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Situational analysis of SC and ST education in Gujarat


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Study Done By : National Campaign on Dalit Human Rights …

Study Done By : National Campaign on Dalit Human Rights
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  • 1. (1) Gujarat is one of the leading state in industrial development but when it comes to education sector, the state fairs poorly and is ranked 15th among all the major states in the country. Out of 5 crores population of the state, nearly 30% (i.e. 1½ crores) population is still illiterate, and among these, 90 lakh are women. With respect to Human Development Index (HDI), the status of Gujarat is matter of serious concern. In 2008, the HDI for Gujarat, was 0.527 and it ranked 10th among major states. With respect to three HDI components — income, health and education — Gujarat does not present a shining story. In this respect, states like Kerala took the lead in every sector, while Punjab, Himachal Pradesh, Haryana, Maharashtra, Tamil Nadu and West Bengal did better than Gujarat. The state ranks 9th on the Education Development Index (EDI) prepared by the National University of Educational Administration (NUEPA) , this index measures the performance of states on the Universalization of Elementary Education programme. Though it is a significant leap from its 14th position not very long ago, it still points to a compelling need for making intensive efforts to bring about a change in the status of education in the state. The literacy rate in the State (excluding children in the age-group 0-6 years) has increased from 61.29 percent in 1991 to 69.14 percent in 2001. Among males, it has increased from 73.13 percent in 1991 to 79.66 percent, where as among females, it has increased from 48.64 percent in 1991 to 57.86 percent during the same period. The literacy rate for rural areas is 61.29 percent, while it is 81.84 percent in urban areas. Out of the 24 districts where population enumeration was conducted, Ahmedabad has the highest literacy rate of 79.89 percent, while Dahod has the lowest literacy rate of 45.65 percent. Educationally Backward Districts (EBD) in Gujarat include Kutch, Dahod, Narmada, Banaskantha, Patan, Porbandar, Panchmahal, Amreli, Surendranagar, Surat, Jamnagar, Bhavnagar, Kheda, Sabarkantha, Bharuch, Junagadh, Rajkot, Mehsana, Dang and Valsad. Among this, eight are tribal districts. Banaskantha with 4.1 per cent GER is at the bottom of the list closely followed by Dang (4.3) and Surendranagar (4.4), while Mehsana scores the highest in the list with 11.4 per cent GER.
  • 2. (2) (3) Gujarat has comparatively a small population of Scheduled castes. According to the 2001 Census, the population of the Scheduled caste in Gujarat is 35.93 lakhs, which comes to 7.09% of the total population of the State of 5.07 Crores. The Scheduled caste is scattered all the District of the State unlike the Scheduled Tribes the bulk of whom live in eight District in the Eastern part of the State. SCs population is found in all the districts of the state, the larger concentration of them in Ahmedabad, Banaskaha, Junagadh, Mehesana and Vododara districts. In the field of Education among the Scheduled caste, there has been a gradual improvement in the condition of the SCs during the last two decades. According to 1961 census, the literacy rate among them was 22.46% against the rate of 30.45% for the general population. By 2001, the literacy rate among the SCs went up to 70.50% which is slightly higher than the general literacy rate of the state which is 69.14%. And Female literacy rate of 57.58% is at par with general literacy rate of 57.80. There is remarkable increase in male literacy rate which is 82.56% and higher than the general literacy rate of 79.66%. Similarly, Scheduled Tribes (STs) constitute 14.8 per cent of the total population of the State. The state has registered 21.4 per cent decadal growth of the Scheduled Tribe population in 1991-2001. There are twenty nine (29) notified Scheduled Tribes in the state. The literacy rate among the tribal population has reported wide variation across the States, exceptionally literacy rate almost reaching up to 60 to 80 Percentage. The ST population of Gujarat has recorded 47.7 per cent literacy rate, which is at par with the national average for STs (47.1%). The male and female literacy at 59.2 per cent and 36 per cent respectively indicate that women are lagging behind male counterparts by 23.2 percentage points. Of the twelve major STs, Dhodia with 75.9 per cent literacy are ahead of others. Their female literacy rate is 66.5 per cent and male (85.3%). Literacy position is dismal among Koli as only 26.3 per cent of their population has been returned as literate; the picture is more depressing for females (12.8%) among them, Merely 2.5 per cent of total literates in the ST population have educational level graduation and above. The Chaudhri and Dhodia are well ahead, among the twelve major STs, to register high of 5.3 per cent of their literates as graduate or above. On contrary, Koli, Varli, Dubla, and Naikda are at the bottom, each having less than one per cent. The government of Gujarat has implemented certain policies for the upliftment of those belonging to Scheduled castes and Scheduled Tribes into higher positions. The most important thing is that the Reservation system, where certain seats in the in the Government are set aside only for SCs and STs. In Gujarat 