Why study communication ppt @ bec doms
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  • 1. Why Study Communication?
    • The Only Completely Portable Skill
      • You will use it in every relationship
      • You will need it regardless of your career path
    • The “Information Age”
      • The history of civilization is the history of information
      • Language and written documents facilitate the transfer of information and knowledge through time and space
  • 2. Why Study Communication?
    • Your Quality of Life Depends Primarily on Your Communication Skills
    • You Cannot Be Too Good at Communication
    • People Overestimate Their Own Communication Skills
  • 3. We Want Others to Change
  • 4. What Is Communication?
    • Transfer of Meaning—No
    • Influence of Mental Maps—Yes
    • Redundant
      • Visual
      • Auditory
      • Kinesthestic
      • Energetic
  • 5. What Is Communication?
    • Conscious and Intentional
      • Nonverbal
      • Verbal
    • Unconscious and Unintentional
      • Nonverbal
      • Verbal
  • 6. Unconscious Processing
    • Conscious Processing = 7±2/Second
    • Unconscious Processing = 200,000,000/Sec.
    • Short-term Memory
    • Long-term Memory
    • Habits
      • Physical
      • Mental
  • 7. Habits
    • Learned Behavior
    • Established Over Time
      • Practice
      • Self-talk
    • Change
  • 8. Learning
    • Unconscious Incompetence
    • Conscious Incompetence
    • Conscious Competence
    • Unconscious Competence
    • Mastery
  • 9. External Reality
    • The Map is Not the Territory
      • We delete information
      • We distort information
      • We generalize
      • We assign meaning
    • Models of the World
  • 10. Sensory Data
    • The Building Blocks of Subjective Experience
      • What we see
      • What we hear
      • What we touch, taste, and smell
    • The Four-tuple
    • Meanings and Memories
  • 11. Filtering Experience
    • Primary Mediation
    • Secondary Mediation
      • Genetic predisposition
      • Conditioning
      • Personal profiles of behavioral type
      • Beliefs, values, core questions, and core metaphors
      • Physical and mental state
  • 12. Perception Can Be Tricky
  • 13. The Communication Process Sensory Data Sensory Data Sender Receiver Filters Beliefs Values Questions & Metaphors Beh. Type State Filters Beliefs Values Questions & Metaphors Beh. Type State Decision- Making Message Channel The Bowman Communication Model, 1992-2003 Meaning Encoding Decision- Making Meaning Encoding
  • 14. Metaphor: The Language of Perception
    • Metaphors and Similes
      • My love is a flower.
      • My love is like a flower.
    • Core Metaphors
      • Argument is war
      • Business is war
      • Business is a sport or a game
      • Business is a building
  • 15. Core Metaphors
    • Metaphors, Similes, and Analogies
    • Perceptual Filters
    • Common Operational Metaphors
      • Time is…
      • Learning is…
      • Men/Women are…
      • Success is...
      • Life is…
  • 16. Experience, Language, and Meaning Experience Sensory Data Mental Maps Language Meaning
  • 17. Symbol Systems
    • Language
      • Words and sentences
      • Meaning and labels
    • Mathematics
    • Money
    1+1=2
  • 18. History of Communication
    • Nonverbal: 150,000 years
    • Oral: 55,000 years
    • Written: 6,000 years
      • Early writing: 4000 BC
      • Egyptian hieroglyphics: 3000 BC
      • Phoenician alphabet: 1500 to 2000 BC
      • Book printing in China: 600 BC
      • Book printing in Europe: 1400 AD
  • 19. Communicating Meaning
    • Physiology and Appearance: 55 percent
    • Paralanguage: 38 percent
    • Language: 7 percent
  • 20. Sensory Data and Mental Maps
    • Bridge Between Internal and External
    • Internal and External Processing
    • Internal Processing
      • Posture and breathing
      • Language and paralanguage
      • Eye accessing cues
  • 21. Sensory Modalities
    • Visual
    • Auditory
    • Kinesthetic
      • Touch
      • Taste
      • Smell
      • Emotional responses (feelings)
  • 22. Preferred Sensory Modalities
    • People Use All Their Available Senses
    • Some Prefer Visual
    • Some Prefer Auditory
    • Some Prefer the Kinesthetic Cluster
      • Senses of touch, taste, and smell
      • Associated emotional responses
    • Some Prefer “Digital” Processing
  • 23. Visuals
    • Vocabulary
      • I see what you mean.
