Orders, Service Of Order, Review Of Inspection Order By FireMarshal)• Appeal To Fire Safety Commission, Appeal To Divisional Court• Offences And Enforcement• Fire Marshal To Carry Out Inspection Order• Warrant Authorizing Entry• Recovery Of Costs• Appeal To Fire Safety Commission• Enforcement Of Order To Pay Costs• Firefighters: Employment And Labour Relations• WORKING CONDITIONS (STRIKE AND LOCK OUTS, HOURS OF WORK, BARGAINING RIGHTS,ARBITRATION• Fire Safety Commission• Fire Marshal’s Public Fire Safety Council• Miscellaneous (Protection From Personal Liability, Indemnification)
  • 121. Appendix A: Fire Protection recommendation for Hise Rise Buildingsa. Fire Water SupplyWater supply in high-rise firefighting is critical. In a high-rise building there should be astandpipe system to carry water for fire fighting operations to the upper floors.Depending on the size of the building, there can be multiple standpipes placedstrategically on all floors usually in or near stairwells. These pipes shall be designed togive an adequate water flow rate to maintain firefighting operations.There are two systems of standpipes, a wet system and a dry system. In a wet system, thebuilding has fire pumps installed in the standpipe and is directly piped to a water supply,usually a municipal water system. When there is a demand on the system, flow metersdetect a drop in pressure and the fire pumps start up and then supply water to the system.In a dry system, there is no fire pump and the system is piped to a standpipe inlet on theside of a building at the grade level. From this opening, the fire department connects tothe standpipe with an engine and pressurizes the system for fire fighting operations.It is critical that a pre-fire plan be made at high-rise buildings so the incidentcommanders and all fire fighting agencies know the location of the standpipe outlets onall floors and the location of the standpipe supply inlets on the building. Whenconnecting into a standpipe of a building with an engine, the fire engine operator mustnot pressurize the system until he/she is assured that the system is a dry pipe system. Ifthe system is wet with an internal fire pump it can be over pressured by the firedepartment causing pipe bursts and water damage to many floors. At the standpipe outletthere is a shutoff for flow control with usually a 2 -1/2” or 3” opening so that firefightingcompanies can attach their fittings and hoses for fire operations.When a fire alarm is sounded in a building the fire department response is that the firstarriving engine responds to the location or fire floor with their necessary equipment. Thesecond arriving engine connects to the building standpipe and secures a hydrant but doesnot pressurize until directed by the incident commander.In most situations this system works well, but there could be breakdowns in the watersupply system due to maintenance problems. When this occurs, an alternate plan needs tobe in place.Pre-piped aerial ladders can be used as an external standpipe by replacing the nozzle withthe appropriate fitting and extended to the floor designated by the fire floor commanderfor fire operations. This plan works well but is limited by the length of the ladder. Thereare other ways for water supply to upper floors but that requires excessive manpower.The on-scene commander must make these decisions.b. Automatic fire detecting and alarm systemBuildings shall have an automatic fire detecting and alarm system. It is an arrangementof automatic fire detectors, such as a fuse working at a given temperature, a thermostat ora fluid filled tube or an electronic device, for detecting an outbreak of fire, and soundersand other equipment for automatic transmission and indication of alarm signals withoutmanual intervention. The system also has provision for testing of circuits and, whererequired for the operation of auxiliary services.
  • 122. c. Automatic sprinkler systemIn addition to detection mechanism the buildings shall also have a well designedautomatic water sprinkler system. It is an arrangement of piping, sprinklers andconnected equipment designed to operate automatically by the heat of fire and todischarge water upon that fire and which may also simultaneously give automaticaudible alarm.d. Dry riserThe buildings shall also have a dry riser system which is a vertical fire water supply pipe, inside a building, not normally connected to a water main or an automatic stationarypump, with an inlet or inlets at street level, through which water can be pumped by fireservice pumps to hydrant outlets or hose reels at various floors.e. Fire exitA way out leading to an escape route is mandatory in such buildings.f. Provision of open spaceThe front entrance should have enough open space as defined by Architectural DesignRequirements (NBC 206) so that a number of people can gather and contribute inextinguishing the fire, if any.g. Fire separationThe buildings shall have adequate fire separation. It is the distance in metres measuredfrom any other building on the site, or from other site, or from the opposite side of streetor other public space to the building for the purpose of preventing the spread of fire.h. Fire TowerThe building design shall incorporate a fire tower which is an enclosed staircase whichcan only be approached from the various floors through landings or lobbies separatedfrom both the floor areas and the staircase by fire-resisting doors, and open to the outerair.i. Fire wallAll exit ways like staircases and lobbies shall have fire resistance rated wall, havingprotected openings, which restricts the spread of fire and extends continuously from thefoundation to at least I m above the roof.j. Wet RiserBuildings shall have a charged vertical water main inside a building, connected to awater main or an automatic stationary pump and fitted with internal hydrants landingvalves, hose reels for tapping water at various floors.In addition to the above mentioned general design requirements, for effective fireprevention the following guidelines shall also be followed:
  • 123. Construction1. All materials of construction in load bearing elements, stairways and corridors and facadesshall be non-combustible. The internal walls of staircase shall be of brick or reinforcedconcrete with a minimum of 2 hour fire rating.2. The staircase shall be ventilated to the atmosphere at each landing and a vent at the top; thevent openings shall be of 0.5 m’ in the external wall and the top. If the staircase cannot beventilated, because of location or other reasons, a positive pressure of 50 Pa shall bemaintained inside. The mechanism for pressurizing the staircase shall operate automaticallywith the fire alarm. The roof of the shaft shall be I m above the surrounding roof. Glazing orglass bricks shall not be used in the staircase.Lifts1. Walls of lift enclosures shall have a fire rating of 2 h; lift shafts shall have a vent at the topof area not less than 0.2 m2.2. Lift motor room shall be located preferably on top of the shaft and separated from the shaftby the floor of the room.3. Landing doors in lift enclosures shall have a fire resistance of not less than half an hour.4. Lift car door shall have a fire resistance ratting of 1 h.5. For buildings above 15m in height, collapsible gates shall not be permitted for lifts and shallhave solid doors with fire resistance of at least I h6. If the lift shaft and lobby is in the core of the building, a positive pressure between 25 and 30Pa shall be maintained in the lobby and a positive pressure of 50 Pa shall be maintained inthe lift shaft. The mechanism for pressurization shall act automatically with the fire alarm; itshall be possible to operate this mechanically also.7. Exit from the lift lobby, if located in the core of the building, shall be through a self-closingsmoke stop door of half an hour Fire resistance.8. Grounding switch(es), at ground floor level, shall be provided to enable the fire service toground the lifts.9. To enable fire services personnel to reach the upper floors with the minimum delay, one ormore of the lifts shall be so designed so as to be available for the exclusive use of thefiremen in an emergency and be directly accessible to every dwelling/ rentable floor spaceon each floor.10. The lift shall have a floor area of not less than 1.4 m*. It shall have loading capacity of notless than 545 kg (8 persons/lift) with automatic closing doors.Basements1. Each basement shall be separately ventilated. Vents with cross-sectional area (aggregate) notless than 2.5 percent of the floor area .spread evenly round the perimeter of the basementshall be provided in the form of grills or breakable stall board lights or pavement lights or byway of shafts. Alternatively, a system of air inlets shall be provided at basement floor leveland smoke outlets at basement ceiling level. Inlets and extracts may be terminated at groundlevel with stall board or pavement lights as before, but ducts to convey fresh air to thebasement floor level have to be laid. Stall board and pavement lights should be in positionseasily accessible to the fire brigade.2. In multi-storey basements, intake ducts may serve all basement levels, but each basementand basement compartment shall have separate smoke outlet duct or ducts.
  • 124. 3. In case of multiple basements mechanical extractors shall be designed to permit 30 airchanges per hour in case of fire or distress call. However, for normal operation, only 28 airchanges or any other convenient factor can be maintained.4. If cut outs are provided from basements to the upper floors or to the atmosphere, all sides cutout openings in the basements shall be protected by sprinkler heads at closed spacing so as toform a water curtain in the event of a fire.Fire Fighting OperationsIn a normal response to a high-rise fire alarm three engines, one ladder truck, one rescue squadand one battalion chief shall be assigned.The first arriving engine responds directly to the floor below the alarm floor for investigation orstarting of fire operations. The first engine is assisted by the third arriving engine and the rescuesquad (if not assigned to other duties by the incident commander).The ladder company responds to the floor above the search and ventilation operations. Thesecond arriving engine connects to the standpipe and secures a hydrant and then stands by forwater flow direction.Depending on the incident, the battalion chief will set up command on the floor below or thelobby of the building. If the investigating engine crew finds a working fire they will secure astandpipe on the floor below the fire floor and ensure that an adequate water supply is available.The fire attack crew will then lay a hose line to the fire floor and extinguish the fire.The senior officer on the fire floor will assume command as the fire floor commander. The firefloor commander will inform the incident commander of all the particulars of the incident andhis actions taken to mitigate the scene. The fire floor commander shall instruct the ladder teamto gain access to the floor above the fire to start ventilation procedures and check for vertical firespread. The rescue squad after an initial search will be used as manpower where needed. Withthis system in place most high-rise fire incidents can run smoothly and efficiently. If otherresources are needed because of fire growth or evacuation problems this system will be able toexpand as needed.Gaining AccessIn high-rise buildings, if the incident is above the eighth floor the only two reasonable options toreach the fire floor are elevators or stairways.The preferred method of reaching the upper floors is by an elevator but only if it can be safelyused. The firefighter must take control of the elevator with a fire fighters key. This key allowsfirefighters to by-pass the normal operations of the elevator and they then safely use the elevatorcar. In elevator use, the incident commander can have his resources at the staging area a floorbelow the fire much quicker and have a much safer and efficient fire attack. A firefighter needsto know of the elevators limitations such as overloading, mechanical breakdowns, electricalfailure etc. The elevator is never to be used to go above the fire floor. Stairwells are to be usedfor this purpose. When a stairway ascent is to be used, the incident commander must be aware ofthe time and effort it takes to ascend to the fire floor. The initial fire attack team should beallowed to ascend the stairs unencumbered so they can arrive at the fire floor reasonablyrefreshed to start fire fighting operations.
  • 125. If stairways are to be used, the incident commander will have to decide which stairway will beused for fire fighting operations and which will be used for evacuation procedures. The incidentcommander will have to know if the stairwells have standpipes, are they pressurized, are the firedoors in place and is there access to the floors above the fire for evacuation and inspection offire spread. The following priorities should be used when selecting a stairwell for search andevacuation procedures:1. Use a fire tower (smoke proof tower), if available, for search and evacuation. If is the safeststairway for evacuation because it is the least likely to be contaminated by smoke because of itsventilated vestibule.2. If a fire tower is not present in the building, use a pressurized stairway if one is available. Ifmore than on pressurized stairway is available, use the one most remote from the fire for searchand evacuation.3. If no pressurized stairs are available, use the one most remote from the fire for search andevacuation.VentilationVentilation of a high-rise building is extremely difficult and hazardous due to the construction ofthe building and the effects of limited access of the building floors. In a fire in a low risebuilding five floors or less, ventilation can be accomplished by normal fire fighting practices,such as roof openings and window ventilation.In a high-rise building these practices cannot be done. The fire could be ten floors below the rooftherefore roof openings would not have any effect on ventilating the fire. Windows on a firefloor may not be attainable. Fire spread can block the firefighters access to the window forventilation. Ventilation through windows on a high- rise building can be extremely dangerousbecause of falling glass over a wide spread area.If a stairwell is available that is not being used for fire fighting or evacuation this can be used forventilation. This can be done by going to the roof access door of the stairwell, opening the doorand directing the smoke and heat into the stairwell and then up and out of the building.Positive pressure fans work well for ventilation by pressurizing the fire floor and directing thepressurized air out to the stairwell then up and out of the building. When this option is used twofans is the minimum to be used. One fan is to be placed at the entry door to the fire close to theopening so as to direct air into the fire floor. The second fan is placed behind the first fan to sealthe entry with pressurized air and to add more air to the fire floor to direct that and smoke out tothe ventilation stairwell and then up and out of the building.Great care must be taken when using positive pressure fans in high-rise buildings. A good watersupply must be available before the fans can be put into operation. The smoke movement mustbe monitored to ensure that it is exiting the building and not creating a hazard in other areas ofthe building. Fire spread must also be monitored to ensure that the fans are not enhancing ormoving the fire to other compartments or floors of the building.High-rise buildings have a large and complicated H.V.A.C. system that control air movement inthe structure. These units can be used to ventilate the fire floors. The practice should only bedone under the supervision of the building engineers or maintenance employees familiar withH.V.A.C systems. Exhaust fans in the structure can be put in use to evacuate the fire floor or air
  • 126. movement can be redirected for ventilation purposes. Good ventilating practices in a high-riseincident is a vital aid in fire suppression and will reduce structural damage to the building.Egress and Evacuation RequirementsEvacuation of a high-rise building in an emergency situation is a very difficult process. If thebuilding needs to be evacuated call for an extra alarm for evacuation purposes has to be made.The extra alarm resources will be used to direct the building occupants down the proper stairsand to search the building for trapped occupants.When evacuating occupants a stairwell that is free of smoke or heat and not used for firefightingoperations should be used. The occupants should be directed away from the elevators and to theproper stairwell for egress. Upon the arrival at the lobby or the grade floor occupants should bedirected to a safe area away from the building and firefighting operations.If the fire or incident can be contained to one floor or area, the occupants can and should beevacuated in place. If there is no danger in their specific area it should be suggested that theystay in their office or apartment and wait for the incident to be mitigated. If evacuation in placeis to be used the occupants must be reassured that there is no danger and their interests are beinglooked after. In theory, this in how evacuation should take place, but in practice the firedepartment will arrive on the scene with people fleeing the building by whatever means theyfind available. Stairwells will be clogged with people hindering firefighters trying to reach thefire scene. Occupants will be trying to use elevators for egress and there will be a sense of panic.The incident commander and firefighters must immediately take control and try to removepeople in a calm and orderly manner. This process will start on the grade floor and work up asfirefighters rise higher in the building. Firefighters will have a calming effect with their presenceand this can be used in evacuation and direction. There are two types of evacuation: selfevacuation of the total building and controlled selective evacuation.Self evacuation takes on a life of its own and is a haphazard process. It is based entirely on thedecisions and actions carried out by the buildings occupants. This is the scene of most high-risefires that firefighters will find on arrival and they will need to step in and take control.Controlled selective evacuation requires that the building management have input in the decisionmaking process and execution of the actions needed to evacuate. This should be coordinatedwith the fire department. This will be found in the daytime when management is on site and ifthe occupants have practiced evacuation procedures.The first arriving firefighters will rarely see this perfect scenario. Upon arrival at the scene of ahigh-rise fire, the fire department must take control of the scene as it is found and use all theresources available to them for evacuationGeneral RequirementsAn exit normally shall consist of either a doorway, corridor or passageway to an internalstaircase, to an external staircase, to a verandah leading to the street, to the roof of a building, orto the street. The exit may also lead to another building in the neighbourhood. The exit should :a) be able to allow the evacuation of all the occupants in a relatively short time;b) meet the minimum requirements as to size;c) be free of any obstructions and shall not provide any resistance to movement;d) be clearly visible, preferably with proper signs.e) be continuous and shall not intrude into private space.
  • 127. StairsThe number of stairs in any building, especially when it exceeds 500 square metres in plintharea, shall be a minimum of two, one internal and the other an external fire escape. Additionalstairs shall be provided in proportion to any increase in the plinth area. In the case of residentialbuildings, the minimum width of the stairs shall be 90 cm. For other buildings, the minimumwidth shall be 1.5 m. The distance from any point in a passageway to a staircase in a buildingshall not exceed 20 meters.Fire EscapesEvery building more than five storeys high shall have a separate fire escape having a minimumwidth of 75 cm. The fire escape shall have a minimum tread width of 20 cm and each riser shallbe not more than 19 cm high. The number of risers per flight shall not be more than 15. Such afire escape shall carry users towards an open space.Exit DoorsExit doors shall open to a passageway or to a corridor. They should open outwards, but withoutrestricting the movement of people passing outside the door. The maximum distance of such anexit doorway from any point in a passage shall be 20 m. The exit doorway shall neither besmaller than 90 cm in width, nor 180 cm in height.Lightening ArresterA lightning arrester shall be located in the highest part of every building and it shall beconnected by a conductor to an earth rod buried in the earth. The lightning arrester shall be solocated that as much as possible of the building lies inside the surface of an imaginary conehaving a vertex angle of 45 degrees and its apex at the top of the arrester.All other provision shall be in confirmation with Nepal National Building Code (NBC107:1994) and National Building Code of India 1983 and Indian Standard ProvisionsIS:1642:1989, IS:1643:1988, IS 1644:1988, and IS:1646:1997, for Fire Safety of Buildings.Fire Hazard of Timber BridgesSeveral of Timber Bridges along East West Highway were set into fire during conflict time. Thisissue not given much attention.
  • 128. Appendix-8: Review of Mandatory rules of thumbNNBC 201:1994Reinforced concrete buildings with masonryObjectivesThe main objective of the Mandatory Rules of MRT is to provide ready to use dimensionsand details for various structural elements for upto three storey reinforced concrete (RC),framed ordinary residential buildings commonly built by owner builders in Nepal using brickinfill walls.The objectives of these mandatory rules of thumb (MRT) are to achieve the appropriateearthquake resistant design of those buildings in Nepal which are:- Designed and constructed without professional engineers intervention (non-engineered)- constructed of fired brick or stone masonry in cement or mud mortars- not more than two stories high if built in stone masonry in cement mortar or fired brick inmud masonry- not more than three storeys high if built or fired brick in a cement mortar.- Single span is less than 4.5m and Plinth Area is less than 100 m2LimitationsThe MRT only intends to achieve minimum acceptable structural safety, though it is alwayspreferable to undertake specific design.Non-engineered buildingsThe term non-engineered buildings may be defined as those buildings, which arespontaneously and informally constructed in the traditional manner without intervention byqualified engineers or architects in their design. However, they may follow a set ofrecommendations derived from the observed behavior of such buildings.Design GuidelinesThe design guidelines presented in the MRT cover ordinary residential buildings with seismiccoefficient of 0.128 (equivalent to seismic zone C). However, if the buildings in all otherrespects complied with this MRT, it would be expected to have a better earthquake resistancethan that of a similar non-engineered construction undertaken solely with the advice ofcraftsmen.For selection and investigation of site, it is recommended not to construct the buildings if theproposed site is water logged, a rock falling area, a landslide prone area, a subsidence and/fill area, a river bed or swamp area.As per MRT, it is given that site exploration shall be carried out by test pit two as minimumwith the depth of 2m. No exploration shall be required if the site is on rock or fluvial terraceswith boulder beds.METHOD OF ANALYSISMost national codes recognize that structures with simple and regular geometry perform well duringearthquakes, and unsymmetrical placement of masonry infill walls may introduce irregularities intothem. These codes permit static analysis methods for regular buildings located in regions of lowseism city.
  • 129. NBC -201 adopts analysis procedure in which axial forces in the frame members are estimated byassuming a pin-jointed frame and representing masonry infill by compression diagonal struts. Amethod of distributing the lateral shear force on various masonry infill walls in a story is specified inthe code, which depends upon the seismic base shear on the frame and cross-sectional and materialproperties of masonry infill and RC frame members.The masonry infill walls in such structures are intended to resist seismic loads elastically inmoderate or severe earthquakes. However, in very large earthquakes, the infill walls could beseverely damaged. For such an event, steel is provided in the walls to reduce the risk tooccupants of the building from the uncontrolled collapse of the walls under shear loads.Seismic loads will have to be resisted mostly by frame alone. Frame has been designed toresist the gravity loads and provide ductility.EMPIRICAL FORMULAE FOR NATURAL PERIODSeveral codes—IS-1893 (2002); NBC-105(1994); Algerian code 1988; suggest using an empiricalformula to calculate the natural period of masonry infill wall with RC frame structure, Ta.dhTa 09.0=Where h is the height of the building and is the base dimension of building at the plinth levelalong the considered direction of the lateral force.In the Nepal code NBC-201 (1995), eccentricity between center of mass and center of rigidity alongeach principal direction is limited to 10% of the building dimension along that direction. The aboverequirement may be satisfied by adjusting thicknesses of walls.LATERAL DISPLACEMENT AND INTERSTORY DRIFTLateral deformations at various levels in masonry infill (MI) of RC frame buildings depend upon thedistribution of MI walls in buildings. If more walls are present at the base, lateral deformations will beless and evenly distributed along the height of buildings. On the other hand, if more walls are presenton the upper stories, then lateral deformations will be concentrated at the bottom, where stories areless infilled. Lateral deformations and inter-story drift will also depend upon the ductility anddamping of buildings.Few national codes, such as Eurocode 8 (2003), NBC-105 (1994), have restricted the inter-story driftratio for masonry infill RC frames to about 1%. These drift ratios are calculated using displacementsobtained from elastic forces, which are amplified. FEMA-306, ATC (1999) recommends followinginter-story drift limit for different solid panels: for brick masonry, 1.5%; for grouted concrete blockmasonry, 2.0%; and for ungrouted concrete block masonry, 2.5%. However, there is concern thatthese values are too large and further experimental studies are needed to verify these limits.STRENGTH OF MASONRY INFILLEffect of Openings in Masonry Infill on StrengthNepal code NBC-201 (1994) also requires masonry infill to be modeled as diagonal struts, withoutspecifying their cross-sectional properties. A minimum wall thickness of half brick is allowed to beused as infill.
  • 130. Strength Associated with Out-of-Plane Collapse of Masonry InfillsAccording to NNBC-201 (1994), only those walls with an opening area less than 10% of the grosspanel area are considered as resisting seismic loads. Openings shall be outside the restricted zone andif these openings are located inside the middle two-thirds of a panel, then they need to be strengthenedby providing RC elements around them. RC tie beams at both the top and bottom of openings alongthe full length and width of the wall, and vertical elements on both sides of the opening shall beprovided with longitudinal reinforcement of two bars of 8 mm diameter. Shear reinforcement in theform of minimum 6 mm diameter bars at every 150 mm is required in the elements. Suchstrengthening elements are not required for openings in a nonsignificant area.STIFFNESS OF MASONRY INFILLMasonry infill walls are laterally much stiffer than RC frames, and therefore, the initial stiffnessof MI-RC frames largely depend upon the stiffness of masonry infill. Stiffness of MI-RC framessignificantly depends on the distribution of MI in the frame, generally, the MI-RC frames withregular distribution of masonry infill in plan as well as along height are stiffer than the irregular MI-RC frames. Lateral stiffness of MI-RC frames reduces with the presence of openings in infills;however, this issue has not been addressed by the codes.Eurocode 8 (2003), Nepal code NBC-201 (1994), and FEMA-306 recommend modeling of masonryinfill as equivalent diagonal struts. However, Eurocode 8 and Nepal code do not specify the width ofstrut. Nepal code specifies the modulus of elasticity of masonry infill as 2,400 to 3,000 MPa forvarious grades of mortar. On the other hand, FEMA-306 recommends using modulus of elasticity as550 times the masonry prism strength in the absence of tests. As per FEMA-306, the only masonrywalls assumed to provide stiffness are those that are in full contact with RC frames, or those that arestructurally connected to RC frames.Code NBC 201 recommended the structural detailing for the building as specified in figure 1.Material grade is taken M15 for the structural elements.Figure 1
  • 131. CONCLUSIONInfilled frames also tend to be substantially stronger, but less deformable, than otherwise identicalbare frames. In symmetrical buildings with vertically continuous infilled frames, the increasedstiffness and strength may protect a building from damage associated with excessive lateral drift orinadequate strength. Because of its higher stiffness, infill panels may attract significantly greaterforces that may lead to premature failure of infill, and possibly of the whole structure. Therefore, it isessential for designers to consider the effects of infills in the design of RC buildings.The codes restrict the amount of eccentricity between center of mass and center of rigidity tosafeguard the building components against the adverse effects of plan irregularities. National codesspecify lower values of response reduction factors for MI-RC frame buildings as compared to thebuildings without MI, such that MI frames are required to be designed for 1.15–3 times the designforces for the corresponding bare frames. Lower value of response reduction factor is considered forMI-RC frames because of lower ductility and a higher degree of uncertainty and seismic vulnerabilityassociated with MI. A few codes have specified limitations on the elastic and inelastic deformationsand Inter-story drift ratio of MI-RC frames for damage limitation requirements.Few codes recommend modeling MI using equivalent diagonal struts; however, the required sectionalproperties for the struts are not specified. Strength and stiffness of MI reduces with the presence ofopenings; Various ways of reducing the damage in MI due to openings have been discussed in fewcodes, e.g., framing the openings using RC elements. Full strength and stiffness of MI is not utilizedwhen out-of-plane collapse of infills takes place. A few codes specify limits on slenderness ratio (ratioof length or height to thickness) to prevent outof- plane failure of masonry infill. Some national codesrecommend using light wire mesh and RC tie-bands along the length of walls at various locations toavoid out-of plane collapse of MI.Since in MRT 201, the examples demonstrate the building structure for maximum three storey andspan length not more than 4.5 m and it can not be used for other structures not following theseparameters.The purpose of MRT is to allow the design and construction of selected type of buildingswithout intervention of professional engineers. MRT has defited this pupose since thebuilding permit proes requires certification by a lcensed designer. The preparation of design(rather municipal drawings) are so complicated that non-engineered design cannot beproduced and approved by municipality. For these reasons, MRT is recommended to beeliminated as part of the code. But few samples of buildings could be developed withconsideration of the Code requirements and made available free of cost and without need forgoing through the building permit process.MRT has allowed non-design professionals to carry the responsibility for creating site-specific designs using MRT and compelling building inspectors to attempt to confirm thesedesigns as correct in the field. This means the buildings designed and constructed under MRTdo not warranty the Safety.NNBC 202:1994 - Load Bearing Masonry BuildingsApplicabilityThese mandatory rules of thumb (MRT) cover load bearing masonry buildings. They do notcover wooden buildings, mud buildings(low strength buildings) or those constructed inadobe.
  • 132. LimitationsAs prescribed in Table 1.1, MRT is valid (with certain limitations as to span, floor height, etc.,)for:i) Up to three-storeyed load-bearing brick (and other rectangular building units) masonrybuildings constructed in cement mortars.ii) Up to two-storeyed load-bearing stone masonry buildings constructed in cement mortar.iii) Up to two-storeyed load-bearing brick masonry buildings constructed in mud mortar.However, these limitations shall not bar anyone wishing to employ qualified professionals toproduce an appropriate design. Structures falling outside these limitations will require theappropriate specific design.Floor Min. WallThickness(mm)Max. Height(m)Max. short span offloor(m)Cantilever(m)2nd 230 2.8 3.5 1.01st230 3.0 3.5 1.0Load-BearingBrick Masonry inCement Mortar Ground 350 3.2 3.5 No1st230 3.0 3.2 NoLoad-BearingStone Masonry inCement Mortar, orLoad-BearingBrick Masonry inMud MortarGround 350 3.2 3.2 NoGeneral Construction AspectsThe general construction aspects have included Opening in walls, Masonry Bond,reinforcment details,Vertical Joints Between Orthogonal Walls,Roof Band, Gable Band, andVertical Reinforcement in Walls.NNBC 203:1994GUIDELINES FOR EARTHQUAKE RESISTANT BUILDINGCONSTRUCTION: LOW STRENGTH MASONRY (LSM)This document provides basic guidelines for the earthquake resistance of low- strengthmasonry construction.BackgroundThe devastating earthquakes in the past have proved the vulnerability of most of thevernacular buildings of Nepal. Enormous life and property were lost due to the collapse ofbuildings which LSM as their main load-bearing element. Earthquakes can neither beprevented nor predicted precisely. But the large-scale destruction can be minimized byemploying seismic-resistant measures in buildings. This can be achieved by the use ofexisting building materials in appropriate ways. This Guideline for Earthquake-ResistantBuilding Construction: Low Strength Masonry shows the improved techniques that canraise the level of seismic safety of low strength masonry buildings.LimitationLSM buildings required to conform to this standard shall not exceed two storeys in heightwith an additional attic floor.
  • 133. The guideline provides details for foundations, walls, opening in the walls, structure (post andcapitals), and roof details for low strength masonry buildings.The guidelines also recommend the method of harvesting and preserving bamboo forconstruction, and fire resistant treatment for thatch roof.ConclusionMRT has made certain details of construction. In the absence of a proper design, thebuildings being constructed are not properly planned because of lack of capacity to prepare aproper plan. The seismic resistance and fire resistance are not warranted. It would be muchhelpful to provide some examples of LSM buildings designs that could be readily applicable.NNBC 204: 1994GUIDELINES FOR EARTHQUAKE RESISTANT BUILDING CONSTRUCTION:EARTHEN BUILDINGIntroductionThis guideline is prepared in order to raise the seismic safety of earthen buildings. This isintended to be implemented by the owner/builder with some assistance from technicians. Thiscould also act as a basic guideline for architectural design and construction detailing of EarthenBuildings (EB).This Guideline for Earthquake-Resistant Building Construction: Earthen Buildings providesthe improved techniques that can raise the level of seismic safety of earthen buildings.The guideline provides the details of planning, foundation, wall and roof details.The comments provided in Conclusion above applies.
  • 134. Appendix 9 – Review of NNBC 206: 2003 Architectural Design Requirement.‘Building Code’ is basically an ‘Architectural Code’. Whereas, ‘Building by-laws’ is the motherof ‘Building Code’. Nevertheless, ‘Architectural Code’ and hence ‘Building Code’ now isconsidered the foundation and basis of ‘Building by-laws’.The Building by-laws for Greater Kathmandu Valley, prepared by Kathmandu Valley TownDevelopment Committee and NNBC 206: 2003 Architectural Design Requirement are the basisfor the recommendation to update the Architectural Design Code.The updated version of the existing code NNBC 206: 2003 Architectural Design Requirement,will serve the purpose of guiding the building designers and planners to fulfill theirresponsibilities of creating built environment that will be safe, healthy and beneficial to thecommunity as a whole.The code will not contradict the innovativeness and creativeness of the designer and the planner.This will be the logical conclusion of the contents of the code, as it spells out the minimumrequirements in the design of buildings and its surroundings in serving the objective of the code.Hence, “tolerant of uncertainty” and “welcomes experiments” character of architecture will bemaintained.After much deliberation at different stages, the consultant did not receive any substantialcriticism or recommendation for changes in the existing document, exclusion of neighborhoodplanning codes, conservation, and FAR values in the existing code, however, were spelled out.NNBC 206 has dealt architectural elements only from safety point of view. The NNBC 206:2003 Architectural Design Requirements have dealt certain aspect of design norms forarchitectural works as listed below:1. Staircase.2. Exit (General Exit requirement and Exit Doors.3. Lighting and Ventilation.4. Requirement for the Physical disabled.5. Glazing in Hazardous location.6. Parapet height.Therefore, it was aptly termed ‘Architectural Design Requirements’ rather than ‘ArchitecturalCode’ as we have with ‘fire safety’ or ‘structural’ and many others. The clauses of the existingcode do not require any changes. What are necessary are definitely, more details in each andadditional clauses to be incorporated in the new updated code as listed below.A building, complying all requirements of the code by itself, cannot guarantee fulfillment of theobjective of code. As the building stands in a space of multiple of such objects, certain aspectsof neighborhood planning needs to be included which are absent in the existing NNBC 206:2003 Architectural Design Requirements. Even so, it is to be noted down that, planning code isnot land use zoning, although in some countries and places it is treated as the same way. For thepurpose of the present recommendation, elements of Zoning Regulation and Building by-lawswill not form the part of this code. Similarly, Architectural code should not be confused for anarchitectural design code.The other aspect to be mentioned is the non consideration of high rise buildings in the existingcode.
  • 135. One of the important aspects for the Architectural Code is the big differences in the architecturalexpression in different geographical area of the country. Certain recommendations to this aspectwill also from the part of this report. In the above context, the updated code is suggested to bethe guide in preparing the by-laws of different municipalities and VDCs.The following recommendations based on the above with certain new elements are proposed tobe considered while updating the existing NNBC 206: 2003 Architectural Design Requirements,considering the present context of the country.Recommendations for updating of the existing Building Code.A. Division of the country in three different geographical zones for formulation ofArchitectural code. An alternate suggestion for division of zones is;1. Himalayan and Inner Himalayan Zone. (Altitude. > 3,000 m)2. Hill and Mountain Zone. (Altitude 400-3000m)3. Terai Zone (alt >70m <400 m)B. Define Building Categories (or Class) based on buildings materials, uses and life span.C. Recommendation matrix.Three different alternatives are recommended for three different geographical zones.S. No. Elements of buildingand neighborhoodplanning.Particulardimensional aspectsdditional for buildings of Publicmass assembly type. (Buildings ofcommunity use, industrial type andothers)1 2 3 41. Doors and Exists minimum width andheighti. Total width of the entry and exitdoors depending upon themaximum number of users at onetime.ii. Direction of opening.iii. Emergency doors with signage.2. Rooms.(including offices,kitchen, stores, atticsmezzanine floors,basements etc)i. Height.ii. Minimum area andproportion oflength to breadth.i. Height.ii. Minimum area and proportion oflength to breadth.iii.Relation between the volume andmaximum number of users of thespace at one time.3. Openings for light andventilation.i. Provision of naturallightii. Minimum area ofopenings for light andventilation.i. Provision of natural lightii. Minimum area of openings forlight and ventilation.4. Steps and Stairs i. Riser and treadsii. Total number ofsteps in one flight.iii. Width for differenttype of buildings.iv. provision of handrails and its height.i. Total width of the stairs in relationto the maximum number of usersserved at one time.ii. Provisions for physically disabled.iii. Emergency stairs and signage.5. Lift i. Length, breadth andheight ofcompartment.ii. Ventilation and lighti. Total number of lift units and totalcapacity in the structure.ii. Provisions in high rise buildings.6. Parapet Height height
  • 136. S. No. Elements of buildingand neighborhoodplanning.Particulardimensional aspectsdditional for buildings of Publicmass assembly type. (Buildings ofcommunity use, industrial type andothers)7. Corridors andemergency exitsi. Width vs. number ofusers and totallength.ii. Light andventilation.i. Width vs. number of users and totallength.ii. Light and ventilationiii. Emergency exits.iv. Non smoking stairs.8. Plinth Height from the roadlevel.Height from the road level.9. RRooooff PPiittcchh SSllooppee aanndd mmaaxxiimmuummssllooppee lleennggtthh..SSllooppee aanndd mmaaxxiimmuumm ssllooppee lleennggtthh..10. Rain water Gutter Gutter outlets frombuildings.Gutter outlets from buildings.11. Access toneighborhood.Width of access road inrelation to its length.Total width of access road in relationto the accumulation of people..12. Right of way andbuilding line.Distance from thecenter of the road.Distance from the center of the road.13. Cul-de-Sacs. Condition of inclusion. Condition of inclusion.14. Pedestrians. Pedestrian path inneighborhood road.Pedestrian path in neighborhoodroad.15. Open spaces Provision of individualand community openspace.Provision community open space.16. Storm drainage. Provision of drainageand outlet.Provision of drainage and outlet.17. Cultural aspects. Due consideration, to the cultural sites like heritage, monument,and spaces valued as a cultural property, be followed & asnecessary as specified in Monumental Zone bylaws or any suchregulations of specific municipalities, VDC or settlements.18. Below ground space i. Particular usesii. Height and Width of Entry and Exitsiii. Light, height and ventilation in the space.19. VVeehhiiccllee PPaarrkkiinngg ---- Parking for Minimum number ofvehicles.20. SSppaaccee aassssoocciiaatteedd wwiitthhhhaazzaarrddoouuss mmaatteerriiaallss---- Safety measures in designD. High Rise buildings.• The above item wise recommendations will be applied to high rise buildingsseparately including the separating distance between high rise structures.• Aspects of i) Light, ii) ventilation and iii) emergency exit (smokeless stairs) will bespecified for high rise buildings separately. The rest will be treated in the generaldesign requirement part of the code.E. Other important aspects.C. Ample sketches and drawings will be included interpreting the articles whereverapplicable.D. Definition of different parts of building which will be mentioned in the code needs to beclearly given in the new code.
  • 137. Appendix-10: Review of NNBC – 207: 2003(Electrical Design Requirements for Public Buildings)BackgroundElectrical service is a part of the building services which turns building shell into a habitableone. But, if the electrical equipment and wiring are improperly installed and if neglected,electricity itself may pose hazard. Electrical code sets out rules by which everyone, by law,should adhere to when working with electricity or installing and maintaining electricalequipment.Electrical codes are not well developed in Nepal. Even in such circumstances, the preparationof Electrical Design Requirements for Public Buildings, NBC 207-2003 as a part of NepalNational Building Code, is a praiseworthy work. Codes all over the world are revised anddeveloped regularly. In this context, the update of Nepal National Building code is necessaryand help shall be taken from other national building codes developed by other countries.Keeping in mind that Nepal National Building code should be understandable and easy to usefor the general public, efforts have been made to congregate information as much as possible.GeneralThe Electrical Design Requirements for Public Buildings, NNBC-207-2003 has coveredmost of the aspects related with the Building code. But it would be easier to use the code, iffollowing basic points were included:• terminology,• graphical symbols,• tables, and• drawings etc,.Secondly, instead of referring to other foreign codes, which are not easily accessible togeneral public, it would be better to include the full text of the codes in NNBC as far aspossible.Thirdly, the Safety Procedures and Practices has to be included.• Proximity of the buildings from the electric lines,• Standard Voltage and its allowable deviations,• Prohibition of building construction below electric lines,• Installation of a danger board on every switch board above 230 V.• Installation of Primary First Aid method board on every sub-station.Planning of Electrical Installations:The code should include following basic tasks while planning and designing an electricalinstallation :-1. type of occupancy;
  • 138. 2. type of supply;3. earthing;4. load;5. atmospheric condition;6. degree of protection;7. future increase of load;8. maintenance and safety aspects;9. energy consumption;10. continuity of supply;11. Energy Conservation,12. Alternative energy sources during emergencies13. need for radio and telecommunication interference suppression;14. Comparison of costs of various alternative variants.Electrical apparatusAll Electrical Apparatus shall be suitable for the services what they are intended for.Co-ordinationi) Clients may have their own view and requirements. Hence, before starting of wiringand installation, the collection of views from Architecture /Electrical Contractor, thelocal supply Authority` along with the client would be of utmost importance.ii) In the clause "Load Centre and Centre of Gravity of Building”, the availability of thepower lines nearby may also be kept in view while deciding the location of theSubstation.Capacity and Size of sub-stationTables of the area required for transformer room and substation for different capacities alongwith the table of Additional area required for Generator in electric substation should beincluded.As per the Indian Standard, the Requirements of Rooms shall considered following points:-i) Rooms shall be provided with windows and independent access doors ;ii) Rooms shall have partitions up to the ceiling with proper ventilation.iii) Transformer floors shall have proper ventilation and where necessary louvers at lowerlevel and exhaust fans at higher level shall be provided at suitable locations.iv) In order to prevent storm water entering the transformer and switch rooms throughthe soak-pits, the floor level of the substation shall be at least 15cm above the highestflood water level that may be anticipated in the locality.v) The minimum height of the high voltage switchgear room shall be 3.6m.Location of Switch RoomIn large installations, where a substation is provided, a separate switch room shall beprovided. This shall be located as closely as possible to the electrical load centre and suitableducts shall be laid with minimum number of bends from the point of entry of the main supply
  • 139. cable to the position of the main switchgear. The switch room shall also be placed in such aposition that rising ducts may readily be provided there from to the upper floors of thebuilding in one straight vertical run. In larger buildings, more than one rising duct may berequired and then horizontal ducts may also be required for running cables from the switchroom to the foot of each rising main. Such cable ducts shall be reserved for the electricalservices only which may, however, include medium and low voltage installations, such ascall-bell systems; telephone installations, should be suitably segregated. Location andRequirements of distribution Panels should be mentioned in the code.Distribution of Supply and Cabling :In the field of building construction high rise buildings is a new development, mainly in thecities. So, the time has come to include in NNBC the use of high voltage distribution systemof supply in the buildings.Following clauses and points should be included:1. All electrical apparatus should be suitable for the voltage and frequency of supply.2. In very large industrial buildings where electricity is supplied at high voltage from themain substation, selection of high voltage switchgear should be done under the followingconsideration-• voltage of supply system;• prospective short-circuit current at the point of supply;• size and layout of electrical installation;• accommodation available; and• nature of industry.• Making and breaking capacity of switchgearCablesCode for laying of the H.T. cables depending upon the specific requirements should be given.TransformerCode for selection of the maximum size of transformer used to supply a medium voltageinstallation from a high voltage network should be mentioned e.g..• present load;• possible future load;• operation and maintenance cost and other system conditions; and• short-circuit making and breaking capacity of the switchgear used for controlling themedium voltage distribution system.Low Voltage Switchgear• Criteria for selecting the Switchgear and fuse gear in relation to the capacity of thetransformers ultimately to be connected is necessary to include.• It should be mentioned that Isolation and protection of outgoing circuits forming maindistribution system may be effected by means of circuit-breakers, or fuses or switch
  • 140. and fuse units mounted on the main switchboard. The choice between alternativetypes of equipment may be influenced by the following considerations-i) In certain installations supplied with electric power from remote transformersubstations, it may be necessary to protect main circuits with circuit-breakersoperated by earth leakage trips, in order to ensure effective earth faultprotection.ii) In installations where overloading of circuits may be considered unlikely,HRC type fuses will normally afford adequate protection for main circuits.Where means of isolating main circuits separately is required, the fuses shallbe mounted in fuse switch or switch fuse units or with switches forming partof the switchboards.iii) It is better to mention the requirement of:• passages to all the switchboards for operation and maintenance;• providing of proper means for isolating the equipment;• sufficient additional space for anticipated future extensions.Keeping in view the safety of people, it is necessary to mention that all electricalinstallations in a room or cubicle or in an area surrounded by wall fence, access towhich is controlled by lock and key shall be considered accessible to authorizedpersons only.Reception and Distribution of Main supply1. All main switches shall be either of metal-clad enclosed pattern or of any Insulatedenclosed pattern which shall be fixed at close proximity to the point of entry ofsupply.2. Safety should be in first priority while fixing the location of main board andswitchboards. Hence, following criteria are recommended to mention in the code:a) Easy accessibility for firemen and other personnel to quickly disconnect thesupply in case of emergencies;b) selection of the location keeping in view safety against operation byunauthorized personnel;c) installation of open type switchboards away from storage batteries or placesexposed to chemical fumes.d) switchboard should be totally enclosed or made flame proof while installing indamp situation or where inflammable or explosive dust, vapor or gas is likely tobe present;e) proximity of switchboards while erecting above gas stoves or sinks or anywashing unit in the washing rooms or laundries, or in bathrooms, lavatories ortoilets, or kitchens.f) conditions to be fulfilled in case of fixing the switchboards unavoidably inplaces likely to be exposed to weather, to drip, or in abnormal moistatmosphere;g) Adequate illumination shall be provided for all working spaces about theswitchboards when installed indoors.3. Metal-clad switchgear shall preferably be mounted on any of the following types ofboards: e.g. hinged-type metal boards, Fixed-type, Wooden boards etc.
  • 141. 4 Along with building drawings before proceeding with the actual construction of theboards, a proper drawing showing the detailed dimensions and design including thedisposition of the mountings should be prepared.5. Code for Arrangement of apparatus should be mentioned; e.g.a) Equipment which is in front of a switchboard;b) Projection of apparatus and proximity of fuse body and unnecessary holesfrom the edge of the panel;c) Spacing of the live parts from non-hygroscopic, non-inflammable insulatingmaterial;d) Arrangement of gear according to its accessibility and connections to allinstruments and apparatus shall also be easily identifiable.e) In every case in which switches and fuses are fitted on the same pole, thesefuses shall be so arranged that the fuses are not alive when their respectiveswitches are in off position.f) No fuses other than fuses in instrument circuit shall be fixed on the back of orbehind a switchboard panel or frame.Location of Distribution Boardsa) The distribution fuse-boards shall be located as near as possible to the centre of theload they are intended to control.b) These shall be fixed on suitable stanchion or wall and shall be accessible forreplacement of fuses, and shall not be more than 2m from floor level.c) These shall be either metal-clad type, or all-insulated type. But, if exposed toweather or damp situations, these shall be of the weatherproof type and, ifinstalled where exposed to explosive dust, vapor or gas, these shall be of flameproof type. In corrosive atmospheres, these shall be treated with anti-corrosivepreservative or covered with suitable plastic compound.d) Where two or more distribution fuse - boards feeding low voltage circuits are fedfrom a supply of medium voltage, these distribution boards shall be:1. fixed not less than 2m apart; or2. arranged so that it is not possible to open two at a time , namely, they areinterlocked and the metal case is marked Danger 400 volts and identifiedwith proper phase marking and danger marks; or3. installed in a room or enclosure accessible to only authorized persons.e) All distribution boards shall be marked Lighting or Power, as the case may be,and also marked with the voltage and number of phases of the supply, Each shallbe provided with a circuit list giving diagram of each circuit which it controls andthe current rating of the circuit and size of fuse element.
  • 142. f) In wiring branch distribution board, total load of consuming devices shall bedivided as far as possible evenly between the number of ways in the board leavingspare circuits for future extension.Circuits and Protection of CircuitsMain distribution boardMain distribution board shall be provided with a circuit-breaker on each pole of each circuit,or a switch with a fuse on the phase or live conductor and a link on the neutral or earthedconductor of each circuit. The switches shall always be linked.Branch Distribution BoardsQuality or reliability of supply depends upon the proper division of circuits. This part isfound omitted in NNBC.In this connection, Electrical Installation Guide 2009 published by Schneider Electric,Electrical Installation of Bureau of Indian Standards and Structure of National Building Codeof NEC are presented for reference.In Electrical Installation Guide 2009 published by Schneider Electric, ,Chapter P: Residentialand other special locations, following points are recommended:• Subdivision of circuits should be according to the number of utilization categories inthe installation concerned.• At least one circuit for lighting. Each circuit supplying a maximum of 8 lightingpoints.• At least one circuit for socket-outlets rated 10/16 A, each circuit supplying amaximum of 8 sockets. These sockets may be single or double units (a double unit ismade up of two 10/16 A sockets mounted on a common base in an embedded box,identical to that of a single unit).• One circuit for each appliance such as water heater, washing machine, cooker,refrigerator etc.It further recommends the number of 10/16A (or similar) socket-outlets and fixed lightingpoints, according to the use for which the various rooms of a dwelling are intended.Table:-1Room function Minimum number offixed lighting pointsMinimum number of 10/16Asocket-outlets.Living room 1 5Bed room, lounge, bureau,Dinning room.1 3Kitchen 2 4(1)Bathroom, shower room 2 1 or 2Entrance hall, box room 1 1WC, storage space 1 -Laundry room - 1
  • 143. Note:- (1) Of which 2 above the working surface and 1 for a specialized circuit. In additionan independent socket-outlet of 16A or 20A for cooker and a junction box or socket-outletfor a 32A specialized circuit.The Bureau of Indian Standards presents the above table in following way:Table:-2 A recommended schedule of socket-outlets in a residential building (As per Bureauof Indian Standard)Location Number of 5A socket-outlets Number of 15A socket-outletsBed room 2 to 3 1Living room 2 to 3 2Kitchen 1 2Dinning room 2 1Garage 1 1Refrigerator 1Air-conditioner One for eachVerandah 1 per 10m 1Bathroom 1 1As per the Bureau of Indian Standards :• Branch distribution boards shall be provided with a fuse or a miniature circuit breaker orboth of adequate rating/setting on the live conductor shall be connected to a common linkand be capable of being, disconnected individually for testing purposes. At least, onespare circuit of the same capacity shall be provided on each branch distribution board.• In residential installation, lights and fans may be wired on a common circuit. Such sub-circuit shall not have more than a total of ten points of lights, fans and 5A socket outlets.The load of such circuit shall be restricted to 800 watts. If a separate fan circuit isprovided, the number of fans in the circuit shall not exceed ten. Power sub-circuits shallbe designed according to the load but in no case shall there be more than two 15A outletson each sub-circuit.• In industrial installations, the branch distribution board shall be totally segregated forsingle-phase distribution and wiring.• In industrial and other similar installations requiring the use of group control forswitching operation circuits for socket outlets may be kept separate from fans and lights.Normally, fans and lights may be wired on a common circuit, however, if need is feltseparate circuits may be provided for the two. The load on any low voltage sub-circuitshall not exceed 3,000 watts. In a case of new installation, all circuits and sub-circuitsshall be designed by making a provision of 20 percent increase in load due to any futuremodification. Power sub-circuits shall be designed according to the load but in no caseshall there be more than four outlets on each sub-circuit.In the same way, in this Chapter “Protection of Circuits”, the Bureau of Indian Standardsstates that:
  • 144. a) Appropriate protection shall be provided at switchboards and distribution boards forall circuits and sub-circuits against short circuit and over current and the protectiveapparatus shall be capable of interrupting any short circuit current that may occur,without danger. The ratings and settings of fuses and the protective devices shall becoordinated so as to afford selectivity in operation.b) Where circuit-breakers are used for protection of a main circuit and of the sub-circuitsderived there from, discrimination in operation may be achieved by adjusting theprotective devices of the sub main circuit-breakers to operate at lower current settingsand shorter time-lag than the main circuit-breaker.c) Where HRC type fuses are used for back-up protection of circuit-breakers, orwhere HRC fuses are used for protection of main circuits, and circuit-breakers forthe protection of sub-circuits derived there from, in the event of short-circuitsprotection exceeding the short-circuits capacity of the circuit-breakers, the HRC fusesshall operate earlier than the circuit-breakers; but for smaller overloads within theshort-circuit capacity of the circuit-breakers, the circuit-breakers shall operate earlierthan the HRC fuse blows.d) If rewirable type fuses are used to protect sub-circuits derived from a main circuitprotected by HRC type fuses, the main circuit fuse shall normally blow in the event ofa short-circuit, although discrimination may be achieved in respect of overloadcurrents. The use of rewirable fuses is restricted to the circuits with short-circuit levelof 4 kA; for higher level either cartridge or HRC fuses shall be used.e) A fuse carrier shall not be fitted with a fuse element larger than that for which thecarrier is designed.f) The current rating of a fuse shall not exceed the current rating of the smallest cable inthe circuit protected by the fuse.g) Every fuse shall have its own case or cover for the protection of the circuit and anindelible indication of its appropriate current rating in an adjacent conspicuousposition.National Electric Code (NEC) in Structure of National Building Code (NBC) Articles 210addresses "branch circuits" (as opposed to service or feeder circuits) and receptacles andfixtures on branch circuits. There are requirements for the minimum number of branches, andplacement of receptacles, according to the location and purpose of the receptacle outlet.It suggests that a ground fault circuit interrupter (GFCI) is required for all receptacles in wetlocations, e.g: outlets in bathrooms, outdoors and kitchens, and, in addition, for dwellingunits: crawl-spaces, garages, unfinished basements, and within 6 feet (1.8 m) of a wet-barsink, with limited exceptions. The NEC also has rules about such things as how many circuitsand receptacles/outlets should be placed in a given residential dwelling, and how far apartthey can be in a given type of room, based upon the typical cord-length of small appliances(for example, not more than 12 feet (3.66 m) apart, or 4 feet (1.22m) apart on kitchencountertops).