7% of seats in the Govt. and education sectors are reserved for the SC’s and 14% set aside on the National Level and 7.5% seats are reserved for ST’s. Even with such promise of upliftment through the reservation, SCs and STs People continue to be excluded throughout Gujarat. NCDHR Findings of Survey among Dalit Adivasi Students in Higher Education in Gujrat: It has been observed in survey that majority of SC and ST students feel that condition of higher education is indicator of good status. Only few believe that the status of higher education is better but none of them described it as either average or bad. But when we asked them regarding governmental schemes in higher education, all of them responded that the schemes are very important for them, also majority of them have agreed that they have been benefited from the schemes like pre-metric and post metric scholarship, still it has been observed that none of them has ever availed the benefits from award of prizes to students securing higher rank in competitive examination. There are so many issues in educational sector especially in higher education when we talk about the availing scholarship, non accessibility of scholarship; Discrimination during the persuasion of their education, delay in processing of the facilities and so on, majority of them responded that the most important among all these issues is that they are facing the delay in the processing of these schemes and facilities some of them has replied that they couldn’t access these
  • 3. (4) (5) schemes without any reason which itself describes that majority of SC/ST students are facing the discrimination indirectly which they themselves doesn’t know very much. As per UGC guidelines, there is provision of equal opportunity cell under which selected university are getting the fund for the upliftment of the deprived section of the society, in which many of central universities has its own grievance mechanism cell or equal opportunity cell for the SC/ST students, but when we asked students about these cells it appears that majority of them doesn’t even know about these cells and it seems that they were very much confused about the grievance mechanism cell. In terms of their family background and source of the finance for their education it has been observed that most of them belong to agricultural background where some of them are associated with their own business, governmental and private jobs also there are responses which were talking about taking loan as their source of finance for education. When we asked them about the monthly expenditure on the education, majority of students have replied that they are spending around 5 to 10 thousand rupees per month on their education. Discrimination in the Education level The forms of structural discrimination, alienation, and abuse which Adivasi and Dalit children face in schools and Higher education levels are so stigmatizing that they are oftentimes tortured by physical, socially neglected, politically etc at the institution therefore the students do not concentrate on study. One of the main issues is the discriminatory practice conducted by teachers. In 2006, the Special Rapporteur on the right to education noted that “teachers have been known to declare that Dalit pupils cannot learn unless they are beaten” (HRW, 2007). Discriminatory practices against Dalit children exercised by teachers may include corporal punishment, denial of access to school water supplies, segregation in class rooms, and forcing Dalit children to perform manual scavenging on and around school premises (IDSN and Navsarjan briefing note, 2010). Intolerance, prejudice and harassment towards Dalits are not only found at the elementary school level. Several incidents have occurred in institutions of higher education where discrimination is practiced by senior upper-caste students, teachers, faculties, and administrations. The caste bias manifests itself in the way teachers ignore Dalit students and unjustly fail them in exams, in social exclusion and physical abuse, and in the unwillingness of the university administration to assist Dalits and support them. As a grave consequence of this harassment, a disproportionate number of Dalit students have committed suicide (The Death of Merit, 2011: A). Indeed, in India alone, 18 Dalit students have committed suicide in one of the country’s premier institutions between 2008-2011, and this number only represents the official cases. Counting all the Dalit students whose families did not protest against the incessant discrimination that eventually led to suicide, the number is likely to be much higher (The Death of Merit, 2011: ). Education and Occupation of SCs and Tribal Students Parents: An important and significant aspect of education for the students is that influences of the parents and their educational level. In the context of Scheduled caste and Tribal students, the educational level of parents may assume special importance because of its ability to provide the right inspiration and guidance for their children in higher education in the absence of many other positive factors. According to an observation made by NGO Navsarjan, many of the SCs and STs students’ parents are illiterate or can just read and write with no formal education, and very small population of them has gone for higher education studies like post graduation or professional studies. This shows that very few of them are the second generation pursuing higher studies. Review of related literature on access to education for Scheduled Castes and Scheduled Tribes in Gujrat can be viewed and perceived differently related to their socio-economic necessity. Evidence shows that for Scheduled Castes, access to education has been a major