      • It looks good to me.
      • Let’s stay focused on the problem.
      • She has a bright future.
      • He’s always in a fog .
    • Physiology and Appearance
    • Paralanguage
  • 24. Auditories
    • Vocabulary
      • I hear what you are saying .
      • It sounds good to me.
      • Does the name Pavlov ring a bell?
      • That’s music to my ears .
      • He’s always blowing his own horn .
    • Physiology and Appearance
    • Paralanguage
  • 25. Kinesthetics (Kinos)
    • Vocabulary
      • I can grasp the concept, and it feels right to me.
      • It smells fishy to me.
      • It left me with a bad taste in my mouth .
      • She’s still rough around the edges.
      • He’s a smooth operator.
    • Physiology and Appearance
    • Paralanguage
  • 26. Eye Accessing Cues Vr Ar Ai Vc Ac K
  • 27. Exercise: Observing Eye Movements
    • Ask questions that require internal processing.
      • Visual
      • Auditory
      • Kinesthetic
        • Taste or smell
        • Touch
        • Emotions
  • 28. Exercise: Flexibility
    • Determine your preferred system.
      • What are you doing when you “think”?
      • Speak for two minutes using predicates from one sensory modality, then do the the same for each of the other two.
    • Work in groups and take turns speaking using sense-based predicates in a systematic way.
  • 29. Rapport
    • Finding Commonalities
      • Values
      • Vocabulary and paralanguage
      • Physiology and appearance
    • Matching and Mirroring
    • Cross-over Matching
    People who are like each other, like each other .
  • 30. Developing Rapport
    • Nonverbal (what you see and do)
      • Physiology
      • Appearance
      • Congruence
    • Verbal (what you hear and say)
      • Sense-based predicates
      • Values, beliefs, and criteria
      • Voice tone and rate of speech
  • 31. Reading Nonverbal Messages
    • Sensory Acuity
    • Agree and Disagree
    • Posture and Movement
      • Associated or dissociated
      • Bodily response
  • 32. Exercises: Rapport
    • Matching and Mirroring
      • Observing others
      • Practicing
    • Calibration
      • Like/dislike
      • Yes/no
  • 33.  
  • 34. Congruence
    • Physiology
      • Left/right body
      • Left/right brain
    • Nonverbal and Verbal Messages
    • “ Parts”
    • Groups
  • 35. Strategies
    • The Structure of Subjective Experience
      • Four-tuples
      • Syntax
    • Learned Behavior
      • TOTE (Test, Operate, Test, Exit)
      • Habits
      • Skills
  • 36. Common Strategies
    • Spelling
      • Auditory (spell “phonics” phonetically)
      • Visual
    • Making Decisions
    • Communicating
      • Listening and speaking
      • Writing
    Accommodate
  • 37. Decision-making Strategies
    • Purchasing
      • An inexpensive product
      • Dinner in a nice restaurant
      • An expensive product or service
    • Relationships
    • Career Choices
  • 38. Communication Strategy, 1 & 2
    • Pace
      • Match (nonverbally and verbally)
      • Meet expectations
    • Lead
      • Set direction
      • Maintain interest
      • Maintain rapport
  • 39. Communication Strategy, 3 & 4
    • Blend Outcomes
      • Understand objectives and desires
      • Create win-win solutions
    • Motivate
      • Clarify who does what next
      • Future-pace possibilities
      • Presuppose positive results
  • 40. Exercise: Eliciting Strategies
    • Ordering a Meal in a Restaurant
    • Learning Something New
    • Teaching Something for the First Time
  • 41. Personal Profiles
    • Achiever
    • Communicator
    • Specialist
    • Perfectionist
    C S P A
  • 42. Profile Characteristics
    • Achiever
      • Likes to set goals, challenge the environment and win.