  • 145. Safety device introduced with the 1999 code is the arc-fault circuit interrupter (AFCI). Thisdevice detects arcs from hot to neutral that can develop when insulation between wiresbecomes frayed or damaged. While arcs from hot to neutral would not trip a GFCI devicesince current is still balanced, circuitry in an AFCI device detects those arcs and will shutdown a circuit. AFCI devices generally replace the circuit breaker in the circuit. They arerequired in new construction on all 15A, 20A circuits to bedrooms, where most arc fault firesoriginate.Rating of Cables and Equipments-Current Rating of the Distribution Fuse Board should be mentioned in the code.Lighting and Level of IlluminationAs per the Facilities Standards for the Public Buildings Service of the US GeneralAdministration Service, the lighting should be designed to enhance both the overall buildingarchitecture as well as the effect of individual spaces within the building.Interior Lighting - Consideration should be given to the options offered by direct lighting,indirect lighting, down lighting, up lighting and lighting from wall or floor-mounted fixtures.Illumination Levels - For lighting levels for interior spaces values are given in the Table-3below.Table-3 Interior Illumination Levels (Average)Area Nominal Illumination Level inLumens/Square Meter (lux)Office SpaceNormal work station space, open or closed offices1500ADP Areas 500Conference Rooms 300Training Rooms 500Internal corridors 200Auditoria 150-200Public AreasEntrance Lobbies, Atria 200Elevator Lobbies, Public Corridors 200Ped. Tunnels and Bridges 200Stairwells 200Support SpacesToilets 200Staff Locker Rooms 200Storage Rooms, Janitors’ Closets 200Electrical Rooms, Generator Rooms 200Mechanical Rooms 200Communications Rooms 200Maintenance Shops 200Loading Docks 200Trash Rooms 200
  • 146. Specialty AreasDining Areas 150-200KitchensKitchens 500Out leased Space 500Physical Fitness Space 500Child Care Centers 500Structured Parking, General Space 50Structured Parking, Intersections 100Structured Parking, Entrances 5001Level assumes a combination of task and ceiling lighting where systems furniture isused. (This may include a combination of direct/indirect fixtures at the ceiling forambient lighting.)NOTE: To determine footcandles (fc), divide lux amount by 11.Accessibility for Servicing. Careful consideration must be taken in the design of lightingsystems regarding servicing of the fixtures and replacement of tubes or bulbs. This issueneeds to be discussed with building operation staff to determine the dimensional limits ofservicing equipment.Light Sources. Generally, interior lighting should be fluorescent. Downlights should becompact fluorescent; high bay lighting should be high intensity discharge (HID) type. HIDcan also be an appropriate source for indirect lighting of high spaces. However, it should notbe used in spaces where instantaneous control is important, such as conference rooms,auditoria or courtrooms.Dimming can be accomplished with incandescent, fluorescent or HID fixtures, although HIDand fluorescent dimmers should not be used where harmonics constitute a problem.Incandescent lighting should be used sparingly. It is appropriate where special architecturaleffects are desired.It is essential that adequate provision shall be made for all the electrical services which maybe required immediately and during the intended useful life of the building.Indian Bureau of Standards refers that when considering the function of artificial lighting,attention shall be given to:a. illumination and its uniformity;b. special distribution of light. This includes a reference to the composition of diffused anddirectional light, direction of incidence, the distribution of luminance and the degree ofglare; andc. colour of the light and colour radiation.
  • 147. 1. The variety of purposes which have to be kept in mind while planning the lightinginstallation could be broadly grouped as:a. industrial buildings and processes;b. offices, schools and public buildings;c. surgeries and hospitals; andd. hostels, restaurants, shops and residential buildings.2. It is important that appropriate levels of illumination for these and the types andpositions of fittings determined to suit the task and the disposition of the workingplans.Electrical System Standards and Design Guidelines, Wisconsin Department ofAdministration Division of State Facilities (DSF) suggests that;General Design• The lighting design shall be practical, energy-efficient, easy to maintain, and appropriatefor the intended function of the space.• The lighting design for new and renovated buildings with windows and significantdaytime occupancies require careful coordination between the lighting designer and thearchitect.Interior Lighting• Lighting of interior areas shall utilize fluorescent lighting sources. Incandescent or HIDsources shall be used only for specific isolated applications and justified by program orusage.• For ambient lighting design, utilize 4’ T8 lamps as much as possible. For ease ofmaintenance and lamp storage requirements, the lighting design should utilize aminimum number of different lamp types. Minimize the use of 2’ fixtures,• Indirect/direct fixtures shall be used in day lighted zones per DSF Daylighting Standardsfor State Facilities guidelines. When the recommended indirect or direct/indirect lightingsystem is not applicable, use parabolic fixtures for ambient lighting.• For the DSF Daylighting Standards for State Facilities guidelines, low-wattage tasklighting shall be an essential component of the lighting design. The lighting designer,architect, user agency, and DSF project manager shall discuss and reach a commonunderstanding as to the task lighting that will be provided. DSF recommends tasklighting be fixed where possible, and utilize low-wattage fluorescent lamps.• For high/low bay applications such as gymnasiums, warehouses, swimming pools andshop areas, consider the use of fluorescent fixtures with specular reflectors. Otherwise,utilize enclosed metal halide fixtures, especially if area is subject to dirt or dust.• Proper design provisions shall be made to ensure that adequate support for mounting oflighting fixtures is present. Add fixture mounting details to drawings, as appropriate.
  • 148. Exterior Lighting• Outdoor lighting shall use metal halide lamps (design based on pulse-start lamps). Adifferent lamp source may be used if needed to match existing lamps.• Exterior lighting shall typically be fed from panels in an adjacent building, and shall becontrolled by a photocell, time clock, or campuswide lighting signal system.• Outdoor lighting system design shall utilize cutoff type fixtures which minimize theamount of lamp lumens which are emitted above the horizontal plane of the fixture andwhich minimize the spillage onto adjacent facilities.Lighting Controls• Lighting controls and switching shall be kept simple, inexpensive, and easy-to-maintain.Architectural lighting control systems (scene lighting controls), low-voltage switchingsystems, digital control systems, or whole-building programmable control systemsutilizing multiple control panels, shall be used only when necessary. These systems maybe considered only for lighting control in lecture halls, auditoriums and theaters, forswitching of large areas, or for specific energy-saving requirements.• Keep usage of dimming controls to a minimum (only when necessary per program).• Occupancy sensors shall be used as much as practical (occupancy sensors shall typicallybe used for required automatic light shut-off instead of central time-clock control orcentral energy-management system control). Consider their use in all restrooms,classrooms, conference rooms, open office spaces, individual offices, and corridors. Useinfrared or passive sound detection occupancy sensors (or combination of these types)only, - no ultrasonic sensors allowed.• Day lighting/photo sensors shall be used to provide stepped or multilevel on-offswitching of lighting in daylight areas. Care shall be taken in setting up the controlsequence to prevent short cycling of the controls.• Single offices shall typically be provided with 3-lamp fixtures, with bi-level switching ofthe inboard and outboard lamps. Provide a wall-mounted occupancy sensor located atthe door. For day light single offices, photo sensors which provide stepped day-lightingcontrol shall be considered (occupancy sensor shall over-ride photo sensors).• Consider digital timer switches for storage areas, closets, and electrical/mechanicalrooms. (Fixtures in electrical/mechanical rooms shall be fed by emergency generatorcircuits).• For campus lecture halls and auditoriums, coordinate lighting design with theaudio/visual technology requirements. Speaker/instructor area lighting, projection screenlighting, and note-taking lighting shall be considered.Egress / Emergency / Night Lighting• Emergency lighting shall powered by circuits from a building’s emergency (generator)system. Emergency battery lighting units shall only be used in buildings without abackup generator.• It is the intention of DSF that egress or emergency lighting be illuminated for thoseportions of a building that are, in fact, occupied. To prevent the illumination of egress oremergency lighting during times that an area is not occupied, DSF recommends the use
  • 149. of occupancy sensors to provide automatic shut-off of this lighting. Lighting shall beinstalled in an un-switched night-lighting mode only when necessary (securityapplications).• For another method of controlling emergency lighting, consider the use of transfer switchdevices which switch the AC ballast from a switched normal circuit to a generator circuit,- avoiding wiring emergency fixtures as nightlight fixtures.4. WiringIn this heading, the code includes many clauses especially from the Bureau of IndianStandards. But still following points, which are based on NEC, are better to beconsidered:4.1. Consideration of the voltage drop while calculating and selecting the cable size andfuse.4.2. Cross-sectional-area (c.s.a.) of conductorsThe c.s.a. of conductors and the rated current of the associated protective device dependon:-a) the current magnitude of the circuit,b) the ambient temperature,c) the kind of installation, andd) the influence of neighbouring circuits .Moreover, the conductors for the phase wires, the neutral and the protectiveconductors of a given circuit must all be of equal c.s.a. (assuming the same materialfor the conductors concerned, i.e. all copper or all aluminum).The following table indicates the c.s.a. required for commonly-used appliancesProtective devices 1 phase +N in 2x9 mm spaces comply with requirements forisolation, and for marking of circuit current rating and conductor sizes.Table-4c.s.a. of conductors and current rating of the protective devices in residentialinstallations (c.s.a. of aluminum conductors are shown in brackets)Type of circuit 1-phase 230V1-ph+N or 1 ph+PEc.s.a. of conductors MaximumpowerProtective deviceFixed lightning 1.5 mm2(2.5mm2)2,300W Circuit-breaker 16 AFuse 10 A10/16 A 2.5 mm2(4 mm2)4,600 W Circuit –breaker 25 AFuse 20 AIndivisual –load circuitsWater heater 2.5 mm2(4 mm2)4,600 W Circuit –breaker 25 AFuse 20 A
  • 150. Clothes-washing machine 2.5 mm2(4 mm2)4,600 W Circuit –breaker 25 AFuse 20 ACooker or hotplate16 mm2(10 mm2)7,300 W Circuit-breaker 40 AFuse 32 AElectric space heater 1.5 mm2(2.5 mm2)2,300 W Circuit-breaker 16AFuse 10 ANote- (1) In a 230/400 V, 3-phase circuit, the c.s.a. is 4 mm2for copper or 6 mm2 foraluminium, and protection is provided by a 3d2A circuit –breaker or by 25 A fuses.Layout and Installation Drawing:National Rules for Electrical Installation, Third Edition Amendment No.1, Electro-Technical Council of Ireland Limited 2001 suggests that:• Wiring shall be so arranged and fixed that it cannot be used to support items such asclothing.• In attic spaces, care shall be taken to lay wiring in an orderly manner and in such away as to minimize the risk of damage to the wiring.• The earthing contact in a socket-outlet shall be connected to the protective conductor.The metal enclosure of a socket-outlet shall be connected to the protective conductor;fixing screws shall not be used for this purpose.Laws, Rules and Wiring Standards of North Dakota states that:• Electrical Installations shall be planned to provide adequate capacity for the load.• Wiring system shall have conductors of sufficient capacity to furnish each outletwithout excessive line loss or voltage drop. The voltage drop shall not exceed fivepercent at the farthest outlet of power, heating and lighting loads or combinations ofsuch loads.• Material shall be listed by nationally recognized testing laboratories to safeguard lifeand property. It is the duty of the electrical installer to secure permission from theexecutive director to use materials, devices, and methods of installation notspecifically covered by these standards.• When wiring public school buildings approval shall be received from the departmentof public instruction and the state electrical board.• Overhead conductors shall not cross over water wells or known sites where waterwells may be drilled. A minimum distance of 6.10m in all directions shall bemaintained for overhead conductors.• All hospitals, nursing homes, and related patient care areas along with dormitoriesdesigned to house more than sixteen people shall be wired in metal raceway. Portablecleaning equipment receptacle outlets shall be installed in corridors and located sothat no point in the corridor along the floor line, measured horizontally, is more than7.62 m from an outlet, spacing of receptacle outlets for dormitories and assisted livingshall be conformity with section 210.60,2005 edition, NEC.• In the wiring of nursing homes and hospitals, reference shall be made to the statedepartment health for special requirements pertaining to operating rooms, deliveryrooms, and emergency lighting.
  • 151. • All electrical wiring shall be copper. No aluminum or copper clad aluminum wireshall be installed in any electrical installation without written permission from thechief electrical inspector prior to installation.Kelly Smith in “Typical Electrical Building Code” writes that:While planning general requirements for wiring an installation position of wall- lightswitches in the rooms such as bed room, kitchen, dinning room etc shall be stated. Here isan example of that:a) Bedrooms, living rooms and dinning room• Wall light switch should be provided near the entry door,• Each wall must have at least one receptacle.• One or more receptacles must be provided in 4m of interval.• Light fixtures must of on 15 ampere circuit.b) Kitchen• Larger appliances such as refrigerator should be placed on dedicated circuits.• Receptacles above countertops used for small kitchen appliances must be GFCIreceptacles, controlled by two 20 amp circuits.c) Electric wiring for Bathroom• Bathroom is a damp environment. Hence receptacles should be GFCI-protected.• Lights must be protected with a globe or something similar to keep moisture at bay.• Depending on amperage use, heaters, lights and fans must be on their own circuits.d) Outdoor use• It must be underground feed cable (UF) or sealed conduit must be used.e) Bathrooms and showers.Bathrooms and showers rooms are area of high risk, because of the very lowresistance of the human body when or immersed in water. Precaution to be taken, aretherefore correspondingly rigorous, and the regulations are more severe than those formost other locations.Fittings and AccessoriesThis part is found missing in the NNBC.EARTHINGIn this Chapter, following clauses should be considered in the code.Equipment to be Earthed — Except for equipment provided with double insulation, all thenon-current carrying metal parts of electrical installations are to be earthed properly. Allmetal conduits, trunking, cable sheaths, switchgear, distribution fuseboards, lighting fittings
  • 152. and all other parts made of metal shall be bended toghethcr and connected by means of twoseparate and distinct conductors to an efficient earth electrtode.Structural Metal Work — Earthing of the metallic parts shall not be effected through anystructural metal work which houses the installation. Where metallic parts of the installationare not required to be earthed and are liable to become alive should the insulations ofconductors become defective, such metallic parts shall be separated by durable non-conducting material from any structural work.System of Earthing—Equipment and portions of installations shall be deemed to be earthedonly if earthed in accordance with either the direct earthing system, the multiple earthedneutral system or the earth leakage circuit-breaker system.Drawings of earthing should be attached.Telecommunication and other servicesIn this chapter following codes are required to be considered:• House wiring of telephone subscribers offices in small buildings is normally undertakenby the Telephone Department on the surface of walls. But in large multi-storied buildingsintended for commercial, business and office use as well as for residential purposes,wiring for telephone connections is generally done in a concealed manner throughconduits.• The requirements of telecommunication facilities like Telephone connections, PrivateBranch Exchange, Intercommunication facilities. Telex and Telegraph lines are to beplanned well in advance so that suitable provisions are made in the building plan in sucha way that the demand for telecommunication services in any part of the building at anyfloor are met at any time during the life of the building.• Layout arrangements, methods for internal block wiring and other requirements regardingprovisions of space, etc, may be decided defending as the number of phone outlets andother details in consultation with Engineer/Architect and user.• Common Antenna System for TV Receivers• In multistoried apartments, houses and hotels where many TV receivers are located, acommon master antenna system may preferably be used to avoid mushrooming ofindividual antennas.• Master antenna is generally provided at the top most convenient point in any building anda suitable room on the top most floor or terrace for housing the amplifier unit, etc, mayalso be provided in consultation with the architect/engineer.• From the amplifier rooms, conduits are laid in recess to facilitate drawing coaxial cable toindividual flats. Suitable Tap Off boxes may be provided in every room/flat as required.Lightning Protection of BuildingLightning is a natural hazard that causes serious economical losses and personal injuries anddeaths in many parts of the world. In the world, over 20,000 people are affected by lightningand succumbed to injuries every year. The number of people survive with life-time injuries,temporary disabilities and psychological trauma may be several times more than that.Nepal is
  • 153. prone to lightning hazards. So, protection from lightning is one of the important factors toconsider in building code.Under this chapter, it is necessary to point out the structures which need to be protected fromlightning. For example, Schools, hospitals, auditoria etc are places where a large number ofpeople congregate; Brick buildings or buildings with thatched roof which have greater degreeof risk of lightning stroke; relatively exposed buildings; buildings of hilly or mountainousarea etc.For the assessment of the lightning hazards, risk index with explanation should be given inthe tabular form in the code. In addition to these methods, protection from lightning also isrecommended to include.
  • 154. 1Appendix-11: REVIEW & RECOMMENDATION FORREVISION OF NNBC (NNBC 208:2003) SANITARY ANDPLUMBING DESIGN REQUIREMENTS1. INTRODUCTION TO PLUMBING SERVICES IN NNBC FOR REVISION ANDUPDATEThe section “SANITARY AND PLUMBING SERVICES” shall cover the basicrequirements for water supply, sanitation, gas supply, A/C, Ventilation, Chimneys, firefighting hose and pipelines, drainage and sewerage for residential, high rise buildings,government office complexes, business, Industrial buildings and urban areas. The WaterSupply and Sanitation Code shall cover from city dwellings, to commercial complexesand traffic terminal stations. It shall cover and deal with general requirements ofplumbing connected to municipal water supply and sanitation system.Apart from the water supply it should cover the design, layout, construction, andmaintenance of drains for foul water, surface water, subsoil water and sewage along withall ancillary works such as connections, manholes, inspection chambers, water storagestanks. Each building should be connected to disposal system such as public or privatesewer or individual sewerage including cesspool, soak away or to other approved pointof disposal /treatment plants.The section should include all the controlling design parameters for the designer toachieve reliable water supply, sewerage disposal and treatment system design.However, the present code of NNBC 208 disseminates valuable design parameters, butpossesses following discrepancies and inappropriate parameters and which should beavoided during updating. They are:• Unit conversion mistakes• Missing sub headings for tables and nomograph• Lack of sample example to use code• Using consistent unit to the terminology e.g. (Residual head be referred to Metersinstead of Pressure unit)As foreseen the requirement for update of NNBC, the consultants suggest and recommendfocusing on the following issues as well:• Rationalization of definitions, and inclusions of more terms and terminology.• Include first design parameters such as minimum and maximum flow through taps,residual head, minimum slope, minimum cover etc• Include friction head loss diagram in form of nomograph, tables and appropriateequation.• Make provisions related to domestic hot water supply installation• Make provisions related to water supply and sanitation in high altitude and sub-zerotemperature regions of the country,• Include inspection, testing maintenance requirement.• Include sizing of rain water pipes for roof drainage in more rational basis, and techniquesfor rainwater harvesting,
  • 155. 2• Requirement of refuse chute, if any• Include a code for solid waste disposal, management and treatment, and Environmentalpollution.• Design and Installation pipes and fittings should not be encased in structural elementsuch as beams, slab, and columns) by chiseling or by any means.• Overhead water storage facilities for the high rise buildings must be located inconsultation with the structural designer.• Water storage facilities shall be provided for each two to three floors with separatedistribution system to each floors for the high rise building.• Provision for storing rainwater in the highest floor is recommended and its uses belimited to flushing of toilets, fire fighting and cleaning and its overflow be connected tothe ground water recharge well.• Water treatment and waste treatment is a must for the high-rise building. No wastewaterand sewerage be allowed to dispose in the public sewer untreated.With due consideration to above facts, a comprehensive design code could be formulatedwhich shall be user friendly and comfortable in adaptation and use of NNBC.The NNBC Section-208 is thoroughly studied for commenting and compared with othercodes such as National Building code of India-1970, and 2005, International Building Code(International Plumbing Code), Byelaws prepared by DUDBC/Town developmentcommittees, WHO publications and requirements. However, due to unavailability of latestInternational Plumbing Code, the comparison of NNBC code could not be done. Besides,International Plumbing code, NNBC has been compared and checked with Water TreatmentHand Book: Degremont – 1979.The findings and inferences, problems and issues derived during study are written incommentary and suggestion form with articles related in the NNBC publication. All theseissues and problems are to be resolved and updated by the concern through the paneldiscussions on the raised issues and shall be adopted in future in the revised code. Thusspecific technical details, languages, spellings and grammar concerning the “PlumbingServices” are discussed below with the technical suggestions, formatting and comments etc.All these suggestions are to be scrutinized by the panel of sanitary engineers, public healthengineers, and environmentalist.
  • 156. 3TECHNICAL ISSUES AND PROBLEMS IN NNBC PART 208:Code may be written in standard format as suggested below or in any other internationallyaccepted format of IBC or UBC:SCOPETERMINOLOGYPREFACEDESIGN OFDISTRIBUTIONSYSTEMMATERIALS FITTINGAND APPLIANCESLICNSINGOF PLUMBERSINSPECTIONAND TESTINGGUIDELINES TOMAINTENANCEWATER SUPLYREQUIREMENTFOR BUILDINGFORMAT FORAPPLICATION FOROBTAININGFOR
  • 157. 4PIPING &DISTRIBUTIONGENERALREQUIREMENT OF PIPEWORKLAYING OFPIPESJOINTING OFPIPESWATER STORAGEHOT WATER SUPPLYSYSTEMCLEANING &DISINFECTIONAPPENDIX: (Eg)1.2.3.4.DRINKING WATERQUALITYSIMPLEMETHOD FORIMPROVING W.Q.
  • 158. 51.1. NNBC : SECTION (A) WATER SUPPLYThis section deals basically with requirements of water supply, distribution and storagefor the design and construction.In Last Line of para (1) including fire fighting may be relocated and provision/ systemfor fire fighting may be separately included. However, water requirement for the firefighting may be included in the Water requirement table.1.2 REVIEW WATER SUPPLY REQUIREMENTS FOR BUILDINGS:The water requirements in each type of dwelling is studied and compared as below:S. No. Type of Buildings Minimum Requirements per head per dayNNBC Nepal NBC-INDIA WHO/EO REMARKS1. Apartment Buildings 100 lit 135 135 RR2. Auditorium (per seat) 15 lit 153. Hospital (inc. laundry)/ bed(a) # of beds <100 340 lit 340(b) # of beds >100 450 lit 4504. Cold Storage 45 lit5. Buildings higher than 4 st.Commercial & Industrial45 lit5.1 Nurses Home & MedicalQuarters135 lit. 135 RRRECOMMENDED6. Residences 100 lit. 135 135 RR7. Office 45 lit. 458. Hostels (Qty. for Nursesetc.)100 1359. Hotels per bed 100 180 180 RR10. Restaurants (per seat) 50 70 70 RR11. Schools & College(a) Day Schools 15 45(b) Boarding Schools 100 135 135 RR12. Cinemas, Theatre Halls,Concert Halls (per seat)15 lit. 1513. Factories(a) With bathing facilities 45 lit 45(b) W/o bathing facilities 30 lit 3014. Terminal Stations (Bus andRailway per pass)15 lit 45/23 45 RR15. Airports (Internationals) 70 lit. 70/7016. Airports (Domestic) 20 lit. 70/70 70 RRIncrease or decrease of water requirement depends upon flushing system of toilets.Water requirement may be allowed to reduce for poor flush toilets. Above table givesthe glimpse of water requirement by different standards & agencies, with the consultantremarks as RR (Note: RR means recommended for review and revision).
  • 159. 6While considering for any decrease in minimum water requirement will have severeimpact on the design of municipal water and sewer disposal conveyance. This issue israised for the panel discussions while revising the code.2. WATER STORAGE1stPara Last line: Storage of water within premises is thus necessary to meet peakdemand In article 2.1.8 Addition of this statement may be useful “inlet pipe of the w/sline must be connected with floating valves where municipal supply is connected to theunderground or overhead water tanks.2.2 UNDERGROUND STORAGEIn article 2.2.2, Sizing and capacity of the tanks should be left to the designer than tospecify in the codeIn article 2.2.3,Tank should not be built or placed closed to manhole, septic tank orsoakpitMinimum distance specified in the code may be increased.Addition of this statement will be useful “Inlet should be closed by floating valve.”2.3 OVERHEAD STORAGEAddition of this statement will be useful “Inlet pipe should not be closed by floatingvalue if pumped.”Table A2 may require revision, the designer may be allowed to determine its capacityrequirement.Before writing above, terminology of each item needs to be mentioned in code such as:Airlock, Air gap, Available Head, Residual Head, back flow, Backflow preventer, Backsiphon age, Branch, Cross-connections, communication pipe, consumer, consumerspipe, orifice, diameter, nominal diameter, direct tap, down take pipe, effective opening,feed cistern, float operated value, check value or unidirectional value, gate value, ballvalve, air releasing value, flushing cistern, general washing place, geyser, horizontalpipe, hot water tank or cylinders, offset, period of supply, pipe work, plinth, plumbing,potable water, service pipe, stop cock, stop tap, storage tank, supply line, supports,terminal pressure, vertical pipe, warning pipe, wash out value, water level, water main,water outlet, water supply system, water works, leakage ferrules, authority havingjurisdiction.3. DISTRIBUTION SYSTEM & PIPEWORKSIn article 3.1, the formulae recommended for pipe network design is valid for pipe sizesgreater than 100 mm and higher velocity.For internal plumbing pipe networks are based upon Darcy – Weisbach equation.
  • 160. 7Viz: d**2*l*f*4i2H gv=Where f: Head loss in meter in the sectionf: friction co-efficientl: length of pipe in mv = velocity of flow in m/secg = 9.81 m/sec2d = diameter of pipe in meter (Internal)f is estimated by f = 0.005( )d40011+ : d internal diameter of pipe in m.f for new galvanized pipe is 0.006.Minimum discharge may be specified which may be.Q = 0.15 liter per second in House hold taps.Q = 0.25 lit per second in Public tap stand.Minimum velocity of dischargev = 1 m/s to 3m/s.Minimum residual head = 1.8 – 3.5 meter (0.18 to 0.35 kgf/ cm2).In article 3.2, Residual head of 0.018 N/ mm2(1.8 kg/cm2) at consumers tapThis statement is either mistaken in unit conversion or typo mistake, which requiresrevision as such large residual head ask for large pipes and extra pumps will be requiredto generate such a high head.Hazen Williams formulaev = 0.85 C R0.63S0.54can be used for Turbulent flow above 3 liter per second.This equation will be reduced to:85.11.165cvDl*78.6hf ⎟⎠⎞⎜⎝⎛=where l : length of pipe in meterv : velocity of piped : diameter of pipe in meterc: a constant depending upon the roughness of pipe which is taken generally100 value.If calculation is made by these two formulae head loss for 12 mm internal dia GI pipewill be 1.76 m to 10 meter length of pipe by Darcy – Weisbach equation & 3.96 m for 10meter length of pipe by Hazen Williams which mean larger diameter pipes will berequired in household plumbing works. Therefore, Hazen Williams Equation isconsidered valid for the distribution network design with higher supply. Alternatively,
  • 161. 8Prandtle Colebrook egn: is valid for both which is tedious equation: to be solved byiteration is as follows:d**2* 2H gvf λ= where;Hf = Loss of head in the pipe due to friction in meter of water column per m length ofpipe٨ = head Loss Coefficientk = equivalent roughness coefficient of the wall of conduit in ml = length of pipe in meterv = velocity of piped = diameter of pipe in meterg = 9.81 m/sec2Values of kinematics viscosity, roughness coefficient smooth non corroding piping withscaling unlikely, and sample calculation, head loss tables nomograph may be developedand given in this section to help the designer.In article 3.7, Addition of this statement will be useful ”90 cm or above soil cover isrequired for High density polyethylene pipe (life of pipes deterioration with exposure ofpipe in sunlight due to VV rays).In article 3.9, the quality & selection of pipes depend upon the quality of water to beconveyed. The code may define the quality of potable water, which may be as follows:MINIMUM STANDARD OF WATER QUALITYS.No.Parameters Unit Standard/ Goal EU/StandardRecommended1. Coliform /100ml Not bedetectable2. Lead (Toxicity factor) mg/1 0.13. Manganese mg/l 0.054. Fluoride mg/l 1.55. Iron (Fe) mg/l 0.106. Phenols mg/l <0.0027. Nitrate mg/l 458. Nitrate mg/l 0.109. Ammonium mg/l 0.0510. Ammonium mg/l <0.03511. Oxygen mg/l 7.512. Oil mg/l 0.0113. Color Co-Scale514. Taste/ Odor D.N Unobjectionable
  • 162. 9S.No.Parameters Unit Standard/ Goal EU/StandardRecommended15. Turbidity F.TV 516. Suspended Solids mg/l 517. Hardness mmol/l 1.018. Ca++ Aggressivity mg/l <200>7519. Mg++ mg/l 1.5020. Saturation Index mg/l 0<0.521. PH mg/l 8-8.322. CO2 mg/l -23. HCO3 mg/l -24. TDS mg/l 50025. Alkalinity mg/m320026. Chlorophy II mg/m3<527. So4-mg/m3 20028. Temperature ºC. 15-2729. Chlorides mg/l 20030. Lindane mg/l -0.00431. Phenolic Compounds mg/l 0.00232. Detergent mg/l 0.20In article 3.7 the addition of this statement may be useful “90 cm or above soil cover isrequired for high density polyethylene pipes (life of pipes deteriot with exposure of pipein sunlight due to VV rays).In article 3.9, the quality & selection of pipes depend upon the quality of water to beconveyed. The code should define the quality of potable water which may be as follows:S.No.Parameters Unit Standard/GoalEO/StandardRecommended1. Coliform /100 ml No coli.2. Lead (Toxicity factor) mg/ 1 0.13. Manganese mg/l 0.054. Fluoride mg/l 1.55. Iron (Fe) mg/l 0.106. Phenols mg/l <0.0027. Nitrate mg/l 458. Nitrate mg/l 0.10
  • 163. 10S.No.Parameters Unit Standard/GoalEO/StandardRecommended9. Ammonium mg/l 0.0510. Phosphate mg/l <0.03511. Oxygen mg/l 7.512. Oil mg/l 0.0113. Color Co-scale 514. Taste/ odor D.N. Unobjectionable15. Turbidity F.TU 516. Suspended solids mg/l 517. Hardness mg/l 1.018. Ca++ Aggressivity mg/l <200>7519. Mg++ mg/l 1.5020. Saturation Index mg/l 0<0.521. PH mg/l 8-8.322. CO2 mg/l -23. HCO3 mg/l -24. TDS mg/l 50025. Alkalinity mg/m320026. ChlorophyII mg/m3<527. SO4–mg/m320028. Temperature ºC. 15-2729. Chlorides mg/l 20030. Lindane mg/l -0.00431. Phenolic Compounds mg/l 0.00232. Detergent mg/l 0.20The following articles may required to be added to the code:• Materials, fittings and appliances• Conveyance, and distribution of water within premises• General requirement for the pipe works• Laying of mains and pipes on site• Jointing of pipes• Storage of water (all ready included in Chapter I)• Hot water supply system• Inspection and testing• Guidelines to maintenance of the system
  • 164. 11Page No. 10/11:140 Plumbing: Design & Practice.It will be appropriate to show level difference between.• Terrace & soffit of overhead water tank• Highest level of water tank and air vent• Cross connection of supply pipe must be avoidedSuch cross connection may not be allowed.• Separate supply is maintained to urinal/ commode/ WC to encourage usage ofrainwater.Water meter required to be shown above street level.Page No. 12/13. Fire hydrant is required to be encouraged in breakable glass boxes withhose reel next to it.A routine check of Air value is required.B. Waste Water Disposal:Should this section be renamed as Drainage and Sanitation because waste water disposalis part of Drainage.Same structure of code writing may be followed as in water supply.The more terminology may be defined such as:Authority having Jurisdiction, Bedding, Barrel, Benching, BOD chair, channel, cleaningeye, connection, cover, COD, B-coli Depth of man hole, nominal diameter, drain,drainage work, drop connection, Drop Manhole, E-Coli French drain, rubble drain,fittings, fixture units, formation haunching, highway authority, interceptor manhole,invert, junction pipe, manhole, manhole chamber, non-service latrine, puff ventilation,rest bend, saddle, service latrine, sewer, soakaway, soffit, soil waste, soil pipe, subsoilwater, surface water, surface water drain system of plumbing, two pipe systems, singlepipe system, trade effluent, vent pipe, ventilating pipe, waste pipe, waste water (sullage).The word “Collection Systems” may be replaced by “System of plumbing”In article 1.4, Word symphonic may be replaced siphonicIn Table B1- Addition of this statement may be useful ”Preferably bath on each floor.”In Table B2- Factories
  • 165. 12S.No. 1. (i) 2 for 21-45 persons may be 2 for 16-35 persons.(ii) Taps word is missing.In Table B3In column 4 – 3 para 100 person is too high may be not more than 1 or 2 , 2% percentmay be replaced by 1%.In column 2 – Water – losets may be replaced water closets.In column 3 – Urinals 1 for 25 persons is too high may be 1 for 50 person.In Table B4In column 4, 2ndpara, 150 persons may replace 159 persons.Washbasins for female public may be 1 for every 200 persons.In Table B6In column 4, Ablution tap may be 1 for each W/C.Wash basins may be 1 for every 100 persons.In Table B7In column 7, Ablution taps may be 1 in each W.C. instead of 5.In column 3, the rate 2.5 percent may be revised to 3%Type mistake 2-5 percent should be 2.5%Baths are preferable in each floor may be discussed and adopted for thefuture codeIn Table B8 In column five urinals may be 20-45 persons.In Table B9 v) kitchen sinks two should move one up.In Table B10In column 3 1 per 60 may be 1 per 40Table B12Fitments shall be corrected to fitments.2. Disposal of sewage/ wastewater & pipe work.Descriptive parts required to be split under certain heading of article such as• Preparation & submission of plans & drawings• Drainage and Sanitation Requirement.• Prepare preliminary data for design where damage to buildings and structures areimportantly received.• Design considerations, with layouts, rainfall data• Design, - estimation of flow, methodology for the estimation of flow- Pipe sizes- Gradients- Manhole locations & interval- Type of manhole• Construction relating to conveyance of sanitary wastes• Selection and Installation of Sanitary Appliances• Inspecting – Testing
  • 166. 13• Maintenance• Appendix – For Forms/ Format/ Design charts/ table etc.2.4 Gradients:In Table B14:On column 3, the gradient of pipe for each diameter is miscalculated, and requires aprofessional review.1 – 100 mm φ– 1:35 to get 0.18 m3/min.2 – 150 mm φ– 1:65 to get 0.42 m3/min.and so on in mixed lining with Ks = 55for polyethylene or PVC or glazed earthen pipe Ks =100Then gradient will be as follows.1. 100 mm φ– 1:125 to get 0.18 m3/min.2. 150 mm φ– 1:255 to get 0.42 m3/min.Manning – Strickler’s formulae is.V = Ks * R⅔ * I ½Where v = mean velocity of flow in m/sec.R = Hydraulic or mean radius = for circular pipe D/4.I = Channel gradientKs = Wall roughnessBazin’s formula.Rr1RI87V+=‫ץ‬ = wall roughnessValue of ‫ץ‬ or ks is as follows.Nature of wall R Ks.Very smooth walls (PVC, PE, Earthen, Cement Plate) 0.06 100Walls with ordinary cement rendering - 90Smooth wall (cement concrete, bricks) 0.16 70-80Rough wallsChannels with earth wallsDo with pebble bottom & grassy sides0.461.301.7560-704025-35Kutter’s Formulae/ Chezy’s FormulaV = C√RIWhereRnC013.0*)100155.023(1100155.0123++++=n = 0.013.
  • 167. 14Hazen – williamsV = 0.85 * (R)0.63* (I )0.54Similarly in Table B 15 Requires revision, and correct value of gradients requires to be entered.Based on the above equations suitable, table, nomographs, and chart may be developed andintroduced in the code.In Illustration B1, it will be nice to print name of Fixture such as wash basin, WC, floor traps,sinks, siphon etc.In two pipe system, waste water collection shall be discharged in separate man hole than insludge man hole. This system requires the two system pipe in municipal conveyance too.The rain water collection shall be connected to waste water or separate piping may be indicatedin the map with floor trap in roof terrace of flat nature.In case of slope roof; rain water may be collected through the provisions of Gutter and downwater pipesIn Illustration B3• Cross-connection of wash basins and sink may be avoided.• Floor trap may be shownC. Rain Water DisposalIn article 8; asbestos cement pipe/ roofing short may be NOT ALLOWED TO USE.NNBC code should encourage for rain water harvest than its disposal. One of the cost effectivemeasure for rain water harvest with be constructing shallow wells of depth 6-9 meter of 1 of 1.5meter dia and takes the rain water pipe to the well. This well can serve to the community not forindividual. However precaution may be taken in usage of roofing material having health hazardpaints or asbestos. Encouraging to built community wells will be useful for recharging groundwater and serve as the seismic energy dissipater during several earthquake.D. Gas SupplyAlthough the present NNBC does no include this chapter, however during revision of the code,it might be worth while to include in the code for which following considerations are suggested.Terminology: Customer’s/ consumer’s connection gas filter, pilot, pressure regulator, purgequalified installing agency, riser, service pipe service shut off valve, vent pipe, fiveextinguishers.Regulations on usage of LPG/ Methane etc.• Gas pressure regulator valve shall be outside the usage area.• Gas cylinder shall be installed outside in the open area to usage area shall not be placedbelow ground.
  • 168. 15• Portable fire extinguishers to be installed near the gas usage area.• Pipe sizing, piping material, fittings• Inspection of services etc.E. MiscellaneousCode does not cover much for rural inhabitant thus code be prepared for rural as well coveringfollowing:• Septic tank, soak pit construction• Poor flush toilet with twin pit• Bio-gas plant• Management of cattle, agricultural, domestic waste• Hot Water Supply and InsulationThe Code may introduce a separate sub section for the Environmental Pollution coveringfollowing:• Outdoor Air Pollution- Vehicular Traffic- Usage cow dung, coal etc for kitchen- Dust pollution- Domestic waste storage, industrial waste storage- Usage of pollutants / storage of cosmetics• Indoor Air Pollution- Dust Control,- Smell and Odor Control- Fungus control- Termite Control• Sound Pollution- Noise from Generator- Vehicular Noise- Concert, Musical Instruments, speakers, etc.- Operation of Handicraft enterprises- Storage of gases and petroleum products- Storage of cosmetics, Lithium Battery- Storage of explosives and Testing• Water Pollution- Transmission, Disposal of cattle waste, human waste, domestic waste in and aroundrechargeable well, water resources, water sources, abstraction well- Disposal of industrial waste- Laundry, Butcher House- Usage of organic, inorganic chemicals• Solar pollution- Usages of reflector producing UV rays.- Usage of reflection materials in building facade- Usage of reflecting roofing sheet along the landing and take off strip of airplanes- Obstruction of solar rays by one building to the other especially on south façadeSeparate section is provided in the code for the remedial measures for the EnvironmentalPollution with inclusion of following articles:
  • 169. 16• Code for "LANDSCAPING, SIGNS AND OUTDOOR DISPLAY STRUCTURES"Right for information for peaceful living in urban and rural area.• Limiting transmission of carbon dioxide and carbon mono oxide by the moving vehiclein the street.• Limiting noise level by vehicle horn, generators.• Limiting the usage of reflectors in the building façade• Limiting the dust collector units in the building façade.• Cleaning building façadeCreating mandatory regulation for planting trees along the sides of existing and newlyconstructed road, building, parks and structures, open spaces to minimize the globalwarming effect through the usage of carbon dioxide by plants and giving more oxygen toinhabitant.A separate agency may be created as law enforcement body to check, monitor and bringawareness amongst the city dwellers not to construct an element that is heath hazaradousand creates problems to other. If the code is not enforced properly, the time and effortsinvested in the development of nice code may turn into vain.References:- National Nepal Building Code – NNBC 208-2003.- National Building Code of India – 1970, 2005.- Water Treatment Hand Book: Degremont – 1979Foundation de I’EAU – Lemoges.- Legislation for Drinking Water & Swimming Pools.2.1 Recommendations of World Health Organization (1972)WHO Palace of Nations, Geneva- Legislation covering domestic sewage, and industrial waste water in West Germany,Belgium, France, Great Britain, Switzerland- Legislation on Air pollution, France- Environmental Regulation Hand Book.- Journal of the Installation of Water Engineers & Scientists.- Techniques et Science. Municipals,- Water Supply and Sanitary Engineering – Gurcharan Singh- Text Book of water Supply & Sanitary Engineering - S.K. Hussain
  • 170. Recommendation for Update ofNepal National Building CodeSupplement to Final ReportAugust, 2009Submitted by:MULTI Disciplinary Consultants (P) Ltd.P.O. Box 5720, Kathmandu, NepalTel: (977)-1-5525076/5529304, Fax: (977)-1- 5523103E-mail: mdc@multinepal.com.np, Web Site: www.MultiNepal.com/mdcin associaton withK.D. Associates (P) Ltd.P.O. Box 686Tel: 425263, Fax: 4215341E-mail: kdapl@info.com.np,Web: www.hurarah.com.npandKhwopa Engineering CollegeLibali, Bhaktapur-2P.O. Box 84, Bhaktapur, NepalTel: 6614794, 6614798E-mail: khec@wlink.com.npThe Government of NepalMinistry of Physical Planning and WorksEarthquake Risk Reduction and Recovery PreparednessProgramme for Nepal(UNDP/ERRRP-Project: NEP/07/010)
  • 171. Recommendation for Update of Nepal National Building Code:Supplementary to Final ReportTable of Contents1 Introduction........................................................................................................................... 31.1 General............................................................................................................................ 31.2 Purpose of the Supplementary Report ............................................................................ 32 The Stakeholders’ Consultative Meetings .......................................................................... 43 The Comments and Suggestions.......................................................................................... 54 Conclusion ............................................................................................................................. 5Appendix-1: List of Stakeholder OrganizationsAppendix-2: Attendance recordsAppendix-3: Comments and suggestions receivedAppendix-4: Photographic Documentation
  • 172. Recommendation for Update of Nepal NationalBuilding Code: Supplementary to Final Report1 Introduction1.1 GeneralThe current assignment of preparation of recommendation report for Updating the Nationalbuilding Code of Nepal is entrusted to MULTI Disciplinary Consultants (P) Ltd inassociation with KD Associates and Khwopa Engineering College through a contractagreement signed between the consultant and Earthquake Risk Reduction RecoveryPreparedness Programme for Nepal - UNDP/ERRRP-Project: NEP/07/010 (The Project)on December 15, 2008.1.2 Purpose of the Supplementary ReportThe purpose of the supplementary Report is to document the proceedings of theconsultative meetings and participation of stakeholder community. The List of StakeholderOrganisations is provided in Appendix-1 and the comments and suggestions received aresummarized in Appendix -2.1.3 Purpose of the Supplementary ReportFulfilling the contractual obligations, the consultant submitted following reports:Date ReportssubmittedNr. OfCopiesContents of the ReportDecember30, 2008InceptionReport5 Update of Work Program and Description ofdetailed scope and methodology, TaskAssignment to study team membersApril 102009Draft FinalReport (1stDraft)5 Executive Summary, Presentation of Findings,Conclusion and recommendations, data andinformation available, results of analysis andinteractions of problems and recommendationAug 8,2009Final Report 5 with2 copiesin CDIncorporation of comments and suggestionsobtained during stakeholder meetings andnational workshopAug 22,2009Supplementaryto Final Report5 Compilation of proceedings of variousstakeholder meetings, comments andsuggestions, photo documentation.
  • 173. 2 The Stakeholders’ Consultative MeetingsThe Terms of Reference required to carry out consultative meetings with the stakeholders.The meetings were attended by high level officials and major practitioner designers andProfessional Society representatives. The major participants were as follows: Mr. Narayan Gopal Malego, Mayer, Kathmandu Metropolitan City Mr. Suresh Acharya, Joint Secretary, Ministry of Physical Planning and Works Mr. Indra Bahadur Shrestha, Director General,, DUDBC Dr. Purushottam Dangol, DDG, DUDBC Mr. Devendra Dongol, Chief, Urban Development Department, KMC Mr. Bimal Rijal, Chief, Urban Development Department, KMC Mr. Prabin Shrestha, Chief, Urban Development Division, LSMC Mr. Sainik Raj Singh, Chief, ESS, LMSC Mr. Saroj Basnet, Joint Secretary, SCAEF Mr. LR Tamang, Past President, SEEN Mr. Nugal Anand Vaidya, Secretary, FCAN Ms. Hima Shrestha, NSET Mr. Ram Kandel, NSET Mr. Shiva Prasad Koirala, Principal, Kathmandu Engineering College Mr. Suresh Kumar Regmi, President, SEANEP Mr. Suman Narshing Rajbhandari, Asst. Professor, Nepal Engineering CollegeThe details of consultative meetings were carried out as follows:Date Venue StakeholderCommunityNr. ofParticipantsPurposeDec 28,2008MULTI’sOfficeUNDP/ERRRP NationalProgramCoordinatorStart Up meeting and Briefinteraction,Feb 5,2009ERRRP,BabarmahalDUDBC, SCAEF,NEA, SEANEP, NSET,SEEN, FCAN, FNCCI,Ktm EC, LSMC, NEC,UNDP/ERRRP, NSET,16 persons Project Introduction, sharingexperience ofimplementation of NNBCand Problem identificationFeb 9,2009Lalitpur Sub-MetropolitanCityRegistered LicensedDesigners15ParticipantsProject Introduction, sharingexperience ofimplementation of NNBCand Problem identificationFeb 27,2009KathmanduMetropolitanCityRegistered LicensedDesigners28ParticipantsProject Introduction, sharingexperience ofimplementation of NNBCand Problem identificationJune29,2009United WorldTrade CentreMPPW, DUDBC,UNDP, LSMC,SEANEP, IOE,47participantsNational LevelConsultation, Reporting onFindings of the Study andInteraction
  • 174. 3 The Comments and SuggestionsThe Comments and Suggestions received were summarized and presented in Appendix-3.The consultative meetings in the Municipalities were most effective and dealt withparticular cases of problems and issues related to the implementation of NNBC and theanomalies of NNBC which required to be addressed during the Code update Process.Similarly, the National level Workshop mostly focused on the problems and issues in theCodes rather than concentration on the Update needs. The comments will be useful foractual code amendment. They are included in the Appendix.4 ConclusionThe Supplementary Report has documented the Proceedings in general and providesevidence of participation of various stakeholders’ organizations. The Consultative meetingsand national workshop had been very useful and proved to be the bench mark for finalizingthe report. The comments received very precisely indicated that the focus should be laid ondeveloping an institutional mechanism that can continuously record the occurrence andupdate the code on a regular basis and could focus on imparting training to Designers andOwners on a regular basis.
  • 175. Appendix-1: List of Participant OrganisationsGroup 1: ERRRP/UNDPGroup 2: DUDBC, SCAEF, NEA, SEANEP, NSET, SEEN, SOPHEN, SOMEN, FCAN,FNCCI, Group 3: LSMC and Licensed DesignersGroup 4: KMC and Licensed DesignersGroup 5: National WorkshopNBSM Nepal Bureau of Standards and MetrologyNEA Nepal Engineers AssociationPU KHEC Purbanchal University; Khwopa Engineering CollegeUDD Urban Development Department, KMC.NSET National Society of Earthquake TechnologySEANEP Structural Engineers Association of NEpalIOE. TU Institute of Engineering, Tribhuvan UniversityDUDBC Department of Urban Development and Building ConstructionERRRPP Earthquake Risk Reduction and Recovery Preparedness ProgrammeKMC Kathmandu Metropolitan CorporationKVTDC Kathmandu Valley Town Development CommitteeLSMC Lalitpur Sub-Metropolitan CityUNDP United Nations Development ProgramSCAEF Society of Consulting Architectural and Engineering Firms, NepalSEEN, Society of Electrical Engineers of NepalSOPHEN Society of Public Health Engineers of NepalSOMEN Society of Mechanical Engineers of NepalFCAN Federation of Contractors Association of NepalFNCCI Federation of Nepal Chamber of Commerce and Industry
  • 176. Appendix-2: Attendance RecordsGroup 1: ERRRP/UNDPGroup 2: DUDBC, SCAEF, NEA, SEANEP, NSET, SEEN, SOPHEN, SOMEN, FCAN,FNCCI,Group 3: LSMC and Licensed DesignersGroup 4: KMC and Licensed DesignersGroup 5: National Workshop
  • 177. Appendix-3: Interaction with Target Groups and National WorkshopGroup 1: ERRRP/UNDPGroup 2: DUDBC, SCAEF, NEA, SEANEP, NSET, SEEN, SOPHEN, SOMEN, FCAN,FNCCI, Group 3: LSMC and Licensed DesignersGroup 4: KMC and Licensed DesignersGroup 5: National WorkshopNotes on the InteractionDec 28, 2008: Interaction with ERRRP/DUDBC (Group 1)The Initial Interaction with the National Program Coordinator Er Amrit Man Tuladhar and ErNiyam Maharjan, ERRRP covered following points: Attention is drawn on NNBC 205:MRT which iswidely used by the municipality designers andrural construction The Safety factors, Importance factors,Response spectra recommended in NNBC havebeen a concern for many professionals andexperts who have considered the factors asinadequate compared to the outcome of othercodes Several designers and specially Lalitpur Sub-Metropolitan City has recommended forchanging the NNBC recommended minimumsize of column of 9”x9” to 9”x12”, and changingthe concrete grade from M15 to M20 or higher.