  • 4. (6) (7) thrust for equity and social justice. Attempts to abandon the caste system and end the social discrimination have always proposed education as the primary means to overcome caste discrimination. While for Scheduled Tribes, access to education remained a secondary issue until recently. It was only in the past couple of decades that lot of stress has been laid on education among tribal communities in order to access the fruits of development. Despite special provisions in the constitution to meet the educational requirements of Scheduled Castes and Scheduled Tribes, the likelihood of exclusion is compounded if the children live in rural areas and are females. Several studies reveal that there is a wide gender and social disparity in enrolment, retention and learning achievement at the primary stage. Both the demand and supply factors combine to restrict educational access for children from Scheduled Castes and Scheduled Tribes. While Scheduled Castes’ students have much greater access to elementary education than Scheduled Tribes’ children, they frequently encounter overt and covert acts of discrimination, prejudice and rejection from teachers and fellow students. In other words, while public schools may appear to the places in which integration can take place, prejudices against Scheduled Castes persist in the classroom, playground and in the micro-practices of schooling. The likelihood of exclusion is further accentuated for the Scheduled Castes and Scheduled Tribes’ girls. Most of the studies on them indicate a severe education disadvantage from multiple sources of exclusion: girls from impoverished families, girls from tribal, ethnic, or linguistic “minority” communities, girls living in remote settings, and girls from lower castes are less likely to participate in education and more likely to stay in school if they enroll at all. Keeping in view the social and economic locations of both scheduled castes and scheduled tribes, we now proceed to evaluate the key challenges faced by them in the field of school and higher education in Gujrat: (a) Key challenges faced by scheduled caste students in school education in Gujrat: 1. Caste, tribe, class and gender based discrimination continues to haunt educational institutions from pre-school to centres of excellence and SC communities and children who aspire for equality and equal treatment often pay heavy price including paying the price with their lives as reported from schools and professional colleges. They are also barriers to parent’s engagement with the education system. Exclusion within the school system needs recognition. 2. The negative impacts of increasing poverty and inequality, reduced employment opportunities and livelihoods of Dalit and Adivasi parents on the education and development of their children. These make it extremely difficult for Dalit and Adivasi children to meet even ‘minimum costs’ leave alone access support systems or private education. 3. Our analysis points out that a significant proportion of Scheduled Caste and an even greater proportion of Scheduled Tribe children continue to remain out of school. This is so even in the younger age group, indicating that accessing basic school is still a problem, especially in certain states and regions which have suffered gross neglect by the polity and State. 4. The distance to schools is also considered a huge barrier for SC children, and a significant part of the explanation for the low enrolment rate and the high dropout rate. Scheduled Caste families often live in remote areas, away from the main villages and schools. This residential pattern has two major implications. Firstly, the location of schools within the main villages, and hence within higher caste areas, makes it difficult for SC children to gain access to schools, due to caste tensions. Secondly, the great physical distance to schools often result in SC children dropping out, as the distance is simply too far to walk on an everyday basis. 5. While enrolment rates continue to grow, drop-out rates both reported and unreported are on the rise with a substantive
  • 5. (8) (9) proportion of young people, not accessing education that can spur them to participation, skill enhancement or employment. While the gross enrolment ratio (GER) in upper primary stage was 72.8 % it dropped to 5% for SC/ST when it comes to higher education. Quality of education in government schools and colleges needs serious attention. 6. One of the key challenges is that attendance rates at both primary and middle school and completion rates are far from satisfactory. This indicates that dropout, failure are problems that afflict SC/ST children to a far greater degree than the rest and they thus continue to lag behind them in terms of educational attainment. 7. Inadequate and insensitive implementation of entitlements and provisions hurt the dignity and negatively impact the personal development of Dalit and Adivasi youth. Further, curriculum is silent on recognizing SC contribution and leadership in social and cultural life, national growth and productivity to promote the self image, dignity. 