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Training & development

Training & development

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    • TRAINING is a learning process that involves the acquisition of knowledge, sharpening of skills, concepts, rules, or changing of attitudes and behaviours to enhance the performance of employees.
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    • DEVELOPMENT, on the other hand, helps the individual handle future responsibilities, with less emphasis on present job duties.
  • 9. Need and basic purposes of training
    • To Increase Productivity
    • To Improve Quality
    • To Help a Company Fulfil Its Future Personnel Needs
    • To Improve Organizational Climate
    • To Improve Health and Safety
    • Obsolescence Prevention
    • Personal Growth
  • 10. The Benefits of Training
    • How Training Benefits the Organisation
    •    Leads to improved profitability and/or more positive attitudes towards profit orientation.
    •     Improves the job knowledge and skills at all levels of the organization.
    •      Improves the morale of the work force.
    •    Helps people identify with organisational goals.
    •    Helps create a better corporate image.
  • 11. The Benefits of Training
    •  Aids in organisational development.
    •  Helps prepare guidelines for work.
    •  Aids in understanding and carrying out organisational policies.
    •  Provides information for future needs in all areas of the organisation.
    •  Organization gets more effective decision making and problem solving.
    • Aids in developing leadership skills, motivation, loyalty, better attitudes, and other aspects that successful workers and managers usually display.
  • 12. The Benefits of Training
    •    Aids in increasing productivity and/or quality of work.
    •    Helps keep costs down in many areas, e.g., production, personnel, administration, etc.
    •    Develops a sense of responsibility to the organisation for being competent and knowledgeable.
    • Improves labour-management relations and creates an appropriate climate for growth, communication.
  • 13. The Benefits of Training
    •  Reduces outside consulting costs by utilising competent internal consulting.
    •    Stimulates preventive management as opposed to putting out fires.
    •     Eliminates sub-optimal behaviour.
    •     Helps employees adjust to change.
    • Aids in handling conflict, thereby helping to prevent stress and tension.
  • 14. Benefits to the Individual
    •    Helps the individual in making better decisions and effective problem solving
    •  Through training and development, motivational variables of recognition, achievement, growth, responsibility and advancement are internalised and operationalised.
    • Aids in encouraging and achieving self-development and self-confidence.
  • 15. Benefits to the Individual
    •  Helps a person handle stress, tension, frustration and conflict.
    •  Provides information for improving leadership knowledge, communication skills, and attitudes.
    •    Increases job satisfaction and recognition.
    •  Moves a person towards personal goals while improving interaction skills.
    •    Satisfies personal needs of the trainee.
  • 16. Benefits to the Individual
    •  Provides trainee an avenue for growth and a say in his/her own future.
    •  Develops a sense of growth in learning.
    •    Helps a person develop speaking and listening skills; also writing skills when exercises are required.
    •  Helps eliminate fear in attempting new tasks.
  • 17. Benefits in Intra and Inter-group Relations
    • Improves communication between groups and individuals.
    •  Improves interpersonal skills.
    •  Makes organisation policies, rules and regulations viable.
    •  Improves morale.
    •  Builds cohesiveness in groups.
    •     Provides a good climate for learning, growth, and coordination .
    • Makes the organisation a better place to work.
  • 18. Training Concepts
    • Ability : The physical and mental capacity to perform a task.
    • Action learning: Training method that involves giving teams or work groups a problem, having them work on solving it and committing to an action plan, and then holding them accountable for carrying out the plan.
    • Action plan: A written document detailing steps that a trainee and his manager will take to ensure that training transfers to the job
  • 19. Training Concepts
    • Action planning: An employee’s process of determining how he will achieve his short-and long-term career goals.
    • Assessment: The collecting of information and providing of feedback to employees about their behavior communication style, or skills.
    • Assessment center: A process in which multiple rates or evaluators (also known as assessors) evaluate employees, performances on a number of exercises.
  • 20. Training Concepts
    • Attitude: Combination of beliefs and feelings that predispose a person to behave in a certain way.
    • Attitude awareness and change program: Program focusing on increasing employees’ awareness of their attitudes toward differences in cultural and ethic backgrounds, physical characteristics (e.g., disabilities), and personal characteristics that influence behavior towards others.
    • Basic skills: Skills necessary for employees to perform their jobs and learn the content of training programs.
  • 21. Training Concepts
    • Behavior based conflict: Conflict occurring when an employee’s behavior in work roles is not appropriate in non-work roles.