  • 178. Feb. 5, 2009: Interaction with Institutional Stakeholders (Group 2)Introduction Formal Consultation with Stakeholders for sharing experience of implementation of NBC Briefing on Update Needs on NNBC Inception Report on Dec. 31 – No CommentsCriticism on NBC Adequacy of Code Provision/ Guidelines/ Manual/ Specification – Construction Practice Objectives of Updating of NBC User friendly Safety Assurances Confidence What updating required in NBC Code structure – Hierarchy of Provisions Additional Codes – International Codes have 16 various codes included Reasons for Using NBC Confidence: IRC, IS Demand for NBC is not felt Maintaining safety, Image, - make complete code Accepted Codes (IS, BS, ASTM) Format of Code Individual code Compiled code/ unified code standards & building codes relation Adaptation of other codes/ IS code and other use of materials not mentioned in NBC Professional and Administrative consistency of NBC and standardsImplementation of Codes Interaction with NBSM – standards making procedure – updating needs DUDBC is member of NBSM Regulation for implementation, and practicing is in mess Design is considered, but construction practices not mentionedControlling Quality Applicability of materials: TMT Fe 500 or TOR Fe 415 specification of parameters –strength characteristics – elongation/ strength Prefab materials Construction is mess: quality regulation not in place monitoring value is getting less/ haphazard constructionUrgent matters Product dominant market/ Ad base market Monitoring of Ad Mechanism for addressing Technical issues is lacking Intellectual property (limited) Mechanism to invite participation of masons, stakeholders, owners, info dissemination to mass
  • 179.  Supervision: maternal/ manpower monitoring is lacking Safety of public during material handlingElectrical Safety Role of inspectors – NEA supplies, operations Electrical hazards: standards of appliances – efficiency, economy Dumping site for CFL luminaries – proven factorsMiscellaneous matters Application of Water Supply, Sanitation, Electrification, Fire codes: More interactions required at institutional level Planning, aesthetics, architecture issues are missing Communication, gas supply, Cement supply, storage Architects dictate shape of structure – ductility of structure and building configuration; Old structure occupancy – change in occupancy Irregularity of shape in plan/ elevation/ Old & new structure – existing stock/ heritage/ monumental/ Economy/ Rules made for misbehavior to people Market domination approachBuilding bylaws do not include several disciplines:o health & hygiene;o Supermarket, high rise building, basement –o market forces dominate development: it has consequenceso Safety of neighborhood:o Nachgharo USAIDo Kathmandu District Courto Abandoned houses,o Hunting dangerous buildingo Bridge/ specific structure/ water towers, electrical towerso Hoarding board, FM tower, mobile tower,o Building permit for certain time, renewal of building permitConstruction Safety formwork, Audit Insulation – Problem, complain by layman, Capacity of personnel, qualification Certification of designer, contractor, ownerEducation Use of Code in Education/ Code based education Panel review, Awareness – colleges are good venue
  • 180.  Include NBC education in colleges Purbanchal University; ME in EE in Khwopa Engineering College Awareness of students NBC projects!Comments on NNBC NBC should include all aspects including innovative MRT – Use by L, K & Dharan: 201, 202, 205 (1000 sq.ft. 3 floor) Driving force for execution NBC under Building Act; MRT should not be under NBC Commentary on all clauses of NBC
  • 181. Feb. 9, 2009; Interaction with Licensed Designers in LSMC (Group 3) Application of NNBC in LSMC from 2003o Effective implementation of NNBC as pilot case;o A lot of technology has been developed and need for updating NNBC is felt;o interaction with practitionerso Sharing the experience;o Initial exposure in use of NNBC; a lot of changes from 1994;o Need for Revision of NNBC Most of international codes are revised every 3 years based on technological achievements; High rise buildings are new things – materials changed, Building permit process Upgrading drawbacks; Historic/ monumental buildings, fire, sanitation, electrical safety, planning, environmentalcodes are not included; Design and construction differs (Residential Buildings, 2½ & 3½ storey designs) Standarisation of designs and consideration: client’s needs to be addressed Instruction of Department of Archeology not considered Lack of Proper Standard of details Tie/ details: infill wall & frame Tie Dachi Apa – Decorative layer – Safety Issues Think over before tying of frame with infill wall Tie only may not be enough; projection, parapet wall, sunshade may not be dangerous; Prevention of structural collapse/ design consideration may be required Lack of Awareness among contractors and labor Designers + contractors: Joint design finalization Licensing of contractors/ Owners to certify for safety Investment shall be based on available resources: Safety during construction Safety of Glazed Façade, Granite facing and Anchorage, Architectural Code Heating/ sound insulation/ indoor ventilation Environmental hazard; Lack of Design analysis Soil bearing capacity – location selection, bearing capacity MRT shall be abolished; MRT is limited to 4.5 m. and 2 storeys, but applied for other buildings under coverage ofMRT Typical designs – to be provided; NBC is not practically used- Application is difficult in various municipalities NBC to consider- Worse case of load combination- Load factors are low- Lateral earth pressure in basement- Load distribution for high rise and low rise
  • 182. - Top flow load? Flip effect- Time period < 0.1 N- Load distribution of non-orthogonal plan- Load reduction provision- Concrete quality: base shear;- Settlement, deformation, strength, crack opening- Tall buildings, shear wall- Static and dynamic analysis- Retrofitting by laws / codes- Repair and maintenance of old existing buildings/ code- Disaster mitigation – building stock inventory Electrical Safety- Details for electrical wiring and safety of structure Fire Safety to be Considered- Fire in Ostankin tower of Moscow Ownership of Design and Jurisdiction- Mayer’s bridge in Switzerland- Austria border: authors are designer, General contractorand Formwork Contractor- Whatever may be written, jurisdiction of designer is important- Codes with community NNBC has not considered the requirements of sector as New high rise apartment buildings Occupancy Change from Hotel Building to Super markets Institutional Arrangement for Continuity of follow up for upgrading NNBC Collection of Thesis works of Master’s Degree from various institutes Review Material Quality requirements Quality management requirement of Construction A number of Articles, comments and recommendation collected by ERRRP was also shared.The list of materials received was included in References.
  • 183. Feb. 27, 2009; Interaction with Licensed Designers in KMC (Group 4)Venue: United World Trade Centre, KathmanduAn interaction was held on Nepal National Building Code 2004 (amendments and update). Theconversation was chaired by Mr. Bimal Rijal, Chief, Urban Development Department, KMC.After a short welcome speech by the chairperson, the floor was opened for the technicaldiscussion. Following issues were raised and discussed.Following the municipality building permit process for the design of buildings above six floors,it is mandatory to submit the design parameters (whether conducted for seismic design or not)following NNBC. The buildings with less than six floor, no design parameters required to besubmitted.Mr. Ram Chandra Kandel from NSET stressed that MRT is a part of the code and it is requiredto provide more Technical details of building with various types of details. Dr. PN Maskeyclarified that MRT should not be part of the code while it could be developed as guidelinehandbook for non-engineered building construction.As the present code lacks many technical aspects of design and implementation, the flooradvised to include as follows: Planning code shall specify the Minimum size of stair case and safety. Building for low income group Code for Quality control and Code of Ethics of Professionals, and Labor.Apart from above technical discussing, Mr. Devendra Dongol, The Technical chief, KMChighlighted the irrelevant building bye-laws which also require reviewing and updating. Heproposed that the code of building bye-laws should work in conjunction with each other and theconflict should not exist between these two. However, the Consultant proposed that the Codeshould be a part of bye-laws. And when bye-laws are to be made, no clause should supersede theclauses of the code.The content of the questionnaire for design parameter in Building permit process require revision(specially, on the seismic assessment) in Kathmandu Municipality.
  • 184. National Workshop, June 29, 2009 (2066-3-15) organised by ERRRP/DUDBCThe Workshop was organized by DUDBC with participation of DUDBC staff, UNDPrepresentatives, and representatives from SEANEP, IOE and others.The Comments and Suggestions obtained during the workshop and through the emails arerecorded as follows. The workshop also has had made audio record of the proceedings of theWorkshop. The comments are as follows:1. Code should include a Mechanism for regular updating of the Codes.2. The Report on Recommendation for updating of NBC includes codes as "Suitable/Adequate" which shall be more specific.3. Building Code and Building Bylaws are two different documents and any confusion shall beeliminated through additional studies.4. Commentary Report NBC on is available. The revision of code shall consider thecommentary as well.5. NBC 000 - The International State of Art should include the Own National State of ArtBuilding of the country.6. Acceleration value in NBC 105 needs review7. In the current context, promoting Performance Based Design will not be appropriate since itis just introduced in Japan in 2003 for evaluate the structures. The knowledge in this field isnot enough and the construction technology should also be considered.8. SP – Standard Practice, Standard publication, Design examples may be required9. Provision for checking of Wind Load or Earthquake Load or both shall be made.10. Limit state or working Stress method of design shall be included.11. Design check during Construction stage shall be made.12. EQ wave propagation destroys only certain buildings13. In NBC 202, Analysis Model type shall be clearly elaborated.14. In stead of referring to clear cover in IS 456, a separate Table shall be provided.15. In IS 456, in the table for finding TC is determined based on % of Steel (pt) grade ofconcrete, but TC refers to stress strain/ depth ratio.16. NBC 111 refers to IS 800 but there is less practice of utilizing, the rivet joint type of jointsshall be analyzed in depth.17. There are cases where TMT Rebar are cracked during Bending. This is the effect of PoisonsRatio.18. The Design Method prepared has suggested to use Super Element Method, but currently mostof the Tools have practice of using Finite Element Method. The effectiveness of SEM shouldbe more elaborated.19. In the Architectural code NBC 206, the Plinth level and storey level houses shall becorrelated in neighborhood.20. NBC 208 - Concealed plumbing and Electrical services may cause Structural Damages whichshall be considered in the code and provision shall be made to eliminate it.21. Row housing shall consider the separation joints.22. When considering Structural resonance, the Seismic coefficient method shall consider theresonance factor.
  • 185. 23. The existing NBC is divided into four parties, but it may be made one document with variouschapters.24. Building Act has made clear directives to implement NBC. In such case, it implies thatBylaws also recognize NBC.25. NBC Implementation Implementation/ updating is a big challenge The study will provide direction to resolve the challenges The experts, govt. offices Building Act: Policy included Effectiveness in whole community Safety of large buildings should be the responsibility of designers Small residents: owners are not aware of the Safety requirements of the Codes Updating with new technology and Materials are required.26. Construction safety is related with prevention of accidents at site and safety of the buildingunder construction. The safety issues are particularly related to Electrical hazard Gas hazard Laser protection27. EQ Safety Technology Protecting old houses – retrofitting and making it cost effective Chapter on Retrofitting should be included.28. New context: introduction of disabled accessibility and making user friendly:29. Building Act The Building Act was formulated in 1994 and amended in 2006, and required that theBuilding Permits are granted based on Building bylaws issued by Town DevelopmentCommittees; Designers are registered in Municipalities The Building Bylaws do not specifically make recommendation on High rise buildings,remains mainly the responsibility of the Designers to secure the Safety at all times.:important In the changed context, it is imperative to consider that the Building Codes should takeprecedence to take over for ensuring the protection of life & property.30. Report Formatting & structure It is obvious that the report was prepared by a team of experts which is appreciable but itwould be appreciable if it could be improved in terms of language structure andformatting. The Detailing of joints as granite façade shall be included.31. MRT Issues The issues raised in relation to MRT are OK but some of the points require rethinking
  • 186.  It would be wise to keep MRT within the Code since based on the experience of NNBC,other countries as Pakistan, Iran, Bangladesh have started to replicate. This is a pride forthe country. Based on MRT the building stock of over 28,000 has been surveyed. MRT would be appropriate to including as a part of Code. But the name could bechanged as required. The case of Buildings with H/W < 3:1 is not mentioned. Why? 10% lump NBC 205 shall consider analysis of infill wall.32. NBC 107: Fire Code Fire code should be reviewed in terms of National Perspective. Effect of plaster and other elements that enhance the fire safety shall be considered. IOE students had prepared M.Sc. thesis works in this topic. IS 456 and NBC 110 may be referred Fire resistance of Steel structures and chemical protection shall be included Do not reduce structural strength.
  • 187. Appendix-4: Photographic DocumentationGroup 1: ERRRP/UNDP , Dec 28, 2009Group 2: DUDBC, SCAEF, NEA, SEANEP, NSET, SEEN, SOPHEN, SOMEN, FCAN,FNCCI, Feb 5, 2009Group 3: LSMC and Licensed Designers, Feb 9, 2009
  • 188. Group 4: KMC and Licensed Designers, Feb 27, 2009
  • 189. Group 5: National Workshop, June 29, 2009 (2066-3-15) organised by ERRRP/DUDBC
  • 190. /fli6«o ejg ;+lxtf cBfjlws ug{sf] nflul;kmfl/;clGtd k|ltj]bgRecommendation for Update ofNepal National Building Code-g]kfnLdf cgjfb July, 2010 _cu:^, 2009k|:ttstf{M O{= abg nfn Gof5of]+dN6L l8l;KnLg/L sG;N6f06; k|f=ln=kf]i6 jS; %&@), sf7df8f}+, g]kfn6]lnkmf]gM (&&–!–%%@%)&^, %%@(#)$, ˆofS;M (&&–!–%%@#!)#O{–d]nM mdc@multinepal.com, j]j–;fO{tM: www.MultiNepal.com/mdcs]l8 Pzf]l;o6; k|f=ln=kf]i6 jS; ^*^, sf7df8f}+, g]kfn6]lnkmf]gM $@%@^@, ˆofS;M (&&–!–$@!%#$!Tel: 425263, Fax: 4215341O{–d]nM kdapl@info.com.np,Web: www.hurarah.com.npVjkM O{lGhgLol/Ë sn]hlnjfnL, eQmk/–@kf]i6 jS; *$, eQmk/, g]kfn6]lnkmf]gM ^^!$&($, ^^!$&(*O{–d]nM khec@wlink.com.npg]kfn ;/sf/ef}lts of]hgf tyf lgdf{0f dGqfnog]kfnsf] nflu e"sDkLo hf]lvd Go"lgs/0f tyf kg?Tyfg k"a{tof/L sfo{qmd-o"Pgl8kL÷e"hf]Go"kk"t sfo{qmd cfof]hgfM g]k÷)&÷)!)_August, 2009
  • 191. 1;+lIfKt ?kADRC M PlzofnL k|sf]k Go"gLs/0f s]Gb|ADPC M PlzofnL k|sf]k tof/L s]Gb|ASTM M ;fwg k/LIf0fsf] nflu cd]l/sL ;dfhAASHTO M :6]6 /fhdfu{ tyf oftfoft sd{rf/Lsf] cd]l/sL ;+u7gAREMA M cd]l/sL /]Nj} OlGhlgo/ tyf af6f] dd{t ;+u7gACI318 M cd]l/sL s+lqm6 ;+:yfAISC M :6Ln lgdf{0fsf] cd]l/sL ;+:yfAFPA M cd]l/sL h+un tyf sfuh ;+u7gBPU M ejg lgdf{0f cgdlt OsfO{BCPR M ;+s6 lgjf/0f tyf ;wf/ ljefuBSI M a]nfotL u0f:t/ dfkb08 ;+:yfDDC M lhNnf ljsf; ;ldltDIN M hd{g u0f:t/ dfkb08DUDBC M zx/L ljsf; tyf ejg lgdf{0f ljefuERRRPP M e"sDkLo hf]lvd Go"gLs/0f tyf kg:yfkgf tof/L sfo{qmdESS M e"sDkLo ;/Iff v08FSCN M g]kfnsf] clUg ;/Iff ;+lxtf -g]=/f=e=;+= !)&_HFA M Xouf] k|m]djs{ km/ PS;g -@))%–@)!%_GON M g]kfn ;/sf/IRC M OlG8og /f]8 s+u|];ISI M ef/tLo u0f:t/ dfkb08 ;+:yfICC M cGt/f{li6«o ;+lxtf kl/ifbIFC M cGt/f{li6«o clUg ;+lxtfIBC M cGt/f{li6«o ejg ;+lxtfIRP M cGt/f{li6«o kg:yfkg d~rJSI M hfkfgL u0f:t/ dfkb08 ;+:yfKMC M sf7df8f}+ dxfgu/Lo ;+:yfgKVTDC M sf7df8f}+ pkTosf gu/ ljsf; ;ldltLSMC M nlntk/ pkdxfgu/kflnsfLSGA M :yfgLo :jfoQm zf;g P]g !(((LSGA M :yfgLo :jfoQm zf;g P]g !((^ / ljlgod !((&LSGR M :yfgLo :jfoQm zf;g lgodfjnL !(((LSM M sRrL kvf{nNBCI M ef/tLo /fli6«o ejg lgdf{0f ;+lxtfOBC M cG6fl/of] ejg ;+lxtfPWD M ;fj{hlgs sfo{ lgb]{lzsfSAARC M blIf0f PlzofnL If]qLo ;xof]u ;+u7gUNDP M ;+oQm /fi6«;+3 ljsf; sfo{qmdVDC M ufpF ljsf; ;ldltUKBC M a]nfotL ejg lgdf{0f lgodfjnL @)))UDB M zx/L ljsf; ljlgod @))&, KVTDC, GON
  • 192. 2
  • 193. 3ljifo ;"rL;+lIfKt ?k;Gbe{ ;fdu|L;f/f+z!= kl/ro!=! ;fdfGo hfgsf/L!=@ kl/of]hgf!=# sfo{of]hgf!=$ sfo{of]hgfsf p2]Zox?!=% sfo{sf] If]q!=^ sfo{ljlw!=& kl/of]hgf ;d"x, cfut / lhDd]jf/Lx?!=* nlIft ;d"x;Fusf] cGtlqm{of!=( dVo pknlAwx?@ k|rlnt cEof;x?@=! /fli6«o gLlt@=@ gu/kflnsfx?df g]=/f=e=;+=sf] sfof{Gjog@=# nlntk/ pk dxfgu/kflnsfdf ejg lgdf{0f cgdlt k|lqmof@=$ sf7df8f}+ dxfgu/kflnsfdf ejg lgdf{0f cgdlt k|lqmof@=% ejg ;+lxtf sfof{Gjogsf tYof+s tyf hfgsf/L@=%=! DUDBC 4f/f lgld{t ;/sf/L ejgx?@=%=@ gu/kflnsfx?df cEof;@=^ g]=/f=e=;+= sfof{Gjogsf nflu ;+:yfut Joj:yf@=& g]=/f=e=;+= sfof{Gjogsf] j}wflgstf@=* esDkLo k|lt/f]ws ejgsf] dxTjsf] l:js[t k4tL -PWD_# g]=/f=e=;+=sf] sfof{Gjog tyf lgdf{0f sfo{df ePsf ;d:ofx? tyf o;;DaGwL ljifox?sf] dxTj#=! ;+lxtf#=@ P]g, ljlgod, ;+lxtf / u0f:t/ dfkb08 / ;Gbe{ ;fdfu|Lx?sf] qmda4tf#=# ejg lgdf{0f ljlgod#=$ ;+lxtf ;+/rgf tyf g]kfn u0f:t/ dfkb08#=% ;+oQm ;+lxtfsf] cfjZostf#=^ g]=/f=e=;+= sf] ;dLIff#=& ;+lxtf ;d"x#=* cBfjlws af/Daf/tf#=( ;+lxtf tyf u0f:t/ dfkb08sf] l6Kk0fL#=!) P]ltxfl;s ejg, ;f}Gbo{tf / of]hgf ;lx+tfsf] ;+/If0f#=!! ;f}Gbo{tf tyf ;+/rgfTds ;/Iffsf aLrsf] ;DaGw#=!@ cfotgdf kl/jt{g#=!# cUnf ejgx?#=!$ h8fgx?sf] lj:t[t ljj/0f#=!% u0f:t/ cgudg tyf lj1fkg ahf/#=!^ lgdf{0fsfo{sf] ;kl/j]If0f
  • 194. 4#=!& lgdf{0f ;fdu|Lsf] k|of]u tyf e08f/0f#=!* g]=/f=e=;+=df pNn]v gePsf cGo ;fdfu|Lx?sf] lj:t[t ljj/0f#=!( k|fljlws ljifo / tYo ljj/0f sf]ifsf nflu ;+oGq#=@) 8sdL{, ;]jfu|fxL tyf lgdf{0fstf{x?sf] ;+nUgtf#=@! hfgsf/L k|rf/k|;f/ tyf cGt/lqmof#=@@ lgdf{0f ;/Iff#=@# l8hfO{g tyf lj4tf ;DklQsf] clwsf/sf] :jfldTj#=@$ lzIff#=@% JolQmut Ifdtf, of]Uotf#=@^ bIf >ldssf] cgdlt k|lj|mof$ ;+lxtf tyf u0f:t/ dfkb08sf] sfof{Gjog$=! kfgL cfk"lt{ tyf ;/;kmfO$=@ ljBtLo ;+lxtf$=# clUg ;/Iff ;+lxtf$=$ g]=/f=e=;+= @)% sf] k|of]u M Pdcf/6L% g=/f=e=;+=sf] kg/fjnf]sg%=! NBC )))M !(($ :6]6–ckm–b cf6{ l8hfOg / NBC !)%M !(($, g]kfndf e"sDk k|lt/f]wsejg l8hfOgsf] kg/fjnf]sg%=!=! ;fdfGo hfgsf/L%=!=@ g]=/f=e=;+= ))) M !(($ :6]6 ckm lb cf6{ l8hfOgsf] cfjZostf%=!=# g]=/f=e=;+= !)% M !(($ g]kfndf ejgx?sf] e"sDk/f]ws l8hfOg%=@ g]=/f=e=;+= !)!, !)@, !)#, !)$, !)^, !)*, !)( sf] kg/fjnf]sg-ef/, cfotg, :yfg dgg, kga{n k|bfg gul/Psf] kvf{n_%=@=! g]=/f=e=;+= !)! M !(($M ;fdu|Lsf] lj:t[t ljj/0f%=@=@ g]=/f=e=;+= !)@ M !(($M ;fdu|Lx?sf] P]lss tf}n%=@=# g]=/f=e=;+= !)# M !(($M cfotg ef/ -afXo ef/_%=@=$ g]=/f=e=;+= !)$ M !(($ M jfo ef/%=@=% g]=/f=e=;+= !)^ M !(($ M lxd ef/%=@=^ g]=/f=e=;+= !)* M !(($ :yfg dgg%=@=& g]=/f=e=;+= !)( M kga{n k|bfg gul/Psf kvf{n%=# g]=/f=e=;+= M !)& sf] kg/fjnf]sg -clUg ;+lxtf_%=#=! ;fdfGo hfgsf/L%=#=@ ejg ;+lxtfsf dVo nIo tyf p2]Zox?%=#=# g]kfn clUg ;+lxtfsf] :jLs[lt%=#=$ dVo sdhf]/L%=#=% ejg ;+lxtfdf clUg ;/Iffsf] cfjZostf%=$ g]=/f=e=;+= !!), !!!, !!@, !!#, !!$ sf] kg/fjnf]sg -kvf{n, kL;L;L, ;fwg, lgdf{0f ;/Iff_%=$=! g]=/f=e=;+= !!) M ;fwf/0f tyf kga{n k|bfg ul/Psf] s+lqm6%=$=@ g]=/f=e=;+=–!!! M !(($ :6Ln%=$=# g]=/f=e=;+=– !!@ M sf7 !(($%=$=$ g]=/f=e=;+=– !!# M cfNdlgod !(($%=$=% g]=/f=e=;+= !!$ M !(($ lgdf{0f ;/Iff%=% g]=/f=e=;+= M @)!, @)@, @)#, @)$, @)% sf] kg/fjnf]sg -Pdcf/6L, sRrL tyf df6f]sf ejg_
  • 195. 5%=%=! ;fwf/0f hfgsf/L%=%=@ g]=/f=e=;+= @)! M afWosf/L Jofjxfl/s k|fjwfg– d;nf nufO{ agfOPsf kvf{n;lxtsf kga{nk|bfg ul/Psf s+lqm6 ejg%=%=# g]=/f=e=;+= @)@ M Pdcf/6L ef/ axg ug]{ kvf{n%=%=$ g]=/f=e=;+= M !(($– e"sDk k|lt/f]w ejg lgdf{0fsf nflu dfu{lgb]{zg M sRrL kvf{n%=%=% g]=/f=e=;+= @)$ M !(($– e"sDk k|lt/f]w ejg lgdf{0fsf nflu dfu{lgb]{zg -df6f]sf 3/_%=%=^ g]=/f=e=;+= @)% M !(($ M kvf{ndf d;nf k|of]u gu/L Pdcf/6L kga{n k|bfg ul/Psf] s+lqm6ejgx?%=^ g]=/f=e=;+= @)^M @))#– jf:tlzNkLo l8hfOg cfjZostfx?sf] kg/fjnf]sg%=^=! ;fdfGo hfgsf/L%=^=@ cUnf ejgx?%=^=# cGo kIfx?%=& g]=/f=e=;+= @)& M @))# ljBtLo ;+lxtfsf] kg/fjnf]sg%=* g]=/f=e=;+= @)* M !(($– KnlDaª tyf ;kmfO{%=*=! kfgL cfk"lt{%=*=@ b"lift kfgL lj;h{g%=*=# cfsfz] kfgL lj;h{g^= lgisif{&= l;kmfl/;
  • 196. 6g]kfn /fli6«o ejg ;+lxtf cBfjlws ug{sf] nflu l;kmfl/;clGtd k|ltj]bg;f/f+Zfkl/rog]kfn /fli6«o ejg ;+lxtf cBfjlws ug{sf nflu l;kmfl/; k|ltj]bg tof/ ug]{ sfo{ of]hgf VjkO{lGhlgol/ª sn]h / s]=l8 P;f]l;o6; k|f=ln= sf] ;+nUgtfdf dN6L l8l;lKng/L sG;N6]G6 k|f=ln nfO{g]kfnsf nflu e"sDkLo hf]lvd Go"lgs/0f tyf ;/Iff tof/L sfo{qmd / sG;N6]G6 aLrsf] ;dembf/Ldf!% l8;]Da/ @))* df ;lDkPsf] xf] .kl/of]hgfblIf0f Plzof If]qdf e"sDkLo hf]lvd Go"gLs/0f tyf ;/Iff tof/L sfo{qmd ;+oQm /fi6«;+3Lo ljsf;sfo{qmd (UNDP) af6 k|sf]k lgoGq0f tyf kgM lgdf{0f ug{sf nflu ;xof]u k¥ofpg hfkfg ;/sf/sf];xof]udf ePsf] xf] . pQm kl/of]hgf k|sf]k Joj:yfkgsf] cgejaf6 k|fKt 1fg cfbfg—k|bfg ug{ If]qLo;xsfo{sf] nflu lgwf{/0f ul/Psf] xf] .sfo{qmdsf p2]Zox?o; sfo{qmdsf p2]Zox?M -s_ ljwdfg ;+lxtfsf k+|fljlws kIfx? ;wf/, ;+zf]wg tyf kl/jt{g ug{l;kmfl/; tyf kglj{rf/ ug{ -v_ ;+lxtf cBfjlws ug{sf nflu cWoog, ljZn]if0f tyf kli6 ug{, -u_s]xL gu/kflnsfx?df -sf7df8f}+ / nlntk/_ g]]kfn /fli6«o ejg ;+lxtfsf] sfof{Gjog af/] cWoog ug{ .sfo{qmdsf If]qx?pNn]lvt p2]Zox? k|flKtsf nflu ;DalGwt sfo{sf If]qx? -s_ k|dv ;]jfu|fxLx? / lj1x?sf aLrdfcGt/lqmof ug{ . -v_ ejg lgdf{0f;+u ;DalGwt ljBdfg ljlgodx?sf] ;DaGwsf af/]df cWoog ug{ . -u_ sf7df08f}+ dxfgu/kflnsf / nlntk/ pk dxfgu/kflnsfn] g]]kfn /fli6«o ejg ;+lxtfsf]sfof{Gjogdf ef]u]sf ;d:ofx?sf] ljZn]if0f ug{ -3_ Joj;foL / l8hfO{g/x?n] p7fPsf k+|fljlwskIfx?sf] cWoog ug{ . -ª_ cGo ;+lxtfx?;+u g]]kfn /fli6«o ejg ;+lxtfnfO{ tngf ug{, -r_ ljlzi6e"sDkLo ;+lxtfnfO{ kgMljrf/ ug{, -5_ g]]kfn /fli6«o ejg ;+lxtf cTofjlws ug{ ;+lxtfdf ePsfk|fljlws kIfx?nfO{ ls6fg ug{, -h_ tTsfn cBfjlws ug{kg]{ ;+lxtfx?sf] gfd ls6fg ug{, em_ g]]kfn/fli6«o ejg ;+lxtf cBfjlws ug{ clGtd l;kmfl/; k|ltj]bg tof/ ug{, ;]jfu|fxLx?;Fusf] cGt/lqmofUNDP/ERRA, NEA, SEEN, SCAEF, SONA SEANEP sf7df08f}+ / nlntk/ gu/kflnsfsfcgdlt k|fKt l8hfO{g/x? h:tf ;]jfu|fxLx?;+u ljleGg ;efx?df cGt/lqmof ePsf] lyof] . ERRRP n]clGtd gdgf k|ltj]bg dfly 5nkmn ug{ @( hg @))( df Ps /fli6«o :t/sf] sfo{zfnf cfof]hgfu/]sf] lyof] . pQm sfo{zfnfaf6 lg:s]sf cfnf]rgfx? tyf cGt/lqmofsf] lgisif{n] g]=/f=e=;+=sf ljleGgkIfx?nfO{ ;d]6]/ kl/lzi6 # / v08 @=$ df ;+If]kdf lbO{Psf] 5 . ljBdfg kl/of]hgf;Fu ;DalGwtl6Kk0fL tyf ;emfjx? k|ltj]bgdf ;dfj]z ul/Psf] lyof] hals s]xL c;fGble{s kIfx?nfO{ ;+lxtf;+;f]wgsf nflu cjnDag ug{ kl/lzi6 # df pNn]v ul/Psf 5g .g]=/f=e=;+=sf] Joj:yfdf pNn]v gePsf, p7fOPsf s]xL dxTjk"0f{ kIfx? P]g, lgod, ljlgod, ;+lxtf, u0f:t/, dfkb08, lgb]{lzsf k:ts / ;Gbe{ ;fdu|L aLrdf tx /k|fyldstf / sfuhftx?sf] k|fyldstfsf] cGof]n, ejg lgdf{0f ljlgodsf] c+z÷efusf ?kdf ;+lxtf sfof{Gjog u/fpg ;+oGqsf] cfjZostf ;fgf a:tLx? tyf ufpF ljsf; ;ldltx? ;lxt ;Dk"0f{ b]zdf ;+lxtf sfof{Gjogsf] cfjZostf
  • 197. 7 ;+oQm ;+lxtf tyf cGo ;+/rgf ;+lxtf, cfjf; ;+lxtf, P]ltxfl;s ejg lgdf{0f ;jnLs/0f;+lxtf, ckf+u d}qL ;+lxtf, oflGqs ;+lxtf, Uof; tyf OGwg ;+lxtf, jftfj/0f ;+lxtf h:tf;+lxtfx? / ltgsf] ;dfnf]rgfsf] cfjZostf g]=/f=e=;+=sf clgoldttfx? ;+lxtfx? cBfjlws ug]{ sfo{ / bfloTjx?sf] af/Daf/tf ;+lxtfx?;Fu d]n vfg] u/L ;f}Gbo{tf, ;+/rgfTds ;/Iff tyf clwsf/df kl/jt{g / n]vfkl/If0f Pdcf/6L sf] k|of]u lgdf{0f ;fdu|Lx?sf] lj1fkgdf lgoldttf lgdf{0f ;fdu|Lx?sf] k|of]u tyf e08f/0fdf ;/Iff ;+lxtf sfof{Gjog u/fpg] ;+3 ;+:yfx?sf] e"ldsfsf] n]vf kl/If0f :jfldTj tyf af}lås ;DklQsf] clwsf/ bIf >ldssf] lzIff, tflnd, of]Uotf / cgdlt kqg]=/f=e=;+= / PgP; -g]kfn u0f:t/ dfkb08_ >[ªvnfg]]kfn /fli6«o ejg ;+lxtf cyjf g]kfn u0f:t/ dfkb08 eg]/ lrlgg] bO{j6f >[ªvnfx? pknAw 5g .jf:tjdf bj} >[ªvnfx?n] Ps} ;jfnx?nfO{ ;Daf]wg u5{g . g]=/f=e=;+=nfO{ cGt/fli6«o u0f:t/dfkb08sf] ;+zf]lwt c+zsf] ?kdf k|:tt ul/Psf] xf] . hals PgP; s]jn cfOP; -ef/tLo u0f:t/dfkb08_ sf] ;dfof]hg xf] cyf{t cGo dfkb08x?nfO{ pkoQm ;+zf]wg u/]/ g]kfn u0f:t/ dfkb08agfOPsf] xf] .;fdfGotof ;+lxtf tyf u0f:t/ dfkb08nfO{ x/]s tLg jif{df ;+zf]wg tyf cBfjlws ug]{ ul/G5 . t/g]kfndf of] Jofjxfl/s gxg ;Sg] ePsf]n] cBfjlws ug]{ af/Daf/tf km/s kg{ ;S5 . cGt/fli6«o;+lxtf kl/ifb / ;+lxtf cBfjlws ug{ k|ltaå cGo ;+:yfx?n] lgoldt ?kdf ;+lxtfsf] kglj{rf/ul//xG5g -h:t} # jif{df_ . 36gfx?sf] lgoldt clen]v /fVg] sfo{ :yfoL ;ldltnfO{ k7fO{G5 .g]kfndf ;+lxtf / u0f:t/ dfkb08 cBfjlws ug]{ cfjZostf -dfu_ cg;f/sf] clen]v /fVg] k|ltaåsfof{no 5}g .lglb{i6 ;+lxtfx?sf] cem a9L lj:t[t ljrf/ ljdz{ v08 % / kl/lzi6df lbOPsf] 5 .Pdcf/6L g]=/f=e=;+=sf] c+z xf]OgPdcf/6LnfO{ g]=/f=e=;+=sf] Joj:yfsf] lj:t[t ljj/0f tyf ljleGg lsl;dsf ejgx?sf] ;+/rgfsf] Pspbfx/0f dfq ePsf]n] ;+lxtfx?;Fu ;+ult gePsf] b:tfj]hsf] ?kdf lnb} o;sf lj?ådf cfjfhx?p7fO{Psf] lyof] . of] b:tfj]h ck/f] 5 / o;n] cGo clUg ;+lxtf, KnlDaª ;+lxtf, jftfj/0f ;+lxtfh:tf ;+lxtfx?sf] dfunfO{ klg ;dfj]z ub}{g . o;n] u0f:t/sf] ljZjf;gLotf / lgdf{0f sl7gfO{ h:tfs/fx?nfO{ klg ;dfj]z ub}{g . nlntk/ pk dxfgu/kflnsfn] g]=/f=e=;+= sf] sfof{Gjogdf Pdcf/6Ldfs]xL kl/jt{g :jLsf/]sf] lyof] . of] b:tfj]hnfO{ ejg lgdf{0f ;+lxtfsf] cfjZostfnfO{ k/f ug]{ pbfx/0f/ pkoQm ;+/rgf agfpg] gdgfsf] ?kdf lnO{g k5{ .gu/kflnsfx?df g]=/f=e=;+=sf] sfof{Gjogg]=/f=e=;+=sf] sfof{Gjog :yfgLo ljsf; dGqfnosf] lgb]{zg adf]lhd ug{kg]{ k|fjwfg 5 t/ ejglgdf{0f P]g / ejg lgdf{0f ljlgodx?n] g]=/f=e=;+=sf] Joj:yf adf]lhd ejg lgdf{0f cgdlt k|lqmof ug]{u/]sf 5}gg . nlntk/ pk dxfgu/kflnsfn] :j]lR5s ?kdf ;g @))# b]lv ejg lgdf{0f cgdltk|lqmofdf g]=/f=e=;+sf] sfof{Gjog ug{ z? u¥of] . sf7df8f}+ dxfgu/kflnsfn] o;sf] sfof{Gjog ;g@))& b]lv dfq z? u/]sf] xf] .
  • 198. 8ejg lgdf{0f ljlgodx? g]=/f=e=;+=;Fu ;dfj]z gePsf]n] cGo gu/kflnsfx?df g]=/f=e=;+= sfof{Gjogz? xg ;s]g . v08 # df pNn]v u/] adf]lhd g]=/f=e=;+= / cGo ;fGble{s ;+lxtf ;d"x ejg lgdf{0fljlgoddf ;dfj]z xg cfjZos 5 .;Dk"0f{ b]ze/L ejg lgdf{0f ljlgodsf] afWosf/L kfngfgu/kflnsfsf] clwsf/ If]qleq ejg lgdf{0f;DaGwL ljlgodx? sfgg;Ddt ?kdf sfof{Gjog xG5g .clwsf+z u|fdL0f Onfsfdf ejg lgdf{0f P]g tyf ljlgodx? nfu" gePsf]n] lgdf{0f ;/Iffsf] l:ylt pRrhf]lvddf 5 . ejg lgdf{0f P]gsf] pQm sdhf]/Lsf] sf/0fn] ubf{ ufpF ljsf; ;ldltlt/ hfg] u/]sf 5g. o:tf] kl/kf6Ln] g]=/f=e=;+=sf] p2]Zodfly k|efj kf/]sf] 5 .jf:tlzNkLo l8hfOg cfjZostf tyf of]hgf dfu{lgb]{zgsf] sfof{Gjogejg jf:tlzNkLo l8hfOg cfjZostfx? -g]=/f=e=;+= @)^ M @))#_ ;g @))# b]lv g} nfu" eP klgo; P]g cg;f/ of]hgf dfu{ lgb]{zg cg;f/ gS;f l8hfO{g eP gePsf] d"Nof+sg÷kl/If0f gul/Psf]n]of] k|lqmof sdhf]/ ePsf] lyof] . Ps cfk;df ;dGjosf] cefj zx/L Onfsfdf ePsf] cJojl:ytljsf;df :ki6 b]Vg ;lsG5 .g]=/f=e=;+= sf] sfof{Gjogsf nflu ;+:yfut Joj:yfe"sDk;Fu ;DalGwt s/fx?sf] cflwsfl/s ;+:yf g]kfndf Pp6f klg 5}g . w]/} ;+3;+:yfx? e"sDk;Fu;DalGwt ljleGg kIfx?;Fu lhDd]jf/ 5g t/ logLx?sf] ljifodf Jofjxfl/s ;dGjosf] cefj 5 . o;}sf/0fn] g]=/f=e=;+= k"0f{ ?kdf sfof{Gjog xg g;s]/ sg} Ps lglb{i6 of]hgfsf] kvf{Odf 5 . ;+lxtfx?sf];jfn tyf ltgLx?sf] sfof{Gjog nflu g]kfn ;+lxtf kl/ifb u7g xg cfjZos 5 .;+lxtf ;+/rgf, g]kfn u0f:t/ dfkb08 tyf ;+lxtf kl/jf/P]g, ljlgod, ;+lxtf, u0f:t/ dfkb08, lgb{]lzsf, ljlzli6s/0f, kl:tsf tyf k|zf;lgs k|rf/;fdu|Lx?sf] tx / k|fyldstfdf 7nf] cGof]n 5 . of] kIf k|i6 xg h?/L 5 / :ki6 kl/efiff / ;Ldflgwf{/0f xg cfjZos 5 .g]=/f=e=;+= eg]sf] ;+lxtfx?sf] ;d"x xf], hg k|efjsf/L ?kdf sfof{Gjog u/fpg] k|zf;lgs kl/kf6Lsf]Joj:yf ;lxt cGo ;+lxtfx? h:t} zx/L of]hgf ;+lxtf, lgdf{0f ;+lxtf, lgdf{0f ;/Iff ;+lxtf cflb -v08#=^ aS; @ sf] ;"rL x]g{xf];_ h:tf ;+lxtfx?sf] ;+lxtfx?sf] d"n ;+lxtfsf ?kdf /xg ;s] k|efjsf/LaGg ;S5 .g]=/f=e=;+=sf] ;dLIff;]jfu|fxLx? aLrsf] cGt/lqmodf g]=/f=e=;+=sf] af/]df w]/} ;sf/fTds ;dLIff ePsf] lyof] . dVo ljifox?v08 #=% df k|dvtfdf /flvPsf 5g / lj:t[t j0f{g kl/lzi6 # df 5 . ;a}eGbf dxTjk"0f{ ;dLIff rflxFof] ;+lxtf ef/tLo ;+lxtfsf] ;+zf]wg ePsf]n] o;sf] dxTj x/fPsf] 5 . lsgeg] of] ef/t;Fu lgs6jlt{ePsf]n] c:ki6 ;+lxtf pNn]v ug{ h?/L 5}g . cGo ljb]zL ;+lxtfnfO{ ;Gbe{ ;fdu|Lsf nflu dfq u|x0fug{k5{ . sdhf]/Lx? x6fpg / 5kfO{df zåtf Nofpg of] ;+lxtfdf k|fljlws tyf eflifs ;Dkfbgsf]vfFrf] 5 .g]=/f=e=;+= ))) b]lv @)* ;Ddsf] ;dLIff / cGo ;+lxtf;Fusf] tngfg]=/f=e=;+= sf] ;dLIff ul/Psf] 5 / ejg lgdf{0f ;+lxtf nfO{ cBfjlws ug{sf nflu cfjZos kg]{ w]/}s/fx? klxrfg ul/Psf 5g . ;+lxtfsf x/]s v08sf ;dLIff / ;emfjx? kl/lzi6df lbO{Psf] 5 . dVohf]8 ;+lxtfdf Joj:yf gxFbf xfn} ePsf s]xL k|sf]kx? / cf}NofOPsf cGo s/fx?df lbO{Psf] 5 .ltgLx?M
  • 199. 9 ;+lxtfsf] Joj:yfsf w]/} c:ki6 / ck/f jfSox?, ef/tLo u0f:t/ dfkb08 ;+lxtfsf] cEof;sf];Gbe{, ;dfnf]rgfsf] cefj, esDkLo txsf] ;+/rgf c;fdfGo, u|fdL0f Onfsfsf a:tLx?df cfunfuLsf] sf/0f cfjf; of]hgfsf] lkmtnf] Joj:yf / clUg ;/Iffdfkgsf] aemfOsf] cefj, ;/Iff Joj:yfsf] kfngsf] k"0f{ 1fg geO{sg ejgx?sf] :jfldTj kl/jt{g, ljBtLo ;+lxtfsf] kfngsf] cefjn] xg] ljBtLo b3{6gf, ejg lgdf{0f;DaGwL l8hfO{g -gS;f_ / of]hgf tyf If]q lgwf{/0f dfu{ lgb]{zgaLrsf] ;dGjosf]cefj, lxd ef/ tyf jfo ef/ dfkg ug]{ tYof+sLo k|0ffnLsf] cefj, g]=/f=e=;+=sf] k|of]unfO{ k|fyldstf lbg] ejg lgdf{0f cgdlt k|lqmofsf] tYof+sLo kl/kf6Lsf]cefj,g]=/f=e=;+= cBfjlws ug]{ sfo{ ug{sf nflu k|fljlws ljsf;sf] pkof]u / cGt/fli6«o ejg lgdf{0f;+lxtf, / o/f]k]nL ;+lxtfh:tf cGt/fli6«o ;+lxtfx?sf] ljsf; xgk5{ .;+lxtfx?sf] kl/jf/lhpwgsf] ;/Iff hf]lvdaf6 dQm xg / cf/fdbfoL hLjg lhpg cfjZos g]=/f=e=;+= / PgP;sf>[ªvnfx? afx]s klg c? w]/} ;+lxtfx? 5g . o:tf cGo ;+lxtfx? v08 #=% df ;"rLs[t ul/Psf 5g .jftfj/0fLo ;+lxtfof] ;+lxtf w]/} lglb{i6 5 / o;nfO{ ejg lgdf{0f ;+lxtf cBfjlws ubf{ ;Daf]wg ul/gkb{5 . o;n]hLjgsf] u0f:t/ tyf ;/Iffdf k|efj kfg]{ ePsfn] o;sf] 7"nf] dxTj 5 . of] ;+lxtfn] jftfj/0fLok|bif0f lgoGq0fsf nflu tn pNn]lvt s/fx? ;dfj]z u/L 5§} kIfsf] kl/ro lbgk5{M jfo k|bif0f -cfGtl/s / afXo_ k|b"if0f lgoGq0f WjgL k|bif0f hn k|bif0f e"ld k|bif0f 7f]; kmf]xf]/ Joj:yfkg u|fdL0f tyf zx/L Onfsfdf b[io k|bif0f NofG8:s]lkª hLpwgsf] ;/Iff tyf zflGtk0f{ hLjgofkgsf nflu ;fj{hlgs ;"rgfafWosf/L Jofjxfl/s k|fjwfg -Pdcf/6L_Pdcf/6Lsf] k|dv p2]Zo eg]sf] g]kfndf cfkm}n] agfpg] # tnf ;Ddsf] 9nfg ul/Psf ;fdfGo cfjf;ejgx? -h;cGtu{t -s_ lkNn/ ePsf O{§fsf kvf{nn] agfOPsf 3/x? -v_ ef/ y]Ug] O§foQm 3/x? -u_ sd zlQmsf u|fdL0f Onfsfsf 9+ufdf6fsf 3/x? kb{5g_ nfO{ k|of]usf nflu tof/L ;fdu|Lx? /o;af/] lj:t[t ljj/0f pknAw u/fpg xf] .Pdcf/6Lsf] ;+/rgfsf] lj:t[t ljj/0f lgdf{0f ;fdu|Lx?sf] u0f:t/df ljZj;lgotfsf] dxTjljgf g}lbO{Psf] 5 .Pdcf/6Ldf lbOPsf] l8hfO{gn] ;a} lgdf{0fstf{x? / l8hfOg/x?sf nflu cGo ;Dk"0f{ ;+lxtfx?;Fu ldNg]u/L /fd|f] k|:ttL lbgk5{ . o;y{ Pdcf/6L lgdf{0f ;+lxtfsf] c+z xgxb}g eg]/ alemG5 .
  • 200. 10g]]kfn /fli6«o ejg ;+lxtf cBfjlws ug{sf] nflu l;kml/;M clGtd k|ltj]bg!= kl/ro!=! ;fdfGo hfgsf/Lg]]kfn /fli6«o ejg ;+lxtf cBfjlws ug{sf nflu l;kmfl/; k|ltj]bg tof/ ug]{ sfo{ of]hgf VjkO{lGhlgol/ª sn]h / s]=l8 P;f]l;o6; k|f=ln= sf] ;+nUgtfdf dN6L l8l;lKng/L sG;N6]G6 k|f=lnnfO{g]kfnsf nflu esDkLo hf]lvd Go"gLs/0f tyf ;/Iff tof/L sfo{qmd / sG;N6]G6 aLrsf] ;dembf/Ldf!% l8;]Da/ @))* df ;lDkPsf] xf] .!=@ kl/of]hgfhfkfg ;/sf/n] ;+oQm /fi6«;+3Lo ljsf; sfo{qmddfkm{t æblIf0f Pl;of If]qsf nflu e"sDkLo hf]lvdGo"gLs/0f tyf ;/Iff tof/L sfo{qmdÆ (ERRRP for SAR) nfO{ ;xfo]u k¥ofpg] p2]Zon] k|sf]kGo"gLs/0f tyf kglg{df{0fsf nflu ;xof]u u/]sf] 5 .cGt/fli6o« kglg{df{0f d~rsf] g]t[TjbfoL ;+:yf UNDP/BCPR / hfkfg ;/sf/n] g]kfn, ef/t,kfls:Tffg, a+unfb]z, e6fg h:tf blIf0f Pl;ofnL b]zx?df k|sf]kaf6 aRg] pkfox?df an k|bfg ug{e"sDk k|lt/f]ws ejg lgdf{0fsf nflu hf]8 lbb} Iflt sd ug{ / t/Gt} kgM:Yffkgf ug{sf nflu Xouf]k|m]dcf]s{ km/ PS;gsf] dfunfO{ k"/f ug{ ;dGjosf/L sfo{qmd cuf8 a9fOPsf] 5 .of] kl/of]hgf k|sf]k Joj:yfkgsf] cgejaf6 k|fKt 1fg cfbfg k|bfg ug{ If]qLo ;xsfo{sf] nflu vf]hLug{{ tyf e"sDkLo O{lGhlgOl/ªsf] tfhf 1fg k|of]u ug{ sf nflu lgwf{/0f ul/Psf] xf] .!=# sfo{qmdof] sfo{qmd g]]kfn /fli6«o ejg ;+lxtf cBfjlws ug{sf nflu l;kmfl/; k|ltj]bg tof/ ug]{ s/f;Fu;DalGwt 5 . of] k|ltj]bgn] ;/sf/åf/f ejg lgdf{f0f ;+lxtf cBfjlws u/fpg] sfof{fwf/sf] sfo{ ub{5 .!=$ sfo{of]hgfsf p2]Zox?of] sfo{qmdsf p2]Zox?dfM ljBdfg ;+lxtfsf k|fljlws kIfx?sf] ;wf/, ;+zf]wg tyf kl/jt{g ug{ l;kmfl/; tyf kgMljrf/ ug{ . ;+lxtf cBfjlws ug{sf nflu cWoog, ljZn]if0f tyf ki6ofFO ug{ . s]xL gu/kflnsfx?df -sf7df08f}+ / nlnkk/_ g]=/f=e=;+= sf] sfof{Gjog eP gePsf] d"Nof+sgug{ . ejg lgdf{0f sfo{df g]=/f=e=;+=sf] sfof{Gjogaf/] cWoog ug{ .!=% sfo{sf If]qx?dfly pNn]lvt p2]Zox?;+u ;DalGwt o; sfo{sf If]qx? ERRRP/DCUDBC, ;]jfu|fxL gu/kflnsf tyf cGo lj1x? aLrdf 5nkmn tyf cGt/lqmof, DUBP gu/ljsf; ;ldltn] tof/ kf/]sf] ljBdfg ejg lgdf{0f ljlgoddf ePsfsldsdhf]/Lx?sf] cWoog, g]=/f=e=;+=sf] sfof{Gjogdf sf7df08f}+ / nlntk/ h:tf s]xL gu/klnsfx?n] ef]u]sf k|fljlws;d:of / sl7gfO{x?sf] cWoog tyf ljZn]if0f, g]=/f=e=;+=sf] ;+zf]wgdf l8hfOg/x? / Joj;foLx?n] p7fPsf k|fljlws kIfx?sf] cWoog, cGt/fli6«o u0f:t/ dfkb08 / g]kfndf ljBdfg cGo lgdf{0f ;+lxtfx? ;Fu g]=/f=e=;+=sf] tngf/ cWoog,
  • 201. 11 g]=/f=e=;+=;+u ;DalGwt cGo cGt/fli6«o ;+lxtfx?sf] cWoog, g]kfndf klxn]b]lv g} k|rlnt ejg lgdf{0f ;+lxtf tyf dfu{ lgb]{zg;Fu ljlzi6 e"sDkLo ;/Iffljlzli6s/0fsf] cWoog tyf ;dLIff, g]=/f=e=;+=sf] ;du| ;+zf]wgsf nflu ;+lxtfdf pNn]lvt k|fljlws hfgsf/Lx?nfO{ kgM ljrf/ /cBfjlws ug{ lgb]{lzt ug]{, g]=/f=e=;+= cBfjlws ug{sf nflu clGtd l;kmfl/; k|ltj]bg tof/ ug]{, ;dLIff tyf ;emfjsf nflu clGtd d:of}bf k|ltj]bg ERRRP, UNDP, DUDBP,gu/kflnsfx? / cGo ;]jfu|fxL ;+3;+:yf ;dIf k|:ttL, clGtd k|ltj]bg tof/L,!=^ sfo{ljlwdfly pNn]lvt sfo{sf If]qx? ;d]6g] u/L cjnDag ul/Psf] sfo{ljlwM g]=/f=e=;+=;+u ;DalGwt tYof+s, ljj/0f, sfuhftx?sf] ;+sng tyf cWoog, lj:t[t ;"lrkl/lzi6 ! df lbOPsf] 5, DUDBC åf/f ul/g] ;/sf/sf nflu ejglgdf{0f ;+lxtf sfof{Gjog ;DalGWf tYof+s hfgsf/L tyfsfuhftx?sf] ;+sng / cWoog, gu/kflnsfx?df ejg lgdf{0f ;+lxtf sfof{Gjog ;DalGw tYof+s, hfgsf/L tyf sfuhftx?sf];+sng / cWoog, Joj;flos ;+u7gx?, gu/kflnsf tyf ;/sf/L clwsf/Lx?, e"sDkLo O{lGhlgol/ªdf cfjåJoj;foLx?, gu/kflnsfsf cgdlt k|fKt l8hfOg/x? h:tf lgdf{0f ;+lxtfsf] k|of]ustf{x?aLrsf] cGt/lqmof, g]=/f=e=;+= cBfjlws ug{sf nflu ;+zf]wg, ;wf/ tyf kl/jt{gsf] lj:t[t hfgsf/L ;lxtl;kmfl/;sf] tof/L,!=& kl/of]hgf ;d"x, cfut / pQ/bfloTjk|:tfljt sfo{of]hgf;lxt k|:tfljt ;d"x ;b:ox?sf] ;"lr tflnsf g+ ! df lbOPsf] 5 .qm=; tx÷:yfg gfd ;+:yf cfutPdPdsfo{qmd!= kl/of]hgf lgb]{zs >L=abg nfnGof5of]+dN6Ll8;LKnLg/LsG;N6]G6k|f=ln! k|zf;g, u0f:t/Lo Joj:yfkg lgb]{zgg]=/f=e=;+= !)& sf] clUg ;+lxtfsf];dLIff@= l6Pn ;+/rgfutO{lGhlgo/8f= k|]dgfy df:s] dN6Ll8;LlKng/LsG;N6]G6k|f=ln=! 5nkmn tyf cGt/lqmof,ejg lgdf{0f ;+lxtf ))) b]lv !)%;Ddsf] ;dLIff,cGo ;+lxtfx?;+u g]=/f=e=;+=sf] tngf,g]=/f=e=;+=;Fu cGo ;+lxtfx?sf]cGt/;DaGwsf] cWoog,tTsfn} cBfjlws ug]{ ;+l+xtfx? lglb{i6ug]{,clGtd l;kmfl/; k|ltj]bg tof/ ug]{,
  • 202. 12# ;+/rgfutO{lGhlgo/8f= uf]laGbnfld5fg]VjkO{lGhlgol/ªsn]h! 5nkmn tyf cGt/lqmof,ejg lgdf{0f ljlgodx?sf sdhf]/Lx?sf]cWoog,s]xL gu/kflnsfn] ef]u]sf ;d:ofx?sf]ljZn]if0f,g]=/f=e=;+= !!), !!!, !!@, !!# sf];dLIff,g]=/f=e=;+=sf] ;du| ;+zf]wgsf nflucBfjlws ug{kg]{ s/fx? lglb{i6 ug]{,$= l;len OlGhlgo/ 8f= /]vf >]i7 dN6Ll8;LlKng/LsG;N6]G6k|f=ln=! 5nkmn tyf cGt/lqmofl8hfO{g/x?n] p7fPsf ljifosf] cWoogug]{,g]=/f=e=;+= !)!, !)@, !)#, !)$, !)*,!)(, !!$, @)!, @)@, @)#, @)$ /@)% sf] ;dLIff,g]kfndf k|rlnt ejg lgdf{0f ;+lxtf;DalGw e"sDkLo ;/Iff ljlzi6Ls/0f;dLIff,% lgdf{0f ;+/rgf;DaGwLof]hgfsf/b]j]Gb|gfy uf]+ufn dN6Ll8;LlKng/LsG;N6]G6k|f=ln=! 5nkmn tyf cGt/lqmof,g]=/f=e=;+= @)^ sf] ;dLIff,lgdf{0f ;+/rgf;DaGwL ;+lxtf,^ ;]lg6/L O{lGhlgo/ sNfbLk tnfw/ s]=8LP;f]l;P6;k|f= ln! 5nkmn tyf cGt/lqmof,g]=/f=e=;+=@)^ sf] ;dLIff,k|0ffnL ;/Iff tyf ;+/If0f,ljgf /f]sfj6 cfk"lt{,& ljBtLoO{GhLlgo/zDeaxfb/ >]i7 dN6Ll8;LKnLg/LsG;N6]G6k|f=ln! 5nkmn tyf cGt/lqmof,NNBC @)^ sf] ;dLIff,ljBtLo ;/Iff k|0ffnL ;+/If0f,ljgf /f]sfj6 cfk"lt{,>L lk=Pd k|wfgn] vf]kf O{lGhlgol/ª sn]haf6 /fhLgfdf lbOaS;gePsf] pxfFn] o; cWoogdf of]ubfgug{xg]5}g .!=* nlIft ;d"xx?;+usf] 5nkmng]=/f=e=;+= cBfjlws ug{sf nflu lbdfu lvofpg / 5nkmn u/fpgsf nflu kl/lzi6 # df nlIft;d"xx?sf] tflnsf lbO{Psf] 5 .5nkmn ;q tn pNn]v ePadf]lhd rnfOPsf] lyof] M l8;]Da/ *, @))* — UNDP/ERRRP sf /fli6«o sfo{qmd ;+of]hs ;Fusf] ;+lIfKt 5nkmn k|m]ac/L %, @))( — ;+:yfut nlIft ;d"x k|m]ac/L (, @))( — nlntk/ pk dxfgu/kflnsfdf btf{ ePsf cgdlt k|fKt l8hfOg/x? k|m]ac/L @&, @))( — sf7df08f}+ dxfgu/kflnsfdf btf{ ePsf cgdlt k|fKt l8hfOg/x?