8. Lack of information, guidance and support on available resources and accessing them also limit Dalit and Adivasi students’ choices and opportunities. Reduced employment opportunities in the government without adding measures to promote their employment in the private sector or entrepreneurship has also become a dampener to families for higher investment in education. 9. A large proportion of the allocations in SCSP and TSP are being spent on the civil construction and negligible amounts on direct entitlements to the to SCs and STs which is denying the necessary support to them. 10.Migratory labour is another factor that adds to the high dropout rates. Many SC’s are landless and are forced into migrant labour, as this is often the only way to ensure the economical survival of their families. The continuous migration in search for labour implies a frequent disruption of the Dalit children’s education and makes them incapable of keeping up with the academic advancement of other children. 11.SC children face discriminatory attitudes from fellow students and the community as a whole, in particular from higher caste members who perceive education for SC’s as a waste and a threat. This is linked to a perception among some higher caste people that educated SC’s pose a threat to village hierarchies and power relations, and that SC’s are generally incapable of being educated. 12. There have been several reports of indirect discrimination by teachers, such as neglect, repeated blaming, and labeling of SC students as weak performers, lead to social exclusion of SC students in schools. The consequence was irregular attendance in classroom, less concentration in studies, less participation in school activities, lower performance, failure, and school drop- outs. (b) Key challenges faced by scheduled caste students in higher education: 1. Intolerance, prejudice and harassment towards SC students are not only found at the elementary school level. Several incidents have occurred in institutions of higher education where discrimination is practiced by senior upper-caste students, teachers, faculties, and administrations. The caste bias manifests itself in the way teachers ignore SC students and unjustly fail them in exams, in social exclusion and physical abuse, and in the unwillingness of the university administration to assist SC students and support them. As a grave consequence of this harassment, a disproportionate number of SC students have committed suicide (The Death of Merit, 2011: A). 2. In higher educational institutions 15% of seats are reserved for Scheduled Castes. This is also the case in technical educational institutions. However, in technical and professional courses in higher education, some reserved seats remain unfilled. 3. Universities often fail to follow the guidelines set up for Dalit students by the University Grant Commission (UGC) (Government of India).
  • 6. (10) (11) (c) Key challenges faced by scheduled tribe students in school education: 1. A majority of schools in tribal areas are without basic infrastructure facilities. Normally, school buildings in tribal areas have thatched roofs, dilapidated walls, and non-plastered floors. Research evidence shows that a large number of tribal schools do not have teaching-learning materials, or even blackboards. 2. The modern education system makes the least attempt to address cultural specificities in designing education policies for tribal populations. Naturally, the tribal students feel immensely alienated in such an inflexible system. The highly competitive modern world which measures success by individual achievement completely diverges from the tribal system where sharing and community gets the utmost priority. Learning in the tribal context is a slow and cautious process, where less emphasis is placed on speed and more on learning correctly. 3. It is found that in most of ashram schools which are residential in nature, there is no space for the children to sleep. Consequently, the classroom turns into the dormitory and vice versa. Due to lack of minimum sanitary provisions, it is not uncommon to find that many children studying in ashram schools are afflicted with contagious diseases like scabies and diarrhoea, leading to high drop-out rates. Schools in tribal areas just function with bare minimum facilities. 4. The major constraint of tribal education at planning level is the adoption of a dual system of administration. The tribal welfare department deals with tribal life and culture and administers development work at the local level, including education. But the tribal welfare department lacks expertise in educational planning and administration in general, and academic supervision and monitoring in particular. On the other hand, the education department is the sole authority for planning of educational development at state level. It formulates implementation guidelines and instructions regarding curriculum, textbooks, teacher recruitment, transfer policies, and so on. In this the department tends to formulate uniform policies for the entire state. The school calendar is a case in point, where vacations and holidays cater to the needs of the formal school set up in a non-tribal context, with little consideration for local context and tribals festivals. This lack of sensitivity to their problems and failure in understanding tribal social reality, coupled with faulty selection and appointment of teachers in tribal areas, have resulted in poor performance and teacher absenteeism in tribal schools. 