    • Behavior based program: Program focusing on changing the organization policies and individual behaviors that inhibit employees’ personal growth and productivity.
    • Behavior modeling: A training method in which trainees are presented with a model who demonstrates key behaviors to replicate and provides them with the opportunity to practice those key behaviors
  • 22. Training Concepts
    • Benchmarking: The use of information about other companies’ training practices to help determine the appropriate type, level, and frequency gains from a training program.
    • Benchmarks: A research instrument designed to measure important factors in being a successful manager.
    • Benefits: What of value the company gains from a training program.
  • 23. Training Concepts
    • Blended learning: Learning involving a combination of online learning, face-to-face instruction, and other methods.
    • Career: The pattern of work related experiences that span the course of a person’s life.
    • Career development: The process by which employees’ progress through a series of stages, each characterized by a different set of developmental tasks, activities, and relationships.
  • 24. Training Concepts
    • Career insight: The degree to which employees know about their interests as well as their skills strengths and weaknesses, the awareness of how these perceptions relate to their career goals.
  • 25. Training Concepts
    • Career management : The process through which employees
    • Become aware of their interests, values, strengths, and weaknesses
    • Get information about job opportunities within a company
    • Identify career goals
    • Establish action plans to achieve career goals
    • Career path: A sequence of job positions involving similar types of work and skills that employees move through in company.
  • 26. Training Concepts
    • Case study : A description of how employees or an organization dealt with a situation.
    • Change : The adoption of a new idea or behavior by a company
    • Change management : The process of ensuring that new interventions such as training practices are accepted and used by employees and managers.
  • 27. Training Concepts
    • Coach : A peer or manager who works with an employee to motivate him, develop skills, and provide reinforcement and feedback.
    • Cognitive ability : Outcomes used to measure what knowledge trainees learned in a training program.
    • Competency : An area of personal capability that enables an employee to perform his job.
  • 28. Training Concepts
    • Competency model: A model identifying the competencies necessary for each job as well as the knowledge, skills, behavior, and personal characteristics underlying each competency.
    • Competitive advantage : An upper hand over other firms in an industry.
    • Competitiveness : A company’s ability to maintain and gain market share in an industry.
  • 29. Training Concepts
    • Computer based training (CBT): An interactive training experience in which the computer provides the learning stimulus, the trainee must respond, and the computer analyzes responses and provides feedback to the trainee.
    • Continuous learning : A learning system in which employees are required to understand the entire work system including the relationship among their jobs, their work units, and the company. Also, employees are expected to acquire new skills and knowledge, apply them on the job, and share this information with fellow workers.
  • 30. Training Concepts
    • Cost benefit analysis : The process of determining the economic benefits of a training program using accounting methods.
    • Course objectives (lesson objectives): The expected behaviors, content, conditions, and standards of a training course or lesson; more specific than program objectives.
    • Course parameters : General information about a training program including
  • 31. Training Concepts
    • Criterion deficiency : The failure to measure training outcomes that were emphasized in training objectives.
    • Cross training : Training method in which team members understand and practice each other’s skills so that members are prepared to step in and take another member’s place should he temporarily or permanently leave the team. Also, more simply, training employees to learn the skills of one or several additional jobs.
  • 32. Training Concepts
    • Culture: A set of assumptions group members share about the world and how it works as well as ideals worth striving for.
  • 33. Training Concepts
    • Development: Formal education, job experiences, relationships, and assessments of personality and abilities that help employees prepare for the future.
    • Distance learning : Training method in which geographically dispersed companies provide information about new products, policies, or procedures as well as skills training and expert lectures to field locations.
    • E learning : Instruction and delivery of training by computer online through the Internet or Web.
  • 34. Training Concepts
    • Empowerment : Giving employee responsibility and authority to make decisions regarding product development or customer service
  • 35. Training Concepts
    • Evaluation design: Designation of what information is to be collected, from whom, when, and how to determine training’s effectiveness.
    • Feedback : Information employees receive while they are performing concerning how well they are meeting objectives.
    • Formative evaluation : Evaluation conducted to improve the training process. Usually conducted before and during the training process
  • 36. Training Concepts
    • Glass ceiling: A barrier to advancement to an organization’s higher levels.
    • Goal : What a company hopes to achieve in the medium-to-long-term future.
    • Goal orientation: A trainee’s goals in a learning situation .
    • Goal setting: An employee’s process of developing short-and long-term career objectives.