  • 203. 135nkmn sfo{qmdsf l6kf]6x? kl/lzi6 # df k|:tt ul/Psf] 5 .!=( k|dv pknlAwx?g]=/f=e=;+=sf @) 5§f5§} k:tsx?df ul/Psf] j0f{g cGt/fli6«o dfkb08 ;++lxtfsf s]xL zAbfjnLx?sf];+zf]wg dfq xf] h;sf] k"0f{ ?kdf ;dLIff / cBfjlws ug{ cfjZos 5 . cBfjlws tyf kglj{rf/sfnflu >f]tfx?sf] kxFr 5 eGg] ;f]rfO{sf] txdf dfq Jofjxfl/s ?kdf o;sf] cBfjlws ug]{ sfo{ ug{;lsFb}g .g]=/f=e=;+=sf] ;+zf]wg tyf cBfjlws ug]{ sfo{ o;;Fu ;DalGwt k|ltaå ;+:yfsf] cefjn] ubf{ lgoldt?kdf ul/b}g . ejg lgdf{0f ;+lxtfx? ;+Zff]wg tyf cBfjlws ug{sf nflu 1fgsf] ;~ro, ;+:yfut:d/0f, ;do, cg;Gwfg / ljsf; tyf tYof+ssf nflu kof{Kt >f]tsf] cfjZostf kg]{ ePsf]n] cToGthl6n / eåf xG5 . o;sf nflu ;+oQm /fHo cd]l/sf / a]nfot h:Tff wgL b]zx?n] ;d]t 7nf] nufgLu5{g . pgLx?n] cGt/fli6«o tj/af6 dfkb08 :yflkt ul/;s]sf 5g / o:tf clwsf+z b]zx?n] xfncGt/fli6«o ejg lgdf{0f ;+lxtfsf] kfngf ub{5g . pgLx?n] cGt/fli6«o ejg lgdf{0f ;+lxtfdf ;dfj]zgePsf ;+lxtfx? cGt/fli6«o txdf :jLsfo{ b:tfj]hsf] ?kdf ;Gbe{ ;fdu|Ldf ;dfj]z ul/Psf 5g .x/]s b]z jf :yfgLo ;/sf/nfO{ cfˆgf] e"efu÷If]qdf pkoQm gePsf o:tf ;+lxtfx? ;+zf]wg ug]{clwsf/ lbOPsf] 5 .bj} ;/sf/L tyf lghL If]qdf k|rlnt lgdf{0f sfo{df g]=/f=e=;+=sf] sfof{Gjoj eP gePsf] eGg] af/]tYof+sLo clen]v 5}g . k|of]u ePsf clwsf+z sfuhftx? Pdcf/6L ePsf] k|dfl0ft 5, h;sf] dflyrrf{ ul/Psf] 5 . t/ o;n] ejg lgdf{0f ;/Iffsf] sg} lhDdf lnb}g . o;f] ePsf] xgfn] ejg lgdf{0f;+lxtfsf] ;d"xaf6 Pdcf/6LnfO{ x6fOgk5{ t/ gu/kflnsfsf] ;/Iff ;dLIff k|0ffnLdf guOsg ;a}n]k|of]u ug]{ Ps 5§} u0f:t/ dfkb08 ;+/rgf tof/ ug{k5{ .g]=/f=e=;+=sf] Joj:yf xfn gu/kflnsfsf] ;Ldf If]qleq dfq k|efjsf/L 5 / u|fdL0f If]qdf o;sf]cf}krfl/s k|of]usf] cfjZostf 5}g eGg] sdhf]/L kIfnfO{ abNg k5{ / ;a} u|fld0f Onfsfx?sf ejgtyf ef}lts ;+/rgfx? lgdf{0f ubf{ ;d]t g]=/f=e=;+=sf] cjwf/0ff cGtu{t ul/gk5{ .ejg lgdf{0f ;+lxtfsf] c+z÷efu sf] ?kdf /x]sf] Pdcf/6LnfO{ tTsfn c:jLsf/ u/L o;nfO{ lgdf{0f;+lxtf ;d"xsf] dfu;Fu d]n vfg] vfnsf] ljz]if lsl;dsf] ejg l8hfOgsf] u0f:t/ dfkb08n]k|lt:yfkg ug{k5{ eGg] s/f k|dvtfsf ;fy l;kmfl/; ul/G5 .g]=/f=e=;+=sf] ;+zf]wg tyf cBfjlws ug]{ sfo{nfO{ cfˆgf] 7fpF tyf b]z;Fu d]n vfg]u/L s]xLJoj:yfx?sf] ljz]if kl/jt{g ;lxt cGt/fli6«o ejg ;+lxtfnfO{ cjnDag u/]/ lj:yfkg ug{k5{ ./fli6«o ejg lgdf{0f ;+lxtf kl/ifbsf] ?kdf Ps k|ltaå ;+:yfsf] t?Gt :yfkgf ug{k5{ / g]=/f=e=;+=sf]ljsf; tyf kfngf u/fpg / k|fs[lts / dfgjLo k|sf]ksf] sf/0fn] xg] hf]lvdaf6 hLpwgsf] ;/Iff ug{;xof]u ug]{ sfo{ ;Dkg k5{ .g]=/f=e=;+= sfof{Gjog ug]{ Joj:yf ejg lgdf{0f ljlgdodf ;dfj]z ug{k5{ h;n] lglh ejgx? /ef}lts k"jf{wf/sf] cfGtl/s / afXo ;+/rgf kIfnfO{ Joj:yfkg u5{ / l5d]sdf xg] c;/ Go"gLs/0f u5{.ejg lgdf{0f ljlgodfjnLsf] ejg lgdf{0f cgdlt k|lqmofcGtu{t zx/L If]qdf ejg lgdf{0f ubf{ s]xLlglZrt k|lqmof k"/f ug{kg]{ ePtfklg pkoQm sf/0f a]u/ g} ;+/rgfsf] ;+zf]wg / cfotg ef/ kl/jt{gug]{ ul/G5 . o:tf] sfo{n] ;/Iff Joj:yfkgdf 7nf] hf]lvd lgDTofpF5 .To;}u/L pRr hf]lvd oQm ejg lgdf{0f ubf{ ljz]if ;fjwfgL ckgfpgk5{ / lj:t[t ;+/rgf lgdf{0fsf]dfu{ lgb]{zg k|bfg ug{k5{ .o; k|ltj]bgsf] lgisif{ / l;kmfl/; kf7 ^ / & df lbO{Psf] 5 .@= ljBdfg k|rngx?@=! /fli6«o gLlt
  • 204. 14g]kfn pRr e"sDkLo hf]lvdoQm b]zsf] ?kdf lrlgG5 . lj=;+ @)$% ;fndf pbok/ lhNnf s]Gb| eP/cfPsf] e"sDkn] ef}lts k"jf{wf/sf] e"sDkLo ;/Iff ;DaGwdf uDeL/ Wofgfsif{0f u/fPsf] 5 . ;f] e"sDkkZrft cfjf; tyf ef}lts of]hgf dGqfnon] UNDP / UNCHS ;Fu ldn]/ ljBdfg ejgsf] l8hfOg/ lgdf{0f kåltdf kl/jt{g ug{kg]{ cfjZostfnfO{ ;Daf]wg ug{ Ps gLlt cjnDag u¥of] .UNDP/UNCHS sf] Habitat Project cfjf; tyf ef}lts of]hgf dGqfnon] gLltut / k|fljlws;xof]usf nflu zx/L If]q kl/of]hgf cjnDag u/], h;cGtu{t /fli6«o cfjf; u[x kl/of]hgf, cfjf;If]q tflnd cfjZostf d"Nof+sg, /fli6«o cfjf; gLltsf] d:of}bf tof/L, /fli6«o ejg lgdf{0f ;+lxtfd:of}bf tof/Lh:tf sfo{qmdx? ;d]t ;dfj]z ul/of] . g]kfndf ejg ;+/rgf l8hfOg / lgdf{0fkåltnfO{ ;xh agfpg ejg lgdf{0f P]g cjnDag ul/of] . O{lGhlgo/x? :jo+n] cfˆgf] k]zfnfO{ :jlgodug]{ sfo{nfO{ ;xh agfpg O{GhLlgol/ª sfplG;n P]gsf] Joj:yf ul/of] . g]]kfn /fli6«o ejg ;+lxtf ;g!(($ df tof/ ul/of] . To;}a]nf u0f:t/ dfkb08 / tf}n lgoGq0f ljefun] ljleGg u0f:t/ dfkb08;+lxtfcGtu{t g]kfn u0f:t/ dfkb08sf] ?kdf g]=/f=e=;+=sf] ljsf; u¥of] . t/ ;+;bLo lg0f{osf]cefjdf ;f] ;+lxtf / u0f:t/ dfkb08 nfu" xg ;s]g . ;g @))! hgj/Ldf uh/ftdf cfPsf] e"sDkkZrft g]=/f=e=;+= / PgP;sf] sfof{Gjogsf] nflu ;f];fO{6L ckm sG;N6Lª cfsL{6]Sr/n P08O{GhLlgol/ª kmd{;Fu ;xsfo{ ug{ k|]/0ff u¥of] . ;f] ;xsfo{n] /fli6«o e"sDkLo ;/Iff d~rsf] :yfkgfeof] h;n] nlntk/ pk dxfgu/kflnsfn] g]=/f=e=;+=sf] sfof{Gjog ug{ u/]sf] 3f]if0ffnfO{ ;xh agfof] /Vjk O{lGhlgol/ª sn]hdf e"sDkLo OlGhlgol/ªcGtu{t :gfsf]Q/ txsf] cWoog cWofkg sfo{ z?ul/of] .@=@ gu/kflnsfx?df g]=/f=e=;+=sf] sfof{Gjoge"sDkLo ;/Iff lbj; hgj/L !^, @))# -lj=;+ @)%(_ sf] cj;/ kf/]/ ejg lgdf{0f cgdlt k|lqmofsfnflu g]=/f=e=;+= sfof{Gjog ug]{ sfo{ u/]/ nlntk/ pk dxfgu/kflnsf g]kfnsf] k|yd gu/kflnsf eof]. ;g @))# sf] gf]e]Da/ @& -lj=;+ @)^)_ df e"sDkLo ;/Iff zfvfsf] :yfkgf xgkj{ ^ dlxgf;Ddg]=/f=e=;+=sf] sfof{Gjogsf] nflu k|fljlws sIfn] ;xhLs/0f u/]sf] lyof] ;f] k|fljlws ;d"xdfgu/kflnsfsf O{lGhlgo/x? / DUDBC, NSET, NFES, NEA sf O{lGhlgo/x? ;dfj]z lyP .@=# nlntk/ pk dxfgu/kflnsfcGtu{t ejg lgdf{0f cgdlt k|lqmof@=# nlntk/ pk dxfgu/kfflnsfcGtu{t ejg lgdf{0f cgdltsf nflu cfj]bg lbFbf lgDg k|lqmofx?k"/f ug{kb{5M gu/kflnsfsf] ejg lgdf{0f cgdlt zfvfdf cfj]bg btf{ ug]{ . ejg lgdf{0f ljlgodcg;f/ cfj]bg d"Nof+sg ug]{ . g]=/f=e=;+=sf] k|fjwfgcg;f/ ejgsf] ;+/rgfsf] e"sDkLo ;/Iff zfvfåf/f d"Nof+sg ug]{ . z?dfof] sfo{ k|fljlws sIfn] ug]{ uYof]{ . g]=/f=e=;+=sf] k|fjwfg sfof{Gjog eP gePsf] lgSof]{n ug{ cgdlt k|fKt l8hfOg/x?n] pkdxfgu/kflnsfåf/f 1fg, cgej, kålt ;f6f;f6 ug{ cfof]hgf u/]sf] ;fj{hlgs d~rdf cfˆgf]l8hfOg k]z ug{k5{ . of] k|lqmof xfn ljBdfg 5}g . ejg lgdf{0f cgdlt lgDg bO{ txdf k|bfg ul/G5 M z?sf] cgdlt hu;Dd lgdf{0f ug{sf nflu k|bfg ul/G5 . . clGtd cgdlt hu lgdf{0fsf] lg/LIf0f u/]kl5 dfq k|bfg ul/G5 . pk dxfgu/kflnsfsf sd{rf/Lx?åf/f lgdf{0f k|lqmofsf] lgl/If0f . ejg lgdf{0fsf] ;kl/j]If0f ug]]{ cgdlt k|fKt l8hfOg/ / lgdf{0f sfo{sf] lg/LIf0f ug]{ cgdltzfvfn] ;+oQm ?kdf lgdf{0f ;dfKt ePkZrft k|df0fkq k|bfg ug]{ .;fdfGo ejg lgdf{0f cgdlt k|lqmof tn v08 @=$=@ df lbOPsf] 5 .
  • 205. 15@=$ sf7df8f}F dxfgu/kflnsfcGtu{t ejg lgdf{0f cgdlt k|lqmofsf7df8f}F dxfgu/kflnsfdf ejg lgdf{0f k|lqmof pNN]vgLo ?kdf leGg 5 . g]=/f=e=;+=;Fusf] ;+ult÷d]nltg tnf;Ddsf] ejg cyjf !))) ju{lkm6 If]qkmn cf]u6g] ejgsf] d"Nof+sg ejg lgdf{0f cgdltzfvf / ^ tnf;Ddsf ejgsf] /fli6«o ejg lgdf{0f ;+lxtf sfof{Gjog ;ldlt (NBCIC) n] ub{5 .lj:t[t k|lqmof tn lbOPsf] 5 . sf7df8f}F dxfgu/kflnsfn] gu/leq xg] ejg lgdf{0f ;+lxtf k|lqmofdf@! cu:t @))% b]lv æejg lgdf{0f ;+lxtf @)^)Æ sfof{Gjog ug{ z/m u/]sf] u/]sf] 5 . ;g @))%cS6f]j/df sf7df8f}F dxfgu/kflnsfdf :jo+;]jssf] ?kdf sfo{ ug]{ ^ hgf ljz]if1x? ;lDdlnt /fli6«oejg lgdf{0f ;+lxtf sfof{Gjog ;ldlt lgdf{f0f eof] .;fwf/0f ejg lgdf{0f cgdlt k|lqmof o;k|sf/ 5Mr/0f ! M ejg lgdf{0f cgdltsf nflu lbOPsf] cfj]bg lgoGq0f hUuf ljsf;sf] dfu{ lgb]{zgsf]of]hgf ljz]ifu/L kFxrsf] kof{Kttf;Fu d]n vfg]u/L k/LIf0f ul/G5 .r/0f @ M ltg tnf;Ddsf] / !))) ju{lkm6;Ddsf] If]qkmndf lgdf{0f xg] ejgsf] xsdfg]=/f=e=;+= / of]hgf ljlgod;Fu ldNg] u/L slgi7 O{lGhlgo/x/af6 sDKo6/ k/LIf0ful/G5 . tLg tNnfeGbf dflysf] / !))) ju{lkm6 eGbf a9L If]qkmndf lgdf{0f ejgsf]xsdf g]=/f=e=;+= / of]hgf ljlgod;Fu xg ldNg] u/L OlGhlgo/n] k/LIf0f ug]{ .r/0f # M k|f/lDes btf{ / sDKo6/df ljj/0f r9fpg] .r/0f $ M 3/ hUUff k|df0fLs/0f / l5d]sLsf] ;xdltsf nflu j8f sfof{nodf k7fpg] .r/0f % M clGtd btf{sf nflu ejg lgdf{0f cgdlt zfvfdf k7fpg] .r/0f ^ M hu;Dd (DPC Level) sf] lgdf{0fdf ejg lgdf{0f cgdlt k|lqmof;Fu cfwfl/t eP/O{lGhlgo/x?n] kl/If0f ug]{ .r/0f & M hu;Ddsf] lgdf{0fsf] k/LIf0f ug]{r/0f * M hueGbf dfly ;+/rgf lgdf{0fsf] cgdlt;DaGwL ljifo .r/0f ( M lgdf{0f sfo{ ;dflKtsf] k/LIf0f ug]{ / k|df0fkq k|bfg ug]{ .r/0f !) M vfg]kfgL, ljBt, 9nlgsf;, 6f]lnkmf]gsf] nflu cfj]bg lbg] .r/0f !! M vfg]kfgL / 9n lgsf; sfof{non] vfg]kfgL / 9n lgsf; h8fg ug{sf nflu ;8svGg] cgdlt lbOof]; egL ;8s ljefudf l;kmfl/; k7fpF5 .r/0f !@ M ;8s ljefun] ;8s vGg] cgdlt k|bfg ub{5 .r/0f !# M vfg]kfgL tyf 9n lgsf; sfof{non] vfg]kfgL / 9n lgsf; h8fg ul/Psf] 5 ls 5}gegL lg/LIf0f u5{ .r/0f !$ M ljBt cfk"lt{ ug{k"j{ ljBtLo tf/ h8fg ePsf] 5÷5}g lg/LIf0f u5{ .r/0f !% M ljBtLo cfk"lt{ / 6]lnkmf]g h8fg .@=% ejg lgdf{0f ;+lxtf sfof{Gjog;DaGwL tYof+s / hfgsf/L@=%=! DUDBC åf/f lgld{t ;/sf/L ejgx?DUDBC n] lgdf{0f tyf dd{t ljefudfkm{t s]xL lglZrt ;/sf/L ejgx?sf] lgdf{0f sfo{nfO{sfof{Gjog ub{5 . o;n] g]=/f=e=;+=sf] cfjZostf sg xb;Dd k"/f ub{5 eGg] s/f hfgsf/Ldf 5}g /ejg lgdf{0fsf gS;fx?, l8hfOg / lgdf{0f ;kl/j]If0f ;DaGw sfuhftx? pknAw xg g;Sbf o;sf]k/LIf0f s;af6 ul/of] eGg] s/fsf] hfgsf/L gxFbf g]=/f=e=;+=;Fusf] ;+ult÷d]n k|dfl0ft xg g;Sg]b]lvG5 .@=%=@ gu/kflnsfdf ejg lgdf{0f cgdlt k2ltsf] cEof;;g !(($ -@)%)_ ;fndf ejg lgdf{0f ljlgodfjnL kfl/t ePkZrft dfq ejg lgdf{0f cgdltk2ltsf] z?jft ePsf] xf] . g]=/f=e=;+=sf] sfof{Gjog xgeGbf klxn] ;fdfGo rf/ lsNnf vnfOPsf], If]qtyf cjl:ylt of]hgf, gS;f zfvfdf k]z ul/gkYof]{ . ;f] zfvfn] g} FAR, GLD, If]q ljefhg h:tf
  • 206. 16ljljw kIfx? ;+ult eP gePsf] k/LIf0f ug{ lhDd]jf/ xGYof] . g]=/f=e=;+=sf] sfof{Gjog kZrft ejglgdf{0f cgdltsf nflu cfjZos sfuhftx?df ;+/rgfTds gS;f klg ;dfj]z ul/of] .;g @))# kZrft …sÚ >]0fLsf ejgx? lgdf{0f ubf{ lgdf{0f ;+/rgf;DaGwL gS;f, ;+/rgf l8hfOgsf]ljZn]if0f, ljBtLo cfk"lt{ gS;f h:tf s/fx? ;d]tsf] cfjZostf kg{ yfNof] eg] …vÚ >]0fLsf ejgx?lgdf{0f ubf{ lgdf{0f ;+/rgf;DaGwL gS;fsf] dfq} cfjZostf kg{ yfNof] . ;fy} …uÚ >]0fLsf ejgx?lgdf{0f ug{sf nflu eg] sg} klg ;+/rgf l8hfOgsf] cfjZostf kb}{g . ;Dkbf ;+/If0f If]qleq ejglgdf{0f ubf{ eg] k/Dk/fut z}nL / df}lns ;+/rgfsf] hu]gf{ ug{kg]{ cj:yfdf ljz]if k|sf/sf] l8hfOgsf]cfjZostf kb{5 / ;f] lgdf{0f sfo{sf nflu k/ftflTjs ljefusf] :jLs[ltsf] cfjZostf kb{5 .z?z?df ejg lgdf{0f cgdlt k|lqmofsf] nflu DUDBC, KMC, IOE, NSET / SCAEF sfljz]if1x? ;dfj]z ePsf] k|fljlws ;ldltn] l8hfOgsf] kglj{rf/ ug]{ uYof]{ . o; k|lqmofn] ejg lgdf{0fcgdlt k|lqmofnfO{ cem :ki6 agfpb} w]/} cgdlt k|fKt l8hfOgx? Pj+ ejg lgdf{tfx?nfO{ dxTjk0f{kf7 l;sfpg ;kmn eof] . t/ To;sf] nuQ} cgdlt k|fKTf l8hfOgx?n] cfˆgf l8hfOgx? :ki6 ug{g;s]sfn] pQm ;dLIff k|lqmofsf] g} ;j{q lj/f]w eof] / gu/kflnsfn] g} pQm k|lqmofnfO{ Ps af]emsf?kdf lnof] . jf:Tfjdf ;Id lg/LIf0fsf sf/0f l8hfOg Pj+ gS;fx?sf] tof/L pTs[i6 tl/sfn] ug{cfjZos lyof] .ejg lgdf{0f kZrft c:yfofL / :yfoL u/L bO{ k|sf/sf k|df0f kqx? k|bfg ug]{ k|rng /x]sf] 5 .c:yfoL k|df0f kq ejgsf] hu lgdf{0fsf] k/LIf0f u/L k|bfg ul/G5 t/ Tof] k|rng xfn sfof{Gjogdf5}g . :yfoL k|df0frflxF ejg lgdf{0f ;DkGg eO;s]kZrft :ff] ejgsf] kl/If0f u/]/ k|bfg ul/G5 . xfn;+/rgf gS;fsf] ;+Vof Ps k|ltaf6 ltg k|lt / lkNn/sf] df]6fO{ (ÆX(Æ af6 !@ÆX!@Æ agfOPsf] 5 .tLg tnfeGbf dfly / !))) ju{ lkm6eGbf a9L If]qkmndf lgdf{0f xg] cfjf;Lo ejgx?sf] xsdfOlGhlgo/n] gS;f kf; u/L ljZn]if0f k|ltj]bg ;d]t tof/ ug{kg]{ xG5 .Joj;flos ejgx?sf] ;Gbe{df eg] df6f] kl/If0f k|ltj]bg / ljBtLo cfk"lt{, 9nlgsf;, vfg]kfgLkfO{kh8fg gS;f;d]tsf] cfjZostf kb{5 .ejg lgdf{0f ;+lxtf sfof{Gjogdf ;xof]uL xg] u/L ejg lgdf{0f ljlgod tof/ gePsf] xgfn] ejglgdf{0f P]g ;g !((( df tof/ eO{ g]=/f=e=;+=sf] sfof{Gjog ug]{ k|of; ul/P klg ;f]sf] sfof{Gjogcf}krfl/s ?kdf ;g @))# b]lv dfq xg ;Sof] . g]=/f=e=;+=n] ejgx?nfO{ s, v, u / 3 u/L rf/>]0fLdf ljefhg u/]sf] 5 .
  • 207. 17@=^ g]=/f=e=;+=sf] sfof{Gjogsf nflu ;+:yfut Joj:yfg]kfndf e"sDk;Fu ;DjlGwt Pp6} pQ/bfoL ;+:yf 5}g . tnsf Ph]G;Lx? e"sDk;Fu ;DalGwt ljleGgkIfx?;Fu ;DjlGwt 5gM vfgL tyf e"uj{ ljefu b]zdf esDk;Fu ;DjlGwt ;fdu|Lx?sf] ;~hfn agfpg tyf If]q tyfcjl:ylt gS;f tof/ ug]{ sfo{k|lt lhDd]jf/ 5 . /fli6«o u0f:t/ dfkb08 tyf tf}n dfkg ljefu e"sDk;Fu ;DjlGwt ljljw kIfx?df ;+lxtftyf dfu{ lgb]{zgsf] u0f:t/ / j}wflgstf k|dfl0ft ug]{ sfo{k|lt lhDd]jf/ 5 . g]kfn ejg lgdf{0f kl/ifbnfO{ g]kfndf /fli6«o ejg lgdf{0f ;+lxtfsf] Joj:yf tyf cBfjlwsug]{ pRr lgsfosf ?kdf lrq0f ul/Psf] 5 . zx/L cfjf; u[x tyf of]hgf ljefu e"sDk;Fu ;DjlGwt kIfx?;lxt g]kfn /fli6«o ejglgdf{0f ;+lxtfsf] Joj:yf / sfof{Gjogdf lhDd]jf/ xG5 . sf7df8f}F pkTosf gu/ ljsf; ;ldltx? zx/L ljsf; of]hgf, of]hgf tyf ejg lgdf{0fljlgodx?sf] k|f/De ug{ lhDd]jf/ 5g . uf=lj=;=, lh=lj=;= / gu/kflnsf h:tf :yfgLo lgsfox? cfkmgf] ;Ldf clwsf/ If]qleq ejglgdf{0f;DjGwL ljlgod, ;+lxtf, cfr/0f, lgodfjnL cjnDag tyf sfof{Gjog u/fpg lhDd]jf/xG5g . NEA, SCAEF, SONA, SEANEP, SEEN, ESI, NSET h:tf k]zfut ;dfhx? tyfcGo u}/ ;/sf/L ;+3;+:yfx? Hffgsf/L k|rf/k|;f/, ;r]tgf sfo{qmd, cfkmgf k]zfutcEof;x?df ;+lxtfx? d]n xg] u/L 1fg / ;Lksf] juL{s/0f tyf cfjlws tflnd k|bfg ug]{h:tf sfo{sf nflu lhDd]jf/ xG5g . e"sDkLo ;/Iff;Fu cfj4 bft[ ;+:yfx?n] UNDP, UNCHS, UNESCO / JICA nfO{;d]65g . g]kfndf e"sDkLo ;/Iff;Fu ;DjlGwt kIfx?sf] ljZn]if0f ug]{, g]=/f=e=;+= cBfjlws u/fpgcgudg ug]{ / uf=lj=;= / gu/kflnsfx? h:tf :yflgo ;/sf/L lgsfox?nfO{ g]=/f=e=;+=sfof{Gjogsf nflu k|f]T;flxt ug{ / bIf ;Nnfx lbg ;dlk{t sg} ;+:yfut Joj:yf 5}g .@=& g]=/f=e=;+= sfof{Gjogsf] j}wflgstf:yfgLo :jfoQ zf;g P]g efu @, uf=lj=;= Snh @* -Pkm_ -@_ n] k"jf{wf/ tyf ejg lgdf{0fdflgodsf] Joj:yf u/]sf] 5 . :yfgLo :jfoQ zf;g P]g efu # – gu/kflnsf Snh (* -aL_ ^ df ejglgdf{0f ;+/rgf k|dfl0ft ug{kg]{ k|fjwfg 5 . o:tf k|fjwfgx? uf=lj=;= tyf gu/kflnsfx?dfg]=/f=e=;+=sf] k|efjsf/L sfof{Gjogdf pkof]uL xg ;S5g h;sf nflu cem lj:t[t dfu{ lgb]{zgsf]cfjZostff kb{5 .ejg lgdf{0f P]g @)%% -!((* ;+;f]wg_ n] ;j} gu/kflnsfx?nfO{ ejg lgdf{0f cgdlt lbFbfg]=/f=e=;+=sf] sfof{Gjog u/fpg] clwsf/ k|Tofof]hg u/]sf] 5 . t/ klg of] P]gn] gu/kflnsfx?dfg]=/f=e=;+= sfof{Gjog eP gePsf] cgudg tyf dNofÍg ug{sf nflu ;+:yf tf]Sg ;s]sf] 5}g .@=* esDkLo k|lt/f]ws ejgsf] dxTjsf] l:js[t k4tL -PWD_PWD efu bO{df ef}lts k"jf{wf/ of]hgf If]qdf e"sDk k|lt/f]ws ejgsf] dxTjsf nflu lglZrt dfu{lgb]{zg pNn]v 5 . pQm e"sDkLo k|lt/f]ws dfu{ lgb]{zg tnsf ;+/rgf ju{x?df nfu xG5M @) ju{ld6/eGbf a9L If]qkmndf hu lgdf{0f ePsf] cyjf % b]lv %) ld6/ ;Ddsf] prfOdfjg]sf ;j} ejgx?, !% ld= eGbf cUnf ;j} 9nfg ul/Psf kvf{noQm ejgx?, @)) 3g ld6/;Ddsf] Ifdtfsf ;j} kfgLsf Ogf/ tyf hldg dlgsf e08f/x?, ;fdfGo gful/ssf] kxFr ePsf ;j} ;fj{hlgs ejgx?
  • 208. 18 k"n, jfFw, e"–agfj6, hldgdgsf] e08f/0f, kfgLsf Ogf/, 5fgf] h:tf ;a} l;len OGhLlgo/n]l8hfOg u/]sf ;+/rgfx?, ;j} ljBtLo, b/ ;+rf/ / /]l8of]sf 6fj/x?oL dfu{lgb]{zgsf cfjZostfx? Go"gtd ?kdf nfu" ul/gk5{ . l8hfOg/x?n] eg] ;DjlGwt agfj6sf]kmfObfnfO{ dgg u/L cfjZostfjdf]lhd cem kSsf tl/sf cjnDjg ug{ ;Sg]5g .#= g]=/f=e=;+=sf] sfof{Gjog tyf lgdf{0f sfo{df ePsf ;d:ofx? tyf o;;DaGwL ljifox?sf] dxTjg]=/f=e=;+=sf] sfof{Gjog tyf lgdf{0f u0f:t/df ePsf ;d:ofx? tyf ljifox?Dffly ;]jfu|fxLx?sfaLrdf Jofks 5nkmn u/L 5nkmnsf l6kf]6x?sf] kl/lzi6 # df j0f{g ul/Psf] 5 . tL ljifox?;+If]kdf o;k|sf/ 5g .#=! ;+lxtfx?;+lxtf eGgfn] k|fljws ljlzi6Ls/0f tyf u0f:t/ dfkb08 eGg] alemG5 h;n] ljifox?, 9fFrf ;+/rgftyf lgdf{0f ;fdfu|Lx?sf] ljZn]if0fnfO{ lgoGq0f ub{5 . ;+lxtfsf] p2]Zo ;/lIft tyf ldtJooL l8hfOglj:tf/ ug{ xf] h;n] ubf{ dflg;x? c;/lIft / ckof{Kt l8hfOg tyf ;+/rgf lgdf{0faf6 ;/lIft xG5g.bO k|sf/sf ;+lxtfx? k|rngdf 5g . ;+lxtfsf] Pp6f k|sf/nfO{ ;+/rgfTds ;+lxtf elgG5 hg lgdf{0f;DjGwL OlGhlgo/x? / cGo ejg, k"n, cf0fljs oGq tyf lglZlrt ju{sf lgdf{0f sfo{df ;DjlGwt /:6Ln, kmnfd, d;nf, Knfl:6s, sf7 h:tf lglZrt ;fdfu|Lx?sf] dfq k|of]u ug]{ ljz]if1x?n] n]v]sf5g . ljz]if u/]/ lgdf{0f;DjGwL ;+lxtfn] l8hfOg ef/, ;+/rgfsf ljleGg efux?df kg]{ rfk, l8hfOgcgdfg / lgdf{0f ;fdfu|Lsf] cfjZostf h:tf s/fx?nfO{ j0f{g u5{ . s]xL ;+/rgf;DjGwLOlGhlgo/x?n] af/Daf/ k|of]u ug]{ ;+lxtfx? tn ;dfj]z ul/Psf 5gM AASHTO - /fhdfu{ knsf] :t/Lo ljlzi6Ls/0f AREMA - /]Nj] OlGhlgol/ªsf] nflu xft] kl:tsf ACI318 - kga{n k|bfg ul/Psf] s+lqm6sf] ejg ;+lxtf cfjZostf AISC - :6Ln lgdf{0fsf nflu xft] kl:tsf AFPA - sf7 lgdf{0fsf nflu /fli6«o l8hfOg ljlzi6Ls/0fbf];|f] k|sf/sf] ;+lxtfnfO{ ejg lgdf{0f ;+lxtf elgG5 hg sg} /fHo, zx/ jf /fi6«h:tf lglZrt If]qdfxg]] lgdf{0f sfo{nfO{ ;d]6gsf nflu agfOPsf] xf] . ejg lgdf{0f ;+lxtfdf ;+/rgf;DjGwL ;+/rgfTds,oflGqs, ljBtLo tyf ;fdu|Lx?;Fu ;DjlGwt s/fx? ;dfj]z 5g . ejg lgdf{0f ;+lxtfsf] p2]Zo eg]sf];j{;fwf/0fnfO{ lgdf{0f sfo{df :yfgLo k|efjaf6 ;/lIft ug{ xf] . ;+/rgf lgdf{0f;Fu ;DjlGwtOlGhlgo/x?n] df6f]sf] cj:yf, k|ToIf ef/, jfo rfk, lxpF ef/ / e"sDkLo an h:tf s/fx?sf] af/]dfljrf/ k¥ofpF5g . cfhsfn clwsf+z ejg lgdf{0f ;+lxtfn] ASCE n] tof/ u/]sf] ejg lgdf{0fdfGo"gtd l8hfOg ef/sf] dfkb08 / cem xfn;fnsf] ICC åf/f lgld{t cGt/f{li6«o ejg lgdf{0f ;+lxtfsf]cjnDjg ug]{ u/]sf] kfOG5 .gofF k|0ffnLsf] ;dfj]zLs/0f, gofF lgdf{0f ;fdfu|L / k|ljlwsf] kof{Kttf, k|rlnt l8hfOgsf] jf/Djf/c;kmntfh:tf sf/0fn] ;+lxtfsf] ;+;f]wg tyf cBfjlws ug]{ sfo{ ul/G5 . xfnsf jif{x?df ;+/rgfcEof; tyf lgdf{0f ;fdfu|Lx?sf] af/]df ePsf] j[xt cg;Gwfgsf sf/0f bj} k|sf/sf ;+lxtfdf jf/Djf/kl/jt{g xg] u/]sf] 5 . pbfx/0fsf nflu ACI ;ldltn] jflif{s kl/lzi6f+s lgsfN5 / x/]s ^ jif{df;+;f]lwt ;+lxtf lgdf{0f u5{ .olb k/LIf0faf6 k|dfl0ft xG5 / lj:t[t cWoogn] sg} l8hfOgsf] kl/jt{gaf6 ;/lIft l8hfOgsf]lgdf{0f xG5 eg] k|:tfjgfaf6 cnUofP/ ;+lxtfsf] ;+;f]wg ul/G5 .
  • 209. 19#=@ P]g, ljlgod, ;+lxtf / u0f:t/ dfkb08 / ;Gbe{ ;fdfu|Lx?sf] qmda4tfP]g, ljlgod, ;+lxtf -g]=/f=e=;+=_, u0f:t/, dfkb08 -PgP;_, lgb]{lzsf (PWD), ljlgb]{zg, xft] kl:tsftyf k|zf;lgs k|rf/ ;fdu|Lx?sf] tx / k|fyldstfdf 7"nf] cGof]n 5 . of] kIf k|i6 xg h?/L 5 /:ki6 kl/efiff / ;Ldf lgwf{/0f xg cfjZos 5 .IS, IRC, JSSI, DIN, ASTM, Eurocode h:tf cGo cGt/f{li6«o ;+lxtfx?sf] ;Gbe{ pknAwu/fOg k5{ .#=# ejg lgdf{0f ljlgodgu/kflnsfx?sf] ejg lgdf{0f ljlgodn] ;/Iff ;b[9Ls/0f tyf hLjgsf] u0f:t/Lotfh:tf cTofjZos7flgPsf w]/} ;+lxtfx?nfO{ ;dfj]z ub}{g . ljzfnahf/, pRr hf]lvdo"Q ejgx?, c:ktfn, ljBfno,;+:yfut ejgx?, kfgLsf 6fj/x?, ljBtLo 6fj/x?, ;+rf/sf 6fj/x? h:tf ;+/rgfx?sf] 5]p5fpsf];/Iffdf ljz]if Wofg lbOg k5{ . ljBdfg ljlgodn] hf]lvdoQm ejgx?nfO{ vt/fdf /x]sf tyf5f]l8Psf ejgx?sf] ?kdf lnP/ j]jf:tf ub{5 . ejg lgdf{0f cgdtL k|lqmofn] ejg tyf k"jf{wf/;/Iff;Fu ;DjlGwt ;+lxtfx?nfO{ ;d]6g kb{5 . o;sf] cnfjf ljlgodn] of]hgf tyf l8hfOgdfgjLgtfsf] nflu o;sf] k|fjwfgnfO{ ;d]t ;d]6g k5{ .#=$ ;+lxtf ;+/rgf tyf g]kfn u0f:t/ dfkb08g]=/f=e=;+= ))) b]lv @)* ;Dd DUDBC åf/f k|sflzt Pp6f / NBSM >[ªvnf åf/f g]kfn u0f:t/dfkb08cGtu{t k|sflzt csf]{ u/L bO{ p:t} vfn] b:tfj]hx? 5g . g]=/f=e=;+= eGgfn] ;fdfGotofg]kfnsf] cfjZostfcg;f/ cfTd;ft ug{ ;RofOPsf] cGt/fli6«o dfkb08nfO{ aemfpF5 . o;y{g]=/f=e=;+= Ps k/ lge{/ ;+lxtf xf] / o;n] ef/tLo u0f:t/ dfkb08nfO{ ;Gbe{ ;fdfu|Lsf] ?kdf lngk5{ . csf{lt/ PgP;n] g]=/f=e=;+=sf] Joj:yfnfO{ u|x0f u/]sf] 5 . / g]=/f=e=;+=sf ;Gbe{ ;fdfu|LnfO{cGt/fli6« ;+lxtfsf] u|x0f u/]/ k|lt:yfkg u/]sf] 5 . g]=/f=e=;+= / PgP;sf] o:tf] gSsnLs/0fn] g]kfndf;+lxtfsf k|of]ustf{x?df cGof]n >[hgf u/]sf] 5 . g]=/f=e=;+=nfO{ cem a9L k|of]ustf{;Fu glhs agfpgk5{ . c? ;+lxtfx?sf] tngfdf ;/Iffsf b[li6sf]0fn] a9L e/kbf]{ / ;Dk"0f{ k]zf Joj;foLx? / ;dfhnfO{cf:j:y kfg{k5{ .#=% ;+oQm ;+lxtfsf] cfjZostfg]=/f=e=;+= 5§f5§} ;+lxtfx?sf] Ps ;d"x xf] . o;sf] sfof{Gjogsf nflu k|zf;lgs k4lt cjnDjg ug]{Joj:yfsf nflu ;+oQm ;+lxtf;Fu ldNbf] eP g]=/f=e=;+= cToGt} k|efjsf/L aGg ;S5 .#=^ g]=/f=e=;+= sf] ;dLIffg]=/f=e=;+=sf w]/} sdL sdhf]/Lx? 5g h;sf sf/0fn] of] e/kbf]{ xg ;s]sf] 5}g / o; k|ltsf]ljZj;gLotfdf a[l4 ug{ ;lsFb}g eg]/ w]/} lj1 / Joj;foLx?n] atfPsf 5g . o:tf sdL sdhf]/Lsfsf/0fx? tnsf kIfx?;Fu ;DjGwLt 5gM ;/Iff sf/sx? dxTjk"0f{ sf/sx? Response Spectra ef/ ;lDd>0fsf] v/fj ;jfn sd ef/ tTjx?, ef/ Go"gLs/0f Joj:yf, non- orthogonal plan sf] ef/ ljt/0f cfwf/df xg] kfl:j{s w/ftlno rfk pRr tyf Go"g hf]lvddf xg] ef/ ljt/0f 0.1 N eGbf sd ;dofjwL l8hfOg Kof/fld6/ M
  • 210. 20 aGbf]j:t, s?ktf, zlQm, rls{Psf] vnf efu l:y/ / ultlzn ljZn]if0f sfgg tyf ;+lxtfx?åf/f k/fgf ejgx?sf] ;jnLs/0f k/fgf ejgx?sf] dd{t tyf ;wf/ k|sf]k Go"gLs/0f – ejgsf] e08f/ ljj/0f#=& ;+lxtfx?sf] ;d"xcGt/fli6«o ;+lxtf kl/ifbn] ;+lxtfx?sf] >[ªvnfnfO{ cjnDjg u/]sf] 5 h;n] lj:t[t ?kdf lhpwgsf];/Iff k|bfg ug{sf ;fy} dflg;x?sf] hLjgsf] u0f:t/df a[l4 ub{5 . g]kfnsf] ejg lgdf{0f ;+lxtfx? /sg} klg gu/kflnsfx?sf] ljlgodx?n] of] kIfnfO{ ;d]6]sf] 5}g / tof/ ePsf ejg lgdf{0f ;+lxtfdf;Lldt k|fjwfg 5 . k|of]udf ePsf cGt/fli6«o ejg lgdf{0f ;lx+tfx?sf] ;"rL sf]7f g= @ df lbO{Psf] 5. oL ;lxtfx? ejg lgdf{0f ljlgodx?sf] c+z xg / logLx?nfO{ Go"gtd ?kdf cjnDag ul/gkb{5 .sf]7f g= @M k|of]udf ePsf cGt/fli6«o ;lxtfx?sf] ;"rL!= ejg ;+lxtf@= cfjf; ;+lxtf#= oflGqs ;+lxtf$= KnlDaª ;lx+tf%= O{Gwg Uof; ;lx+tf^= clUg ;lx+tf&= ;Dklt ;Def/ ;+lxtf*= lglh kmf]xf]/ Joj:yfkg ;lx+tf(= ljBtLo ;lx+tf!)= zlQm ;+/If0f ;lx+tf!!= k|rlnt ejg ;lx+tf!@= ;lx+tfx?sf] pkof]lutf -pQf]ns oGq / oflGqs e/ofª, k|sfz tyf ;+jftg, k"j{ ;+/rgf ul/PsfJojl:yt ejgx?, Wjlgzf:q, Wjlg lgoGq0f, ;+jftg tyf tfk lgoGq0f, ;+rf/ tyf ;Dks{ ;~hfn _!#= ;x/L h+un hldg tyf x:tIfk ;+lxtf!$= k|fyldstf ;lx+tf!%= of]hgf tyf If]q ljefhg ;lx+tf!^= ;lx+tf tyf ;dfnf]rgf!&= pQf]ns oGq ;/Iff ;+/rgf ;lx+tf!*= P]ltxfl;s ejg tyf ;+/If0f ;lx+tf!(= ;Gbe{ ;fdfu|L u0f:t/ dfkb08 ;lx+tf@)= ckfªud}qL ;xof]uL k:ts@!= /fli6«o xl/t ejg lgdf{0f u0f:t/ dfkb08@@= u}/ ;+/rgfTds cfwf/ ;+lxtf@#= pRr hf]lvdoQm ejgx?, kfgLsf 6fj/x?, knx? h:tf ljz]if lsl;dsf ejg lgdf{0fsf nfluljz]if ;lx+tf@$= lgdf{0f ;/Iff@%= jftfj/0f ;lx+tf -cfGtl/s tyf jfXo jfo;DaGwL_@^= ejg kgM dd{t tyf ;jnLs/0f ;lx+tf
  • 211. 21#=* cBfjlwssf] jf/Daf/tfultzLn k|fljlws ljsf; ug{ / pkef]Qfsf] dfunfO{ ;Daf]wg ug{sf] nflu ljlgod, ;lx+tf / u0f:t/dfkb08x?nfO{ sg} lglZrt ;dofjlwdf cBfjlws ul/gkb{5 .#=( ;lx+tf / u0f:t/ dfkb08sf] l6Kk0fL;lx+tf / u0f:t/ dfkb08sf] ;dfnf]rgfsf] ;dfj]z xg cfjZos 5 lsgeg] o;n] k|of]ustf{x?dfo;sf] ljZjf;df a[l4 ub{5 / o;n] ljZjf;sf] k|df0f klg lbG5 . ;dLIffnfO{ cfjZostf adf]lhd;lx+tf tyf u0f:t/ dfkb08 ;Fu} pNn]v ug{k5{ .#=!) P]ltxfl;s ejg, ;f}Gbo{tf / of]hgf ;lx+tfsf] ;+/If0fg]=/f=e=;+=n] lgdf{0f ;+/rgf;DaGwL l8hfOgsf] cfjZostf -g]=/f=e=;+= @)^M@))#_ sf nflu Ps ;lx+tf;dfj]z u/]sf] 5 t/ zx/L If]qsf s]xL dxTjk"0f{ kIfx? h:t} P]ltxfl;s ejgsf] ;+/If0f / 5/l5d]sj/k/sf] ;f}Gbo{tf tyf ;/Iffdf k|efj kfg]{ ;Gbe{ ;dfj]z ul/Psf] 5}g h;n] zx/L ;/Iffdf 7"nf] IfltNofpF5 . P]ltxfl;s ejgx? ljZj ;Dkbf If]q jf ;+/lIft If]q j/k/sf] ejg lgdf{0f cgdlt k|lqmofk/ftTj ljefu cGtu{t kb}{g hg ejg tyf ;Dkbf If]q ;+/If0fsf nflu dxTjk"0f{ lgsfo xf] .#=!! ;f}Gbo{tf / ;+/rgfTds ;/IffjLrsf] ;DaGww]/}h;f] 7fpFdf ;+/rgf lgdf{0f ;DaGwL cfsf/n] agfj6L ?kdf k|of]u ug{kg]{ vfnsf] agf]6df hf]8 lbG5h;n] lgdf{0f ;/Iff Joj:yfnfO{ pNnª3g ub{5 . ;lx+tfn] ;+/rgfTds cfsf/ / ;+/rgf ;/IffcfjZostfsf] aLrdf leGgtf Nofpgkb{5 . To;}u/L ejg cfsf/ tyf k|f?ksf] ejgdf xg] axgLotf /e"sDkLo hf]lvd lj?4sf] ;du| ;/Iffdf c;/ kb{5 .#=!@ cfotgdf kl/jt{gMw]/} cj:yfdf ejgx?sf] cfotg kl/jt{g ug]{ kl/l:yltn] hLpwgsf] ;/Iffdf ;d:of k/]sf] 5 .xfn;fn} w]/} xf]6]nx? cfotg kl/jt{g u/L ljzfnjhf/ tyf sfof{nodf ablnPsf 5g . cfjf;oQmejgx? ;lhn} u/L ;–;fgf :s"n, e08f/ u[x / cGo sfof{nosf ?kdf k|of]u ul/G5g . o:tf cfotgef/ kl/jt{g sfo{df cgudg ul/gkb{5 / ejg lgdf{0f ljlgdo / ;lx+tfx?sf] k|fjwfgsf] dftxtdf/xg kb{5 .#=!# cUnf ejgx?7"nf ejgx?sf] cfjZostf ;du| ;/Iffsf b[li6sf]0fn] c? ;fgf ejgx? eGbf km/s 5 . lgdf{0f;fdfu|Lx?sf] u0f:t/ k|ljlwsf] ljZj;lgotf kSsf xG5 / ;]jf ;~rfngsf nflu ul/g] dd{t tyf ;wf/sfo{df pRr txsf] ljZj;gLotfsf] cfjZostf kb{5 . of] cfjZostfnfO{ g]=/f=e=;+=n] ;d]6g kb{5 .#=!$ h8fgx?sf] lj:t[t ljj/0fu|]gfO{6, l;;f, k/Dk/fut O{F6f (Dachi Apa) h:tf ejg aflx/sf j:tx?sf] dVo ;+/rgf;Fu h8fgubf{ e"sDkLo ;/Iffsf] jf/]lG6sf] nflu ljz]if k|sf/sf] h8fg ;fjwfgL ckgfpg kb{5 . o;df dVokvf{n, xf]rf] kvf{n, 3fd 5]Sg], / dVo :j?kdf Vofn ug{ kb{5 .#=!% u0f:t/Lotf cgudg tyf lj1fkg ahf/lgdf{0f ;fdfu|Lx?sf] u0f:t/df ljZj;gLotf / lgdf{0f sfo{df ltgLx?sf] k|of]u ug]{ jt{dfg k4lt8fdf8f]n 5 . 7"nf 7"nf kl/of]hgfx?sf] txdf ul/g] :jo+;]jL sfo{x?eGbf afx]s u0f:t/Lotf cgudgug]{ sg} ;dfg tl/sf 5}g . ahf/df pknAw lgdf{0f ;fdfu|Lx? sg} lglZrt sfo{sf nflu / sfdsf]u0f:t/ sfod ug{sf cnfjf Jofkfl/s lj1fkgx?åf/f k|:tt ePsf xG5g . lj1fkg ePsf clwsf+z;fdfu|Lx?n] pkef]QmfnfO{ wf]sf lbg] vfnsf xG5g lsgls lj1fkgsf k|;fl/t hfgsf/Lx? c;To /
  • 212. 22tf]lsPsf] sfo{sf] nflu k|efjsf/L gxg] vfnsf xG5g . pkef]Qmx?sf] c1fgtf / lj1fkg ePsf;fdfu|Lx?sf] cgudg ug]{ ;F:yfut Joj:yfsf] cefjn] Joj;foLx?n] pkef]Qmfdfly lyrf]ldrf] ub{5g .#=!^ lgdf{0f sfo{sf] lg/LIf0fof] g]=/f=e=;+= tyf PgP;sf] sfof{Gjogdf Pp6f sdhf]/ kIf xf] . lg/LIf0f sfo{df ;+nUg dfgj ;|f]tsf]u0f:t/ tyf cfjZos ;fdfu|L / cf}hf/x?sf] u0f:t/nfO{ ;Daf]wg ul/gkb{5 .#=!& ejg lgdf{0f ;fdfu|Lx?sf] k|of]u tyf e08f/0flgdf{0f ;fdu|Lx?sf] k|of]u tyf e08f/0f sfo{df >lds tyf cGo ;j{;fwf/0fx?sf] ;/Iffdf Vofnk/ofOPsf] 5}g . O{Gwg, ljBt tyf cGo cfuf] nfUg ;Sg] hf]lvdoQm ;fdu|Lsf] k|of]udf ljz]if ;fjwfgLckgfpg kb{5 . l;d]G6, :6Ln, OF6f / jfnjfh:tf j:tx?sf] lalqm ;fj{hlgs :yndf xg:jf:Yosfnflu xflgsf/s xG5 .#=!* g]=/f=e=;+=df pNn]v gePsf cGo ;fdfu|Lx?sf] lj:t[t ljj/0fejg lgdf{0f ;+lxtf / u0f:t/ dfkb08df pNn]v gePsf w]/} lgdf{0f ;fdfu|Lx? jhf/df k|of]udf 5g .o:tf gofF ;fdfu|Lx? / k|ljlwnfO{ lgdf{0f ;lx+tfsf] Joj:yfcGtu{t k|of]u ug{ cgdlt lbg] ;+oGqsf]cfjZostf 5 .#=!( k|fljlws ljifo / tYo ljj/0f sf]ifsf nflu ;+oGqejg lgdf{0f ;lx+tfsf] Joj:yf, u0f:t/ dfkb08, ljlzi6Ls/0f / lgdf{0f k|ljlwsf k|fljlws kIfx?nfO{;Daf]wg ug]{ ;+oGqsf] cefj 5 . To;}u/L e"sDkLo ;/Iff tyf ejg lgdf{0f ;lxtf;Fu ;DalGwtlj1x?sf] tYo ljj/0f Pslqt 5}g . dxTjk"0f{ k|ltj]bg tyf cg;Gwfg sfo{sf] ;+sngsf nfluk:tsfnosf] ljsf; ;lxt ;lx+tf / e"sDkLo ;/Iff;DaGwL s/fx?sf] tYo ljj/0f sf]ifsf] :yfkgfn] o;sfo{nfO{ ;xof]u k/ofpb5 .#=@) 8sdL{, ;]jfu|fxL / lgdf{0fstf{x?sf] ;+nUgtfejg lgdf{0f ;lx+tf lgdf{0f tyf cBfjlws ug]{ sfo{df 8sdL{, lgdf{0fstf{ tyf cGo ;]jfu|fxLx?sf];+nUgtfsf] cefj ePsf] 5 .#=@! hfgsf/L k|rf/k|;f/ tyf cGt/lqmofejg lgdf{0f ;lx+tf;Fu ;DalGwt kIfx?sf] af/]df hfgsf/L, k|rf/k|;f/ kof{Kt ePsf] 5}g . k]zfJofj;foLx?nfO{ h;/L ;DalGwt ;]jfu|fxLx? sxfF o;sf] af/]df hfgsf/L lj/n} kUg] u5{, ejg lgdf{0f;lx+tfnfO{ cem a9L nf]slk|o / k|efjsf/L agfpg o;sf] af/]df hfgsf/L a[xt?kdf ;]jfu|fxLx?;Fu5nkmn ul/g kb{5 .#=@@ lgdf{0f sfo{df ;/Ifflgdf{0f ;/Iffsf] af/]df g]=/f=e=;+= !!$M !(($ df j0f{g ul/Psf] ePtf klg o;nfO{ s]xL ;Lldts/fx?df dfq ;Lldt ul/Psf] 5 / ;/Iff;Fu lhDd]jf/ xg] dVo s/fx?nfO{ ;dfj]z ul/Psf] 5}g . o:t}cGo k|f?k sfo{, ;jnLs/0f, s+lqm6Ls/0f, cf}hf/x?sf] k|of]u h:tf w]/} s/fx? o;df ;dfj]z ul/Psf5}gg .#=@# l8hfO{g tyf lj4tf ;DklQsf] clwsf/sf] :jfldTjl8hfO{g tyf jf}l4s :jfldTjdf l8hfO{g/, ;+emf}tfstf{ / dVo k|ljlw cfk"lt{stf{sf] :jfldTjnfO{g]=/f=e=;+=n] ;d]6]sf] 5}g . of] ejg lgdf{0f ;lx+tfdf pNn]v ul/gkg]{ dxTjk"0f{ kIf xf] .