      • Sees life as a competition.
    • Communicator
      • Likes to achieve results by working with and through people.
      • Finds more enjoyment in the process than in the results.
    • Specialist
      • Likes to plan work and relationships.
      • Finds enjoyment in knowing what to expect.
    • Perfectionist
      • Enjoys jobs requiring attention to detail.
      • Complies with authority and tries to provide the “right” answer.
  • 43. Metaprograms
    • Action — Initiate or Respond
    • Direction — Toward or Away From
    • Source — Internal or External
    • Conduct — Rule Follower or Breaker
  • 44. More Metaprograms
    • Response — Match or Mismatch
    • Scope — Global or Specific
    • Cognitive Style — Thinking or Feeling
    • Confirmation — VAK and Times
  • 45. Exercise: Eliciting Metaprograms
    • Metaprograms are revealed by
      • Nonverbal messages
      • Language
    • Question s
      • What do you mean?
      • How do you know?
      • What’s important to you about that?
  • 46. Changing Behavior
    • Patterns and Pattern Interrupts
    • Anchors and Anchoring
      • Stimulus-response conditioning
      • Visual, auditory, and kinesthetic anchors
    • Advanced Language Patterns
      • The Metamodel
      • The Milton Model
  • 47. Exercise: Anchoring
    • Setting Anchors
      • Kinesthetic
      • Visual
      • Auditory
    • Stacking Anchors
    • Collapsing Anchors
    • Using Sliding Anchors
  • 48. The Structure of Subjective Experience
    • Sorting for Time
      • Past, present, and future
      • Timelines
    • Sorting for Like and Dislike
    • Creating and Changing Meaning
  • 49. Modalities and Submodalities
    • Visual Submodalities
      • Location, size, distance, brightness, point of view
      • Color or black & white, moving or still
    • Auditory Submodalities
      • Location, tone, rate, pitch, inflection, rhythm
      • Language, voice (your voice, the voice of a parent)
    • Kinesthetic Submodalities
      • Location, strength, duration, movement
      • Quality (warm, cold, “tingly,” etc.)
  • 50. Exercise: Changing Submodalities
    • Select something, someone, or an activity you want to like better.
    • Elicit submodalities for
      • Things you like.
      • Things you dislike.
    • Change the submodalities with which you represent the thing, person, or activity.
  • 51. Belief Systems
    • Cultural
    • Parental
    • Group
    • Individual
    • Global (Identity)
    • Cause-effect
      • If X, then Y
      • If I study, then I will...
    • Rules
      • Can/can’t
      • Must/must not
      • Should/should not
  • 52. Values
    • A Type of Belief
    • Hierarchical
    • Either Positive or Negative
      • Something desired
      • Something to avoid
    • Congruent or Incongruent
  • 53. Core Questions
    • Remain Out of Conscious Awareness
    • Focus Attention
    • Influence Interpretation of Events
    • Influence Psychological State
    • Influence the Range of Possibilities
  • 54. Exercise: Belief and Disbelief
    • Elicit the submodalities of something you believe absolutely.
    • Elicit the submodalities of something you doubt.
    • Elicit the submodalities of something you disbelieve.
    • Select a limiting belief and change its submodalities.
  • 55. Frames and Reframes
    • The Filters That Determine Meaning
    • Influence State and Behavior
    • Creating and Changing Frames
      • Anchoring
      • Reframing Context
      • Reframing Content
  • 56. Reframing Context
      • Key Questions
        • Where would the characteristic or behavior be useful?
        • When would the characteristic or behavior be useful?
        • What would have to be true for this to be useful?
      • Common Context Reframes
        • Rudolph’s red nose
        • Oil
        • Procrastination
  • 57. Reframing Content
      • Key Questions
        • What else could this mean (or be)?
        • What am I missing here?
        • How can he or she believe that?
        • How could this mean the opposite of what I thought?