  • 37. Training Concepts
    • Group mentoring program : Program in which a successful senior employee is paired with a group of four to six less experienced protégés to help them understand the organization, guide them in analyzing their experiences, and help them clarify career directions.
    • Hands-on method: Training method in which the trainee is actively involved in learning.
    • High-leverage training : Training that uses an instructional design process to ensure that it is effective and that compares or benchmarks the company’s training programs against other companies’
  • 38. Training Concepts
    • High-potential employee: An employee whom the company believes is capable of succeeding in a higher-level managerial position.
    • Human resource management: The policies, practices, and systems that influence employees’ behavior, attitudes, and performance.
    • Human resource management (HRM) practices: Management activities relating to investments in staffing, performance management, training, and compensation and benefits.
  • 39. Training Concepts
    • Human resource planning: The identification, analysis, forecasting, and planning of changes needed in a company’s human resources area.
    • Intellectual capital: Cognitive knowledge, advanced skills, system understanding and creativity, and self motivated creativity.
    • Intellectual skills : Mastery of concepts and rules.
    • Internet-based training : Training delivered on public or private computer networks and displayed by a web browser.
    • Intranet based training : Training delivered using a company’s own computer network or server.
  • 40. Training Concepts
    • Job: A specific position requiring completion of certain tasks.
    • Job analysis: The process of developing a description of the job (duties, tasks, and responsibilities) and the specifications (knowledge, skills and abilities) that an employee must have to perform it.
    • Job enlargement: The adding of challenges or new responsibilities to an employee’s current job.
  • 41. Training Concepts
    • Job experience: The relationship, problems, demands, tasks, and other features that an employee faces on the job.
    • Key behavior: One of a set of behaviors that is necessary to complete a task. Important part of behavior modeling training.
    • Knowledge: Facts or procedures. What individuals or teams of employees know or know how to do (human and social knowledge); also a company’s rules, processes, tools, and routines (structured knowledge).
  • 42. Training Concepts
    • Knowledge management: The process of enhancing company performance by designing and implementing tools, processes, systems, structures, and cultures to improve the creating, sharing, and use of knowledge.
    • Knowledge workers: Employees who own the means of producing a product or service. These employees have a specialized body of knowledge or expertise, which they use to perform their jobs and contribute to company effectiveness.
  • 43. Training Concepts
    • Learning: A relatively permanent change in human capabilities that does not result from growth processes.
    • Learning organization: A company that has an enhanced capacity to learn, adapt, and change; an organization whose employees continuously attempt to learn new things and then apply what they have learned to improve product or service quality.
  • 44. Training Concepts
    • Lecture: Training method in which the trainer communicates through spoken words that trainees are supposed to learn.
    • Manager support: Trainee’s managers.
    • Emphasizing the importance of attending training programs
    • Stressing the application of training content on the job.
    • Mentor: An experienced, productive senior employee who helps develop a less experienced employee (a protégé).
  • 45. Training Concepts
    • Metacognition: A learning strategy whereby trainees direct their attention to their own learning process.
    • Mission: A company’s long-term reason for existing.
    • Modeling: Having employees who have mastered the desired learning outcomes demonstrate them for trainees.
    • Motivation to learn: A trainee’s desire to learn the content of a training program.
  • 46. Training Concepts
    • Motor skills: Coordination of physical movements.
    • Multimedia training : Training that combines audiovisual training methods with computer based training.
    • Near transfer: A trainee’s ability to apply learned capabilities exactly to the work situation.
    • Need: A deficiency that a person is experiencing at any point in times.
    • Needs assessment: The process used to determine if training is necessary. The first step in the instrumental system design model.
  • 47. Training Concepts
    • Norms: Accepted standards of behavior for workgroup members.
    • Objective: The purpose and expected outcome of training activities.
    • Obsolescence: A reduction in an employee’s competence resulting from a lack of knowledge of new work processes, techniques, and technologies that have developed since he completed his education.
    • On-the-job training (OJT): Training in which new or inexperienced employees learn through first observing peers or managers performing the job and then trying to imitate their behavior.
  • 48. Training Concepts
    • Opportunity to perform: The chance to use learned capabilities.
    • Organization development: A planned, systematic change process that uses behavioral sciences knowledge and techniques to improve a company’s effectiveness by improving relationships and increasing learning and problems solving capabilities.
    • Organizational analysis: Training analysis involving determining the appropriateness of training, considering the context in which training will occur.
  • 49. Training Concepts
    • Organizational socialization: The process of transforming new employees into effective company members. Its phases are anticipatory socialization, encounter, and settling in.