  • 213. 23#=@$ lzIffOl~hlgol/Ë SofDk;sf] lzIff kf7ok:tsdf cfwfl/t ePsfn] g]=/f=e=;+= / cGo ;+lxtfx¿;Fu ;DalGwt5}g hg Jojxfl/s geP/ ;}4flGts 5 . ;+lxtfsf] Joj:yfnfO{ k|of]ufTds sIffx?df k|of]u ug{ k|f]T;fxgul/gk5{ . ;+lxtf tyf u0f:t/ dfkb08;DaGwL r]tgf j[l4 ug{sf nflu SofDk;x¿ pkoQm :yfg xg .#=@% JolQmut Ifdtf, of]Uotfgu/kflnsfdf ;+lxtf;DaGwL sfo{ ug]{ k|zf;sx¿sf] of]Uotf csf}{ kIf xf] . ;+lxtf;DaGwL 1fg ePsfdfgj >f]tsf] cefjsf] sf/0fn] ;+lxtfsf] k|efjsfl/tfnfO{ a]jf:tf ul/Psf] 5 . o;}u/L ;+lxtfsfof{Gjog u/fpg] l8hfOg/x¿sf] of]Uotf klg plQs} dxTj 5 . of] of]Uotfsf] cfjZostf ;D´f}tfu/fpg] sd{rf/Lx¿df klg nfu xgk5{ .#=@^ bIf >ldssf] cgdlt k|lj|mofu0f:t/Lo cgudgsf] cfjZostfnfO{ ;Daf]wg ub}{ pkoQm tflndsf] Joj:yf ;Fu} lgdf{0f sfo{df ;+nUgsfdbf/x¿, lg/LIfsx¿, ko{j]Ifsx¿ / k]zf JojzfoLx¿df cgdlt k|lqmof cjnDjg ul/gk5{ .$= ejglgdf{0f ;+lxtf / u0f:t/ dfkb08sf] sfo{Gjogejg lgdf{0f ;+lxtf / u0f:t/ dfkb08sf] ljBdfg sfo{Gjog cj:yf Hofb} gfhs 5 . ljz]ifu/L;+lxtfx¿sf] sfo{Gjogsf] cgudg ug]{ lhDd]jf/ ;+:yfsf] cefj / o;;Fu ;DalGwt cGo kIfx¿sf]e"ldsf / lhDd]jf/L k|i6 ls6fg ug{ g;Sgn] of] s/fsf] kli6 ub{5 . g]=/f=e=;+= cBfjlws ug]{ sfo{dfcgudg ug]{ pkoQm ;+:yfut Joj:yfkgsf] vfFrf] 5 . kfgL cfk"lt{, 9nlgsf; tyf wf/f h8fg -g]=/f=e=;+= @)* M @))#_, ljBtLo ;/Iff -g]=/f=e=;+=, @)& M @))#_ / clUg ;+lxtf -g]=/f=e=;+=, !)& M!(($_ h:tf ;+lxtfx¿sf] g]=/f=e=;+=df s]xL Joj:yf ul/Psf] 5 t/ o:tf ;+lxtfx¿ ejg lgdf{0fcgdtLsf nflu slxNo} k|of]u ul/Fb}g .$=! kfgL cfk"lt{ tyf ;/;kmfOkfgL cfk"lt{;Fu ;DalGwt sg} klg ;+lxtf 5}g .$=@ ljBtLo ;+lxtfljBtLo ;/Iff ;+lxtf -g]=/f=e=;+= @)& M @))#_ n] cjnDjg ul/gkg]{ ljBtLo ljj/0fx¿sf]dfu{lgb]{zg k|bfg ub{5 . t/ klg ljBtLo tf/ h8fg;lxtsf] ljBtLo /]vflrqsf] cfjZostfnfO{/fd|f];Fu lrq0f ul/Psf] 5}g . To;y{ ;/Iff;DaGwL cgudg ul/gk5{ . g]kfn ljBt k|flws/0fn] ljBth8fg ug{k"j{ zx/L Onfsfsf 3/df ljBtLo tf/ h8fg eP gePsf] k|df0fLs/0f ug]{u/]sf] 5 .$=# clUg ;/Iff ;+lxtfg]=/f=e=;+= !)& M !(($ df pNn]lvt clUg ;+lxtf clUg ;"rs tyf cGo ;+nUg j:tx¿h:tfs/fx¿sf] Joj:yfkgsf] sfo{Gjogdf dfq ;Lldt 5 . l8hfOgsf] dxTj / ejgsf] k|sf/cg;f/ clUgjuL{s/0fsf] cfwf/df cfjZos ;fdfu|Lx¿ ;+nUg ul/Psf] 5}g .$=$ g]=/f=e=;+= @)% sf] k|of]u M Pdcf/6Lgu/kflnsfsf cgdltk|fKt l8hfOg/x¿n] 7"nf cfsf/sf ejg lgdf{0fdf Pdcf/6Lsf] ;Ldf aflx/ uP/o:tf ;+lxtfx¿sf] Jofks k|of]u ub{5g .o;}u/L u|fdL0f If]qdf lgdf{0f sfo{df Pdcf/6Lsf] Jofks k|of]u ul/G5 . of] b:tfj]h cToGt} pkof]uLxG5 eg]/ elggk5{ t/ zx/L If]qsf l8hfOgx¿n] o;sf] k|of]u gug]{ ePsfn] w]/} ;fjwfg xgk5{ .g]=/f=e=;+=df l;kmfl/; ul/Psf] (ÆX(Æ sf] :tDesf] Go"gtd cfsf/ lgdf{0f sfo{sf nflu cgkoQm xG5/ LSMC n] !% ld= b]lv @) ld= ;Ddsf] 9nfgnfO{ abn]/ (ÆX!@Æ nfO{ cjnDjn u/]sf] 5 .
  • 214. 24%= g]=/f=e=;+=sf] kg/fjnf]sg%=! NBC )))M !(($ :6]6–ckm–b cf6{ l8hfOg / NBC !)%M !(($, g]kfndf e"sDk k|lt/f]wsejg l8hfOgsf] kg/fjnf]sg%=!=! ;fwf/0f hfgsf/Le"sDk k|lt/f]ws l8hfOg ejg lgdf{0f ;+lxtfsf] dVo efu xf] . o;sf] p2]Zo eljiodf xg] e"sDkLoIfltnfO{ Go"gLs/0f ug{ xf] . e"sDkLo Iflt sd ug]{ Pp6f dfq pkfo ejg lgdf{0f ;+lxtfsf] k|fjwfgdfe"sDk k|lt/f]ws ejg lgdf{0f k|0ffnLsf] ;+nUgtf xf] eGg] s/f ;j{JofkL 5 . clwsf+z b]zx¿dfe"sDk;DaGwL ;+lxtfx¿ cg;Gwfgdf lgoldt ljsf;sf] qmddf 5g / lgdf{0f sfo{df kl/jt{gsf]cEof; eO/x]sf] 5 .cGo dnsx?sf] tngfdf xfd|f] b]zsf] lgdf{0f ;+lxtf tyf e"sDk k|lt/f]ws ejg lgdf{0f k|lqmofsf]Oltxf; Psbd} sdhf]/ cj:yfdf 5 . g]kfndf /fli6«o ejg lgdf{0f ;+lxtfsf] cfjZostf ;g !(**sf] pbok"/ s]Gb|ljGb eO{ cfPsf] esDkn] u/fPsf] IfltkZrft dxz; ul/Psf] xf] . ejg lgdf{0f;+lxtfsf] tof/L gAa]sf] bzsk"j{ g} ul/Psf] lyof] t/ o;sf] cf}krfl/s k|sfzg ;g !(($ df dfqeof] . :yfkgf b]lv g} of] ;+lxtfk|ltsf] ;j{;fwf/0fsf] k|ltlqmof pbfl;g xg kUof] / sfggL ¿kdf/fli6«o ejg lgdf{0f ;+lxtfsf] ¿kdf /xgsf ;f6f] Ps gdgf lgdf{0f ;+lxtfsf] ¿kdf /Xof] .g]kfn /fli6«o ejg lgdf{0f ;+lxtf k|rngdf cfP kl5sf ljut !% jif{sf] cGt/fndf e"sDk k|lt/f]wscfjf;Lo ejg lgdf{0f k|lqmofsf] 1fgdf pNn]vgLo pklnAw ePsf] 5 . ;g !(($ b]lv xfn;DdljleGg b]zx¿sf esDk k|lt/f]ws ;+lxtfsf] Joj:yfdf e"sDk k|lt/f]ws ejg lgdf{0f k2ltdf w]/}kl/jt{g ePsf] 5 . o;f] xgsf] k|dv sf/0f 7nf ljWj+;sf/L esDkkZrft cfPsf] hgr]tgf xf] . ;g!(($ sf] gy{la|h / ;g !((% sf] sf]asf] esDksf] dVo k|efj ;g !(($ df UBC sf] ;+;f]wg;lxt ;g !((& df ;+oQm ejg lgdf{0f ;+lxtfdf ePsf] ;+;f]wg xf] . To;kl5 uh/ft - hgj/L@))!_, ;dfqf–cfGbdfg -l8;]Dj/ @))$_, sf:dL/–sf]lx:tfg -cS6f]j/ @))%_ / rLg -@))&_ sfdxfe"sDkx¿af6 ePsf] 7nf] hgwgsf] Iflt eljiodf aGg] e"sDk k|lt/f]ws ;+lxtfx¿df pNn]v ug{kg]{kf7 eP . lat]sf esDkx¿ / e"sDkLo Ol~hlgol/Ë If]qdf ePsf cg;Gwfg tyf k|ljlwsf] ljsf; /ljutsf e"sDkx¿sf] kf7n] ljsl;t b]zx¿df e"sDk k|lt/f]ws ejg lgdf{0fdf rf;f] a9g yfNof] ./fli6«o e"sDkLo hf]lvd Go"gLs/0f;DaGwL sfo{qmdsf] k|fjwfgadf]lhd x/]s tLg jif{df ;+lxtfcBfjlws ug{ yflnof] . /fli6«o e"sDkLo hf]lvd Go"gLs/0f sfo{qmdsf] Joj:yfdf gofF ejgx¿dfesDk k|lt/f]ws k|0ffnLsf] cjnDjg xfn;fn} gdgf ;+lxtf / u0f:t/ dfkb08df eof] . ;+oQm /fHocd]l/sfdf x/]s tLg jif{df of] ;+lxtf ;+zf]wg ug]{ kl/kf6L eP klg g]kfnh:tf] ljsf;f]Gdv b]zdf of]sfo{ Tolt ;lhnf] 5}g . ef/tLo u0f:t/ dfkb08 !((#M !(*$ nfO{ lj:yflkt ub}{ c7f/ jif{kl5 dfqe"sDk k|lt/f]ws ;+/rgf l8hfOg !*(# -efu !_ sf] nflu ef/tLo u0f:t/ dfkb08sf] ;+zf]wgk|rf/k|;f/df cfof] . t/ klg lgdf{0f ;+lxtfx? / cGo l8hfOg;DaGwL sfuhftx?sf] cBfjlws ug]{sfo{nfO{ Ps ultzLn k|lqmofsf] ?kdf lnOgk5{ / eljiodf xg] e"sDkLo Iflt Go"gLs/0f ug{ oyf;Sol56f] k|of]udf NofOgk5{ . o;nfO{ dWo gh/ /fVb} g]kfndf xfn ljBdfg e"sDk k|lt/f]ws ejglgdf{0f;DaGwL ;+lxtfnfO{ o;sf] sdL sdhf]/Lx?nfO{ x6fpg] / cgy{ xgaf6 hf]ufpg] p2]Zosf ;fy;fjwfgLk"j{s o;sf] kglj{rf/ ul/gk5{ . o;sf cnfjf k|of]ustf{x?sf] k|ltlqmofnfO{ ;d]6g ;dfwfgul/Psf pbfx/0f;lxt lgdf{0f ;+lxtfsf] Joj:yfsf] j0f{g ug{ tof/L xft] k:ts / ;dfnf]rgfx?sf]ljsf; xg cTofjZos 5 .%=!=@ g]=/f=e=;+= ))) M !(($ :6]6 ckm lb cf6{ l8hfOgsf] cfjZostfg]=/f=e=;+= ))) M !(($ n] cfwf/e"t ?kdf g]kfndf e"sDkLo vt/faf6 dQm ejgx?sf] lgdf{0f;+lxtfsf] tof/L / o;sf] nflu cfjZos kg]{ cfwf/e"t bz{gsf] e"ldsfsf af/]df j0f{g ub{5 . o;n];fdfGotof lgDg pNn]lvt leÌleÌ k|sf/sf l8hfOg / lgdf{0fsf] af/]df j0f{g Pjd ;dy{g ub{5 .
  • 215. 25h;cGtu{t cGt/f{li6«o dfkb08sf] kfngf, Jofj;flos OlGhlgo/x?sf] ;Nnfxdf ;+/rgf lgdf{0f, PslglZrt :j?ksf] ejg lgdf{0f ug]{ / lgolGqt k|sf/n] ejg lgdf{0f c;Dej xg] ;ljwf sd ePsf:yfgx?sf nflu 5§} k|sf/sf ejgx?sf] lgdf{0f ug]{ s/f k5{g . o;}u/L g]=/f=e=;+= ))) M !(*$ dfk|To]s l8hfOgsf] lgdf{0fdf rf/ leGbfleGb} kIfx?sf] cfjZostf kg]{ s/f pNn]v ul/Psf] 5 . pQml8hfOg / lgdf{0f ;+lxtfsf] k|sf/ To; avtdf g]kfndf /x]sf ejgx?sf] ;+/rgfut :j?kx?af6 w]/}k|efljt /x]sf] 5 . ;fy} Oltxf;df g} klxnf] k6s lgdf{0f ul/Psf] pQm ;+lxtfn] k/Dk/fut z}nLdfOlGhlgol/Ë dfkb08 k/f gu/Lsg lgdf{0f ul/g] l8hfOgx?nfO{ g} dfGotf lbg vf]h]sf] b]lvG5 . o;n]gS;f l8hfOg lgdf{0f Ifdtfsf] c1fgtf / ejg lgdf{0f ;+lxtf Pj+ :t/Lotf;DaGwL 1fgsf] cefjnfO{;d]t k|i6ofpF5 . o; tYoaf6 ejg lgdf{0f ;+lxtfdf lg/Gt/ ;wf/ ub}{ hfgk5{ eGg] s/f :yflktxgsf] ;fy} pQm ;+lxtfdf pNn]lvt Joj:yfx? NBSM n] cjnDag ug{kg]{ ;+lxtfsf] :t/Locfwf/kqsf] ?k;d]t u|x0f u/]sf] tYo :ki6 xG5 . g]=/f=e=;+= ))) M !(($ df ;dfj]z ul/Psf]ljifoj:t :yfgLo ejg lgdf{0f lgodfjnL tof/ ug{ pkoQm dfu{ lgb]{zg xg ;Sg] b]lvG5 . /fli6«oejg ;+lxtfn] tTsfnLg cg;Gwfg / k|fljlws ljsf;df cfwfl/t ;+/rgfut hl6ntf Pj+ lgdf{0fsf]k|ljlw ;d]t ;dfj]z ug{kg]{ xgfn] o;n] cGt/f{li6«o lgdf{0f dfkb08nfO{ ljz]if Wofg lbg kg]{ xG5 .Pp6f ejg ;+lxtf eg]sf] ejg Pj+ cGo ;+/rgf lgdf{0f ubf{ o;sf] ;/Iffsf nflu ckgfpg kg]{Go"gtd :t/sf] dfkb08x? pNn]v ul/Psf] lgodx?sf] ;+u|x xf] . ejg ;+lxtfsf] k|dv p2]Zo;fj{hlgs :jf:Yo, ;/Iff / nf]s sNof0fsf] /Iff ug{ xf] lsgls o:tf s/fx? ejg tyf cGo;+/rgfx?sf] lgdf{0f / Joj:yfkg;Fu ;DalGwt xG5g . clwsf/ k|fKt clwsf/Låf/f cf}krfl/s k|sf/n]nfu" u/]sf] cj:yfdf ejg ;+lxtfn] Ps lglZrt k|sf/sf] sfg"gL dfGotf ;d]t k|fKt u/L sfg"gs} ?k;d]t k|fKt ub{5 . ;fdfGotof of] ;+lxtfsf] p2]Zo lgdf{0f sfo{nfO{ Jojl:yt agfpg xf] h;nfO{;DalGwt clwsf/ k|fKt clwsf/Lsf] l;kmfl/;df ug{ ;Sg] u/L jf afWosf/L xg] u/L Jojl:yt ul/g]ul/G5 . o;df pNn]lvt s/fx? /fli6«o ;/sf/ Pj+ cGo If]qLo jf :yfgLo ;/sf/sf] ejglgdf{0f;DaGwL lgodfjnLx? lgodx?, P]gx? cflbdf ;dfj]z u/]sf] xb;Dd of] afWosf/L klg xG5 .;fdfGotof ejg lgdf{0f ;+lxtfsf] kfngf u/fpg] bfloTj ejg lgdf{0f;Fu ;DalGwt OlGhlgo/ tyfcfls{6]S6x?sf] xf] . t/ o;nfO{ cGo ljljw k|of]hgsf nflu ;/Iff lg/LIfsx?, jftfj/0f j}1flgsx?,3/hUuf Joj;foLx?, 7]s]bf/x?, ejg lgdf{0f ;fdu|L pTkfbsx?, ljdf sDkgLx?, ;ljwf k|bfg ug]{Joj:yfksx?, ;+s6 Joj:yfksx? nufot cGo JolQmx?n] ;d]t nfu" ug]{ u/]sf] kfO{G5 .ejg ;+lxtf lgdf{0f, :jLs[lt / sfof{Gjog ug]{ k4lt b]zcg;f/ km/s km/s xG5 sltko b]zx?dfo;sf] lgdf{0f ;/sf/L lgsfo jf cw{;/sf/L :t/sf] ;+u7gn] u/L b]zJofkL sfof{Gjogsf] lhDdf /fli6«o;/sf/n] g} lng] u/]sf] kfO{G5 . h;nfO{ /fli6«o ejg ;+lxtf eGg] ul/G5 . /fli6«o ejg ;+lxtfsf]sfof{Gjog afWosf/L xG5 . lgdf{0f sfo{;Fu ;DalGwt clwsf/x? :yfgLo clwsf/Lx?df x:tfGt/0ful/Psf b]zx?df gd"gf ejg ;+lxtfsf] cjnDag ug]{ k4lt ljsf; ul/Psf] xG5 . sfg"gL clwsf/ k|fKtclwsf/Ln] cgz/0f u/]sf] cj:yfdf afx]s gd"gf ejg ;+lxtfsf] sg} sfg"gL x}l;ot xFb}g . sltkob]zx?df k|To]s gu/kflnsf Pj+ zx/L ljsf; clwsf/L;Fu cfˆg} 5§5§} ejg ;+lxtf xG5 . ;f] ;+lxtfpgLx?n] cf–cfˆgf] If]qleqsf] lgdf{0f sfo{ef/ clgjfo{ ?kn] nfu" ub{5g . To:tf ejg ;+lxtfx?/fli6«o ejg ;+lxtfs} km/s km/s :j?k h:tf] u/L ljsf; ul/Psf] xG5 h;n] lgdf{0f lqmofsnfksf]lgodgsf] nflu dfu{bz{g k|bfg ub{5 . /fli6«o ejg ;+lxtf Pj+ dfkb08 sg dfqfdf sfg"gL tj/af6ul/G5 eGg] s/f b]z cg;f/ km/s km/s xG5 . t/ klg o;sf] sfof{Gjog Joj:yfksåf/f kfl/tul/Psf] P]g / :yfgLo clwsf/Ln] kfl/t u/]sf] lgod sfg"gåf/f lgb]{lzt xgk5{ eGg] dg;fo /lxcfPsf]5 . dfly pNn]lvt ;Gbe{df Ps :t/Lo ejg ;+lxtfsf] ljsf; ug]{ sfo{ w]/} dxTjk"0f{ xG5 . oxfF Wofglbgkg]{ s/f s] 5 eg] ejg ;+lxtfsf] cfwf/df ;fwf/0ftof ;/sf/L lgsfo jf clwsf/k|fKtclwsf/Låf/f sfof{Gjog ul/Psf ejg lgdf{0f;Fu ;DalGwt ljlgodx? lgdf{0f lqmofsnfkx? ;~rfngug]{ sfo{sf nflu afWosf/L lgod Pj+ dfu{bz{gx? xg . ljlgodx?n] sfuhftsf] sfg"gL x}l;otemNsfpgsf ;fy} o;sf] k|s[lt ;d]t lgofds k|sf/sf] xG5 . ejg ljlgodx?sf] Ps clgjfo{kIfsf÷efusf ?kdf /fli6«o ejg ;+lxtf jf gd"gf ejg ;+lxtfnfO{ ;dfj]z ug{ ;lsG5 t/ ejg
  • 216. 26;+lxtfdfrflFx ljlgodx? ;dfj]z gxg klg ;S5g . pQm s/fx?nfO{ Wofgdf /fVb} ;+/rgf hl6ntfsf]cfwf/df s]Gb|Lo jf :yfgLo clwsf/Lx?n] ljlgodx? nfu" ug{ ;fGble{s xg] b]lvG5 . ljBdfg ejgljlgodx? jf ejg lgodx? / ejg ;+lxtfx?sf] aLrdf b]vf kg]{ låljwf sd ug{ oL ba}sf] lardfpko{Qm b"/L sfod /fVg kg]{ cfjZostf b]lvG5 . ejg lgodx? / ejg ;DalGw lgodx? eGbf k/sk|sf/n] ejg ;+lxtfsf] :t/Lotfsf] nflu o;df cGt/f{li6«o lgdf{0f dfkb08cg;f/sf] e"sDkk|lt/f]wfTds IfdtfoQm ejgsf] ;+/rgf lgdf{0fdf Wofg lbgk5{ .sg} klg l8hfOg;DaGwL sfuhftdf ul/Psf] Joj:yfsf] k"0f{?kn] ljZn]if0f ug{ To;sf] k|i6ofOPsf Pj+;+s]t ul/Psf ;a} p2]Zox? a‰gkb{5 . sg} klg e"sDkLo ;+lxtfsf] cfwf/e"t p2]Zo eg]sf] dfgjhLjgsf] /Iff ug{ xf] . To:tf] sfuhftdf ;Dej eP;Dd låljwf xg] k|sf/sf jfSox? tyf Joj:yfx?;dfj]z ul/gxFb}g . tnsf cgR5]bdf g]=/f=e=;+= ))) M !(($ df ;wf/ ul/gkg]{ ljifo j:tsf af/]dfj0f{g ul/Psf] 5M ejg ;+lxtfsf] ljsf; / -e"sDkLo l8hfOgsf]_ e"sDk k|lt/f]wfTds ;+/rgfsf] bz{gsf]k[i7e"ldnfO{ ejgsf] e"sDkLo k|lt/f]wfTds ;+/rgf jf /fli6«o ejg ;+lxtf kl/rofTds v08dfg} ;dfj]z ug{ ;lsG5 . Jofj;flos ?kn] OlGhlgo/ ;+/rgf -efu @_ ;fdfGo lgodsf]cfwf/df lgdf{0f ul/g] lglZrt :j?kdf l8hfOg ul/Psf ejgx? -efu @_ ˆnf] rf6{ -lrq !)_df pNn]v ePcg;f/sf] Go"gtd l8hfOgsf] cfjZostf kg]{ / lgoGq0f cJofjxfl/s xg];ljwfljlxg u|fdL0f ejgx? -efu #_ rfxLF ejg lgodx? jf ejg ljlgodx?df ;dfj]z ul/gkb}{g . e"sDk k|lt/f]wfTds Ifdtf;lxtsf] ejgsf] ljsf; g} cGt/f{li6«o lgdf{0f dfkb08sf]k|dv kIf ePsf]n] o;sf nflu 5§} ;+lxtf lgdf{0f ug]{ s/f ;fGble{s xg ;Sb}g . ejg ;+lxtf jf o;sf] s]xL efunfO{ kf08lnkL eg]/ pNn]v ul/gfn] o; sfuhftsf] p2]Zosf]cjd"Nog xg hfG5 / ejg ;+lxtfsf] sfof{gjog kIf sdhf]/ aGg kU5 . unt cy{ gnfuf]; eGgsf] nflu cfjZos :ki6Ls/0f glbOPsf låljwfk"0f{ jfSox? ;+lxtfdf;dfj]z ul/g xFb}g . efu ! cGtu{t !=@ sf] e"sDkLo l8hfOg v08df yk :ki6Ls/0f jf kgMn]vg ul/g cfjZos 5 . dxTjk"0f{ sfuhftdf k|of]u ePsf ck"0f{ jfSox? x6fOg kb{5 "The Basic Philosophy for......." af6 ;? eO{ "Blanks" eGg] zAbdf cGTo ePsf] v08 ! sf] !=@ e"sDkLo l8hfOgcGtu{tsf] jfSon] e"sDkLo l8hfOgsf] k|dv p2]Zo cleJoQm ug{ c;kmn ePsf] 5 . ejg ;+lxtfdf k|of]u ePsf] efiff jfSo–;+of]hg / cGo Joj:yf Ps k|fljlws k|ltj]bg h:tf]geP/ cf}krfl/s sfg"gL k|sf/sf] xgkb{5 . efu ! cGtu{tsf] pkzLif{s !=# sf] cGo efudf/x]sf] cgR5]b ;fdfGo g]kfnL :t/eGbf km/s Pp6f k|ltj]bgsf] efuh:tf] nfUb5 . ;+/rgf lgdf{0fdf k|of]u xg] s+lqm6, l:6n / 58x? kvf{nsf] k|of]usf] nflu ef/tLo u0f:t/dfkb08sf] k|of]un] dfq g]kfnsf] /fli6«o ejg ;+lxtf k|of]usf] p2]Zo k/f xg ;Sb}g . ;fdfGo/ 9nfg ul/Psf] kvf{n;DaGwL ef/tLo u0f:t/ ;+lxtfsf] k|of]u cfOP; $%^ M !(&* df kfrf}Fk6s ;+zf]wg u/L ;fdfGo / 9nfg ul/Psf] kvf{n;DaGwL ef/tLo u0f:t/ dfkb08sf] k|of]ucfOP; $%^ M @))) sfod ul/Psf] 5 . cfOP; $#@^ M !((# df ;+nUg ePsf] e"sDkk|lt/f]ws l8hfOg / ejg lgdf{0f;DaGwL ef/tLo dfkb08sf] cEof;sf] k"0f{ ljj/0f kl/jt{gul/Psf] 5 / 5§} ;+lxtf cfOP; !#(@) M !((# df ;+nUg 5 . 9nfg ul/Psf] kSsL ;+/rgfsf]axgLo lj:t[t ljj/0fsf nflu ef/tLo dfkb08 ;+lxtfsf] cEof; e"sDkLo andf xgk5{ .g]kfnsf] jt{dfg ejg ;+lxtfdf :ki6 ?kn] ef/tsf] u0f:t/ ;+lxtf cGtu{t ;wfl/Psf] ;+lxtfcjnDag ug]{ xf] ls d"n ;+lxtf g} k|of]u ug]{ xf] k|i6 gul/Psf] sf/0f ejg l8hfOgstf{x?tyf pkef]Qmfx?÷;]jfu|xLx? cndlng] cj:yfsf] >[hgf ePsf] 5 . sg} lsl;dsf] ljz]if0f k|of]u gu/L clg ljsf;sf] sg} k[i7e"dL glbO{ g]kfnL dfkb08 ;Gbe{nfO{;a}eGbf /fd|f] dflgG5 . hg;s} cGt/f{li6«o ;+lxtf jf k|sfzssf] ;xof]udf lnOPsf] ePtfklgg]kfnL dfkb08 h:t jfo ef/ -g]=/f=e=;+= !)$ M !(($_, l:6n l8hfOg g]=/f=e=;+= -!!! M
  • 217. 27!(($_, kga{n k|bfg gul/Psf] kvf{n -g]=/f=e=;+= !)( M !(($_ / c?x? klg kg/fjnf]sg /;wf/ ug{kg]{5 tfls logLx?n] g]kfnsf] cfˆg} dfkb08 / /fli6«o ejg lgdf{0f ;ldtfsf]dxTjk"0f{ j:tsf] ?kdf ;Ddfg / dfGotf kfpg . g]kfndf cEof;sf] If]qnfO{ x]g{sf cltl/Qm ljleGg b]zsf dfkb08x? / k|rng cEof; ePsf]cGt/fli6«o ;dGjonfO{ klg plrt ;Ddfg lbOgk5{ .%=!=# g]=/f=e=;+= !)% M !(($ g]kfndf ejgx?sf] e"sDk/f]ws l8hfOg;+lxtfsf] k[i7e"ld / p2]Zo;+lxtf tof/L;Fu ;DalGwt dxTjk"0f{ hfgsf/Lnufot o;sf] ljsf;sf] Oltxf; sfuhft ;wf/sf]cfjZostf / e"sDk/f]ws l8hfOgsf] p2]Zo lj:t[t ?kdf e"ldsfdf jofg ul/G5 . sfuhft tyf;+lxtf nfO{ o;sf] >]o lbOG5 hf] ;+lxtf ljsf;df k|of]u / pNn]v ul/G5g .clxn]sf] e"ldsfdf o;sf] ljifo j:t / ljZn]if0fsf cfwf/df s]xL ;wf/ ;lxt kl/jt{gsf] cfjZostf5 . pkzLif{s, jgf]6 k|lqmof / e"sDk/f]ws l8hfOgsf] cfsf/sf] Go"gtd cfjZos s/fx? ePsf]pNn]lvt ljifo j:t;Fu d]n vfFb}g . o;sf] If]q cGtu{t ;]S;g 56ofpgfn] g o;sf] jgf]6 k|lqmofsf]af/]df s]xL pNn]v xG5 g t Go"gtd cfjZostf g} yfxf xG5 .pkzLif{s cGtu{tsf] cfOP; $#@^–!((# ;Fu ;DalGwt ;+lxtf pkof]lutfsf] cfjZostfdf ljz]if hf]8lbPtf klg ;DalGwt ;+lxtf bO{ sf/0fx?n] ubf{ Tolt k|z+;gLo xg ;s]g . klxnf], Ol08ofdf cfOP;$#@^ – !((# kl/jt{g ug{sf ;fy} o;sf w]/}h;f] ljifox? 5§} ljifox? 5§} ;f/]/ gofF ;+lxtf lgdf{0ful/Psf] 5 / pQm cgR5]bsf] efj s] 5 eg] g]=/f=e=;+= !)%–!(($ l;4fGttM cfwf/e"t u0f:t/ jf;+lxtf ljsf;df hf]8 lbgk5{ eGg] xf] . j}slNks ?kdf ;DalGwt Joj:yfx?nfO{ e"sDkLo jgf]6 ;+lxtfdf 5§} pklgod agfO{ ;+nUg ug{ ;lsG5 . cfOP; $#@) – !((# df xfn;fn} ul/Psf] ;wf/ jf cGo/fli6«o cGt/f{li6«o ;+lxtf x? cyjf ;Gbe{ ;fdu|Lsf ?kdf sfuhftx? pNn]v ug{ cem ;x|fxgLo xg]5. o; afx]s g]kfnsf nflu tof/ kfl/Psf] :tl/otfsf] k"0f{ ljj/0f hg rflxF g]kfndf e"sDk k|lt/f]wsejg lgdf{0fdf cfjZos 5g ltgLx?nfO{ ;+lxtf sf] cGo efudf pNn]v ul/G5g . Ps ;xof]uLkl:tsfnfO{ ;+lxtf agfpFbf l6Kk0fL ul/Pg eg] ;+lxtf k|of]udf l6Kk0fL pkzLif{s cGtu{tl6Kk0fLx?;Fu ;DalGwt ;+lxtf af/] k|of]udf sl7gfO cfpF5 .If]qIf]q cGtu{t JoQm jt{dfg ;+lxtf sf] cfjZostf o;f] x]bf{ k/Dk/fut em}+ nfUg ;S5 . o;sf] ;§fljleGg ;+/rgfdf e"sDkLo ef/ k/LIf0f / ejgx?sf] e"sDk/f]ws l8hfOgsf cfwf/df o; ;+lxtf sf]If]q ;fdfGo tyf k/flsnf] xg kg]{5 . . o;sf] cfwf/e"t Joj:yf ejgx? 7l8Psf ;+/rgfx? cf}Bf]lus;+/rgfx? afFwx?, knx? / o:t} cGo ;+/rgfx?sf nflu pkof]uL xg]5 . o;sf] If]qdf tL ejg lgdf{0fljz]iftfx? ;fd]n gxg ;S5 h;sf nflu 5§} dfkb08 dfkm{t ;dfwfg ug{k5{ .zAbfjnLo; ;+lxtf df k|of]u ePsf e"sDk/f]ws l8hfOg / ltgLx?sf] kl/efiffdf pNn]lvt zAbfjnLx?sf]JofVof ug{ k5{ . of] ;+lxtf e"sDk/f]ws l8hfOg ;DaGwL Psdfq k|dv b:tfj]h ePsf]n] ;fdfGotMe"sDkLo OlGhlgol/Ë ;Fu ;DalGwt cfwf/e"t zAbx? / ltgLx?sf] kl/efiff pNn]v ug{ /fd|f] xg]5h;n] ubf{ e"sDk;Fu ;DalGwt cfwf/e"t kIfx? tyf ejgx?;Fu ;DalGwt e"sDkLo OlGhlgol/Ëdfk|sfz kfg{ ;lhnf] xg]5 . afFw agfpg], 3DtL Spectra, PGA, dxTjk"0f{ kIf, e"sDksf] k|s[lt /wSsf, b|jLs/0f, clwstd dfkg ul/Psf] e"sDk, ;fdfGo df6f] / ljz]iftf, e"sDkLo tf}n If]q, kIf /cGo e"sDk OlGhlgol/Ë;Fu ;DaGwL zAbfjnLx? ;+nUg xg]5g . ejg;Fu ;DalGwt cGo zAbx? h:t}hu, lk08sf] s]Gb| / dhjtL, cgf}7f l8hfOg, Base Shear Bracing System k5fl8sf] ef/ yfDg]
  • 218. 28j:t, d"n vDaf, P - Ä c;/, tnf 56ofpg], tnfsf] 9nfg, g/d tnf / o:t} cGo zAbx? ;+nUg ug{cfjZos 5 .;+s]tx?o; ;+lxtf df pNn]v ePsf ;+s]tx? o;sf] k|lqmofsf] ;wf/ jf kl/jt{g xFbf lj:tfl/t jf bf]xf]¥ofOPsf]?kdf /xG5g tyflk k|of]u ePsf s]xL zAbfjnLx? eg] kl/jt{g xG5g . pbfx/0fsf nflu ?kfGtl/tcjwL Ti eGbf cfwf/e"t ;do cjlw j9L pkof]uL xG5 . xg ;S5 ;+s]tx?sf] cy{df ef}uf]lns uNtLePsf] 5 .jgf]6sf] ;fdfGo l;4fGto; ;+lxtf sf] efu # df JofVof ul/Psf] ;fdfGo l;4fGtx? e"sDkLo ljz]iftfx?sf] dxTj tyfe"sDk/f]ws jgfj6sf cfwf/et dfGotfx?sf] af/]df lj:t[t JofVof, ul/G5 . hldgsf] sDkgsf af/]dfckgfOPsf ;fdfGo l;4fGt tyf e"sDksf] cfsf/ ;fy} e"sDksf] sf/0fsf ljz]iftfx?;Fu ;DalGwts/fx? ;+nUg ug{ cfjZos 5 .o; ;+lxtf ckgfOPsf] e"sDk/f]ws jgf]6sf] k|lqmofsf] af/]df jofg ug{ /fd|f] xg]5 . e"sDk k|lt/f]wsejg jgfj6sf] ;fdfGotf :jLsfo{ l;4fGt eg]sf], ;fdfGo e"sDk cfpFbf sg} klg Iflt gxg], dWodcfsf/sf] e"sDk cfpFbf ;+/rgfTds Iflt gxg] t/ s]xL cGo s]xL Iflt xg] / 7"nf] cfsf/sf] -zlQmzfnL_ e"sDk cfpFbf k/} Wj:t gxg] t/ ;+/rgfTds nufot cGo Iflt xg] eGg] alemG5 . o:tfljZjJofkL ?kdf dflgPsf p2]Zox? clxn]sf] g]=/f=e=;+= !)% M !(($ nufot w]/}h;f] ;+lxtfx?dfpNn]v ul/Psf] kfOb}g . o;sf] ;§f k|dv p2]Zox? eg] pNn]v ul/G5g . pbfx/0fsf] nflu UBC -Ps?ktf ejg lgdf{0f ;+lxtf_ !((& n] hgwg / ;fj{hlgs lxtsf] p2]Zox? pNn]v ub{5 .oBlk ;fgf], demf}nf / 7"nf e"sDksf] kl/efiff km/s 5g t/ ;fdfGotof tL ;a} ;+/rgfsf] cfo /c;kmntfsf kl/0ffdx? ;Fu ;DalGwt 5g . w]/} h;f] ;+lxtf x?df ;+;f/df 7"nf] e"sDk cfpg] ;do$&% jif{sf cGt/fndf bf]xf]l/g] s/f kl/eflift 5 . h;n] s] aemfpF5 eg] To;df c? %) jif{ ;doa9g] ;Defjg !)Ü /xG5 hg Pp6f ejgsf] cgdflgt cfo dflgG5 . ljz]ifvfn] 3/sf nfluCorresponding Service level e"sDksf] kgM cfpg] ;Defjgf !) jif{ xG5 / ((=#Ü rflxF %) jif{;Dd a9g] ;Defjgf xG5 .l8hfOg k4ltsf] af/]df pNn]v ug{ klg cfjZos 5 . o;sf] nflu k|To]s lIflthLo lbzf / e"sDkLorfksf] ;dtn lbzfdf ljrf/ k¥ofpg k5{ . o;df Ps;fy cfO/xg] cfFwL af9L, e" ;+/rgfTds ;DaGw/ ejg k|of]usf] kl/jt{;Fu ;DalGwt k|lqmof / eO/x]sf] Joj:yf klg o;df ;+nUg xg]5 .agf]6 k|0ffnL / ef/ ;+of]hgkSsL agf]6sf] ;Lldt cj:yf ljlwsf] cfjZostf / cGo lgdf{0f ;fdfu|Lx?sf] nflu l;kmfl/; ul/Psf]sfo{ bafaaLr ts{k"0f{ sf/0f xgk5{ . ;wf/sf] o; If0fdf pknAw lgdf{0f k|lqmofx?sf] vf]hL ug{ /b]zsf] nflu pkoQm xg] cGo ;+lxtf / cjnDag ul/Psf] lgdf{0f k|lqmofx? vf]hL ug{ pkoQm xg]5 .;fdfGotM w]/}h;f] b]zx?n] sfo{ bafa ljlwnfO{ k|lt:yfkg u/L ;Lldt zlQm ljlw jf zlQm ljlwcjnDag u/]sf 5g . oL bOj6f lgdf{0f ;fdfu|L l;4fGtx? s+lqm6 tyf :6Lnsf nflu cjnDag u/]sf5g .ha e"sDkLo an o; ;ldltsf] $=# cg;f/ c? jgf]6sf] an dflgG5 . df6f]sf] ef/ jxg ug]{ Ifdtf%)Ü n] a9fpg] Joj:yf 5 . %)Ü j[l4 sg cj:yfdf ug{ ;lsG5 eGg] s/f o;sf pkwf/fdf JofVofug{ cfjZos 5 . / sg cj:yfdf j[l4sf] tNnf]:t/ lgwf{/0f ug{k5{ eGg] pNn]v ug{k5{ cfOP; !(*#-efu !_ M @))@ n] df6f]sf] k|sf/ / hu x]/L @%Ü b]lv %)Ü ;Dd df6f]sf] rfk jxg ug]{ Ifdtfa9fpg] l;kmfl/; u/]sf] 5 . df6f]sf] k|sf/ s8f dWod / g/d xg ;S5 .