5. Though the demand for changing the content and curriculum to suit the tribal context has been an old one, no serious effort has been made in this direction in any state, except for some sporadic pilot projects. The uniform structure and transaction of curriculum has put tribal children at a disadvantage. In respect of pedagogy, it has been found that the rigid systems of formal schooling, which emphasize discipline, routine norms, teacher-centred instruction, etc. have made the children wary of school. 6. Even though elementary education is deemed free and additional incentives are given to children, in practice, it is not free due to several reasons. First, the incentive schemes do not have full coverage, and thus, have limited value at community level. Second, many of the benefits do not reach the beneficiaries. Third, even though incentives like slates and uniforms are given, they are of poor quality and do not reach in time, thus nullifying the entire purpose. 7. Poor health is another major hindrance in the promotion and participation of tribal children in education. Contagious diseases like scabies, eye infection, malaria, and diarrhoea are common in tribal areas, and also affect children’s attendance at school. Further, some tribal communities are seasonal migrants and this leads to absenteeism among their children and makes it difficult for them to effectively benefit from schooling. 8. Apart from posing a barrier in access to education, the widespread illiteracy also results in lack of gainful employment options for
  • 7. (12) (13) tribal students (HRW, 2007). A UNICEF report from 2006 points to the fact that the quality of education is often so low that children “mechanically go through five years of primary education and emerge barely literate” (UNICEF, 2006: A). The same study concludes that the poor quality of education is a significant factor in explaining the low level of completion rates in primary education. 9. Majority of Scheduled Castes and Scheduled Tribes in India are employed in agricultural and non-agricultural labour activities in the rural sector. The content of basic education are not attuned to this reality and do not incorporate examples and life situations that relate to it, whether in the teaching of mathematics, science, social sciences or languages. Aligning the curriculum to rural and agrarian realities should not be carried out in an instrumentalist manner, but as part of developing the cognitive, social and cultural capabilities of SC and ST students. 10.The absence of a comprehensive research agenda precludes evidence-based policy making that could radically alter the educational futures of Scheduled Castes and Scheduled Tribes. 11.The textbooks and primers used in primary education do not provide positive representations of Scheduled Caste’s and Scheduled Tribe’s cultures and histories, and do not sensitize school children about both the prevalence of caste and tribal inequity and the need to abolish it. 12. Using the native language as the medium of instruction has also long been recognized as an important factor for successful learning. This is as especially important for ST children who often speak dialects that are different from the regional or state language. But except in some rare instances, there has been no real attempt to develop primers using words and phrases from the local language or dialect. Even in cases where there is clear justification for developing bilingual primers – such as in the case of the Gond tribal language, which is spoken by an estimated 3 million people in the central Indian belt – such efforts have been lacking. 13.The problem of insufficient number of teachers has been compounded by the problem of unmotivated teachers, which is reflected in the phenomenon of teacher absenteeism. Teachers for SC and ST children primarily belong to non-SC or non tribal backgrounds. They are highly irregular in attending since they live outside the villages. This is a common feature in schools located in remote areas. There are reports of ‘paper schools’ which remain closed during the year and yet others for years on end especially in remote tribal areas. This is the situation particularly in remote tribal areas. 14.Dysfunctional and poorly organized school environments, inadequate number of teachers, inadequate teaching quantum ranging from absence of teaching to the adoption of most conventional and uninteresting teaching methods together makes for a situation where the teaching transaction is poor and inadequate. Poor teacher competence is also a critical negative factor. 15.The inefficiency, mismanagement, nepotism and corruption besetting the Ashram Schools are well documented by B.K. Roy Burman years ago and B.D. Sharma more recently. They have commented upon the shortcomings of the voluntary agencies who run Ashram schools, pointing out the sub-standard level of education given in these institutions, poor hostel facilities, the use of inmates as unpaid, forced labour, etc. (Roy Burman cited in Kamat, 1985; Govt. of India, 1990). Other observers have also noted evils rampant in the system. 16.Elementary education, although claimed to be free by the government involve hidden expenses in the form of: (a) Subsidiary expenditures like books, pencils, papers; and (b) Private tution. Teachers do not teach when in schools and compel the students to seek paid assistance from them after the school hours. When survival is a struggle for the majority of the tribal population, such paid assistance is out of reach. The result is that downtrodden tribals drop-out of the system due to increasing cost of education.