      • Common Content Reframes
        • The ugly duckling
        • Plastic or sawdust
        • Failure
  • 58. The Metamodel
    • Used to Understand Another’s Mental Maps
    • Used to Recover Lost Information
    • Used to Help Correct Distortions
    • Universal Metamodel Questions
      • What, who, or how specifically?
      • What do you mean?
      • How do you know?
      • What would happen if you did (or didn’t)?
  • 59. Metamodel “Violations”
    • Unspecified Nouns
      • Abstract nouns (a student, teachers)
      • Nominalizations (freedom, justice)
    • Unspecified or Missing Pronouns
      • Someone you know. . . .
      • It’s wrong to think that.
  • 60. Metamodel “Violations”
    • Unspecified Verbs
      • You have to learn this.
      • You will solve your problems.
    • Unwarranted Generalizations
      • You never want to do anything.
      • Politicians are crooks.
  • 61. Metamodel “Violations”
    • Unwarranted Comparisons
      • Brand X gives you more.
      • Sally is the best.
    • Unwarranted Rules
      • You can’t do that on television.
      • Clean your plate.
      • No pain, no gain.
  • 62. The Milton Model
    • Used to Change Another’s Mental Maps
    • Used to Create New Possibilities
    • Used to Influence
  • 63. Milton Model Techniques
    • Metamodel “Violations”
      • Unspecified nouns, pronouns, and verbs.
      • Generalizations
      • Comparisons
      • Shifts in referential index
  • 64. More Milton Model Techniques
    • Presuppositions
    • Embedded Questions
    • Embedded Commands
    • Negative Commands
    • Metaphors
    • Quotes
    • Ambiguities
  • 65. Basic Language Skills
    • My automobile prefers to warm up slowly.
    • The organization is in excellent shape. For example, the record profits last year.
    • The company has decided to purchase new furniture.
    • While busy working at the computer all day was no doubt the cause of her eye strain and stiff neck.
  • 66. More Basic Language Skills
    • Not only will Alex need to justify his behavior to his boss, but also to the company president.
    • The data is from “Service Is the Key”, by Eileen Johnson in the May issue of The Journal of Customer Relations.
  • 67. Language Skills for Case 1
    • As an employee of Con-U-Tel, it is my responsibility to set up our companies annual convention.
    • I am writing this letter to inquire about your hotel’s accommodations.
    • How many people can your hotel accommodate at one time?
  • 68. More Language Skills for Case 1
    • Does your hotel have banquet facilities?
    • How many conference rooms does your hotel have with audio/visual equipment?
    • I must have your answer by July 10th so that I can make a decision.
    • Thank you in advance for sending this and other helpful information.
  • 69. Block Format and Mixed Punctuation
    • Date goes on left margin
      • 5 January 2004
      • January 5, 2004
      • NOT : 1/5/2004 or 5.1.2004
    • Inside address includes the following:
      • Name of the individual with courtesy title
      • Professional title and/or office or department
      • Organization plus “mail stop” information
      • City, state, and ZIP code information
  • 70. Block Format and Mixed Punctuation—Part 2
    • Salutation
      • Dear Ms. Goldman:
      • Dear Director:
      • Ladies and Gentlemen:
    • The signature block includes the following:
      • An appropriate complimentary close (Sincerely, Cordially, Best Wishes)
      • The signature of the person who wrote the letter
      • The typed/printed name of the writer
  • 71. Message Structure for Case 1
    • Ask the most important question.
      • What is the make-or-break question?
      • Why are convention facilities more important than guest rooms?
      • Why is it important to include the dates in the opening question?
    • Explain your needs.
      • What does she need to know to help you?
      • What does she not need to know?
      • What is required for transition to the list of secondary questions?
  • 72. More Structure for Case 1
    • Ask your secondary questions.
      • What is implied by the numbered list?
      • How do you ensure that the information you receive will help you make a decision?
    • Set and justify an end-date.
      • Is it possible that she can help you in ways you haven’t asked about?
      • Why do you need a time index to justify a specific end-date?