  • 219. 29sfo{ bafa ljlw / ;Lldt cj:yf ljlwsf nflu ;+nUg ePsf] ;+lxtfsf] ef/ ;+of]hg l8hfOgnfO{kglj{rf/ ug{ cfjZos 5 . ;j{dfGo s/f of] 5 ls l;kmfl/; ul/Psf] ef/sf] kIf ;+/rgfdf cgdfgul/Psf] e/kbf]{kgfdf e/ kb{5 . pbfx/0fsf] nflu g]kfndf d[t ef/nfO{ ! / k|ToIf ef/nfO{ !=# dfGgk/Dk/fjfbL ;f]r xG5 . ;fdu|Lx?sf] Ps?ktf tyf sfd ug]{ snfsf] clglZrttfn] ubf{ d[t ef/sfnflu u0f:t/ lgoGq0f tf}nsf] sf/0f j]jf:tf ul/P h:tf] nfU5 . g]kfnsf] ;Gbe{df Over Loadingsf] clglZrttfsf] af/] !=# n] cf]u6]sf] s/f Jojxfl/s gxg ;S5 . ba} vfn] ef/sf nflu cfOP; $%^M @))) n] !=% nfO{ dfg]sf] 5 . To;}u/L e"sDkLo ef/sf nflu clwstd Load Factor Value rflxF!@% dflgG5 )=( cf}+ k6s d[t ef/ ;fy} d[t ef/sf] ;+of]hgdf / !=# cf}+ k6s k|ToIf ef/df e"sDkLoef/sf af/] hfraemdf w]/} clglZrttfx?sf] b[li6n] !=@% dfq Psbd sd xf] . cem eGg] xf] eg]cf+lzs ;/Iffsf nflu !@ cf}+ tflnsf g]=/f=e=;+= !!) M !(($ df pNn]v ePsf s/fx? e"sDkLol8hfOg ;+lxtfsf] $=% ;Fu lj/f]wefif xG5 .e"sDk/f]ws ejg l8hfOgsf ljlwo; ;+lxtfn] ljz]if u/L bO{ k|sf/sf e"sDk ljZn]if0fsf tl/sfx? l;kmfl/; ub{5 . tL xg e"sDkLou0ff+s ljlw / ?kfTds k|ltlqmof k|ltljDa ljlw (Seismic Coefficient Method and ModelResponse Spectrum Method) .e"sDksf sf/0f xg] hldg sDkgsf sf/0fn] ejgdf kg]{ c;/ b]vfpg w]/}h;f] e"sDk/f]ws ejgx?p:t} vfn] l:y/ kflZj{s an k|of]u u/L l8hfOg ul/G5g . e"sDksf] c;/ b]vfpg ;db/L l:y/ ank|of]u ul/G5g . hf] 7"nf e"sDk cfpFbfsf] Iflt h:t} ;+/rgfTds Iflt k¥ofpF5 eGg] dfGotfdf ul/G5 .o; k4ltsf] pkof]u rflxF sltko ;fdfGo ;+/rgfx?df l;ldt 5 . o; ;+lxtfn] $) ld= cUnf;+/rgfx?sf nflu dfq of] k4lt tf]s]sf] 5 / lgoldttfsf] cj:yf ;d]t pNn]v ug{k5{ .lgz]if k|ltljDa ljlwdf dfq kl/jt{gzLn ljZn]if0fnfO{ ;Lldt ul/b}g . ;do Oltxf; ljZn]if0fsf] klgP]lR5s Joj:yf xgk5{ . ?kfTds k|ltlqmof k|ltljDa ljlw k|of]usf] cfjZostfsf cj:yfx? tn pNn]vul/G5g . hg s/f rflxF clgoldt ?k/]vf;Fu ;DalGwt 5g . clgoldttfsf] kl/efiff / ju{ ljefhgsf]cefjdf ;+lxtf sf] k|of]u emlSsg] vfnsf] xG5 . ljleGg vfn] clgoldttfx?sf] aofg / kl/efiff ug]{vfnsf pkwf/fx? /fVg /fd|f] dflgG5 . -h:t} t];f]{, 7f8f], le/fnf], lk08, HofldtLo / o:t} cGo_ . o:tfvfn] kl/efiffx?n] g/d / sdhf]/ tnfsf] k|i6 lrq tyf To;df kg]{ c;/ cfpF5 .;+;f/sf] e"sDk/f]ws ;+lxtf df e"sDkLo Coefficient lgwf{/0f ug]{ ;"q kl/jt{g xFb}5 . h] ePtfklghldgsf] sDkgn] ubf{ e"OF eTsg hlxn] klg e"sDk/f]ws ;xfos / ;+/rgfsf] lk08sf sf/0fn] xG5 .bL3{sfn;Dd l:y/ kflZj{s an k|fKt ug]{ k|of]u xg] dxTjk"0f{ tTjx? o;k|sf/ 5g MZ = e"sDkLo If]q bzf{pg] ;+VofTds dxTj .I = 7"nf] e"sDk kZrft k|of]usf] cfwf/df ;+/rgfsf] dxTj bzf{pg] dxTjk"0f{ tTjx?C = Wjlgsf] ;xL t/Ë j[l4sf] k|ltlqmof hgfpg] tTj .S = hldgsf] WjgL t/Ëdf :yfgLo e–cj:yfsf] c;/ bzf{pg] tTj .W = k|ToIf ef/sf] d"Nofªsg ;lxt ;+/rgfsf] lk08K = ;+/rgfsf] sdhf]/kgf jf sf]dntfdf lge{/ xg] ;+/rgfsf] bl/nf]kgf bzf{pg] tTj . of] dxTjBase Shear sf nflu ;fdfGotof hf]l8G5g .V = ZICKSWof] ;"q cfwf/ bafa (Base Shear) sf nflu nfdf] ;dob]lv k|rlnt 5 . t/ klg ;do ljsf;qmddfe"sDk k|lt/f]ws ;xfos ;"q abnL/x]sf] 5 . NBE !)%M!(($ df pNn]lvt e"sDk k|lt/f]ws ;xfos;"qn] dfly pNn]lvt -hldgsf] WjgL t/Ëdf :yfgLo e" cj:yfsf] c;/ bzf{pg] tTj_ afx]s ;a}tTjx?nfO{ ;d]65 . c? ;+lxtfx?df ljleGg k|sf/sf -vf;u/L # k|sf/sf_ e"–agfj6df xg] Wjlgt/Ësf] c;/nfO{ Wofg lbOPsf] 5 . To;y{ e"sDk k|lt/f]ws ;xfos ;"qsf] af/]df ;dLs/0fdf lbOPsf]
  • 220. 305 . o;}u/L WjgL t/Ë k|ltlqmofsf] l8hfOgsf] af/]df ;dLs/0f *=@ df lbOPsf] 5 hxfF k|fs[lts;dofjwLnfO{ lgoldt cfwf/e"t Wjlg t/Ë k|ltlqmof ZIK n] u0fg ul/G5 .Performance Factor K nfO{R1k|ltlqmof Go"lgs/0f tTj (Factor), ejgsf] k|sf/ / o;sf]sdhf]/kgf e/kg]{ tTjx?n] k|lt:yfkg ug]{ ;j{q rng 5 . k|ltlqmof Go"gLs/0f tTjsf] cjnDagn]k|j]usf] jf:tljs dxTj b]vfpF5 hxfFaf6 o;nfO{ Elastic Force n] efu u/]/ Design Force k|fKtxG5 . o;n] 7"nf] e"sDk cfpFbf s] cgdfg ul/Psf] xG5 Tof] eGbf l8hfOg an w]/} Go"g xG5 eGg]b]vfpF5 -h}g @))#_ .k nfO{ !÷R n] k|lt:yfkg ubf{ e"sDk/f]ws ;xof]uLsf] tfls{s cgdfg lng ;lsG5 / NEHRP h:tf]sfuhft jf ;+lxtfdf xfn;fn} ul/Psf] ;+zf]wgdf lgsflnPsf] j}slNks cleJolQmsf] nflu gofF ;+zf]wgug{ ljrf/ k/ofpg ;lsG5 .l8hfOg sfof{nox¿df pRr Ifdtfsf sDKo"6/sf] ;ljwf pknAw ePsfn] l:y/ eGbf u0fgfsf] ultlznk|s[of k|rngdf 5 . ejgsf] prfO / clgoldttfsf] sg} 5]sfjf/ gePsfn] ultlzn u0fgf k|0ffnL;lhnf] / tfls{s / ;xL glthf lgsfNg ;xof]uL 5 . o;f] ePtf klg cGt/f{li6«o ;+lxtfsf] Joj:yfsf];+/If0fdf ljz]if Wofg k¥ofpg k5{ . s]xL ;+lxtfx¿sf] e"sDkLo dfkg k2ltåf/f ultlzn ljZn]if0fglthf kl/If0f ul/gk5{ . cfOP; !*(# -efu !_ h:tf s]xL b:tfj]hx? cfwf/ bafa (Base Shear)cfwf/e"t ;dofjlw k|of]u u/]/ lgsflnPsf] cfwf/ bafa;Fu cfgeljs ;"q k|of]u u/]/ lgsflnPsf] l:y/ljlwsf] tngf ug{ cfjZos 5 / olb cfwf/ bafa ultzLn ljZn]if0f cfgeljs ;"qaf6 ;dofjlwlx;fa u/]/ lgsflnPsf] cfwf/ bafaeGbf sd 5 eg] ;Dk"0f{ ultzLn k|ltlqmofx? bO{ cfwf/ bafax?sf]cgkft4f/f u0fg ul/Psf] dflyNnf] :s]ndf xg]5g . o;n] km]l/ e"sDkLo u0ff+s ljlwsf] ultzLnljZn]if0f dfly k|eTj /x]sf] hgfpF5 .e"sDkLo hf]lvdsf] tx / Wjlg t/Ë k|ltljDae"sDk l8hfOgsf] cgdfg ug]{ s/f e"sDk k|lt/f]ws l8hfOg ;+lxtf ljsf;sf] Ps dxTjk"0f{ / hl6nefu xf] . e"–sDkg l8hfOgsf] cgdfg lj/f]wfef; / clglZrt xG5 . ;+/rgf l8hfOgstf{x¿sf nfluo;n] l8hfOgdf k|of]u ul/g] e–sDkg dfkg sfo{nfO{ ;xof]u ug]{ ePsfn] of] c´ a9L dxTjjk"0f{xG5 . o;f] ePtf klg e–sDkg cfutsf] k/LIf0f sfo{sf] ;+/If0f / pRr ljZjf; txsf] k|of]u ug]{s/fdf 7nf] ljjfb 5 .g]=/f=e=;+= !)% M !(($ n] b]zsf] e"sDkLo ;+j]bgf;DaGwL sg} ljj/0f lbb}g . o;n] sDtLdf klgljutdf cfPsf esDksf s]Gb|ljGb b]vfpg] gS;f, ejgsf dVo ljz]iftfx¿, k|dv r§fgsf] ju{;d]l6Psf] ef}uf]lns ljz]iftfx¿ / esDkLo If]qx¿nfO{ ;d]6gk5{ . o:tf ;a} s/fx¿nfO{ vfgL tyfeue{ ljefun] ;d]6]sf] 5 . Pandey / c¿ e"ue{ljbx¿n] ;g @))@ df ;Defljt e"sDkLo ljgfzsf]ljZn]if0fsf] kl/0ffd :j¿k g]kfnsf esDkLo vt/f;DaGwL gS;f k}:tt u/]sf lyP . of] sfuhftn] %)jif{df !) k|ltztn] j[l4 xg] u/L g]kfndf %)) jif{ ;Ddsf] jfo e"sDkLo /]vf k|:tt u/]sf] 5 .b]zsf ljleGg efusf nflu Peak Ground Acceleration (PGA) h:tf e–sDkg dfkgsf] l8hfOgdxTj tflnsf -GB %))!!—@))!_ cyjf gS;f -IBC @))^_ df k|:tt ul/Psf] 5 .;+lxtfdf esDkLo ljgf; ;DaGwL s/f ;DefjLt e"sDkLo ljgfzsf] ljZn]if0fdf cfwfl/t eP/ lgwf{/0ful/Psf] xgfn] g]=/f=e=;+= !)% M !(($ df ;d]t o:tf] s/f ul/gk5{ . cgdfgLt ljgfzsf] ;DefjLtcf+sng k|s[of cjnDjg ug]{ e"sDkLo ;+lxtfx¿n] NEHRP -@))#_ / IBC -@))&_ h:t} MaximumConsiderated / Capable Earthquake (MCE) / ATC -!(&*_ / UBC -!((&_ df h:t} DesignBasis Earthquake (DBE) sf] k|of]u ub{5g . MCE / DBE n] @%)) jif{sf] cjlwkl5 %) jif{df@ k|ltzt j[l4 / $&% jif{kl5 %) jif{df !) k|ltzt j[l4 xG5 eGg] s/f b]vfpF5 .
  • 221. 31NEHRP sf] k"j{ ;+;f]wg / UBC (& -!((&_ df dgg ul/Psf] e"sDkLo hf]lvd %) jif{df !)k|ltztn] j[l4 xg] $&% jif{sf] cGt/fndf bfxf]l/g] (Design Basis Earthquake) s/fnfO{ ejgx¿sf]cfo" slt 5 eGg] s/fsf] ¿kdf x]l/G5 . NEHRP -!((&_ / IBC @))) -@)))_ n] Design BasisEarthquake (DBE) nfO{ kl/jt{g u/] / pgLx¿n] Joj:yfdf esDkLo hf]lvd bzf{pg] cToflwsdxz; ul/Psf] esDksf] pNn]v ul//x]sf 5g . MCE eGgfn] e"sDkLo hf]lvdnfO{ a´fpF5 hg@%)) jif{;Dd %) jif{df @ k|ltztn] a[l4 xg] cgdfg ul/G5 . NEHRP -@))#_ / IBC @))^ -@))^_ sf] Joj:yfcg;f/ esDkLo l8hfOg MCE sf] tLg efusf] bO{ efu xg] u5{ . NEHRP !(($sf] Joj:yf jf !((& sf] k/fgf] ;+;f]wg jf kl5Nnf] ;+;f]wgsf] tngfn] of] k|i6 u5{ ls !(($ sf];+/rgf l8hfOg cyjf NEHRP sf] k/fgf] ;+;f]wgnfO{ esDkdf o;sf] Iflt sd ug]{ vfnsf] eg]/x]l/G5 hg of] b:tfj]hsf] e"sDkLo l8hfOgsf] hqf] Ps / Ps cfwf (Reciprocal of two-third) UBC(& -!((&_ b]vL IBC @))) -@)))_ ;Dd o:t} kl/jt{g cfPsf] 5 . cGo Joj:yfx¿;Fusf];+nUgtfdf ePsf] kl/jt{gn] sfuhftsf] gof ;+:s/0f a9L k/ftgjfbL ePsf] b]vfp5 .cGo ;+:yf;d]t Beca Worley International n] ;g !((# df k|:tt u/] adf]lhd g]=/f=e=;+= !)% M!(($ df pNn]lvt e"sDkLo rfk %) jif{sf] kms{g] cjlwdf #) jif{df $% k|ltzt eGbf sd j[l4 xg];DefjgfnfO{ g]kfnsf] ;+/rgfsf] cfly{s hLjgsf] ¿kdf lnFb} e"sDkLo hf]lvd txsf] lgwf{/0f u/]sf] 5 .of] sfuhftn] e"sDkLo hf]lvd tx ef/tLo u0f:t/ dfkb08, cfOP; !*(# M !(*$ df kl/eflift u/]adf]lhd s} txdf lyof] eGg] s/f b]vfpF5 . oxfF to ePsf] e"sDkLo txsf] l8hfOg w]/} ;fdfGo (Un-conservative) ePsfn] tnsf sf/0fx¿n] o;sf] dVo ;+;f]wg xg h?/L 5 Ms_ g]kfnsf ejgx¿sf] ;]jf cfo" -cjlw_ %) jif{sf] xgk5{ eGg] geP/ #) jif{ cgdfg ug{ ts{;+utxG5 .v_ cfOP; !*(# M !(*($ cg;f/ g]kfnsf] esDkLo hf]lvd tx lgwf{/0f ug{ lg:kIf xFb}g lsgls of]e"sDkLo l8hfOg dfqfsf] ljljwtf;Fu} cfOP; !*(# -efu–!_ M @))@ df ;+;f]wg eO;s]sf] 5 .ef/tLo u0f:t/ dfkb08n] e"sDkLo hf]lvd ljZn]if0fsf] ;Defljt :j¿ksf] cjnDjg ug{ afFsL 5 .u_ jt{dfg ejg lgdf{0f ;+lxtfsf] Joj:yf dVo u/]/ xf]rf ejgx¿sf] 5f]6f] k|fs[lts cjlwdf cfwfl/teP/ ljsl;t ul/Psf] xf] hals ejgsf] nfdf] ;dofjlw klg pQLs} ;fGble{s xg yfn]sf] 5 .3_ e"sDkLo l8hfOg kflZj{s -5]p5fpsf]_ ef/ (Seismic Design Lateral load) 5f]6f] ;dofjlwsf];+/rgfdf u0fgf u/]/ lgsflnPsf] -)=)*_ / cfOP; !*(# M !(*$ sf] kfrf}F If]qsf] BasisHorizontal Seismic Coefficient sf] cg;f/ -)=)*_ a/fa/ 5 . t/ ;+;f]lwt cfOP; !*(# -efu–!_M @))@ cg;f/ lgsflnPsf] dfqf eg] )=)* geP/ )=)( xg hfG5 .Wjlg t/Ë k|ltls|of / If]q lgwf{/0f tTjx¿ e"sDkLo txsf] l8hfOgdf cfwfl/t xG5 / e"sDkLo hf]lvdtxsf] kl/jt{g xFbf km/s xG5 .hdLg -df6f]_ sf] cj:yfsf] # k|sf/sdf ul/Psf] lj:t[t juL{s/0f ;j{dfGo 5 . o;f] eP klg o:tfx/]s k|sf/sf] kl/efiff / cfjZostfx¿ c´ Jojxfl/s / kl/lrt xg]5g .l:y/ ljlw -e"sDkLo u0ff+s ljlw_sg} dVo lbzf;Fu;Fu} esDkLo e–cfwf/ V (Seismic Base Shear V) tnsf ;"qdf JoQm ul/G5MV = Cd Wth;df Cd eGgfn] t];f]{ e"sDk/f]ws ;xfos l8hfOg hgfpF5 / Wt eGgfn] ejgsf] e"sDkLo tf}n eGg]al´G5 . t/ !)=! sf] ;lds/0fn] Wt n] eg]sf] s/fnfO{ ;xof]u ub}{g . o;sf] nflu ejgsf] e"sDkLotf}nsf] kl/efiff cfjZostf kb{5 . e"FOsf] e"sDkLo tf}nsf] cfwf/df ejgsf] e"sDkLo tf}n s;/LlgsflnG5 eGg] s/f klg JofVof ug{ k5{ . oBlk efu ^ df 5f]6s/Ldf kl/ro lbOPsf] ePtf klgTo;nfO{ pNn]v ug{ k5{ . o;nfO{ tf}nsf] ef/sf nflu lgod;lxt JofVof ug{ k5{ .ejgsf] prfO;Fu /x]sf] e"OFsf] l8hfOgsf] ljt/0f /]vf+sg u/]/ b]vfOG5 . e"OFsf] cfwf/ bafa l8hfOg itnsf] tl/sfn] lgsflnG5M
  • 222. 32Fi = V Wi h V Wi hief/tLo dfkb08 cfOP; !*(# n] cfwf/ bafa l8hfOg;Fu ldNg] vfnsf] cfOP; !*(# -efu–!_M@))@ ;Fu ;dfg xg]u/L Parabolic Distribution w]/} ;do b]lv cjnDjg ul//x]sf] 5 . e"OF tnfsf] infO{ tnsf] tl/sfn] lgsflnG5 M  ni iiiiihWhWVF122bj} vfn] ljt/0f clt g} leGg 5g . /]vf ljt/0frflxF ;fdfGo kbfjlw !=% ;]s]08 jf ;f]eGbf sd -nueu % tn] ejgsf nflu_ ePsf] ljz]if u/L s8f ;+/rgfx¿sf nflu nfu xG5 . ParabolicDistribution rflxF ;fdfGo ;dofjlw @=% ;]s]08 -nueu @% tn] / ;f]eGbf a9Lsf ejgx¿sf nflu_ePsf] nlrnf] ;+/rgfx¿sf nflu nfu xG5 .ejgsf] prfOdf kg]{ lIflthLo ansf] ljt/0f ;fdfGotof hl6n xG5 lsgeg] of] anrflxF sDkgsf]k|fs[lts÷;fdfGo k|lqmofsf] ;+Vof a9L xgsf] kl/0ffd xf] . oL sDkg k|lqmofsf] sn andf xg] ;fk]lIftof]ubfg sg} leGgsf] ;+Vofdf e/ k5{ h;df e"ld sDkgsf] cfsf/sf] k|ltlqmof, ejgsf] ;fdfGosDkgsf] cjlw / sDkg cfsf/ k|lqmof ;dfj]z xG5 hxfF klN6g] s/f ejgsf] prfOsf] lk08 /s8fkgsf] ljt/0fdf e/ k5{ . o;sf] cfwf/df ATC#–)^ -!(&*_ n] prfOdf xg] lk08 / s8fkgsf]lg/Gt/ sDkg ;lxt ejgdf lIflthLo e"sDk ansf] ljt/0f kQf nufpg Pp6f ts{k"0f{ / ;/n ;qtof/ kf/]sf] 5 . hg tn lbOG5 M  nikiikiiihWhWVF1hxfF k eg]sf] tn lbOPcg;f/sf] ejgsf] cjlwsf] 3ftf+s xf]M)=% ;]s]08 jf ;f]eGbf sd cjlw ePsf ejgsf nflu k = !@=% ;]s]08 jf ;f]eGbf Hofbf cjlw ePsf ejgsf nflu k = @)=% / @=% ;]s]08 sf] aLrsf] cjlw ePsf ejgsf] nflu k nfO @ elgG5 jf ! / @ aLrsf] LinearInterpolation n] lgwf{/0f ul/G5 .xf]rf ejgx¿ 5f]8]/ ejgx¿sf] :j¿k kl/jt{g ug{ ;ldtfdf ePsf] /]vf ljt/0f k|fjwfg k/Dk/fjfbLxg]xgfn] o;nfO{ kl/jt{g ug{ k5{ . Vofn ug{kg]{ s/f s] 5 eg] cd]/Lsf] ;ldtfn] ATC#–)^-!(&*_n] tof/ kf/]sf] ljt/0f ;q cjnDjg ul//x]sf] 5 .*=@=! pk zLif{s cGtu{tsf] lbzf an;Fu ;DalGwt Joj:yfnfO{ ;+/rgfsf] Ps} k6s lIflthLo lbzfb;f{pg] e"sDkLo l8hfOg tyf e"sDkLo ef/ b;f{pg] bj} s/f Ps} ;fy nfu" xg ;Sb}gg eGg] s/fnfO{k|i6 kfg{ kgn]{vg ul/gk5{ .aqm ult l8hfOg k|fjwfgnfO{ lIflthLo cfwf/ ljefhg cyjf 3dfp/f] v08;Fu} pNn]v ul/gk5{ . aqmult l8hfOg ed nfO{ ec sf] dfqf;Fu cfwfl/t eP/ -Center of Mass / Center of Rigidity aLrsf]aqm ult_ b ;Fu ;DalGwt, ejgsf] pRrtd cfotg e"sDkLo ansf] lbzftkm{ ;Lwf xg] u/L u0fgfu/]/ lgsflnG5 . tLg 5§f5§} zt{x? / ;dfg dxTjsf] u0fgf u/L k|:tt ul/gk5{ . aqmult l8hfOg3dfp/f] l8hfOgsf] u0fgf ug{ tyf x/]s txdf kflZj{s ansf] c;/ dgg ug{sf nflu cfjZos kb{5 .aqmult l8hfOgsf] k|fjwfgsf] p2]Zo 3dfp/f] c;/sf v084f/f ljefhg ug{ xf] . x/]s txdf kflZj{sansf] ljefhgn] aqmultaf6 k|fKt 3dfp/f] c;/af6 Center of Mass / Center of Rigidity aLrsf]b/LnfO{ dgg ub{5 . o;nfO{ crfgs cfpg] ed/L (torsion) sf k"/s v084f/f o;sf] c;/sf]
  • 223. 33cgz/0f ul/gk5{ . æed/L cfPsf] If0fsf] cnfjf kflZj{s ansf] ljefhgn] ;+/rgf b sf] cfotgsf]kfFr k|ltzt;Fu a/fa/ / :jLs[t ansf] lbzf;Fu ;Lwf xg] u/L o;sf] dVo :yfgsf] cgdflgt lk08k|lt:yfkg4f/f l;lh{t s/fx?nfO{ ;d]t ;d]6gk5{ . o;sf] ljk/Lt aqmult l8hfOg efHo aqmultsf]c+sul0ftLo of]u / cfsl:ds aqmult xf] . t;y{ ithtnfsf] aqmult l8hfOg lgsfNg aqmultsf] efHo!=% xG5 egL dfGbfMedi = 1.5 eci ± 0.05 bi xG5 .ultzLn ljlw -?kfTds k|ltlqmof k|ltlaDa ljlw_ultzLn ljlwsf nflu ;dLs/0fjt{dfg ;+lxtfdf k|:tt ul/Psf k|fjwfgx? rflxg] hlt 5}gg . o;df k|fs[tlts cjlw -T_ tyf tl/sf(Mode) cfsf/ -Ø_ k|fKt ug{ :jtGq sDkg ljZn]if0fsf] nflu ;+of]hsx? cfjZos 5g . olb ()k|ltzt lk08n] efu lnPsf] 5 ls 5}g eg]/ hfFRg] JofVof;lxt !!=@ df pNn]v ug{kg]{ tl/sf ;+Vofsfnflu jt{dfg k|fjwfg lj:t[t agfpg cfjZos 5 . of] tl/sf hg;+Vofsf] kl/efiff tyf tl/sf ;xefuLtTjx? ;dfj]z u/L ;"qx?sf] kl/roaf6 u/fpg ;lsG5 . ?kfTds ;+of]hg ljlw, x/]s tl/sfsf x/]stnfdf l8hfOg kflZj{s an lgwf{/0f ljlw tyf ;Dk"0f{ tl/sfx? pNn]v ul/Psf sf/0fn] / JolQmuttl/sf tyf ;Dk"0f{ tl/sf pNn]v ul/Psf sf/0fn] ToxfF uDeL/ e"n k|fjwfgx? 5g .cgR5]b !!=#=! n] ?kfTds c;/ ;+of]hgsf nflu :yflkt ljlw k|of]usf] cfjZostf pNn]v u5{ .:yflkt ljlwh:tf ciki6 zAb x6fpg ;lsG5 / k|of]u ul/g] ljlwsf] gfd4f/f k|lt:yfkg u/fpg;lsG5 . cgR5]b !!=#=# df lbPsf] h:tf] ;fF3/f] :yfg 5f]8g] tl/sfsf] kl/efiff unt 5 . ;fF3/f] :yfg5f]8g] tl/sfnfO{ sDkgsf] k|fs[lts tl/sfsf] ?kdf kl/eflift ul/G5 h;sf] k|fs[lts af/Daf/tfx? !)k|ltzt jf tNnf] af/Daf/tf eGbf sd ePdf Ps cfk;df km/s xG5g . t/ olb ltgLx?sf] af/Daf/tf!% k|ltzt leq 5 eg] xFb}g .ljWj+;e"sDk wSsfsf] sf/0fn] xg] ljWj+;sf] k|fylds Snh (Clause) eg]sf] tnf ckjxg ;Lldttf xf] . hgtnf prfOsf] )=))$ u0ff eGbf a9L xFb}g . o; ;Lldttfsf] r]tgf (=@=@ cGtu{t lbPsf k|fjwfgaf6;dflji6 ug{ ;lsG5 . lj:yfkg cfjZostfsf] p2]Zosf nflu dfq l:y/ jf kl/jt{gzLn tl/sfaf6ejgsf] cfwf/e"t ;dofjlwaf6 k|fKt e"sDkLo an k|of]u ug{ ;lsG5 . (=! cGtu{tsf] k|fjwfg bOj6fufFl;Psf ejg jf Pp6} ejgsf] ufFl;Psf efusf] aLrdf ePsf] ljR5]bsf nflu k|of]u ug{ ;lsG5 .olb sfo{ tTj k k|ltlqmof Go"gLs/0f sf/s R 4f/f k|lt:yflkt ePsf] v08df pQm ljR5]b tnfk|lt:yfkgsf] s"n b"/LnfO{ %÷k jf R n] u0fg u/]/ xg cfpg] of]u;Fu a/fa/ xg]u/L k|bfg ul/gk5{ .olb bO{j6f ufFl;Psf PsfO jf ejgsf] eOF :t/ Ps} pQf]ng :t/df 5g eg] o;nfo{ cem cufl8a9fpg ;lsG5 / %÷k jf R sf/snfO{ !)÷k jf R÷@ n] qmd};Fu lj:yflkt u/fpg ;lsG5 .h;cg;f/ o; efucGtu{tsf pk;+of]hsx?nfO{ kgM Jojl:yt u/fpg pkoQm xG5 .cGo c+u jf tTjsf nflu ck]Iffefu !@ cGtu{tsf k|fjwfgx?nfO{ ;fwf/0f egfOeGbf klg ck]Iff s;/L k|fKt ug{ ;lsG5 eGg] lbzflt/lj:tf/ ug{ ;lsG5 . o; efun] hu, k|If]lkt efu tyf ejgsf cGo efux?h:tf dxTjk"0f{ c+ux?sf]nflu ljleGg k|fjwgx? k|:tt ug{ klg ;S5 .
  • 224. 34%=@ g]=/f=e=;+= !)!, !)@, !)#, !)$, !)^, !)*, !)( sf] kg/fjnf]sg-ef/, cfotg, :yfg dgg, kga{n k|bfg gul/Psf] kvf{n_%=@=! g]=/f=e=;+= !)! M !(($M ;fdu|Lsf] lj:t[t ljj/0fo; u0f:t/ dfkb08n] ejg lgdf{0fdf k|of]u xg] lgdf{0f ;fdu|Lsf] cfjZos u0f / k|efjsfl/tf;Fu;DaGw /fV5 .o; ;+lxtfcGtu{t ejg lgdf{0fdf k|of]u xg] ;fdu|Lx? g]kfn u0f:t/ dfkb08 cyjf ef/tLo u0f:t/dfkb08 cyjf c? sg} dfGotf k|fKt u/]sf ;+:yfx?sf] u0f:t/ lrGx k|fKt u/]sf] xgk5{ . h;nfO{ef/tLo u0f:t/ dfkb08 klg elgG5 . o; Joj:yfn] of] ;+lxtfnfO{ cgfjZos / k|of]uljlxg agfPsf]5 .To:tf g]kfn u0f:t/ tyf ef/tLo u0f:t/ dfkb08 k|fKt ;+:yfx?sf] ljj/0f ;Gbe{ ;"rL df lbOPsf] 5.ldNbf]hNbf], u|x0f ul/Psf] cyjf gofF lgdf{0f ;fdu|Lx? lgwf{l/t p2]Zo k"lt{ ug{ ;S5g eGg] k|dfl0ftePsf 5g eg] / pQm ;fdu|Lx?n] o; ;+lxtfsf dfGotfx?;Fu d]n vfPsf 5g eg] ltgsf] k|of]unfO{k|f]T;fxg ul/G5 . t/ pQm ;+lxtfn] u0f:t/Lotf, ;antf, k|efjsfl/tf, clUg k|lt/f]wfTdstf,l6sfpkgf, ;/Iff, dd{t;DaGwL tyf ;fdu|L ;xfpFbf] Ifdtf h:tf sg} klg hfFRgkg]{ dfkb08sfcfwf/x? k|bfg u/]sf] 5}g .olb z4Ls/0f u/L kg k|of]udf NofOPsf ;fwgx?n] klg pQm dfkgsf cfwf/x? k"/f u5{g eg]ltgLx?nfO{ klg k|of]udf Nofpg ;lsG5 .;Dk"0f{ ejg lgdf{0f ;fdu|Lx?sf] e08f/0f cfjZostf :ki6 pNn]v ul/Psf] 5}g . ;fy} e08f/0f;do;Ldf tf]Sg]nufot e08f/0f;DaGwL sg} tl/sf jf ljlw klg pknAw u/fOPsf] 5}g . o; ;+lxtfn]e08f/0f ;dofjlwdf lgdf{0f ;fdu|Lx? glau|g] tyf gi6 gxg] ljZjf; lbnfpg cfjZos 5 .o; ;+lxtfn] ;fdu|Lx?sf] k|of]u, cf];f/k;f/ e08f/0f tyf k|of]u ug]{ tl/sf cflbaf6 ;xl/of hLjgdfcfOkg]{ :jf:Yo;DaGwL hf]lvd tyf cfunfuLsf] hf]lvdnfO{ ;d]6]sf] 5}g .:jf:Yo;DaGwL hf]lvd Go"gLs/0f ug{ ejg ;+lxtfsf] dxTjk""0f{ p2]Zo xf] . t/ ;x/df ;~rflnt w]/}ejg lgdf{0f ;fdu|L lalqms]Gb|x? pQm s/f;Fu dtnj /fVb}gg . lgdf{0f ;fdu|Lx?sf] af6f], ;fj{hflgs:yn tyf oqtq e08f/0f w]/} ;jf/L b3{6gfsf] sf/0f aGg] u5{ . To;}n] ;+lxtfsf] ;wf/ ubf{ ejglgdf{0f ;fdu|Ln] lgDTofpg] :jf:Yo;DaGwL hf]lvd tyf ;/Iff hf]lvdsf ;jfnx? ;Daf]wg ul/gk5{ .g]kfn /fli6«o ejg ;+lxtf >[ªvnf tyf g]kfn u0f:t/ kbfjnLx? :ki6 k|of]u ul/Psf 5}gg . st}st}g]=/f=e=;+= nfO{ PgP;sf] ?kdf klg k|of]u ul/Psf] 5 hg >[ªvnf– %)) ;Fu} gfdf+sg ul/Psf] xf] .%=@=@ g]=/f=e=;+= !)@ M !(($M ;fdu|Lx?sf] P]lss tf}n;fdu|Lsf] P]lss tf}n dfkg ug]{ o; g]kfn u0f:t/ dfkb08n] ef/tLo ;+lxtf cfOP; : &% -k|ydefu_– !(*& ejg tyf agfj6 ef/ l8hfOg cEof; ;+lxtf -e"sDk afx]ssf_ tyf ejg lgdf{0f ;fdu|L/ e08f/0f ;fdu|L d[t ef/ P]lss tf}n, efu–! :jLsfb{5 .t/ pQm ;+lxtfdf ;fdu|Lsf] P]lss tf}n tflnsf k|bfg gul/Psf]n] k|of]u ug{ ;lhnf] 5}g . a? g]kfnu0f:t/n] ;fdu|Lsf] P]lss tf}n tflnsf lbPsf] 5 . To;sf/0f ;fdu|Lsf] P]lss tf}n tflnsf g]kfnu0f:t/sf] k|of]u ug{ g} pQd xG5 .%=@=# g]=/f=e=;+= !)# M !(($M cfotg ef/ (afXo ef/)o; ;+lxtfdf ef/tLo u0f:t/ ;+lxtfsf] cf}lrTo k|dfl0ft ug]{eGbf a9L c? s]xL 5}g . To;sf/0f of]Jojxfl/s p2]Zosf nflu pkof]uL 5}g .
  • 225. 35o; cfotg ef/sf] nflu g]kfn u0f:t/ dfkb08n] ef/tLo ;+lxtf cfOP; : *&% -bf];|f] efu_ !(*&ejg tyf ;+/rgf ef/ l8hfOg cEof; ;+lxtf e"sDk afx]ssf] bf];|f] efu– afXo ef/sf] bf];|f] ;+;f]wg:jLsfb{5 .k|of]ustf{sf] ;ljwfsf] nflu cfotg juL{s/0f k|bfg ul/gk5{ . To;}u/L sAhf u/]sf] 7fpFsf] afXohldg ef/ tflnsf klg k|bfg ul/gk5{ .g]kfn u0f:t/ dfkb08df ljleGg tflnsfx? h:t}M tflnsf–! ljleGg cfotgsf] afXo hldg ef/, afXohdLg ef/df Go"gLs/0f, tflnsf–@ ljleGg k|sf/sf 5fgfx?df afXo ef/, tflnsf–# Kof/flk6dflysf]lIflthLo ef/, Kof/flk6sf] ufx«f], s73/ cflb k|bfg ul/Psf 5g . hg s/fx? g]=/f=e=;+= M !)#M !(($df k|of]u u/L 5§} ;+lxtf agfpg ;lsG5 .Ps?k k|ToIf ef/M ejg l8hfOg / c? ;+/rgfdf k|of]u ul/Psf k|ToIf ef/x? nlIft k|of]u jfcfotgn] rfx]sf] ;a}eGbf a9L ef/ xg;S5g t/ tflnsfn] k|bfg u/]sf] Go"gtd ljtl/t ef/eGbf sg}klg xfntdf sd xg ;Sb}gg .ljefhg ef/M ljefhg :yfg kl/jt{g ug{kg]{ ;fwf/0f tyf clkm; ejgx?df lgdf{0f sfuhftdfljefhg b]vfPsf] eP klg geP klg ljlzi6 k|ToIf ef/ k|lt ju{km6 *) kfpG8 -#=*# KN/M2_ggf3];Dd ljefhg tf}nsf] Joj:yf ug{ ;lsG5 . To:tf] ljefhg ef/ k|lt ju{km6 @) kfpG8 -)=(^KN/M2_ sf b/n] Ps?kn] ljt/0f ul/Psf] k|ToIf ef/eGbf sd xgxFb}g .cfotg juL{s/0fcg;f/ clwu|lxt ;fdfgx? /fVg] 7fpFsf nflu plrt cfjfudgsf] Joj:yf xgk5{ .cfotgsf kl/jlt{t k|of]ux?xfdLnfO{ yfx} 5, g]kfndf ejg Ps cfotg juL{s/0faf6 csf]{ cfotgdf k|of]u ul/G5g . h:t}Mcfjf;Lo ejgaf6 :s"n cyjf Pp6f xf]6naf6 ljzfnahf/ . To:tf] cj:yfdf cfotg ef/ klgkl/jt{g ul/G5 . of] sg} klg ejg l8hfOgsf] dxTjk"0f{ kIf xf] . cfotg ef/sf] cgdfg km/s–km/scfotgx? cg;f/ ul/G5 . ha;Dd To:tf] kl/jt{gx? ;+/rgfut ljZn]if0f4f/f k|dfl0ft ul/Fb}g ta;Ddof] ;du| ejgsf] ;/Iffsf] nflu vt/fk"0f{ xG5 . t;y{ o; ;+lxtfn] To:tf Ps cfotg juL{s/0faf6csf]{df k|of]u ul/g] ejgx?nfO{ 56ofP/ k|ltaGw nufpgk5{ .%=@=$ g]=/f=e=;+= !)$ M !(($ M jfo ef/jfo ef/sf] o; g]kfn u0f:t/ dfkb08n] ef/tLo u0f:t/ dfkb08 cfOP; M &% -efu #_– !(*& ejgtyf ;+/rgf ef/ l8hfOg cEof; ;+lxtfsf] bf];|f] ;+zf]wgnfO{ g]kfnL kl/j]zdf vf;u/L xfjf a9L nfUg]If]qx?df ;+zf]wg;lxt ;dfj]z u5{ .o; ;+lxtfdf pknAw jfo tYof+s :yfg ljt/0f tyf ;dofjlw bj} cfwf/df ck"0f{ 5 . cfwlgs jfol8hfOg ;+lxtfx? tLj| ultn] xfjf rNg] rr/fx? ;/b/ em08} # ;]s]G8sf] 5f]6f] cGt/ h;sf] krf;jif{ kms{g ;do xG5 df cfwfl/t xG5g . pknAw g]kfnL jfo tYof++s xfjf a9L nfUg] If]qsf] gS;ftof/ ug{ ck"0f{ tyf c;fGble{s 5 .xfjfsf] j]usf] cfwf/df g]kfnnfO{ bO{ If]qdf afFl8Psf] 5M -s_ tNnf] ;dtn efu / 8fF8fx?, -v_kxf8x? . klxnf] If]qn] ;fdfGotof blIf0fL t/fOsf] ;dtn e""–efu, sf7df8f}+ pkTosf / #,))) ld6/eGbf tnsf If]qx?nfO{ ;dfj]z u5{ / bf];|f] If]qn] #,))) ld6/eGbf dflysf ;Dk"0f{ efux?nfO{ ;dfj]zu5{ .ef/tLo ;dtn e"–efu;Fu hf]l8Psf g]kfnL ;dtn e"–efux?sf] nflu $& ld6/ k|lt;]s]G8 cfwf/e"tult lnOPsf] 5 . pRr kxf8x?sf] xsdf eg] jfosf] cfwf/e"t ult %% ld6/ k|lt;]s]G8nfO{ dflgPsf]5 .o; ;+lxtfsf af/]df lgDglnlvt s/fx? lbOG5M cfwf/e"t jfo j]u b]vfpg] g]kfnsf] gS;f 56]sf] .