  • 8. (14) (15) (d) Key challenges faced by scheduled tribe students in higher education: 1. Intolerance, prejudice and harassment towards SC students are not only found at the elementary school level. Several incidents have occurred in institutions of higher education where discrimination is practiced by senior upper-caste students, teachers, faculties, and administrations. The caste bias manifests itself in the way teachers ignore SC students and unjustly fail them in exams, in social exclusion and physical abuse, and in the unwillingness of the university administration to assist SC students and support them. As a grave consequence of this harassment, a disproportionate number of SC students have committed suicide (The Death of Merit, 2011: A). 2. In higher educational institutions 15% of seats are reserved for Scheduled Castes. This is also the case in technical educational institutions. However, in technical and professional courses in higher education, some reserved seats remain unfilled. 3. Universities often fail to follow the guidelines set up for Dalit students by the University Grant Commission (UGC) (Government of India). As we have already noted, the SC and ST are disproportionately affected by poverty and exploitation, displacement and forced migration in search of livelihood which polarizes class formation and expansion of informal economy. Socio-cultural practices of exclusion and discrimination continue to define the existence of the poor Scheduled Castes. Scheduled Tribes are increasingly sucked into the vortex of rural and urban exploitation and inequality. Several studies have affirmed that educational inequality (of access and achievement) has multiple bases in the contemporary structures of caste, class, gender and ethnicity evolving in interaction with political economy. They show that caste-class relations and values of cultural oppression are crucial to denial of education. There is a lack of basic material condition including situations of acute poverty. It has been quite emphatically established that a sizeable section of the population is too poor to avail of education which is far from free and entails unaffordable costs (Tilak, 1996, 2000). Importantly, the phenomenon of labouring children exists and so do situations of hunger, under/malnourishment and ill health among low caste/class and tribes. Casteism breeds low self-esteem and skills associated with cultural capital are lacking among the SC/ST. Their own cultural capital is deemed valueless. For the SC and ST students, caste, tribal ethnicity and class are reproduced in a variety of ways in relation to school. Traditional systems have undergone tremendous change and assumed complex forms deriving out of the ascendance of capitalist economies and labour markets and of systems of political patronage which thrive in the name of democracy. New socio-political forces combine with the old and mediate through community, family, culture and ideology to adversely affect dalit and Adivasi communities and influence educational access and participation of their children. Gender, the oldest basic category of subordination militates against women and girls of SC and increasingly ST communities. Today Scheduled castes and tribal communities, some of whom have had histories of egalitarianism, are patriarchal. Women hold largely subordinated positions in the modern organisation of public and private labour. The role for girls in such communities is to rear children and carry out domestic labour, i.e. engagement in the reproduction of reproductive order. Girl’s education this is not divorced from patriarchal structures of early marriage and motherhood and compulsory productive labour. Education is considered a male cultural resource. Informal labour market is also caste/gender segmented. Dalit women and girls are located in the dual labour market – in agricultural and caste labour in rural areas and informal low paying sector in urban areas. Combined together, the realities of reproductive (domestic) /productive (wage) labour, shape education choices of girls, which are actually choices of their families and communities. Even if the cultural atmosphere is changing now there are real limits. For women, changing caste relations have meant a bleak class reality in which there is no guarantee hence no motivation for education. Despite this we find that girls aspire to an education. Parents also
  • 9. (16) (17) increasingly want them to, with the cultural ideal of a ‘better marriage’ being the driving force. Thus, larger structures intervene to maintain serious caste / class gender differences in education. These challenges can only be overcome with innovative approaches and community mobilisation around the principle of educating, mobilizing and organising these communities to help themselves with the support of the Government. In this context, and based on the benefit and budgetary analysis, we recommend certain innovative measures to achieve the educational goals envisaged for the Dalit and Adivasi communities in SCSP and TSP plan.