    • Organizing: A learning strategy that requires the learner to find similarities and themes in the training materials.
    • Outsourcing: The use of external supplies to provide training services.
    • Perception: The ability to organize a message from the environment so that it can be processed and acted upon.
  • 50. Training Concepts
    • Performance appraisal: The process of measuring an employee’s performance.
    • Person analysis:
    • Training analysis involving
    • Determining whether performance deficiencies result from lack of knowledge, skill, or ability or else from a motivational or work-design problem.
    • Identifying who needs training,
    • Determining employees’ readiness for training
  • 51. Training Concepts
    • Person characteristics: An employee’s knowledge, skill, ability, behavior, or attitude.
    • Practice: An employee’s demonstration of a learned capability; the physical or mental rehearsal of a task, knowledge, or skill to achieve proficiency in performing the task or skill or demonstrating the knowledge.
    • Pretest/posttest: An evaluation design in which both pretraining and post training outcomes measures are collected.
    • Pretraining measure: A baseline measure of outcomes.
  • 52. Training Concepts
    • Program design: The organization and coordination of the training program.
    • Program Objectives: Broad summary statements of a program’s purpose.
    • Psychological success: A feeling of pride and accomplishment that comes from achieving life goals.
    • Reaction outcomes: A trainee’s perceptions of a training program, including perceptions of the facilities, trainers, and content.
    • Readability: Written materials’ level of difficulty.
  • 53. Training Concepts
    • Readiness for training: The condition of
    • Employees having the personal characteristics necessary to learn program content and apply it on the job and
    • The work environment facilitation learning and not interfering with performance.
    • Reengineering: A complete review and redesign of critical processes to make them more efficient and able to deliver higher quality.
    • Structure/ Process/Innovation
    • Re-Structuring / Re-inventing …Small/Better/Different
  • 54. Training Concepts
    • Rehearsal: A learning strategy focusing on learning through repetition (memorization).
    • Self-Management: Person’s attempt to control certain aspects of his decision-making and behavior.
    • Simulation: A training method that represents a real life situation, with trainees’ decisions resulting in outcomes that mirror what would happen if they were on the job.
  • 55. Training Concepts
    • Skill: Competency in performing a task.
    • Skill-based outcomes: Outcomes used to assess the level of technical or motor skills or behavior; include skill acquisition or learning and on-the-job use of skills.
    • Social learning theory : Theory emphasizing that people learn by observing other persons (models) who they believe are credible and knowledgeable.
    • Social support: Feedback and reinforcement from managers and peers.
    • Socialization: Sharing tacit knowledge by sharing experiences.
  • 56. Training Concepts
    • Stakeholders: The parties with an interest in a company’s success (include shareholders, employees, customers, and the community).
    • Subject matter expert (SME): Person who is knowledgeable of
    • Training issue,
    • Knowledge, skills, and abilities required for task performance,
    • Necessary equipment, and
    • Conditions under which tasks have to be performed
    • Summative evaluation: Evaluation of the extent that trainees have changed as -a result of participating in a training program.
  • 57. Training Concepts
    • Synchronous communication: Communication in which trainers, experts, and learners interact with each other live and in real time in the same way as they would in face to face classroom instruction.
    • Team leader training: Training that a team manager or facilitator receives.
    • Team training: Training method that involves coordinating the performances of individuals who work together to achieve a common goal.
  • 58. Training Concepts
    • Trainee characteristics: The abilities and motivation that affect learning.
    • Training: A company’s planned effort to facilitate employees’ learning of job-related competencies.
    • Training administration: Coordination of activities before, during, and after a training program.
    • Training context: The physical, intellectual, and emotional environment in which training occurs.
    • Training design: Characteristics of the learning, and enabling environment.
  • 59. Training Concepts
    • Training design process: A systematic approach to development training programs. Its six steps include conducting needs assessment, ensuring employees’ readiness for training, creating a learning environment, ensuring transfer of training, selecting training methods, and evaluating training programs.
    • Training effectiveness: Benefits that a company and its trainees receive from training.
  • 60. Training Concepts
    • Training evaluation: The process of collecting the outcomes needed to determine if training has been effective.
    • Training outcomes (Criteria): Measures that a company and its trainer use to evaluate training programs.
    • Training site: The place where training is conducted.
    • Transfer of training: Trainees’ applying learned capabilities gained in training to their jobs.
    • Work environment: On-the-job factors that influence transfer of training.