  • 226. 36 kfgf bO{sf] bf];|f] cgR5]bdf æpknAw jfo tYof+s ;+lxtf tof/ ubf{ ;+slnt kl/lzi6g]=/f=e=;+= !)$ M ! b]lv % df k|:tt ul/Psf] 5Æ pNn]v ul/Ptf klg jfo tYof+s tflnsf56]sf] . ef/tLo u0f:t/ dfkb08 cfOP; M *&% -efu #_– !(*& df s]xL ;+zf]wg u/]/ jt{dfgg]=/f=e=;+= !)$ M !(($ tof/ ul/Psf] lyof] . pQm ;+lxtfdf ef/tLo u0f:t/ dfkb08 cfOP;M *&% -efu #_– !(*& df s]xL kbfjnLsf] yk, 36 jf k|lt:yfkg dfq} ul/Psf] lyof] .o; k|sf/sf] ;+zf]wgn] ;+lxtfnfO{ k|of]u ug{ c;lhnf] agfPsf] 5 . g]kfn u0f:t/ dfkb08 PgP; %))n] cfwf/e"t jfo j]u tyf ljleGg tTjx?sf] tflnsf b]vfpg] g]kfnsf] gS;f lbPsf] 5 . g]=/f=e=;+= n]lj:t[t tYof+s tyf clen]vx? ;+lxtf ;fy} lbgk5{ h;n] ubf{ ;+lxtf k|of]ustf{x?nfO{ ;lhnf] xG5 .s]xL l6Kk0fL tyf jfo j]u cgdfgsf] ljlw, cfwf/e"t jfo j]u, l8hfOg jfo j]u, prfOdf cfwfl/tl8hfOg jfo bafa / ejg juL{s/0f cg;"rLdf lbOPsf 5g . cfwf/e"t jfo j]u ;DefJo tTj -hf]lvdu0ff+s_, e"ld, prfO tyf ;+/rgf cfsf/ tTj / ef}uf]lns jgfj6 tTjnfO{ ldnfP/ k|fKt ul/G5 .l8hfOg jfo bafa, l8hfOg jfo j]u, jfo lbzfk/s tTj, ;/b/ If]q tTj / ;lDd>0f tTjsf]kmngsf] ?kdf k|fKt ul/G5 ./l;ofnL ;+lxtf tyf u0f:t/ dfkb08n] cUnf ejgx?df xg] jfo ef/ cfFsng cf};t / sDkg ph{gsf]sn of]u xG5 Gg] l;kmfl/; ub{5 .To;}u/L gfOh]l/ofnL u0f:t/ cEof; ;+lxtfn] l8hfOg jfo ef/ ;fdfGo jfo bafa, ;fdfGo jfoultcfsf/ tTj / bafa u0ff+ssf] kmngsf] ?kdf lgsfNg ;emfj lbG5 .oL ;+lxtfx?sf] ;Gbe{ ;fdu|L k|of]ustf{sf] ;xhtfsf] nflu kl5 ;+lxtf ;wf/ ubf{ k|bfg ul/G5 .%=@=% g]=/f=e=;+= !)^ M !(($ M lxd ef/o; ælxd ef/Æ ;+lxtfn] ef/tLo u0f:t/ dfkb08 cfOP; M *&% -efu $_ !(*&– ejg tyf ;+/rgfl8hfOg ef/ cEof; ;+lxtf -e"sDk afx]ssf_ nfO{ ;wf/;lxt g]kfnL kl/j]zdf d]n vfg] u/L ;dfj]zu5{ .g]kfnL hLjgz}nL;Fu d]n vjfpgsf] nflu o; ef/tLo ;+lxtfsf] )=! b]lv )=#=@ ;Dd x6fOPsf] 5 .ylkPsf efux? g]kfnsf lxpFn] 9flsg] pQ/L lhNnfx? h:t}M bf]nvf, bfr{nf, aemfª, xDnf, du cflbsflxd ef/;Fu ;DalGwt 5g . ef}uf]lns If]qcg;f/ b]znfO{ kfFr efudf ljefhg ul/Psf] 5 . oL kfFrIf]qx?dWo] t/fO{, l;jflns / dWo kxf8L If]qdf lxpF kb}{g . pRr kxf8L If]qx?df eg] jif{df @ b]lv #rf]l6;Dd lxpF k5{ . o; ;+lxtfn] dWo kxf8L If]qnfO{ lxpF gkg]{ If]qsf] ?kdf pNn]v u/]sf] ePtf klgof] If]qn] ;d]t slxn]sfxLF lxd jiff{ a]xf]/]sf] 5 . To;sf/0f ;+lxtf ;wf/ ubf{ vf;u/L sf7df8f}+ / o;j/k/sf s]xL If]qx?nfO{ ;d]t Vofn u/]/ ;RRofpgk5{ . ;+lxtfsf] ljZj;gLo ;wf/sf] nflu df};dlj1fg;Fu ;DalGwt lj:t[t tYof+sx?df of] tYonfO{ klg ;d]6gk5{ . pRr lxdfnL If]qdf rflxF jif}{el/lxpFn] 9fls/xG5 .pQ/L lxdfnsf prfOx?df afF; tyf sf7sf va6fx?df df6f]n] 6fn]/ ;dy/ 5fgfx? agfOPsf xG5g .lj/n} jiff{ xg] t/ pRr ultdf xfjf rNg] ePsf]n] 5fgfx? le/fnf agfOPsf] xFb}g . kUn]sf] lxpF axg;Sg] u/L xNsf le/fnf] dfq agfOPsf] xG5 . lxpF 3/sf 5fgf tyf hf]8]/ agfOPsf 3/sf 5fgfsf]aLrdf xg] vf]N;fdf hDdf ul/G5 / o;nfO{ dfG5]sf] d2tn] x6fOG5 .lxpF;Fu ;DalGwt sg} klg P]ltxfl;s tYof+sx? 5}gg . lxd tyf lxd klx/f] lj1fgn] ev{/} dfq pRre]usf] tYof+s ;+sng ug{ yfn]sf] 5 . lxpFsf dfksx? h:t} ulx/fO, 3gTj, / kfgL ;dtNotfsf];"rgf /fVg yflnPsf] 5 . t/ kl/of]hgfx?4f/f ;+slnt tYof+sx?df df}lvs ljj/0feGbf a9L s]xL5}gg . To;sf/0f ;DalGwt JolQm tyf ;+:yfx?nfO{ uxg cWoog / pQm If]qsf hfgsf/x?af6 tYof+s;+sng ug{ cg/f]w ul/G5 .kl/lzi6–% df lxd ef/;Fu ;DalGwt ljleGg tYof+sx? /x]sf 5g . h:t}M 5fgf]df lxd ef/
  • 227. 37 ;a}eGbf pkoQm 5fgfcGo ;+lxtfx?;Fu tngfSofg8fsf] /fli6«o ejg ;+lxtf, !(() df 5fgf]df lxd ef/sf] ljZn]if0f eOF lxd ef/;Fu ;DalGwt jiff{ef/ tTj, 5fgf] lxd ef/ tTj, jfo jxg tTj tyf ;+sng tTj cflbsf] ;xof]udf ul/Psf] 5 . pQmSofg]l8ofnL ;+lxtfdf ljleGg k|sf/sf 5fgfx?df lxd ljt/0f tTjx?sf] pNn]v ul/Psf] 5 . tL s/fx?:yfgLo kl/j]zdf ldNg] u/L ;dfof]hg u/]/ hg;s} 7fpFdf klg k|of]u ug{ ;lsG5 .lxd ef/sf s]xL ljz]iftfx?ejgsf] cgfjZos lgdf{0f nfut tyf eTsg]÷lau|g] hf]lvd x6fpgsf nflu lxd ef/sf] ;xL d"Nof+sgcfjZos 5 . 5fgf]df lxd ef/ ef}uf]lns cjl:ylt, If]qsf] kmsf{O / 5fgf]sf] cfsf/÷;+/rgfcg;f/km/s–km/s xG5 .kb}{ u/]sf] lxpFsf emf]Ssfx? df hl6n jgfj6 ;lxtsf ;fgf j/kmsf s0fx? /x]sf xG5g . 7"nf] ;dtne"–efudf hd]sf] lxpFsf] tf}n cgkfteGbf kb}{ u/]sf] lxpF xNsf tyf xfjfn] ;lhn} p8fpg ;Sg] vfnsf]xG5 . ev{/} k/]sf] lxpF xNsf skf; h:t} em08} )=)% b]lv )=! -kfgLsf] !÷@) cf}+ b]lv !÷!) cf}+_ljlzi6 u?Tjsf] xG5 . eOFdf v:g] ljlQs} lxd s0fx? ablng yfN5g– kftnf], ;O/f]h:tf] efu lj:tf/}kUng yfN5 / lxds0fx? gldnfO{ /fv]sf ;fgf 6qmfx? h:t} xG5g . k/]sf] s]xL lbgkl5 s]xL ldn]/a;]sf] lxpFsf] ljlzi6 u?Tj em08} )=@ n] a9]sf] xG5 . of] ;3gtf a9b} hfG5 / em08} Ps dlxgfkl5kfgL hDg] tfkqmd eGbf tnsf] tfkqmddf o;sf] ljlzi6 u?Tj em08} )=# xG5 . lxpFdfly xg] jiff{tyf nfdf] ;do;Ddsf] Gofgf] df};d -of] ;DefjgfnfO{ klg plrt l8hfOg ef/df ;dfj]z ul/gk5{_ n]lxpFsf] 3gTj cem a9fpg ;S5 .lxd ulx/fOaf6 ef/ cgdfg ug]{ ;fdfGo lgodcg;f/ lxpFsf] ljlzi6 u?Tj em08} )=@ b]lv )=# ;Dd/xg] pNn]v ug{ ;lsG5 .5fgfdflysf] lxpF ;+sngzfGt df};ddf kb}{ u/]sf] lxpFn] 5fgf tyf eOFnfO{ l;/sn] 5f]k]em}+ Psgf;n] 5f]K5 . df};d zfGt g} /xg]xf] eg] 9flsPsf] lxpF hxfFsf] ToxLF /xG5 . h;n] ubf{ 5fgf]dflysf] lxdef/ cgdfg ug{ ;lhnf] xG5 .l8hfOg lxd ef/ Ps gf; /x]sf] dfGg ;lsG5 / eOFdf k/]sf] lxpFsf] clwstd ef/;Fu a/fa/ /x]sf]dfGg ;lsG5 .t/ jf:tljstfdf ;a}lt/ lxdef/ ;dfg xg] cj:yf bn{e g} xG5 . w]/}h;f] If]qx?df lxdkft;Fu} tLj|atf; rNg] ePsf]n] lxd emf]Ssfx? atf;n] p8fP/ cGoq n}hfG5 . kmn:j?k w]/} 5fgfx? xfjf rNg]lbzflt/ kmsf{Og] xgfn] 5fgfdf yf]/} lxpF hDdf xG5 .xfjfsf] j]u sd eO{ 5fgfsf s]xL efux?df lxpF yk|f–yk|fdf hDdf xg hfG5 . 7fpF–7fpFdf ylk|Psf] lxpFef/nfO{ lgDgfg;f/ juL{s/0f ug{ ;lsG5–-s_ tNnf] 5fgfM dflyNnf] 5fgf;Fu ufFl;P/ /x]sf tNnf 5fgfx? afSnf] lxd ef/af6 k|efljt xG5glsgls dflyNnf] 5fgfaf6 klg lxpF ax]/ tNnf] 5fgfdf g} hDdf xg kU5 . 5t, afNsf]gL / bnfg klgo; ju{df k5{g / oL 5fgfx?df hDdf xg] lxpFsf] ef/ k|foMu/L dflyNnf] 5fgfsf] cfsf/df e/ kg]{hldg ef/df kU5 . ef/sf] ljt/0f oL yk|fx?sf] cfsf/df e/k5{ . hg ltgsg] 58s] efu -dflyNnf]5fgf glhssf] ;aeGbf 7"nf] ulx/fO;Fu_ b]lv w]/yf]/ ;dfg ulx/fO;Dd km/s xG5 .-v_ k|If]lkt efu;Fu}sf] r]K6f] 5fgfM dVo 3/;Fu hf]l8Psf kfgL 9nf] 5fgf ePsf] 3/, Kof/flk6 kvf{ncflbdf k|foM tLgsg] lxpF hDdf xg] 5fgf xG5g . hg ejgsf] k|If]lkt efusf]] dflyNnf] efu;Dd ku]sfxG5g . t/ k|foM cfotg ef/ ju{ -s_ eGbf sd xG5 .-u_ rRrf] tyf aqm 5fgfM rRrf] tyf aqm 5fgf 6kdf ;/b/ () l8u|L sf]0f cfsf/df xfjf nfUg]lbzflt/ kms]{sf xG5g, h;n] xfjf gnfUg] le/fnf] 5fgflt/ jfo cj/f]w sd ug]{ 5fofF agfpF5g .w]/}h;f] lxpF xfjf nfUg] lbzfaf6 gnfUg] lbzfdf kg]{ ePsf]n] o;n] slxn]sfxLF ux«f}+ c;Gtlnt ef/
  • 228. 38l;h{gf u/fpF5 . pQm ef/ slxn]sfxLF eOF ef/eGbf klg a9L xG5 . aqm 5fgfx?n] klg To:t} jf Tof]eGbf a9L c;Gtlnt ljt/0f -6kdf yf]/} lxpF hDdf xg] t/ cfs{df w]/} hDdf xg] sf/0fn]_ l;h{gf u5{g. csf]{tkm{ s] klg ;To xf] eg] 3/sf w]/}h;f] ;fgf rRr] 5fgfx?n] -slxn]sfxLF, ;Fw} xf]Og_ hldgsf]tngfdf yf]/} lxpF hDdf u5{g .ef/sf] kglj{t/0flxdef/sf] kglj{t/0f s]jn xfjfsf] sf/0fn] dfq} gxg ;S5 . le/fnf 5fgfx?df kfgL hDg] tfkqmdeGbf xNsf tnsf] tfkqmddf lxpFsf] kUnfO;Fu ufFl;Psf bOj6f ;d:ofx? 5g . klxnf], klUnPsf] kfgLsgfdf uP/ kgM hDg ;S5 / pRr lxdef/ lgDTofpF5 -kfgL kvf{nleq l5g{ klg ;S5_ . o;nfO{5fgfsf] dflyNnf] efusf] tfk Iflt 36fP/ s]xL xb;Dd ;dfwfg ug{ ;lsG5 . bf];|f], olb tNnf] txsf]le/fnf] 5fgf] / kfgL aUg] 9ndf klUnPsf] kfgL hDdf xG5 / km]l/ hD5 eg] of] lxpFsf] ?kdf a:5 .;fwf/0ftof ;dy/ 5fgfx?df le/fnf 5fgfsf] h:tf] kfgL aUg] 9n gxg] xgfn] lxpF tyf j/kmsf6qmfx? le/fnf 5fgfdf eGbf a9L r]K6f 5fgfd} /xG5g . cf}Bf]lus tyf Jofkfl/s ejgsf 7""nf r]K6f5fgfx?df k|If]lkt efu glhs} ux«f}+ ef/x?, h:t}M xfjf jxg] gfnL b]Vg ;lsG5 -h;n] slxn]sfxLF/f]lsPsf] lxpF 5]Sg] lxd kvf{nsf] sfd klg u5{g_ . ha of] lxpF kUnG5, 5fgfsf] vf]N;fh:tf] efu -;a}eGbf a9L df]l8Psf] If]q_ af6 tNnf] efult/ axg yfN5 lsgls gfnLx? hlxn] klg dflyNnf] efudf/x]sf xG5g . o; ef/sf] kglj{t/0fn] cem} yk df]l8g ;S5 h;n] vt/gfs cj:yfsf] l;h{gf klg ug{;S5 .lxd ef/sf] sf/0fn] xg] gf]S;fgLlxd ef/sf] sf/0fn] xg] ejg Ifltsf] ;+Vof tngfTds ?kdf Sofg8fdf a9L 5 . ltgLx?dWo] w]/}h;f]k/fgf / k|lqmof gk¥ofO{ agfOPsf sdhf]/ ejg xg] u5{g . To;sf/0f ejg gf]S;fgL lxd ef/n] eGbfklg lgdf{0fdf ePsf] sdhf]/Ln] g} a9L xg] u5{g . w]/}h;f] k/fgf dlSsPsf 3/x?, ls;fgsf sRrL3/x? tyf emk|fx?sf] ;fy;fy} sg} sg} ;dbfosf Jofj;flos 1fgljgf yf]/} nufgLdf agfOPsf;fj{hflgs 3/x? eTsg] u5{g . hals a9L lxpF hDg] 3/sf bnfg, 5t tyf ems]sf tNnf 5fgfx?nfO{lxd ef/n] cf+lzs gf]S;fgL ub{5 . of] cf+lzs gf]S;fgLn] cem} /fd|f] 3/ l8hfOgsf] cfjZostfnfO{k|f]T;fxg u5{ . w]/} gf]S;gLx? x/]s hf8f] df};ddf 5fgfdf hDdf ePsf] lxpF x6fP/ 6fl/P klg o;nfO{g} lxd ef/ sd ug]{ pkfosf ?kdf lng xFb}g .l8hfOg/sf] pQ/bfloTjlxd ef/sf] nflu cfjZos ;+lxtf ;fdfGo xgk5{ . To;}u/L l8hfOg/n] klg ;+lxtfdf lbPsfef/;DaGwL s/fx?nfO{ ltgLx?sf] k|efjsfl/tf, c;/ cflb gx]/L TolQs} nfu" ug{xFb}g . To;sf/0fl8hfOg/n] ejg If]q, cfsf/, ;+/rgf, lxpF hDdf xg] ;Defjgf cflb x]/L pQm ejgdf lxd ef/ sdug]{ pkfox? cjnDag ug{ kg]{ gkg]{ s/fsf] ljrf/ ug{k5{ .%=@=^ g]=/f=e=;+= !)* M !(($ :yfg dggo; b:tfj]hn] ejg lgdf{0f ubf{ ;fwf/0f tyf e"sDkLo ef/ sd ug{] ejg lgdf{0f ug{ :yfg rog ubf{dgg ug{kg]{ s]xL tTjx? pNn]v ub{5 . o;n] ejg lgdf{0f cfwf/e"t l8hfOgsf nflu :yfgcg;Gwfgsf] nflu cfjZos kg]{ d"ne"t s/fx?nfO{ klg lrq0f u5{ .:yfg dgg ;DefJo a;f]af;, sdhf]/ e""–agfj6 hldgsf] kUnfO, klx/f] tyf cl:y/ le/fnf hldgsf]cfwf/e"t cjwf/0ff tof/ ug{sf] nflu ul/G5 . o:tf ;DefJo hf]lvdx? sd ug{ cTofjZos GogLs/0fpkfo cjnDag ul/gk5{ .o; ;+lxtfn] plrt dfqfsf] :yfg cg;Gwfg tyf l8hfOg k|lqmofsf] cf}krfl/s k|ltj]bg tof/ kfg}{ kg]{s/fnfO{ hf]8 lbG5 / pQm k|ltj]bg snf l8hfOg ljefudf k]z ug{kg]{ cgdltsf nflu lbOg] lgj]bgtyf sfuhft;Fu} /fv]/ aemfpgk5{ . ;fy} gS;f agfOPsf ;a} lsl;dsf ejgx?df :yfg dgg
  • 229. 39clgjfo{ lgodsf ?kdf nufpg Pp6f /fd|f] cEof; xg ;S5 . t/ ljutdf of] k|fjwfg slxNo}Jojxf/df nfu" ul/Pg . ;fy;fy} ejg cgdlt k|lqmofdf :yfg dgg k|ltj]bg slxNo} klg aemfOPg .:yfg dggsf nflu ;Daf]wg ul/gkg]{ ;fwf/0f -cfwf/e"t_ k|Zgx? tn lbOPsf 5gMs] pQm :yfgdf e"–Ifo tyf klx/f]sf] cfGtl/s k|fs[lts ;+j]bgzLntfsf] vt/f 5<lgdf{0f sfo{n] ToxfFsf] cj:yfnfO{ pN6f] k|efj kf/L klx/f] hfg], e"–Ifo xg], hldg efl;g], kfgL aUg]af6f] ylgP/ Ejfª kg]{ ;Defjgf /xG5< lgdf{0f sfo{n] kfgL tflnsfnfO{ pN6f] c;/ k¥ofpF5<ejgsf] Joj:yfkg sg xb;Dd xg]5<hldgsf] cfGtl/s efun] k|:tfljt lgdf{0fsf] ef/ y]Ug ;S5<s] ToxfF ;du| ejgnfO{ sdhf]/ agfpg] s]xL c? k|fs[lts÷ef}uf]lns k|lqmofx? 5g<ejgsf] hunfO{ :yfoL tyf dha"t agfpg] pkfox? s] s] 5g<oL k|Zgx?sf] ;dfwfgn] cfGtl/s e"–l:ylt, pQm :yfgsf] k|of]uzfnf k/LIf0f, ef}uf]lns lg/LIf0f tyfhfFr, ulx/fO{ hfFr cflb ;lxtsf] yk :yfg dggsf] cfjZostf lgDTofpF5 .If]q cGj]if0fsf] xb pQm :yfgsf] ef}uf]lns tyf e"–cfs[lts l:ylt / ejgsf] dxTjdf e/k5{ .cGj]if0fsf] ulx/fO{ If]qsf] ef}uf]lns cj:yf h:t} ulx/fO{, cfGtl/s df6f]sf lsl;d, df};dsf] ulx/fO{,cfGtl/s hn ptf/r9fjsf] ulx/fO{, tiff/f]sf] ulx/fO{ cflbdf cfwfl/t /xG5 .o; ;+lxtfn] /fd|f] lgdf{0f cEof;sf] nflu l8hfOg/nfO{ lbgkg]{ kUnfO ;+j]bgzLntf, :jLsfo{ bafalgwf{/0f / hu l8hfOg;DaGwL s/fx? 56fPsf] 5 .km]l/, o; ;+lxtfn] o;sf k|fjwfgnfO{ Joy{ agfpFb} ejg l8hfOg/nfO{ c? ;+lxtf k|of]u ug{ cgdltlbG5 .%=@=& g]=/f=e=;+= !)( M kga{n k|bfg gul/Psf kvf{ng]=/f=e=;+= !)( M !(($ n] ejg lgdf{0fdf k|of]u xg] kga{n k|bfg gul/Psf kvf{nsf] ;+/rgf l8hfOgkIfnfO{ ;dfj]z u5{ . o;n] ejgx?sf] e"sDk k|lt/f]w l8hfOgsf s]xL kIfx?;Fu klg ;DaGw /fV5 .e"sDkLo If]q, e"sDkLo u0ff+s dxTjk"0f{ sf/s tyf k|bz{g u0ff+s;Fu ;Gbe{ ;fdu|Lx? g]=/f=e=;+= !)%–($ g]kfndf ejgsf] e"sDkLo l8hfOgcg;f/ :jLsf/ ul/Psf 5g .o; ;+lxtf cfwf/e"t ?kdf ef/tLo u0f:t/ dfkb08 cfOP; M !()%–!(*& kga{n k|bfg gul/Psf;+/rgf k|of]u cEof; ;+lxtf -t];|f] ;+zf]wg_ df cfwfl/t 5 .kvf{n lgdf{0fdf k|of]u ul/Psf kbfy{x? g]=/f=e=;+= !)!–($ ;fdu|L ljj/0fcg;f/ lnOPsf 5g . ;fy}Ansx? PgP; !÷@)#% OF6 snfcg;f/ lnOPsf] 5 .o; ;+lxtfn] bj} :jLsfo{ bafa l8hfOg tyf ;Ldf cj:yf l8hfOg k|of]u u/L d;nf ldnfP/ tof/ul/g] kga{n k|bfg ul/Psf tyf gul/Psf Ans OsfOsf] ;+/rgf l8hfOg tyf lgdf{0fsf nflu cfjZoskg]{ Go"gtd cfjZostfx? k|bfg ub{5 . dha"lt l8hfOg eGg] zLif{s o; ;+lxtfsf] k/fgf] ;+:s/0fdfgofF yk ul/Psf] zLif{s xf] . dha"t l8hfOgdf 9nfg gul/Psf Ansdf eGbf 9nfg ul/Psf Ansdfa9L hf]8 lbOPsf] 5 . lglZrt :yfg tyf lgdf{0f If]qdf agfOPsf ejgsf nflu k|of]u xg] kvf{nsf]cgejL l8hfOg ljlw klg ;dfj]z ul/Psf] 5 .o; ;+lxtfsf] kg/fjnf]sgn] ljleGg cGt/f{li6«o ;+lxtfx? h:t}M cGt/f{li6«o ejg ;+lxtf, o/f] ;+lxtfkfrf}F, Go"lhNofG8 u0f:t/ dfkb08, ef/tLo u0f:t/ dfkb08 tyf a]nfotL u0f:t/ dfkb08df /flvPsfk|fjwfgx?sf] pNn]v ub{5 . o; ;+lxtfdf dfly pNn]lvt ;+lxtfx?n] k|of]u u/]sf ljleGg ljlwx?sf]kg/fjnf]sg ul/Psf] lyof] . ;fy} l8hfOg ljlwx? klg tngf ul/Psf] lyof] . oL tngfx?sf] lj:t[tljj/0f cg;"rL–% df k|bfg ul/Psf] 5 .t/ ef/ PsqLs/0f tyf ef/ tTjx?h:tf cToGt dxTjk"0f{ s/fx?nfO{ o; ;+lxtfn] st} klg pNn]vu/]sf] 5}g .pQm cWoog ul/Psf ;+lxtfx? dWo] s]jn Go"lhNofG8sf] ;+lxtfdf dfq kvf{n ;+/rgfdf kvf{n grls{g]k|fjwfgx? /flvPsf 5g . rsf{O ;DaGwdf o; ;+lxtfn] pQm rsf{OnfO{ dha"t agfpg] k|fjwfg klg/fv]sf] 5 . To;}u/L kvf{n df]8bf xg] rsf{O tyf af+uf]kgfsf s/fx? klg pNn]v u/]sf] 5 .
  • 230. 40cfOP; M !()%–!(*& n] kga{n k|bfg gul/Psf] kvf{n l8hfOg;Fu ;DalGwt cw{ cgejL wf/0ff k|bfgub{5 . cGo b]zsf kvf{n ;+lxtfx?n] dha"t kvf{n l8hfOg;Fu ;DalGwt lj:t[t k|fjwfgx? k|bfgu5{g .%=# g]=/f=e=;+= M !)& sf] kg/fjnf]sg -clUg ;+lxtf_%=#=! ;fdfGo hfgsf/LcfunfuLsf] hf]lvd g]kfndf k|rlnt ljklQx?dWo] Ps kb{5 . w]/}h;f] sflt{sb]lv c;f/;Ddsf] ;Vvfdf};ddf k|z:t} cfunfuLsf 36gfx? ePsf] kfOG5 . sf7df8f}+sf] Ps dfq k/fgf] cfunfuL lgoGq0fPsfO h4 jf?0f oGqsf cg;f/ ;DklQ tyf dfgjsf] ck"/0fLo Iflt u/fpFb} k|To]s lbg Pp6fcfunfuLsf] 36gf 365 . pQm cfunfuLsf 36gfx? ljleGg sf/0fn] 36g ;S5g . h:t}M -s_ cfjf;of]hgfdf ql6, -v_ lgoGq0fsf pkfox?sf] cefj, -u_ clUg k|lt/f]wfTds lgdf{0fsf] cefj, -3_k|HjngzLn kbfy{sf] unt k|of]u, -ª_ cfunfuL hf]lvd;DaGwL r]tgfdf sdL, -r_ cfk/flwslqmofsnfkx?, -5_ clUg lgoGq0f gLlt sfof{Gjog ug]{ ;+u7gfTds Joj:yfsf] cefj, -h_ lahnL, UofF;tyf OGwg k|of]u;DaGwL ;/Iff ;+lxtfsf] cefj, / -em_ ;x/L If]q tyf pBf]ux?df ejg tyf kl/;/sf]cfunfuL ;/Iff ;+oGqsf] cefj .g]kfndf tLj| ultdf a9b} u/]sf] zx/Ls/0f k|lqmofn] !#@ eGbf a9L ljsl;t xFb} u/]sf zx/ tyf gofFgu/kflnsf cfjf; If]qsf] jftfj/0f l;h{gf u/]sf] 5 . h;sf] dtna ef}lts k"jf{wf/;lxtsf] zx/ljsf;sf] b/ tLj| xFb} hfg]5 . h;n] zx/L ljsf; ljlgod, /fli6«o ejg ;+lxtf tyf gofF gu/k|zf;gsf] Ifdtf a[l4 tyf k|j4{gsf] tLj| cfjZostfnfO{ lgDTofpg]5 .%=#=@ ejg ;+lxtfsf dVo nIo tyf p2]Zox?ejgsf] clUg ;/Iff l8hfOgsf lgDglnlvt dVo p2]Zox? xgk5{M hLjg ;/Iffsf] k|Tofe"lt, ;DklQsf] ;+/If0f tyf sfdsf] lg/Gt/tf ejgsf x/]s kIfn] lgDTofpg] vt/f–k|sf/sf] klxrfgsf nflu l8hfOg/x?df ejg ;r]tgftyf ltgLx?sf] k|efjsf/L k|lt/f]wfTds pkfo cjnDjgsf nflu cgdlt, / cfuf]nfO{ z? ePs} sf]7f tyf :yfgdf ;Lldt u/fpg]clUg ;+lxtfsf] p2]Zo eg]sf] ;/lIft hLjg, ;DklQ tyf ;fj{hlgs enfOsf j:tx?df Go"gtd l8hfOglgodg k|bfg ug{ / l8hfOg lgdf{0f, gofF j:t h:t} Knfli6ssf] k|of]u, k|of]u tyf cfotg, cjl:ylttyf ;Dk"0f{ ejgsf] dd{t;Def/ tyf clwsf/ If]qleqsf] ;+/rgf / ljz]ifu/L o;df ;~rflnt lglZrt;fdu|L cflbsf] lgodg tyf lgoGq0f u/L Iflt sd u/fpg xf] . o;n] gofF clUg tyf hLjg ;/Iffsl7gfOx? lgDTofPsf] 5 .%=#=# g]kfn clUg ;+lxtfsf] :jLs[lt;g !(($ df g]kfnsf] clUg ;/Iff ;+lxtf -g]=/f=e=;+= !)&_ kl/ro u/fOPsf] lyof] . t/ of] ;+lxtfJojxf/df bn{e} cEof; ul/Psf] tyf lgdf{0f cgdlt lbPsf sg} klg ejg clUg ;/Iff ;+lxtfcg;f/gePsf]n] o;af6 Tolt w]/} cgej a6Ng ;lsPsf] 5}g .%=#=$ dVo sdhf]/Lo; clUg ;+lxtfsf] dVo sdhf]/L eg]sf] o;nfO{ gu/kflnsfn] k|bfg ug]{ ejg cgdlt k|lqmof leqNofO{ ejg ljlgoddf ;dfj]z gul/g tyf gu/kflnsfnfO{ klg clUg ;+lxtf;Fu ;DalGwt s/fx/sf]sfof{Gjogsf nflu ;+:yfut ;wf/ gul/g xf] .%=#=% ejg ;+lxtfdf clUg ;/Iffsf] cfjZostfg]kfn /fli6«o ejg ;+lxtfcGtu{tsf] clUg ;/Iff ;+lxtfn] clUg ;/Iffdf s]xL lglZrt c:yfoL l;kmfl/;tof/ u/]sf] 5 h;n] ;fdfGo ejgx?nfO{ dfq} ;dfj]z u5{ . o;n] ;Lldt k|fjwfgsf Go"gtd
  • 231. 41cfjZostfx? h:t}M -s_ cfunfuL ePsf] 7fpF, -v_ clUg lgjf/s, -u_ clUg lgjf/0fsf] nflu kfgLsf]e08f/, -3_ clUg If]q ;Ldf+sgsf] cfjZostf, -ª_ plrt kxFr Joj:yf, km/flsnf 9f]sf, cfuf]af6 efUg]tl/sf, lg:sg] 9f]sfx?, kfFrtn] jf Tof] eGbf cUnf 3/x?sf] cfunfuLaf6 efUg] tl/sf, cfunfuLaf6aRg efUg] l;F9L, vnf 7fpF, ejg kxFr, r6ofª ;rfnssf] Joj:yf cflbsf ;fwf/0f cfjZostf cflb;Fu dfq} ;DaGw /fV5 .ef/tLo ;+lxtfx? cfOP; !^$! b]lv cfOP; !^$* df clUg ;/Iffsf dxTjk"0f{ ;jfnx? ;dfj]zul/Psf 5g . t/ oL ejg tyf cfjf;sf] clUg ;/Iffsf] k"0f{ cfZjf;g lbg lj:t[t tyf k|z:t 5geg]/ pNn]v ug{ ;lsGg . cfOP; !^$@– ;fwg tyf lgdf{0fn] ;fwgsf] lj:t[t ljj/0f, ;+/rgf tTjx?tyf k|sf/ ! -^ 3G6f_ b]lv k|sf/ % -cfwf 3G6f_ ;Ddsf clUg lgoGq0f bhf{df cfwfl/t lgdf{0f k|sf/k|bfg u/]sf] 5 . pQm ef/tLo ;+lxtfn] cfuf]df kgf{n] xg] cfunfuL hf]lvd, JolQmut hf]lvd, lrlDg;Fu;DalGwt ljz]if ;+/rgf, lrlDg, rnf], ljBtLo ;+:yfkgf, u}/–ljBtLo ;+:yfkgf, clUg lgjf/0f ;fwgx?tyf clUgbf]xg 9f]sfx? cflb;Fu ;DalGwt cfjZostfx?sf] ljz]if pNn]v u/]sf] 5 .cGt/f{li6«o ;+lxtf kl/ifb4f/f k|sflzt cGt/f{li6«o clUg ;+lxtf a9L ;3g 5 ;fy} o;n] ef/tLo clUg;+lxtf / g]=/f=e=;+= n] ;d]t ;dfj]z gu/]sf kIfx?nfO{ ;dfj]z u5{ . cGt/f{li6«o clUg ;+lxtfsf];+/rgfut ?k/]vf kl/lzi6–!! df tflnsf ! df ;"rLa4 ul/Psf] 5 . cfOP; tyf g]=/f=e=;+= n];dfj]z gu/]sf dVo ljlzi6 ljz]iftfx? o; k|sf/ 5gM-s_ k|zf;g-v_ cfsl:ds of]hgf tyf tof/L-u_ clUg ;]jf ljz]iftf-3_ ejg ;]jf ljz]iftf-ª_ cfsl:ds kxFr 9f]sf-r_ kfn, 5t, lemNnL ;+/rgf-5_ lgdf{0f tyf ljWj+;sf] a]nf clUg ;/Iff-h_ cfuf] lgoGq0fsf nflu kfgL cfk"lt{sf] Joj:yf-em_ cfuf] lgiqmd0f of]hgf, /-~f_ kfls{ª lgif]w ul/Psf] clUg af6f]sf] klxrfgvf;u/L cUnf / ljz]if tyf dxTjk"0f{ ejgsf] l8hfOg ug{ ufx|f] k|lqmof ePsf] 5 . o; k|lqmofdf w]/}bIftf, pTkfbg tyf tf}/tl/sfsf] ;lDd>0fsf] cfjZostf k5{ . Pp6f ;j{u0f;DkGg ejg l8hfOgsf]nflu w]/} ;DefJo cfsl:ds cj:yfx?sf] k|jGw cfjZos k5{ . g]=/f=e=;+= !)& cGt/fli6«o ;+lxtfsf]:t/df cBfjlws ul/gk5{ . ;fy;fy} dVo ahf/ If]q tyf gofF lgdf{0f If]qdf /x]sf Jofjxfl/scj:yfx?nfO{ ;Daf]wg ul/gk5{ . ljleGg clUg ;/Iff ;+lxtfsf] lj:t[t tngf ub}{ kl/lzi6–!! dfk|:tt ul/Psf] 5 . s]lel68L;Ln] k|bfg u/]sf] ejg ljlgodx?;d]t ;dfj]z ul/Psf] of]hgf tyfsfo{qmdx?sf] 5f]6f] kg/fjnf]sg klg k|bfg ul/Psf] 5 . h;df ;+/rgfut clUg OlGhlgol/ªcfjZostfx?, uugrDaL ejgsf cfjZostfx?, clUg ;/Iff ;]jfsf of]Uotf, clUg ;/Iff ;+lxtfsf]gdgf ?k/]vf cflb klg lbOPsf] 5 .%=$ g]=/f=e=;+= !!), !!!, !!@, !!#, !!$ sf] kg/fjnf]sg -kvf{n, kL;L;L, ;fwg, lgdf{0f ;/Iff_%=$=! g]=/f=e=;+= !!) M ;fwf/0f tyf kga{n k|bfg ul/Psf] s+lqm6o; ;+lxtfnfO{ ef/tLo cfOP; $%^ – !(&* sf] g]kfnL ;+zf]wgsf] ?kdf lnOG5 . h;df s]xLkbfjnLx? h:t}M …OlG8ofÚnfO{ …g]kfnÚ, …u0f:t/ dfkb08ÚnfO{ …;+lxtfÚ sf] ?kdf ;+zf]wg ul/Psf] 5 . o;;+lxtfsf] k|of]usf] nflu cfOP; $%^ sf] ;3g ;Gbe{ cfjZos kg]{ ePsf]n] o; ;+lxtfsf] ;f/ g}x/fPsf] tyf Jofjxfl/s ?kdf of] k|of]uljlxg ePsf] 5 .
  • 232. 42ef/tLo ;+lxtf cfOP; $%^ – !(&* sf w]/}h;f] ;Gbe{x? kl/jt{g gu/L 5f]l8Psf] lyof] . ;fy} cfOP;$%^ – !(&* df kl5 ul/g] sg} klg ;+zf]wg g]=/f=e=;+= !!) – ($ df ljlzi6 ?kdf klxrfg tyfcBfjlws gu/];Dd nfu" gxg] s/f JoQm ul/Psf] lyof] .o; ;+lxtfsf] ;a}eGbf dxTjk"0f{ kIf eg]sf] o;n] ef/ ;lDd>0fsf] nflu dfu{bz{g k|bfg u/]sf] 5 . hxfFd[tef/nfO{ ef/ sf/ssf] % k|ltzt sf] ?kdf Jojxf/ ul/Psf] 5 . of] sf/snfO{ g]=/f=e=;+= ))) tyfg]=/f=e=;+= !)% ;Fu ;dGjo u/fpg cfjZos 5 .tflnsf–!@ n] ef/sf ljleGg ;lDd>0fx?sf] cf+lzs ;/Iff sf/s d"No k|bfg u/]sf] 5 / Pp6f csf]{;lDd>0f DL + 0.9 yKg ;emfj lbOPsf] 5 .cBfjlws ubf{ o; ;+lxtfdf lgDglnlvt s/fx? ;dfj]z ug{ ;lsG5– ;Lldt cj:yf ljlw bO{ tkmL{ :Nofa l8hfOgsf] nflu cfjZos kg]{ s/fx?sf] Joj:yf cfwf/ :Nofasf] k|fjwfg -pbfx/0fsf] nflu # tkmL{ :Nofa;lxtsf] :Nofa_ cfjZos u0ff+s ɑx, ɑy, ßx, ßy ;lxtsf ljleGg k|sf/sf :Nofax? / rn/flzx?sf]tflnsf k|bfg kga{n k|bfg ul/Psf] s+lqm6 ;+/rgfsf] l8hfOg pbfx/0fx?, e"sDk ;+lxtf;Ddt xgsf nflukga{n lbOPsf :6Lnsf] lj:t[t ljj/0f g]=/f=e=;+= df b]vfpgk5{, clu|d–bafa s+lqm6sf k|fjwfgx? ;dfj]z ul/gk5{, 9nfg ug{ cufl8sf ;+/rgf k|fjwfgx? agfOgk5{,%=$=@ g]=/f=e=;+=–!!! M !(($ :6Lno; ;+lxtfn] ef/tLo ;+lxtf cfOP; *)) – !(*$ :6Lndf ;fwf/0f lgdf{0fsf nflu cEof; ;+lxtf,bf];|f] ;+;f]wgnfO{ g]=/f=e=;+= ))) tyf g]=/f=e=;+= !)% – g]kfndf ejgsf] e"sDkLo l8hfOg;Fu d]nvfg] u/L ;+zf]wg u/L ;dfj]z u5{ . pkoQm g]kfn u0f:t/ dfkb08 lj:tf/ geP;Dd ef/tLo ;fwg;+lxtfsf ;Gbe{x? kl/jt{g gxg] s/f klg o;n] JoQm u5{ . GolhNofG8 u0f:t/ dfkb08 Pgh]8P;#$)$M !(&& :6Ln ;+/rgf l8hfOg ;+lxtfsf] ;3g k|of]u ul/Psf] 5 . /, o; ;+lxtfnfO{ …cfOP;*)) – !(*$ sf] g]kfn ;+zf]wgÚ sf] ?kdf pNn]v ul/G5 .;fwf/0f :6Ln tyf ;+/rgf lgdf{0f h:t} kn, qm]g, 6of+sL, k|;f/0f 6fj/ tyf hxfh ;"rs 6fj/df nfu"xg] ;+lxtf o;df pNn]v ul/Psf] 5}g . To;}u/L # ldld eGbf sd afSnf ;fwg tyf lr;f] /f]ws k|sfzdfks sIfx? pNn]v ul/Psf] 5}g .o; ;+lxtfn] e"sDkLo l8hfOgsf k|fjwfgx? agfPsf] 5 . h;n] l:y//flz axgLo If0f k|lt/f]w rf}sf];tyf axgLo aGwg rf}sf];sf] ?kdf ;dfj]z u5{ .;+lxtfsf jfSof+z;Fu ;DalGwt s]xL ljlzi6 l6Kk0fLx? kl/lzi6–^df lbOPsf 5g .%=$=# g]=/f=e=;+=– !!@ M sf7 !(($o; ;+lxtfn] ;+/rgfTds sf7 l8hfOgsf] l;4fGtnfO{ ;d]65 . /, sf7sf lsl;dsf] ljz]if ljj/0f,juL{s/0f tyf sf7 lgdf{0fdf lsnfn] hf]8g] s/fnfO{ klg ;lDdlnt u5{ .of] ;+lxtf ef/tLo u0f:t/ dfkb08 cfOP; **# – !(&) ejgdf ;+/rgfTds sf7, t];|f] ;+zf]wg tyfcfOP; M @#^^–!(*# lsnf4f/f hf]l8Psf] sf7 ;+/rgf, klxnf] ;+zf]wgdf cfwfl/t 5 .o; ;+lxtfn] wld/f gnfUg] sf7, KnfOp8 tyf sf7 vftsf] hu ;d]6b}g .o; ;+lxtfn] sf7 k|sf/sf ;fwf/0f ljz]]iftfx? h:t} l6sfpkgf, cfwf/e"t bafa, jfikc+z, lr/]sfsf7sf cfsf/x?, lsnf4f/f hf]l8g] sf7sf nflu tYof+s, af]N64f/f hf]l8g] / ud4f/f hf]l8g] sf7sf]tYof+s tyf ;"rgf ;dfj]z ug]{ ePsf]n] o;nfO{ a9L lj:t[t eGg ;lsG5 . o;n] l8hfOg cjwf/0ffx?agfPsf] 5 h;n] cfOP; ;+lxtfsf cfjZostfx? afx]s ;Dk"0f{ ef/sf] v/fa ;lDd>0f sfod /fVg]Ifdtfsf] yk cfjZostf ;dfj]z u5{ .
  • 233. 43;+lxtfsf jfSof+z;Fu ;DalGwt s]xL ljlzi6 l6Kk0fLx? kl/lzi6–^ df lbOPsf 5g .%=$=$ g]=/f=e=;+=– !!# M cfNdlgod !(($dfu{lgb]{zgsf >[ªvnf;Fu ;DalGwt b:tfa]h ;fwf/0f cfNdlgod ;+/rgfsf] nflu dfq nlIft ul/Psf5g . g]kfndf jt{dfg ;dodf ;+/rgfTds ;fdu|Lsf] ?kdf cfNdlgodsf] k|of]u Psbd} ;Lldt 5 . /,;+lxtf tof/ ul/Psf] klg 5}g . To;}n] jf:tljs l8hfOgsf nflu cGo b]zsf ;+lxtfx? ;fef/ ul/gk5{.pQm dfu{lgb]{zgn] ;+/rgfTds ljz]iftfx? h:t} dha"t, nrstf dfkf+s, 3if{0f, tfksf] km}nfj6 tyfvDRofO{, ysfg, Ifo ;/Iff, lgdf{0f j]lN8Ë, oflGqs hf]8fO / tfk cflb ;dfj]z u5{ .;fdfGotof, cfNdlgod ;+/rgfsf] pkoQm l8hfOg cgdltsf] nflu plrt ;"q;lxt o;sf ljleGgu0fx?sf] hfgsf/L;lxt o; ;+lxtf cBfjlws ug{ cfjZos 5 eGg] 7flgG5 . l8hfOg cjwf/0ffsfnflu ejg afx]ssf ;+/rgfdf cfNdlgodsf] k|of]u h:t} xjfOhxfh OlGhlgol/Ë tyf jfo ult lj1fgkIf;Fu ;DalGwt xNsf tf}n ePsf kftnf ;+/rgf klg ;dfj]z ul/gk5{ . ;fy} l8hfOg tyflrqsnfsf k"/s pbfx/0fx? clt g} pkof]uL xg]5g .;+lxtfsf jfSof+z;Fu ;DalGwt s]xL ljlzi6 l6Kk0fLx? kl/lzi6–^ df lbOPsf 5g .%=$=% g]=/f=e=;+= !!$ M !(($ lgdf{0f ;/Iffo; dfkb08sf] p2]Zo eg]sf] 3/ tyf ejg lgdf{0f sfo{;Fu ;DalGwt JolQmx?nfO{ plrt bhf{sf]lgdf{0f ;/Iff k|bfg ug{ xf] . o; ;+lxtfdf /x]sf k|fjwfgx? ejg tyf cGo lgdf{0f tyf Wj+;fTdssfo{ ubf{ ckgfOg kg]{ Go"gtd cfjZos k|fjwfgx?df k5{g .o; ;+lxtfn] ejg lgdf{0f tyf Wj+;, clUg ;/Iff pks/0f ;~rfng, ;fwg ;~rfng, lgdf{0f If]qleqsf]6«flkms Joj:yf / /;fog tyf ljikmf]6s kbfy{ h:tf ljz]if kbfy{sf] k|of]u cflb sfo{df vl6Psfsfdbf/sf] :jf:Yo tyf ;/Iff Joj:yf u/]sf] 5 .o;n] ;fwg ;~rfng, k|fylds pkrf/ ;ljwf tyf :jf:Yo, clUg k|lt/f]w e"–pTvggsf] nflu If]qsf]tof/L, husf] lgdf{0f, kvf{n lgdf{0f, 5fgf lgdf{0f, ljBtLo sfo{, c:yfoL sfo{, ;+/rgfsf] Wj+;,ljikmf]6s kbfy{sf] k|of]u tyf >d sNof0f;DaGwL ljz]if Joj:yf u/]sf] 5 . oL tTjx? afx]s ;/Iffcjwf/0ff cfjZos kg]{ c? w]/} s/fx? 5g . hg ;+lxtf jf dfu{lgb]{zgdf ;dfj]z ug{ ;lsg]5 .lgdf{0f sfo{df k|ToIf ;+nUg /xg] ljleGg cGt/f{li6«o tTjx?n] lgdf{0f ;/Iff kl:tsfnfO{ ltgLx?sf];fd"lxs pQ/bfloTjsf] ?kdf hf/L u/]sf 5g . /, j}wflgs lgod, ljlgod tyf ;Demf}tf b:tfj]h4f/f;~rfng u/]sf] kfOG5 . ;fy}, ;Demf}tf b:tfj]h plrt clwsf/Laf6 sfof{Gjog ul/G5 . pQmkl:tsfx?4f/f ;dfj]z ul/Psf s]xL dxTjk"0f{ kIfx?df dfu{lgb]{g l;4fGt tyf ;du| ;/Iff Joj:yfkgk|lqmofsf dVo sfo{x? kb{5g .pQm kl:tsfx?n] b3{6gfaf6 aRg] cfjZostf tyf k|lqmof, ;/Iff, lgdf{0fdf lgoGq0fsf] sdL, ;~rfngtyf dd{t / ;]jf cflb;DaGwL ;fwf/0f 1fg k|bfg u5{g . ;/Iff p2]Zo ;/lIft jftfj/0f ljsl;t ug{tof/ ul/Psf] xf] h;n] ubf{ b3{6gf/lxt lgdf{0f sfo{ k|fKt xf]; . 7]s]bf/x? ;/lIft tj/n] sfo{x?;~rfng ug{ tyf ;Dk"0f{ sfdbf/x?, ;j{;fwf/0f, u|fxssf sd{rf/Lx? tyf kl/of]hgf ;Dks{df cfpg;Sg] cGo ;Dk"0f{ JolQmx?sf] ;/Iff ug{ pQ/bfoL 7x/ofOG5g . ;/Iff kl/of]hgfsf] c+u xgk5{ . pQmkl:tsfdf -s_ kl/efiff, -v_ lgdf{0f ;/Iff sfo{qmd, -u_ ;/Iff cfjZostfx?, -3_ pks/0f tyf ;jf/L;fwg ;~rfng, / -ª_ k|ltj]bg n]vg k|lqmof /x]sf 5g .%=% g]=/f=e=;+= M @)!, @)@, @)#, @)$, @)% sf] kg/fjnf]sg -Pdcf/6L, sRrL tyf df6f]sf ejg_%=%=! ;fwf/0f hfgsf/LPdcf/6Lsf] dVo p2]Zo eg]sf] tLg tnf;Ddsf kga{n lbOPsf s+lqm6, 9fFrf lgsflnPsf, 3/wgLcfkm}Fn] agfPsf g]kfnsf ;fdfGo cfjf; u[x?df k|of]u ug{ tof/ ul/Psf] kl/df0f tyf ljleGg
  • 234. 44;+/rgfTds tyf u}/ ;+/rgfTds tTjx?sf] lj:t[t ljj/0f k|bfg ug{ xf] . h;n] -s_ d;nf k|of]u u/LnufPsf] OF6fsf] kvf{nn] 3]l/Psf] cf/;L;L, -v_ ef/ axg ug]{ OF6fsf] kvf{n, -u_ sRrL u|fdL0f lgdf{0ftyf df6f]sf ejgx? ;dfj]z u5{ .Pdcf/6Ldf k|:tt ul/Psf] l8hfOg dfu{lgb]{zg e"sDkLo If]q …;LÚ ;Fu ;dfg /xL e"sDkLo u0ff+s)=!@* ePsf t/fO tyf lxdfnosf pQ/L k|b]zsf ;fwf/0f cfjf; u[xsf nflu xf] .hals Pdcf/6L l8hfOg sg} ;wf/ljgf tyf ;+lxtfdf JofVof ul/Psf ;Lldttf aflx/ uP/ cGo pRre"sDkLo If]qx?df k|of]u ul/G5 . nfO;]G;jfnf l8hfOg/x? Pdcf/6Ln] lbPsf oL dfu{lgb]{zg tyfl8hfOgx? hg;s} ;+/rgf, cfsf/ tyf prfO ePsf tnfx? tyf ejgx?df k|of]u u5{g . o;dflbPsf pQm lj:t[t l8hfOgx? ljZn]if0faf6 :yflkt ul/Psf xf]Ogg . g t c? sg} ;+lxtf h:t} clUg;+lxtf, KnlDaª ;+lxtf, ljBtLo ;+lxtf, lgdf{0f ljlw cflb cgs"n g} 5g .Pdcf/6L l8hfOgdf ePsf lj:t[t s/fx? u0f:t/ k|Tofe"ltsf nflu rflxg] lgdf{0f cfjZostf h:t}M !dL6/ eGbf sd b"/Laf6 s+lqm6 /fVbfsf ;Lldttf, s+lqm6nfO{ vFlbnf] agfpg], s+lqm6 tyf hu /:tDedf !) / !@ ldld ePsf ;fgf Aof; kga{ndf xgL sDasf] /f]sfj6 cflbsf] ljrf/} gu/L lbOPsf]5 .o;n] a9bf] ;/Iff hf]lvd v8f u/]sf] 5 . hals sg} lj:t[t tYof+s pknAw gePsf]n] tyf /]s8{gul/Psf]n] oL ljj/0fsf] lj:t[t n]vfhf]vf lgwf{/0f ul/Psf] 5}g . ;fdfGotof, oL l8hfOgx? cGo;+lxtf h:t}M clUg ;/Iff ;+lxtf, lgdf{0f ;+lxtf, lgdf{0f ;/Iff ;+lxtf, jf:tsnf ;+lxtf, of]hgf ;+lxtfcflb cg;f/ eP gePsf] hfFRg] ljifo ePsf lyPgg . g]kfnsf jt{dfg clUg hf]lvdx? Pdcf/6Lju{;Fu ;DalGwt ejg;Fu ufFl;Psf 5g / 7"nf] hf]lvd v8f u/]sf 5g .Pdcf/6LnfO{ Ps k|sf/sf] k|of]u ug{ tof/ ul/Psf] clws l8hfOgdf cfwfl/t l8hfOg pbfx/0fsf?kdf lnOG5, o;sf/0f of] g]=/f=e=;+= sf] c+u xgxFb}g . cufl8, l8hfOg pbfx/0fsf] Pp6f ;d"x tTsfnk|of]u ug]{ p2]Zosf nflu tof/ kfl/Psf] xgk5{ h;n] k|of]u xg] ;Dk"0f{ ;+lxtfsf cfjZostfx? k"/fu/f]; eGg] dflgG5 .o; ;+lxtfdf cl3 ;fl/Psf l;kmfl/;x? g]kfnel/df agfOg] ;fj{hlgs ejgdf dfq ;Lldt geP/gu/kflnsf, ;x/L If]q tyf u|fdL0f If]q hxfF agfP klg ;a} k|sf/sf PnP;Pddf afWofTds xgk5{ .Pdcf/6L slt cy{k"0f{ ?kdf pkof]u ul/Psf] 5 eg]/ a‰g xfn;fn}sf jif{df ePsf ejg lgdf{0fsftYof+s tyf ;"rgf ;+sng ug{ rfvnfUbf] xg]5 .%=%=@ g]=/f=e=;+= @)! M afWosf/L Jofjxfl/s k|fjwfg– d;nf nufO{ agfOPsf kvf{n;lxtsf kga{nk|bfg ul/Psf s+lqm6 ejgo:tf kvf{n k|of]u ug]{ cEof; ;jf{lws 5 t/ lolgx?nfO{ ;+/rgfsf] l8hfOgdf u}/ ;+/rgfTdsh:tf]7flgG5 / u0fgf klg ul/Fb}g . /, To;f] ubf{ o;n] k|;:t} ;/Iff sl7gfO v8f ub{5 . To;sf/0fPdcf/6L sf] p2]Zo eg]sf] ;s/fTds c;/ k|fKt ug{ / ldtJolotfsf] nflu o:tf kvf{nsf] plrt:yfkgf lglZrt ug{ xf] .Pdcf/6L eOF tyf 5fgf]df kga{n lbOPsf s+lqm6 :Nofa ePsf Psgf;sf lgoldt :tDe–aLd k|sf/sf3/x?nfO{ nlIft ul/Psf] xf] . o;n] d;nf k|of]u u/L agfPsf ejgx?sf nflu ;+/rgfTds tyf u}/;+/rgfTds ;b:ox?sf] lj:t[t ljj/0f;lxt ;Dk"0f{ ;+/rgfTds tTjx?sf nflu tTsfn} k|of]u ug{tof/ ul/Psf l8hfOgx? k|:tt u5{ .%=%=# g]=/f=e=;+= @)@ M Pdcf/6L ef/ axg ug]{ kvf{no; Pdcf/6Ln] lgb]{lzt ul/Psf cfwf/x? cgs"n ef/ axg ug]{ kvf{n ePsf ejgx? ;d]65 . o;n]sf7sf 3/, df6f]sf sRrL 3/ jf sRrL OF6fn] agfPsf 3/ ;d]6b}g .of] Pdcf/6L rf}8fO{, tnf prfO{ cflbsf lglZrt ;Ldfsf afahb lgDg s/fx?df j}w 5M!= tLg tnf;Ddsf ;Ld]G6 d;nf nufO{ agfOPsf OF6sf kvf{n ePsf ef/ axg ug]{ 3/@= bO{ tnf;Ddsf ;Ld]G6 d;nf nufO{ agfOPsf 9Ëfsf kvf{n ePsf ef/ axg ug]{ 3/
  • 235. 45#= bO{ tnf;Ddsf df6f]sf d;nf nufO{ agfOPsf OF6fsf] kvf{n ePsf ef/ axg ug]{ 3/ef/ axg ug]{ kvf{nsf nflu Pdcf/6Lsf k|z:t} sdhf]/Lx? ePsf] dflgG5 . h;n] ;+/rgfsfcfjZostfx?nfO{ c;/ u/]sf] 5 . s]xL pbfx/0fx? tn lbOPsf 5gM Pdcf/6L k|fylds ?kdf cf]e/l;o/ tyf gS;f agfpg] dfG5]h:tf dWod vfnsf 6]lSgl;ogsfcfjZostfx? ;Daf]wg ug]{ s/fdf nlIft 5 . pgLx?sf] kxFr cGo ;+lxtfdf gxg] xgfn] cGo;+lxtfsf] ;Gbe{ x6fpg ;lsg]5 . o;nfO{ :jtGq agfpg ;lsG5 / cGo cfjZos lj:t[ts/fx? k|bfg ug{ ;lsg]5 . lgdf{0fdf k|of]u ul/Psf OF6fsf cfsf/x? 7"nf] cfsf/df tndfly k/]sf]n] l;kmfl/; ul/Psf]@#) ldld Go"gtd kvf{n df]6fO{ Jofjxfl/s ?kdf nfu" ul/Psf] 5}g . /, Jofjxfl/s ?kdfyfDg] ;LdfeGbf aflx/ k5{ . tyf kvf{nsf] Pstkm{ kfOk la5ofpg] nfOgsf nflu lgdf{0f ug{;lsPg . o;sf/0f o; k|sf/sf kvf{nx? ;+/rgfTds ;/Iff cfjZostfcg;f/ 5g eg]/ eGg;lsPg . jf:tjdf ;+/rgfTds ?k/]vfsf cfwf/df e/ofªsf] efun] yk tNnf yK5 t/ of] efu ;dfj]zgul/Psf] xgfn] o; efudf k|of]u ul/Psf …bO{ tn]Ú tyf …tLg tn]Ú gfd ;xL 5}gg . vf;df…bO{ tn]Ú ejg s]jn …Ps tn]Ú dfq xg . / To;}u/L cGo tnf lgwf{/0f ul/G5 . …If]qÚdf æPdcf/6L n] sf7sf 3/, df6f]sf sRrL 3/ jf sRrL OF6fn] agfOPsf 3/ ;dfj]zub}{g . o; k|sf/sf ejgdf oL lgodx? k|of]u ug]{ sg} k|of;x? ul/gxGgÆ eGg] s/f JoQmul/Psf] lyof] . t/ df6f]sf] d;nf nufOPsf ef/ axg ug]{ kvf{n l8hfOg pbfx/0fdf ;dfj]zul/Psf] 5 . …sRrL OF6fÚ lgdf{0f sfo{sf] kl/efiff k|bfg ul/gk5{ / s]xL ;fd~h:otf x]l/gk5{ .df6f]sf] d;nf nufO{ agfOPsf ef/ axg ug]{ kvf{nnfO{ g]=/f=e=;+= @)# df n}hfgk5{ . Jojxf/df k|of]u ul/Psf :yfgLo OF6fsf cfsf/ pNn]v ul/Psf] 5}g / k|of]u ul/Psf OF6fsfcfsf/ Ps ?ksf 5}gg . Pdcf/6L u}/ OlGhlgol/ª ejgx?sf nflu u0f:t/Lotf k|Tofe"lt cfjZostfsf] jf:tf gu/Ltyf sfo{ If]qdf lg/LIfs / u}/ Jofj;flos JolQmx?;Fu ;DaGw /fVg] xgfn] Pdcf/6Ldf ;fwgtyf kvf{n jf 3g Ifdtf d;nfsf OlGhlgol/ª u0fx?sf] pNn]v ug{n] …sd 1fgÚnfO{ bzf{pF5 .logLx?n] ;+lxtfn] Wofg lbPsf] ;/IffnfO{ lglZrt ub}{gg . …dxTjk"0f{ ejgx?Údf juL{s/0f ul/Psf sg} klg ejgx? Pdcf/6Lsf ;LdfeGbf aflx/ kg]{ePsf]n] oL ejgx?sf] l8hfOg Pdcf/6Ldf cfwfl/t xg lbgxFb}g . kvf{n aGwg k"0f{ lj:tf/df JofVof ug{ ;lsg]5 . kvf{ndf cfjZos kg]{ vnf efusf] gu/kflnsfsf ejg cgdlt zfvfsf clwsf/L tyfl8hfOg/x?4f/f /fd|/L hfFr ul/Psf] 5}g . vnf efu jl/kl/sf] kga{n k|fjwfg cJofjxfl/s 5 . lrq–&=# df b]vfOPsf] …bfFt]–hf]8fOÚ 7f8f] geO{ l;F9LoQm ;+/rgfsf] sgfdf agfpg ;lsg]xgfn] pQm hf]8fO unt 5 . kvf{nsf] prfOleq} w]/} :yfgdf lbg ;lsg] lIflthLo kga{nsf] kl/ro o; ;+lxtfsf] ;a}eGbf/fd|f] efu xf] . Ps jf bO{ tn] ;fgf ejgsf] nflu lbOg] kga{n Fe 500 ldtJolotfsf] cfwf/df cfjZosgxg ;S5 .%=%=$ g]=/f=e=;+= M !(($– e"sDk k|lt/f]w ejg lgdf{0fsf nflu dfu{lgb]{zg M sRrL kvf{nPdcf/6L sRrL kvf{nsf] e"sDk k|lt/f]w ejg lgdf{0fsf nflu dfu{lgb]{zgsf] ?kdf tof/ ul/Psf] xf] .of] 3/wgL jf lgdf{tfn] k|fljlwssf] s]xL ;xof]u lnP/ sfof{Gjog u?g eGg] p2]Zo /flvPsf] 5 .o; ;+lxtf cBfjlws ubf{ dgg ug{kg]{ s]xL aFbfx? 5g . hg o;k|sf/ 5gM
  • 236. 46 ;fdfGotof ;a}eGbf dflyNnf] tnfnfO{ ;+/rgfTds tTjsf] ?kdf lnOFb}g / tnf lx;fa ubf{klg o;nfO{ Vofn ul/Fb}g . of] cln emlSsg] vfnsf] 5 / JofVof ug{ cfjZos 5 . 7f8f] kga{nsf] k|fjwfgn] kvf{n aGwgnfO{ c;/ u5{ / ;du|df sdhf]/ If]q l;h{gf u5{ . 7f8f] kga{nnfO{ Ifo k|lt/f]w pkrf/ cfjZos k5{ . ljs0f{ ansf] Joj:yfsf] cfjZostf hl6n agfOPsf] 5 . /, /fd|f];Fu lgdf{0f ug{ ;lsFb}g . aGwg l8hfOg / k|bz{g k|bfg ul/gk5{ . ;+lxtfdf pNn]v gul/Psf cGo aGwgx?nfO{ cgdltlbg ;lsg]5 . 9Ëf tyf OF6fsf] kvf{nsf] nflu #)) ldld -Snh @=&_ sf] kvf{n df]6fO cgs"n 5}g . ;Ld]G6 s+lqm6sf] ldl>t c+zn] kfgL–;Ld]G6 cgkft rf}yf] c+z -!M@M$M)=%_ sf] ?kdf kfgL–;Ld]G6 cgkft )=% ePsf] ;"lrt ug]{5 . kvf{nsf] s]Gb|df afF;sf] vDafsf] k|of]u hl6n 5 . o;n] kvf{n ;+/rgfnfO{ c;/ u5{ /kvf{n;Fu gufFl;g] xgfn] sg} p2]Zo klg /fVb}g . -lrq ^=!_ vnf 5f]l8Psf] 7fpFsf] jl/kl/ 7f8f] O:kftsf] k|of]u w]/} g} hl6n 5 / Jofjxfl/s ?kdf k|of]uul/Fb}g . -lrq !)=!_ lIflthLo lkmtf (Horizontal Bands) sf] k|of]unfO{ ;dfj]z ul/gk5{ . o; ;+lxtfdf /x]sf afF;, sf7 tyf km";df cfuf] nfUg ljnDa u/fpg] pkfosf k|fjwfg;a}eGbf /fd|f] efu xf] .%=%=% g]=/f=e=;+= @)$ M !(($– e"sDk k|lt/f]w ejg lgdf{0fsf nflu dfu{lgb]{zg -df6f]sf 3/_of] dfulgb]{zg df6f]sf] 3/sf] e"sDkLo ;/Iff a9fpg tof/ kfl/Psf] xf] . of] 3/wgL jf lgdf{tfn]k|fljlwssf] ;xof]udf sfof{Gjog ug]{5g eGg] 7flgPsf] 5 . g]=/f=e=;+= @)$–Pdcf/6L df ul/Psfl6Kk0fLx? o; ;+lxtfnfO{ klg dfGo 5g .%=%=^ g]=/f=e=;+= @)% M !(($ M kvf{ndf d;nf k|of]u gu/L Pdcf/6L kga{n k|bfg ul/Psf] s+lqm6ejgx?of] Pdcf/6L tnf tyf 5fgfsf nflu kga{n k|bfg ul/Psf s+lqm6 :Nofax? k|of]u ePsf lgoldt:tDe–aLd k|sf/sf d;nf k|of]u gu/L nufPsf] ufx|f]sf] 7f8f] jf e"sDkLo ef/ k|lt/f]wdf sg} of]ubfggk/ofpg] ejgx?sf nflu nlIft ul/Psf] xf] . agfj6x? gf+uf] agfj6sf] ?kdf e"sDk wSsfx? k|lt/f]wug]{ tj/n] l8hfOg ul/Psf 5g .o; Pdcf/6Ln] lglZrt ul/Psf] ejg k|sf/sf nflu ;+/rgfTds tyf u}/ ;+/rgfTds ;b:ox?sf]lj:t[t ljj/0f ;dfj]z ;lxt ;Dk"0f{ ;+/rgfTds tTjx?nfO{ k|of]u ug{ tof/ l8hfOgx? k|:tt u5{ .;Daf]wg ul/gkg]{ s]xL dxTjk"0f{ kIfx? o;;Fu} JofVof ul/Psf] 5– Jojxf/df d;nfljgfsf ufx|f] ePsf ejg gagfOg] xgfn] o; ;+lxtfsf] kg/fjnf]sgsf]cfjZostf 5 . s+lqm6sf] ;b[9Ls/0f, s+lqm6 rf]Ol6g] tyf 6lqmg] k|lqmofsf] /f]sfj6, s+lqm6df luvf{ aGg] sfdsf]/f]sfj6, s+lqm6df cgkft ;Ld]G6 cgkftsf] /Iff h:tf u0f:t/ k|Tofe"lt cfjZostf sfod/fVg] ;DefJotfsf nflu l8hfOg l;kmfl/;x?sf] kg/fjnf]sg cfjZos 5 . ;dsf]0ffsf/ tyf ljs0f{sf/ l/sfa / c+sz;lxt cfsf/ @%) ldld ePsf :tDen] s+lqm6;b[9Ls/0fsf nflu sg} :yfg k|bfg ub}{gg . dflysf] ;tx le/fn] ePsf] cfwf/ hunfO{ vfFbg ;lsGg . nfdf] ;dofjlw;Dd O:kftsf] Ifo /f]Sg] ;DefJotfsf] ljrf/df hu tyf :tDe !) ldld tyf!@ ldldsf 58sf] k|of]u :jLsf/of]Uo 5}g . d;nfsf] k|of]u u/L nufpg] kvf{nsf] lgdf{0fsf nflu o; Pdcf/6Ldf ul/Psf] Joj:yf d;nfk|of]u u/L nufpg] kvf{n;lxtsf] Pdcf/6LeGbf km/s 5}g . d;nf nufP/ agfpg] kvf{nsf]k|fjwfgn] o;nfO{ Jofjxfl/s ?kdf c? eGbf km/s agfpg ;Sb}g .