  • 10. (18) (19)
  • 11. (20) (21) Charter of Demands: 1) Enact and implement a strong legislation to counter discrimination and violence against Dalit and Adivasi Students. 2) Introduce a strong law for ensuring effective implementation of SCSP and TSP in educational development schemes for Dalits and Adivasis. 3) Special Budgetary allocations for new hostel facilities, adequate scholarships, fee wavier in private institutions, coaching schemes, improving quality of education in government colleges, and other relevant schemes. 1) High quality hostels must be provided for SC & ST students in higher education. 2) Opportunity must be provided to study in private education institutions of choice including hostels must be provided. Costs must be borne by state. 3) Reservation in private educational institutions must be made mandatory. 4) The funds under the schemes meant for specific purposes and having no bearing on educational development of SCs/STs should not be allowed to earmark under SCSP/TSP. 5) The funds under SCSP/TSP may be made non-divertible and non-lapsable. 6) SCSP and TSP should not be allocated notionally for non-divisible schemes. 7) To address above mentioned educational problems ,the measure will include building more residential hostel for SC/ST girls and 1. Allocation has continously decreased in General Education Head. In 2011-12, allocation was 100.79 Cr. (9.21%), while in 2012- 13 it has decreased to 7.36% of the total plan outlay and stands at 174 Cr. And now in 2013-14, it is merely 176.79 Cr. Which is about 5.33% allocated, so the allocation percentage decreased in this head. Issue of SCs education access is away from Privatization process of state govt. still stands in Gujarat. 2. Lack of implementation of RTE and other way the govt away to accountable for the implementation of constitutional fundamental rights of SCs & STs in Gujarat. 3. In Technical Education, year 2012-13 allocation was 6.7 Cr (3.59%) while in the year 2011-12 it was 7.5 Cr (5.9 %) and this year 2013-14 Rs. 12.59 Cr. With 4.03% as the Data of last 3 years shows that the allocation for this head is decreasing trend. 4. Under the Nutrition Head, only 13.29 Cr has been allocated which is only in 1 % for the SCP. This amount is grossly insufficient to deal with the undernourishment and malnourishment of dalit infants and children. As per the guidelines at least 7% allocation is desirable. Source: Budget Publication No.2 Receipt under Consolidated Fund & Transaction under Contingency Fund & Accounts 2013-14 of Gujarat State
  • 12. (22) (23) boys in middle school ,high school and higher secondary school level in small towns, district places ,study centers in the school ,scheme for additional coaching or remedial coaching at pre- higher secondary level ,supply of free books, uniforms, freeship and scholarship , particularly those who drop out at high school and high secondary level to join vocational courses ,best practices in school which will ensure non discriminatory behavior by teachers and students towards SC/ST students in school life and in mid day meal. 8) In these schools, support systems for competitive examinations, remedial coaching if required, career guidance and vocational courses must be introduced. 9) Fee waivers may be put in place for all SC/ST students in secondary and higher secondary schools, to make education free for these children. The fees should be paid to each school by the state government and accounted for under SCSP/TSP. 10) There may be a separate drive launched to recruit and train ST teachers from the local areas, who know the local ST languages, for all schools in ST populated blocks. 11) In the higher education the SC/ST student faced specific problem which need attention, which should be used for scaling up and new schemes These include low enrolment rate of SC/ST in rural area ,low enrolment among SC/ST girls , poor families, particularly wage labor households both in rural and urban are ,financial difficulties , lack of hostel facilities, poor knowledge of English and some subjects, high drop rate particularly in professional subjects, discrimination in higher educational institutions in some spheres. 12) For all SC/ST girls admitted and low SC/ST female literacy levels. For all SC/ST girls admitted into these hostels, the boarding/lodging expenses will be met under the SCSP/TSP. 13) Innovative schemes for these hostels may include ICT; remedial courses; coaching for the competitive examinations for higher education; personality development and soft skills; sports, music and art. 14) 100% fee waiver for all courses including self-financed courses in all centrally funded educational institutions. 15) Special scholarship schemes for SC & ST girls in colleges for their hostels and libraries. Along with this there needs to be scaling up of existing schemes focussing on SC & ST girls. 16) The overseas scholarship scheme for SCs and STs candidates must be introduced by Gujrat Govt. on the lines of scheme run by Maharashtra Govt. 17) Special hostel complexes need to be built with the help of SCSP / TSP funds in all major cities of Gujarat for SC, ST and students from other marginalised groups who want to benefit from the educational services located in cities for facilities such as professional coaching, research degrees etc. 50 % of such hostel capacities must be reserved for SC and ST girls. 18) Remedial coaching for improvement of social skill and communication. 19) The remedial coaching in English language, in some subject where the students need support in personalized manner and support in developing social skill and confident building will improve their academic performance, reduce failure rate, drop out rate and improve success rate. 20) Hostel facilities with tuition and other fee waiver, supply of books, equipment. computer through funds from SCSP/TSP should help them to improve performance. 21) Implementation of the regulation against discrimination and also positive steps for social coercion and confidential building should be another component of the scheme.
  • 13. (24) 22) The teachers belonging to SC/ST community need to be empowered by providing them grants to do research, attend conferences, get an additional capacity development and training in pedagogy and subject matter. 23) Similar facilities for capacity enhancement be developed for non teaching staff belonging to SC/ST category. 24) Laptop shall be provided to all SC/ST students subject to a limit of Rs.40,000/- on need basis with the expenditure ratio of 90% from the SCSP grant and 10% by the candidate (to ensure genuine requirement). In addition, Internet access facility using data cards can be extended to all such students subject to a limit of Rs.300/- per student per month during the course of studies.