  • 237. 47%=^ g]=/f=e=;+= @)^M @))#– jf:tlzNkLo l8hfOg cfjZostfx?sf] kg/fjnf]sg%=^=! ;fdfGo hfgsf/Lsf7df8f}+ pkTosf zx/ ljsf; ;ldlt tyf g]=/f=e=;+= @)^ M @))# jf:tlzNkLo l8hfOgcfjZostf4f/f tof/ kfl/Psf] a[xt sf7df8f}+ pkTosfsf nflu ejg ljlgodx? g} jf:tlzNkLol8hfOg ;+lxtf cBfjlws ug{sf nflu l;kmfl/;sf cfwf/x? xg .clxn] sfod /x]sf] ;+lxtf …g]=/f=e=;+= @)^M @))$ jf:tlzNkLo l8hfOg cfjZostfx?Úsf] cBfjlwsul/Psf] ;+:s/0fn] ejg l8hfOg/ tyf of]hgfsf/x?sf] ;Dk"0f{ ;dfhnfO{ ;/lIft, :j:y, kmfObfsf/Lejg lgdf{0f ug]{ jftfj/0f l;h{gf ug]{ pQ/bfloTjsf] p2]Zo k"/f ug]{5 .o; ;+lxtf l8hfOg/ tyf of]hgfsf/sf] gjLgtf tyf l;h{gfTdstfsf] k|lts"n xg]5}g . o;n] ;+lxtfsfp2]Zo k"/f ug{sf nflu ejg tyf ;]/f]km]/f] l8hfOgsf Go"gtd cfjZostfx? p7fpg] xgfn] of] g};+lxtfsf efux?sf] ts{of]Uo ;f/ xg]5 .ljleGg r/0fdf w]/} ljrf/ ljdz{ u/]kl5 o; k/fdz{ bftfn] sg} cTofjZos cfnf]rgf jf jt{dfgb:tfj]hdf kl/jt{g ug{kg]{ l;kmfl/; kfPg . t/ l5d]sL of]hgf;Fu ;DalGwt n]vsf] alxisf/ tyfFAR d"Nodf ;+slrt kxFr;DaGwL cfnf]rgfx? eg] p7fOP .If]q ljefhg lgodgsf tTjx?n] o; ;+lxtfsf] efu gagfpg] ePsf]n] clxn] sfdo /x]sf] …g]=/f=e=;+=@)^ M @))# jf:tlzNkLo l8hfOg cfjZostfx?Ú cBfjlws ubf{ dgg ug{kg]{ s/fx? dfly lbOPsftyf s]xL lglZrt gofF tTjx?sf] cfwf/df ul/Psf l;kmfl/;x? cem lj:t[t ?kdf kl/lzi6–( dflbOPsf 5g .Pp6f ejg cfkm}Fn] Ps ;+lxtfsf p2]Zox? k"lt{sf] Uof/]G6L ug{ ;Sb}g . Tof] ejg To:tf w]/} j:tx?sf]:yfgdf pleG5 . To;sf/0f lgs6jtL{ of]hgfsf lglZrt kIfx? ;dfj]z ul/gk5{ . hg s/fx? jt{dfg…g]=/f=e=;+= @)^ M @))# jf:tlzNkLo l8hfOg cfjZostfx?Údf cgkl:yt 5g .To;}u/L, o; ;+lxtf leqL ?kdf ejg ljlgodx?df e/ k/]sf] 5 . of] o;sf] ljk/Lt xgkYof]{ . To;}n]ca cBfjlws ul/g] ;+lxtfnfO{ ljlgod tof/ ug{sf] nflu dfu{lgb]{zgsf] sfd ug{nfO{ ;emfj lbOG5 .pNn]v ug{kg]{ csf]{ kIf eg]sf] cUnf ejgx?sf] ljrf/ gul/g xf], hg gofF ;+lxtfdf pNn]v ul/g}k5{ .%=^=@ cUnf ejgx?dflysf] ljifout l;kmfl/;x? cUnf ;+/rgf 56ofpg] b"/L;d]t ePsf cUnf ejgx?df k|of]u ul/g]5g .cUnf ejgx?sf nflu cfjZos k|sfz, ;+jftg / wjfF/lxt cfsl:ds alxu{dg e/ofªh:tf kIfx?5§f5§} ljz]if ?kn] pNn]v ul/g]5g . afFsL ;+lxtfsf] ;fwf/0f l8hfOg cfjZostf c+zcGtu{t pNn]vul/g]5g .%=^=# cGo kIfx?cfjZos :yfgdf ;+lxtfsf efux? JofVof ub}{ kof{Kt :s]r tyf lrqx? ;dfj]z ul/g]5g . ;+lxtfdfpNn]v ul/g] ejgsf ljleGg efux?sf] kl/efiff gofF ;+lxtfdf :ki6 lbg cfjZos 5 .%=& g]=/f=e=;+= @)& M @))# ljBtLo ;+lxtfsf] kg/fjnf]sgof] ;+lxtf ;fdfGotof g]kfn ljBt k|flws/0f;Fu ;DalGwt 5 tyf ljBt ;+lxtf @)$(, ljBt lgodg@)%) / ljBt cfk"lt{ k|flws/0fdf cfwfl/t 5 hg w]/} cflwsfl/s 5 . t/ km]l/ ef/tLo ;+lxtfsf];Gbe{n] o;nfO{ Joy{ agfpF5 / g]=/f=e=;+=sf] k|of]u ;Lldt xG5 .o; ;+lxtfn] of]hgfsf s]xL kIfx? l;kmfl/; u/L k/LIf0f ubf{ cfwf/e"t l8hfg kIfx? h:t} cfotgsfk|sf/, cfjZos cfk"lt{sf k|sf/ -ef]N6]h, cj:yf / lk|mSj]G;L tx_, ef/ dfu, jftfj/0fLo cj:yf,;+/If0fsf] >]0fL -e"lds/0f, k[ysLs/0f_, eljiosf] ef/ j[l4, zlQm pkef]u tyf ;+/If0f cfjZostf,
  • 238. 48k"lt{sf] lg/Gt/tf, /]l8of] tyf 6]ln;~rf/ x:tIf]k bdgsf] cfjZostf, dd{t tyf ;/Iff kIfx? /ljleGg a}slNks ?kx?sf] nfut tngf ;dfj]z ub}{g .o; ;+lxtfdf ;Daf]wg ul/gkg]{ w]/} dxTjk"0f{ kIfx? 5g . kl/lzi6–!) n] sdhf]/Lsf lglZrt ljj/0fk|bfg u/]sf] 5 . ;fy} eljiodf ;+lxtfsf] ljsf;sf nflu d2t kUg] vfnsf tYo tyf lrqx? klg k|bfgu/]sf] 5 .%=* g]=/f=e=;+= @)* M !(($– KnlDaª tyf ;kmfO{;fdfGotof o; ;+lxtfn] tn lbOPsf dVo zLif{sx? ;dfj]z u5{ / ejg jf ejg kl/;/leqsfcfGtl/s cfjZostfx?;Fu ;DaGw /fV5MkfgL cfk"lt{b"lift kfgL lj;h{gjiff{sf] kfgL lj;h{g%=*=! kfgL cfk"lt{kfgL cfk"lt{ efun] ;fdfGotof -s_ ejgdf kfgL cfk"lt{sf cfjZostfx?, -v_ kfgLsf] e08f/0f -;fdfGo kfgL e08f/0f 6of+sLx?, hldgdlg e08f/0f, 5tdf e08f/0f_, -u_ ljt/0f k|0ffnL / kfOksf]sfd, -3_ clUg lg/f]ws Joj:yf -gfnL k|0ffnL_ ;dfj]z u/]sf] 5 .o; ;+lxtfn] ef}uf]lns If]q tyf pk–hnjfo cj:yf, k]zf, ;+:yfsf k|sf/ / ;x/L cfk"lt{sf] Joj:yftyf cfk"lt{sf] ;|f]tdf cfwfl/t kfgLsf] dfudf xg] kl/jt{g ;DaGwdf sg} Joj:yf u/]sf] 5}g . kfgLsf]j}slNks ;|f]t, kfgLsf] kgM k|of]u, kfgL kgMrqm tyf kfgL ;+/If0f h:tf dxTjk"0f kIfx?nfO{ klg o;;+lxtfn] ;dfj]z ub}{g . hg kfgL cefj xg] :yfgdf ;fdfGo dflgG5 .;+lxtf ljsf;sf nflu Jojl:yt k|of;sf] vfFrf] cToGt cfjZos 5 / o;n] ;+lxtf ljsf;sf nfluplrt dfu{lgb]{zg k|bfg u5{ . plrt ?k/]vf ;+/rgfsf] cefjdf o; ;+lxtfn] dxTjk"0f{ cfwf/e"tkIfx? h:t} kfgLsf] u0f:t/, kfgL k|bif0f lgoGq0f, rxfj6sf] lgoGq0f, ;/Iff -kfgL e08f/0fdfs]]6fs]6Lsf] kxFr, ljBtLo ;/Iff, pks/0f tyf kfgL tfGg] k|0fnL_ udfPsf] 5 . kfgL tfGg] ;DaGwdf36]sf k|;:t 3fts b3{6gfx?nfO{ lt/:sf/ ug{ ;lsGg .%=*=@ b"lift kfgL lj;h{gg]=/f=e=;+=sf] o; efun] ljleGg k|sf/sf ;+sng k|0ffnLsf JofVof -Ps kfOk, bO{ kfOk_, b"lift ls/ftyf bu{Gw ejgdf k:gaf6 /f]Sg] ljlw h:tf If]qx? ;dfj]z u5{ . g]kfndf 6jfOn]6sf] b"lift uGw /f]Sg]Pp6f klg ejg gePsf]n] o; ;+lxtfn] sfd ub}{g . ;fy} ;a}h;f] gbLx? -b"lift kfgLaf6_ k|blift 5g /7"nf] jftfj/0fLo gf]S;fgL l;h{gf u/]sf 5g . To;}n] o; ;+lxtfsf] lj:t[t kg/fjnf]sgsf] cfjZostf5 .o; ;+lxtfn] k|z:t cfsf/ tyf le/fnf]kgfsf] / b"lift kfgL k|0ffnLsf] plrt l8hfOgsf nflu cfjZoscGo /flzx?sf] af/]df pNn]v u5{ . t/ ;+nUg ug{kg]{ sg} klg tYof+sx? k|bfg ul/Psf 5}gg . Go"gtdl8hfOg /flzsf] plrt tflnsf pkof]uL xg] lyof] .kfOk k|0ffnLsf] ;+jftgsf] cfjZostf tyf lgsf; gfnLsf] 5fgfsf] ;tx;Dd tGsfOsf] cfjZostf;"lrt ul/Psf] 5 t/ 3/leqsf] :yfgdf ;+jftgsf] cfjZostf pNn]v ul/Psf] 5}g .b"lift kfgL;Fu ;DalGwt pks/0fsf] dfu tflnsf rflxF ljleGg tflnsfdf /fd|f];Fu ;d]l6Psf] 5 .%=*=# cfsfz] kfgL lj;h{gcfsfz] kfgL lj;h{gsf] If]qn] 5fgf tyf afb{nLaf6 cfsfz] kfgL ;+sngsf] cfjZostf tyf gfnLk|0ffnLaf6 o;sf] lj;h{g ;dfj]z u5{ . Ps tnfeGbf a9L cUnf] 3/sf] 5fgfaf6 jiff{sf] kfgL ;Lwf tnv;fpg cgdlt lbOFb}g . hals of] ;+lxtf Jofjxfl/s ?kdf k|of]u ul/Psf] 5}g tyf k|efjsf/L klg 5}geGg] s/fnfO{ Wofg lbg ;lsG5 .
  • 239. 49o; ;+lxtfn] cfFwLsf] kfgL k|0ffnL lj;h{g cfjZostf pNn]v u5{ . t/ 9n k|0ffnL jf cfFwLsf] kfgL9n k|lqmof cyjf vnf ;8s 9n tyf ;fj{hlgs :yfgdf vnf lj;h{g cflbsf ;Defjgfsf af/]df;l6s ?kdf 5nkmn ub}{g . of] kIf cem ;l6s ?kdf ;Daf]wg ul/g cfjZos 5 .ljleGg ;txaf6 jiff{sf] kfgL lgsf; lbgsf nflu ;emfj lbOPsf] 9fn ckof{Kt 5 / kglj{rf/ ug{cfjZos 5 .;x/sf w]/}h;f] efudf 9n tyf cfsfz] kfgL bj} lgsf; u/fpg] ;+oQm k|0ffnL ePsf]n] cfsfz] kfgLsf]kfOk 9n;Fu} hf]8g k|ltaGw nufOg cJofjxfl/s 5 . cfFwLsf] kfgL lgsf;sf] nflu ls juL{s/0f lsIf]q ljefhg kl/ro u/fpg ;lsg]5 .;fwf/0ftM o; ;+lxtf cBfjlws ug{sf] nflu lgDg ;jfnx?nfO{ Wofg lbg ;lsG5– kl/efiffsf] ts{;+ut JofVof / cem a9L zAb tyf kbfjnLx?sf] ;dfj]z, k|yd l8hfOg /flz (Parameters) h:t} wf/faf6 Go"gtd axfj, pbud cjz]if, Go"gtd 9fn,Go"gtd 9sg cflbsf] ;dfj]z ljlwlrqsf] ?kdf 3if{0f pbud gf]S;fgL /]vflrq, tflnsf tyf ;xfpFbf] ;dLs/0fsf] ;dfj]z, 3/]n tftf] kfgL cfk"lt{ Joj:yf;Fu ;DalGwt k|fjwfgx? agfpg], b]zsf] pRr prfO ePsf tyf z"Go l8u|LeGbf sd tfkqmd ePsf If]qx?df kfgL cfk"lt{ tyf;/;kmfO{;Fu ;DalGwt k|fjwfg agfpg], lg/LIf0f, hfFr, dd{t cfjZostfx?sf] ;dfj]z, 5fgfaf6 cfsfz] kfgL lgsf;sf] nflu cfjZos kfOksf] cfsf/;DaGwL cem a9L ts{;+utcfwf/ tyf jiff{sf] kfgL Pslqt ug]{ tl/sfx?sf] ;dfj]z, cfsfz] kfgL tyf cGo ;txL kfgL aUg] gfnLsf] h8fg rxfj6 /f]Sgsf] nflu kfOknfOg tyf;+/rgf aLrsf hf]tL{x?sf] ;+/If0f, Ifo, oflGqs Iflt, /;folgs Iflt, cfuf]h:tf ;Defljt gf]S;fgLaf6 kfOknfOgsf] ;+/If0f, sg} kfgL aUg] af6f] eP gfnL c:jLsf/sf] cfjZostf,g]=/f=e=;+= sf] kfgL lg?k0f xft] kl:tsf M 8]lu|dG6 – !(&( ;Fu 5f]6f] tngf ul/Psf] 5 . cWoogsf];dodf cfPsf glthf tyf lgisif{, ;d:of tyf ;jfnx? g]=/f=e=;+= k|sfzg;Fu ;DalGwt n]v;Fu}/x]sf l6Kk0fL tyf ;emfj kmf/fddf n]vPsf 5g .oL ;Dk"0f{ ;jfn tyf ;d:ofx? dgg ul/g] 5g / eljiosf ;+zf]lwt ;+lxtfx?df :jLsf/ ul/g]5g .kl/lzi6–!! n] o; ;+lxtf cBfjlws ug{ pkof]uL xg] ljleGg tYof+s tyf ;"rgf ;dfj]z u/]sf] 5 .^= lgisif{;+lxtf ;+/rgf, g]kfnL u0f:t/ dfkb08 tyf ;+lxtfsf] kl/jf/sfgg, ljlgod, ;+lxtf -g]=/f=e=;+=_, g]kfn u0f:t/ dfkb08 (NS), lgb]{lzsf (PWD), ljlgb]{zg,kl:tsf, cfb]z tyf k|zf;lgs kl/kqFu ;DalGwt qmda4tf tyf k|dvtfsf] af/]df ulx/f] e|d 5 . of]kIfnfO{ :ki6 ul/g h?/L 5 . / :ki6 ;Ldf+sg tyf kl/efiff klg cfjZos 5 .g]=/f=e=;+= sfof{Gjogsf] nflu ;+:yfut Joj:yfg]kfndf e"sDk;Fu ;DalGwt s/fx?sf] nflu Pp6f klg pQ/bfoL ;+:yf 5}g . DUDBC n] g]=/f=e=;+=,ejg ;+lxtf tyf lgodgsf] v];|f agfpg z?jft u/]sf] 5 . t/ e"sDk;Fu ;DalGwt s/fx?k|ltpQ/bfoL ljleGg ;+:yf tyf Ph]G;Lx? 5g / ltlgx?sf] aLrdf Jofjxfl/s ?kdf ;dGjo u/fOPsf] 5}g. o; sf/0fn] g]=/f=e=;+= ;Fu ;DalGwt ;jfnx? pk]lIft /x]sf 5g . / z?jftsf] nflu sg}kl/of]hgfsf] kvf{Odf 5g .Pdcf/6L g]=/f=e=;+= sf] c+z xgxFb}g
  • 240. 50Pdcf/6L ljleGg k|sf/sf ejgsf l8hfOgsf] pbfx/0f dfq ePsf]n] tyf g]=/f=e=;+= sf k|fjwfgx?sf]lj:t[t ljj/0f dfq} ePsf]n] o;nfO{ u}/–;+lxtf b:tfj]hsf] ?kdf lngsf] nflu hf]8bf/ cfjfhx?p7fOPsf lyP . of] b:tfj]h ck"0f{ 5 tyf cGo ;+lxtf h:t}M clUg ;+lxtf, KnlDaª ;+lxtf, jftfj/0fLo;+lxtf cflbsf cfjZostfx? ;dfj]z ub}{g . u0f:t/Lotfsf] k|Tofe"lt / lgdf{0f hl6ntfx? pNn]vul/Psf] 5}g . g]=/f=e=;+= nfu" ePs} lbgb]lv nlntk/ gu/kflnsfsf] Pdcf/6Ldf s]xL kl/jt{gx?lnPsf] 5 . o; b:tfj]hnfO{ gdgf pbfx/0fsf] ?kdf ljsl;t ul/gk5{ h;n] ;Dk"0f{ ;+lxtfsfck]Iffx?sf] k"lt{ u5{ . ;fy} plrt l8hfOgsf] nflu dfu{lgb]{zgsf] ?kdf lnOgk5{ / of] ejg ;+lxtfsf]c+z xgxFb}g .gu/kflnsf cgejaf6 l;s]sf] kf7sf7df8f}+ tyf nlntk/ gu/kflnsfn] ejg cgdltsf] :jLs[lt tyf ejg lgdf{0f lg/LIf0f;lxt w]/}dxTjk"0f{ cgej a6n]sf 5g . t/ ejg cgdlt k|lqmof / ejg lg/LIf0f ;DaGwL lj:t[t k|ltj]bgsf]cgkl:yltdf sg} cy{k"0f{ kf7 kfpg ;lsPg .cGo gu/kflnsf, lhlj; tyf uflj;af6 ;"rgf tyf tYof+s dl:snn] dfq pknAw 5g .ejg ;+lxtf tyf ejg ljlgoddf ;wf/lgdf{0f lg/LIf0f :yfgLo clwsf/Lsf] If]qflwsf/leq kg]{ g]kfndf ejg ;+lxtfsf] ;kmn sfof{Gjogsf] Psdfq af6f] eg]sf] ;+lxtfnfO{ gu/kflnsf, lhlj; tyf uflj;n] c+uLsf/ u/]sf ejg ljlgodsfcfjZostfcg;f/ kl/ro u/fpg xf] eGg] s/f jt{dfg cEof;n] ;"lrt u/]sf] 5 .ejg ;+lxtfdf ;+lxtfsf ;Dk"0f{ ju{x? ;dfj]z ub}{ g]=/f=e=;+= sf cfjZostfx? cg;f/ lhlj; tyfuflj;sf] cfb]z ;dfj]z ug{ ;+zf]wg ul/g cfjZos 5 .uflj;df ljlgodsf] k|of]uu|fdL0f If]qnfO{ lgdf{0f ;/Iffsf] nflu cem a9L ;+j]bgzLn agfpFb} u|fdL0f If]qsf w]/}h;f] If]qx? ejg;+lxtf tyf ejg ljlgod4f/f ;d]l6Psf 5}gg . /, e"sDkLo hf]lvdk|lt ;+j]bgzLn 5g . ejg;+lxtfsf] o; sdhf]/Ln] w]/} ejg lgdf{tf tyf 3/wgLx?nfO{ ejg cgdltsf] cfjZostf tyfg]=/f=e=;+=nfO{ lbgkg]{ lgj]bg TofUb} ejg lgdf{0fsf] nflu uflj;tkm{ ;g{sf] nflu pS;fPsf] 5 . o;k|fjwfgn] ;du|df g]=/f=e=;+=sf] p2]ZonfO{ sdhf]/ agfPsf] 5 .kl/j]z ;/Iffsf k|efj tyf jf:tlzNkLo l8hfOg cfjZostfP]ltxfl;s ejgx?sf] ;+/If0f, snf tyf kl/j]z ;/IffnfO{ c;/ ug]{ ;x/L If]q ljsf;sf ;Gbe{x? h:tfzx/L ljsf;sf dxTjk"0f{ kIfx? 56]sf 5g . h;sf] ;x/L ;/Iffsf] nflu 7"nf] of]ubfg 5 . ejgcgdlt k|lqmofn] P]ltxfl;s ejg tyf ljZj ;Dkbf ;"rLdf k/]sf If]qx? jf ;+/lIft If]qx?;lxtsf]kl/j]z ;/IffnfO{ pNn]v ub}{g . To;}u/L jf:tlzNkLo l8hfOg cfjZostf, kl/j]z of]hgf tyf If]qf+sgcfjZostf aLrsf] ;DaGw Ps–csf{;Fu ;DalGwt 5}g . of] sdhf]/L g} cJojl:yt ;x/L ljsf;sfnflu cGtlg{lxt 5 .cfotgdf kl/jt{gejgsf] cfotg ju{ kl/jt{g ug]{ w]/} cj;/x? 5g h;n] hLjg tyf ;DklQ ;/IffnfO{ hf]lvdagfpF5g . ev{/} k|z:t xf]6n ejgx?sf] cfotg ef/ ljzfnahf/ tyf clkm; ejgx?df kl/jt{gul/Psf] 5 . cfjf; ejgx? ;lhn} :s"n, uf]bfd tyf clkm;x?sf] ?kdf k|of]u ul/G5g . To:tfejgx?sf] ;/Iffdf k|Zg pAh]sf] 5 . gu/kflnsf tyf ;/sf/L clwsf/Lx? To:tf ejgx?sf] lg/LIf0fug]{ tyf ;/Iff k|dfl0ft ug]{ cj:yfdf 5}gg .cUnf ejgx?
  • 241. 51;du| ;/Iffsf] cfwf/df cUnf ejgx?sf cfjZostfx? xf]rf ejgsf eGbf km/s 5g . ;fwgsf]u0f:t/Lotf tyf k|ljlwsf] ljZj;lgotf s8f xgk5{ . / ljZj;lgotfsf] nflu ;]jfsf] ;~rfng tyfdd{t pRr >]0fLsf] xg cfjZos 5 . cUnf ejgx?sf nflu cfjZos s/fx? ejg ljlgod tyf ejg;+lxtfdf ;dfj]z ul/Psf 5}gg .Pdcf/6L pGd"ngPdcf/6L lj:t[t ?kdf k|of]u ul/Psf] b:tfj]h xf] / olb plrt tl/sfn] ljsl;t ug{] xf] eg] of]gu/kflnsf tyf u|fdL0f If]qsf] e"sDk ;/Iff k|fKt ug]{ Pp6f /fd|f] dfWod aGg ;SYof] . t/ Pdcf/6Lcfkm}Fdf k"0f{ gePsf]n] cGo ljleGg ;+lxtfsf cfjZostfx? cg;f/ 5}g / ;du|df gu/kflnsfsfcgdlt k|fKt l8hfOg/x?4f/f b?kof]u ul/Psf] 5 . To;sf/0f o;sf] pGd"ngsf] nflu ljrf/ ul/gk5{/ ljz]if ejgsf] :t/Lo l8hfOgsf pbfx/0f4f/f k|lt:yfkg ul/gk5{ .&= l;kmfl/;g]=/f=e==;+=sf] d:of}bf tof/L – Pp6f k|z+;gLo sfdg]=/f=e=;+= sf] d:of}bf tof/L tyf ;/sf/4f/f o;sf] cjnDag OlGhlgol/ª / /fi6« lgdf{0fsf] Oltxf;dfcfZro{hgs sf];]9Ëf lyof] . g]=/f=e=;+= tyf g]kfn u0f:t/ dfkb08sf] tof/Ldf ;+nUg;+3;+:yfx?;lxt ;x/L ljsf; tyf ejg lgdf{0f ljefu, oPg8LkL / oPgPr;Lcf/ pRr k|z+;fsf]nfos 5g .g]=/f=e=;+= sf] sfof{Gjogdf l9nfO{g]=/f=e=;+= sfof{Gjogsf] nflu l9nfO ul/Psf] lyof] t/ hgj/L @))# df nlntk/ pkdxfgu/kflnsfsf]ejg cgdlt k|lqmofdf g]=/f=e=;+= sfof{Gjogsf] nflu z?jft tyf sf7df8f}+ dxfgu/kflnsfn] hgj/L@))% b]lv k5ofPsf]n] ubf{ o;n] cfˆgf] ult lnof] . g]=/f=e=;+= / e"sDk ;/Iffsf kIf ;+:yfutgePsf]n] tyf ;+lxtf ljsf; / sfof{Gjogdf ;dlk{t /xgsf] nflu sg} ljz]if ;+:yf l;h{gf gul/Psf]n]ljz]ifu/L oL ;jfnx? sfof{Gjog ug{ cem} klg sl7g g} 5 . ;+lxtf sfof{Gjogsf] nflu sg} lglZrt;fwg klxrfg ul/Psf] 5}g .g]kfn ;+lxtf kl/ifbsf] cfjZostf;+lxtfsf ljsf; cfjZostf tyf ltgLx?sf] sfof{Gjogsf ;jfnx? ;Daf]wg ug{sf] nflu g]kfn ;+lxtfkl/ifb :yfkgfsf] 7"nf] vfFrf] 5 . pQm kl/ifbn] ;]jfu|fxLx?nfO{ pT;fx k|bfg ub}{, 36]sf 36gfx?sf]/]s8{ ub}{, Joj;foL tyf l8hfOg/x?nfO{ ejg ;r]tgf u/fpFb}, lgoldt ?kdf ejg ;+lxtfx?nfO{cBfjlws ub}{, k/fdz{ a}7s tyf ;Dd]ngx? ;~rfng ub}{ ;+lxtfsf] sfof{Gjog tyf sfg"gL;jfnx?k|lt Wofg lbg cfjZos 5 . pQm kl/ifbn] ljleGg ;+lxtfsf] ljsf; ug{ lghL tyf ;fj{hlgsIf]qx?;Fu ;fem]bf/L ljsf; ug{ ?rL /fVg]5 .;+lxtfsf kl/jf/g]=/f=e=;+= cfkm}Fdf ck"0f{ /x]sf JolQmut ;+lxtfx?sf] ;+sng xf] . o;sf/0f g]=/f=e=;+= sfof{Gjogsf]k|efj Tolt k|efjsf/L ePsf] cgej ul/Psf] lyPg . ;dfhdf lgdf{0fsf] u0f:t/Lotfaf6 of] k|dfl0ft 5. sfof{Gjogsf] nflu k|zf;lgs k|lqmof c+ufNg] k|fjwfg ;dfj]z ub}{ cGo ;+lxtf kl/jf/ h:t} ;x/Lof]hgf ;+lxtf, clUg ;+lxtf, ckf+ud}qL ejg ;+lxtf, jftfj/0fLo ;+lxtf, KnlDaª ;+lxtf, ljBtLo ;+lxtfcflbsf] lx;falstfa /fVg] Pp6f PsLs[t ;+lxtfdf ufF:g] xf] eg] ;fob of] cem a9L k|efjsf/L xg] lyof].;Gbe{ ;+lxtfx?
  • 242. 52w]/}h;f] ;+lxtfx? k|fylds cg;Gwfg jf pTkfbg lgdf{0f jf ;]jfdf ;+nUg ;+:yfx?4f/f ljsl;tul/Psf xG5g . w]/} Jofj;flos ;+3x? ;+lxtfsf k|jt{s xG5g . /fli6«o ejg ;+lxtf l8hfOg/ tyfwgLx?sf] k"0f{ pQ/bfloTjdf lglxt 5 eg]/ pw[t ug{ oL ;+:yf tyf c+ux?nfO{ ;Gbe{ ;+lxtfsf] ?kdf;dfj]z ul/g cfjZos 5 .gdgf l8hfOgsf pbfx/0fx?g]=/f=e=;+= sf] plrt tj/n] k|of]u a9fpg tyf cem a9L nf]slk|o agfpgsf] nflu gdgf l8hfOgsflglZrt pbfx/0fx? tof/ ug{ clgjfo{ xG5 . To:tf pbfx/0fx? ejg ;+lxtf cfjZostfcg;f/ ;d:of;dfwfg ug{ ojf k:tf tyf Jofj;foLx?n] cgz/0f ug]{ lyP .gu/kflnsf pQ/bfloTj ;Demf}tfejg ;+lxtf kl/jf/cg;f/ sfd ePsf] 5 5}g eg]/ hfFRg tyf lg/LIf0f ug{sf] nflu gu/kflnsfclwsf/Lx?;Fu ;Lldt Ifdtf xg :jefljs 5 . o;sf/0f ejg ljlgod tyf gu/kflnsf lgodgn]l8hfOg lg/LIf0f tyf lgdf{0f lg/LIf0f lqmofsnfksf nflu cfjZos k/] lj1x?sf] 6f]nL ;dfj]z ug{gu/kflnsf pQ/bfloTj ;Demf}tfsf] k|fjwfg agfpgk5{ .gu/kflnsfx?4f/f g]=/f=e=;+= sfof{Gjog sfo{ljlwsf] n]vf k/LIf0fgu/kflnsfx?4f/f ejg ;+lxtfsf] sfof{Gjog gu/kflnsf leq dfq} ;Lldt ul/Psf] 5 / ;+lxtfsfof{Gjog sfof{ljlw ;wf/ tyf cBfjlws ug{ d2t ug]{ sg} kf7x? kfOPsf] 5}g . o;sf/0f ejg;+lxtf sfof{Gjog;lxt ejg cgdlt k|lqmofsf] n]vf k/LIf0f ug{ cTofjZos 5 .b]z}e/L ljlgod sfof{Gjogsf] afWosf/L k|fjwfge"sDk ;/IffnfO{ a9fjf lbg cfwf/e"t cfjZostf xf] . o;n] sg} ;Ldfljgf /fi6«JofkL ?kdf ejg;+lxtfcg;f/sf] k|Tofe"lt u/fpgsf nflu ejg ljlgod tyf ejg ;+lxtf lj:t[t ?kdf ;Fu;Fu}sfof{Gjog ug{sf] nflu ;dGjosf] vfFrf] b;f{pF5 . o;sf nflu ejg ;+lxtf tyf ljlgod ;+zf]wg ug{cfjZos 5 .cGo ljleGg ;jfnx?oxfF ;Daf]wg ul/gkg]{ w]/} ;jfnx? 5g . ltgLx? tflnd k|fKt Jofj;foL, bIf >lds tyf lg/LIf0fclwsf/L, lgdf{0f ;fwg ;~rfngsf] tl/sf, ;fwg tyf pks/0fsf] u0f:t/, ;fwg tyf >lds lzNksf]ljlzi6tf, :jLsf/of]Uo lj1fkg;lxtsf] ;"rgf k|jfxsf] tl/sf, lzIff tyf cgdlt k|flKt, l8hfOgsf]af}l4s :jfldTj tyf dflysf ljleGg efux?df JofVof ul/Psf dfgj ;|f]tsf] bIftf tyf Ifdtf;Fu;DalGwt 5g .g]=/f=e=;+= cBfjlwssf k|fyldstfg]kfn /fli6«o ejg ;+lxtf cBfjlws ug{sf] nflu lgDgfg;f/ k|fyldstf pNn]v ug{ ;lsG5Mk|fyldstf ! M Pdcf/6L nfO{ ejg ;+lxtfsf] c+usf] ?kaf6 pGd"ng ug]{ tyf ;x/L tyf u|fdL0f If]qdfnf]slk|o ?kdf lgdf{0f ul/g] :t/Lo l8hfOg ePsf ljz]if ejgsf /fd|f pbfx/0fx?af6 To;nfO{k|lt:yfkg ug]{, olb sf]xL lagf kl/jt{g ljz]if l8hfOg c+ufN5 eg] ejg cgdlt :jLs[lt k|lqmof;/nLs/0f ug{ ;lsG5 / :jfldTj k|df0fLs/0f tyf ejg ljlgodsf k|fjwfgdf ;Lldt ug{ ;lsG5 .k|fyldstf @ M ejg P]g, ejg ljlgod, dfkb08, ljlgb]{zg, xft] kl:tsf, lgb]{lzsf, lgb]{zgsfk|fyldstf;lxt ;+lxtf ;+/rgfsf l/Qmtf klxrfg ug]{ .
  • 243. 53k|fyldstf # M cfjZostfcg;f/ ;+zf]wg ub}{ cGt/fli6«o ejg ;+lxtfsf] c+uLsf/ ug]{ -efu–! ;fdfGohfgsf/L, efu–@ b]znfO{ pkoQm xg] u/L ljlzi6 kl/jt{g_ .k|fyldstf $ M cGt/fli6«o ejg ;+lxtf tyf dfly efu #=% df JofVof ul/Psf ;+lxtfsf kl/jf/;lxt/fi6« tyf :yfgLo kl/j]zsf nflu ljlzi6 ;+lxtfn] g;d]6]sf gofF ;+lxtfx?sf] kl/ro u/fpg] .k|fyldstf % M cBfjlws ul/Psf] ;+lxtfsf] k|efjsfl/tf a9fpg l6Kk0fL, dfu{lgb]{zg, lgb]{lzsf, b[i6fGt-Pdcf/6L_ tyf tflnd kl:tsf ljsl;t ug{ ;lsg]5 .;dfKt
  • 244. 1g]kfn ;/sf/ef}lts of]hgf tyf lgdf{0f dGqfnog]kfnsf nflu e"sDk hf]lvd Go"gLs/0f tyf kg:yfkgf tof/L sfo{qmd-oPg8LkL÷Ocf/cf/cf/kL kl/of]hgf M PgOkL÷)&÷)!)_/fli6«o ejg lgdf{0f ;+lxtf cBfjlws ug{sf] nflu l;kmfl/;clGtd k|ltj]bgsf] k"/scu:6 @))(k]z ug]{MdN6L l8l;lKng/L sG;n6ofG6 k|f=ln=kf]=a= g+= %&@), sf7df8f}+, g]kfn6]lnkmf]gM -(&&_ –! –%%@%)&^÷%%@(#)$, ˆofS;M -(&&_–!–%%@#!)#Od]nM mdc@multinepal.com, j]e;fO6M www.MultiNepal.com/mdc;xof]udfMs]=8L P;f]l;P6; k|f=ln=kf]=a= g+= ^*^, ˆofS;M $@!%#$!Od]nM kdapl@info.com.npj]e;fO6M www.hurarah.com.nptyfVjk OlGhlgol/ª sn]hlnjfnL, eQmk/ @kf]=a= g+= *$, eQmk/, g]kfn6]lnkmf]gM ^^!$&($, ^^!$&(*Od]nM khec@wlink.com.np
  • 245. 2g]kfn /fli6«o ejg ;+lxtf cBfjlws ug{sf] nflu l;kmfl/;MclGtd k|ltj]bgsf] k"/sljifo ;"rL!= kl/ro ==========================================================================================================@!=! ;fdfGo hfgsf/L ===========================================================================================@!=@ k"/s k|ltj]bgsf] p2]Zo ====================================================================================@!=# k"/s k|ltj]bgsf] p2]Zo======================================================================================@@ ;]jfu|fxLx?sf] k/fdz{s a}7s=================================================================================## l6Kk0fL tyf ;emfjx? ==========================================================================================$$ lgisif{ ==============================================================================================================$kl/lzi6–! M ;]jfu|fxL ;+u7gx?sf] ;"rLkl/lzi6–@ M pkl:ylt /]s8{kl/lzi6–# M k|fKt l6Kk0fL tyf ;emfjx?kl/lzi6–$ M kmf]6f]u|flkms k|n]vg
  • 246. 3g]kfn /fli6«o ejg ;+lxtf cBfjlws ug{sf] nflu l;kmfl/;M clGtd k|ltj]bgsf] k"/s!= kl/ro!=! ;fdfGo hfgsf/Lg]kfnsf] /fli6«o ejg ;+lxtf cBfjlws ug{sf] nflu tof/ ug{kg]{ l;kmfl/; k|ltj]bg tof/Lsf] of] sfo{k/fdz{s / g]kfnsf nflu e"sDk Go"gLs/0f tyf kgkf{lKt tof/L sfo{qmd oPg8LkL÷Ocf/cf/cf/kL kl/of]hgfMPgOkL÷)&÷)!) sf] aLrdf l8;]Da !%, @))* df ePsf] x:tfIfl/t ;Demf}tf4f/f s]8L P;f]l;o6; tyf VjkOlGhlgol/ª sn]hsf] ;xof]udf dN6L l8l;lKng/L sG;n6]G6 k|flnnfO{ ;lDkOPsf] 5 .!=@ k"/s k|ltj]bgsf] p2]Zo;Demf}tf ul/Psf jfrfx? k"/f ub}{ o; k/fdz{sn] lgDglnlvt k|ltj]bgx? k]z u/]sf] 5Mldlt k]z ul/Psf] k|ltj]bg k|ltlnlk ;+Vof k|ltj]bgsf] ;f/l8;]Da/#), @))*z?jftL k|ltj]bg % sfo{of]hgfsf] cBfjlws / lj:t[t If]q thyf ljlwsf]ljj/0f, cWoog ;d"x ;b:onfO{ sfo{ ljefhgclk|n !),@))(clGtd k|Ltj]bg v];|f -klxnf] v];|f_% sfo{sf/L ;f/f+z, glthf k|:tlt, lgisif{ tyfl;kmfl/;, pknAw tYof+s tyf ;"rgf, ljZn]if0fsf]glthf / ;d:of tyf l;kmfl/;sf] cGtlqm{ofcu:6 *,@))(clGtd k|ltj]bg l;8Ldf @k|ltlnlk;lxt% k|ltlnlk;]jfu|fxLsf] a}7s tyf /fli6«o sfof{zfnf sf] ;dodfk|fKt l6Kk0fL tyf ;emfjsf] ;dfj]zgcu:6 @@,@))(clGtd k|ltj]bgsf]k"/s% ljleGg ;]jfu|fxL a}7ssf sfo{jfxL, l6Kk0fL / ;emfjtyf kmf]6f] k|n]vgsf] PsqLs/0f@= ;]jfu|fxLx?sf] k/fdz{s a}7sljrf/0fLo zt{n] ;]jfu|fxLx?;Fusf] k/fdz{s a}7ssf] ;~rfngsf] cfjZostf cf}+Nofof] .pQm a}7sx?df pRr txsf sd{rf/L, dVo Joj;foL l8hfOg/x? tyf ;dfhsf Joj;flos k|ltlglwx?sf]pkl:ylt lyof] . dVo ;xefuLx? lgDgfg;f/ lyPM>L gf/fo0fuf]kfn dn]u, d]o/, sf7df8f}+ dxfgu/kflnsf>L ;/]z cfrfo{, ;x;lrj, ef}lts of]hgf tyf lgdf{0f dGqfno>L OGb|axfb/ >]i7, k|wfg lgb]{zs, l8ol8aL;L8f= k?iff]Qd 8+uf]n, l8l8hL, l8ol8aL;L>L b]j]Gb| 8+uf]n, k|dv, zx/L ljsf; ljefu, sfdgkf>L ljdn l/hfn, k|dv, zx/L ljsf; ljefu, sfdgkf>L k|jL0f >]i7, k|dv, zx/L ljsf; zfvf, PnP;Pd;L>L ;}lgs/fh l;+x, k|dv, OP;P;, PnP;Pd;L>L ;/f]h a:g]t, ;x;lrj, P;;LPOPkm>L Pncf/ tfdfª, e"k" ;efklt, ;Lg>L gun cfgGb j}B, ;lrj, Pkm;LPPg;>L lxdf >]i7, Pg;]6>L /fd sF8]n, Pg;]6>L lzjk|;fb sf]O/fnf, k|dv, sf7df8f}+ OlGhlgol/ª sn]h>L ;/]zsdf/ /]UdL, ;efklt, ;Lg]k>L ;dgg/l;+x /fhe08f/L, pk k|fWofks, g]kfn OlGhlgol/ª sn]h
  • 247. 4k/fdz{s a}7ssf] lj:t[t ljj/0f lgDgfg;f/ ;~rfng ul/Psf] lyof]Mldlt :yfg ;]jfu|fxL ;dfh ;xefuLsf];+Vofp2]Zol8;]Da/@*,@))*dN6Lsf] clkm; oPg8LkL÷Ocf/cf/cf/kL /fli6«osfo{qmd;+of]hsa}7s z? tyf 5f]6f]cGtlq{mofkm]a|c/L%, @))(Ocf/cf/cf/kL,aa/dxnl8ol8aL;L, :s]Okm, PgOP,;Lg]k, Pg;]6, ;Lg, PkmSofg,PkmPg;L;LcfO, sf7df8f}+ O;L,PnP;Pd;L, PgO;L,oPg8LkL÷Ocf/cf/cf/kL, Pg;]6!^ JolQmx? kl/of]hgf kl/ro,g]=/f=e=;+= sfof{Gjogsfcgej cfbfgk|bfg tyf;d:of klxrfgkm]a|c/L(, @))(nlntk/pkdxfgu/kflnsfbtf{ ul/Psf nfO;]G; k|fKtl8hfOg/x?!% ;xefuLx? kl/of]hgf kl/ro,g]=/f=e=;+= sfof{Gjogsfcgej cfbfgk|bfg tyf;d:of klxrfgkm]a|c/L@&,@))(sf7df8f}+dxfgu/kflnsfbtf{ ul/Psf nfO;]G; k|fKtl8hfOg/x?@*;xefuLx?kl/of]hgf kl/ro,g]=/f=e=;+= sfof{Gjogsfcgej cfbfgk|bfg tyf;d:of klxrfghg @(,@))(ogfO6]8 jN8{6«]8 ;]G6/PdkL8ANo", l8ol8aL;L,oPg8LkL, PnP;Pd;L, ;Lg]k,cfOcf]O$&;xefuLx?/fli6«o :t/sf] k/fdz{,cWoogsf] glthf tyfcGtlqmofsf] k|ltj]bgtof/L#= l6Kk0fL tyf ;emfjx?k|fKt l6Kk0fL tyf ;emfjx?nfO{ 5f]6s/Ldf kl/lzi6–# df k|:tt ul/Psf] 5 . gu/kflnsfx?df ul/Psfk/fdz{s a}7sx? ;a}eGbf a9L k|efjsf/L lyP / pQm a}7sx? g]=/f=e=;+= sf] sfof{Gjog;Fu ;DalGwt ;d:oftyf ;jfnsf lglZrt pbfx/0fx? tyf ;+lxtf cBfjlws k|lqmofdf ;Daf]wg ul/gkg]{ g]=/f=e=;+=sf s]xLc;+ultx?;Fu ;DalGwt lyP .To;}u/L, ;+lxtfsf] cBfjlws ug{df eGbf o;sf ;d:of tyf ;jfnx?df s]lGb|t /fli6«o :t/sf] sfof{zfnfcfjZos 5 . pQm l6Kk0fLx? jf:tljs ;+lxtf ;wf/df pkof]uL xg]5g . ltgLx? kl/lzi6df ;dfj]z ul/psf5g .$= lgisif{o; k"/s k|ltj]bgn] ;fdfGotof sfo{ ljj/0f ;+nUg u/]sf] 5 / ljljw ;]jfu|fxLx?sf ;+u7gx?sf];xeflutfsf pbfx/0fx? k|bfg u/]sf] 5 . k/fdz{s a}7s tyf /fli6«o sfof{zfnf clt g} pkof]uL ePsf lyP /k|ltj]bgnfO{ clGtd ?k lbg] ;+ud laGb k|dfl0ft eP . ;l6s?kdf k|fKt l6Kk0fLx?n] 36gfx?sf] lg/Gt/ /]s8{ug]{, lgoldt ?kdf ;+lxtfsf] cBfjlws ug{ ;Sg] tyf l8hfOg/ tyf 3/wgLx?nfO{ tflnd k|bfg ug{ ;Sg];+:yfut ;+oGqsf] ljsf;df Wofg s]lGb|t ug{kg]{ s/f ;"lrt u/] .