Ability : The physical and mental capacity to perform a task.
Action learning: Training method that involves giving teams or work groups a problem, having them work on solving it and committing to an action plan, and then holding them accountable for carrying out the plan.
Action plan: A written document detailing steps that a trainee and his manager will take to ensure that training transfers to the job
Attitude: Combination of beliefs and feelings that predispose a person to behave in a certain way.
Attitude awareness and change program: Program focusing on increasing employees’ awareness of their attitudes toward differences in cultural and ethic backgrounds, physical characteristics (e.g., disabilities), and personal characteristics that influence behavior towards others.
Basic skills: Skills necessary for employees to perform their jobs and learn the content of training programs.
Computer based training (CBT): An interactive training experience in which the computer provides the learning stimulus, the trainee must respond, and the computer analyzes responses and provides feedback to the trainee.
Continuous learning : A learning system in which employees are required to understand the entire work system including the relationship among their jobs, their work units, and the company. Also, employees are expected to acquire new skills and knowledge, apply them on the job, and share this information with fellow workers.
Criterion deficiency : The failure to measure training outcomes that were emphasized in training objectives.
Cross training : Training method in which team members understand and practice each other’s skills so that members are prepared to step in and take another member’s place should he temporarily or permanently leave the team. Also, more simply, training employees to learn the skills of one or several additional jobs.
Development: Formal education, job experiences, relationships, and assessments of personality and abilities that help employees prepare for the future.
Distance learning : Training method in which geographically dispersed companies provide information about new products, policies, or procedures as well as skills training and expert lectures to field locations.
E learning : Instruction and delivery of training by computer online through the Internet or Web.
Group mentoring program : Program in which a successful senior employee is paired with a group of four to six less experienced protégés to help them understand the organization, guide them in analyzing their experiences, and help them clarify career directions.
Hands-on method: Training method in which the trainee is actively involved in learning.
High-leverage training : Training that uses an instructional design process to ensure that it is effective and that compares or benchmarks the company’s training programs against other companies’
Job: A specific position requiring completion of certain tasks.
Job analysis: The process of developing a description of the job (duties, tasks, and responsibilities) and the specifications (knowledge, skills and abilities) that an employee must have to perform it.
Job enlargement: The adding of challenges or new responsibilities to an employee’s current job.
Job experience: The relationship, problems, demands, tasks, and other features that an employee faces on the job.
Key behavior: One of a set of behaviors that is necessary to complete a task. Important part of behavior modeling training.
Knowledge: Facts or procedures. What individuals or teams of employees know or know how to do (human and social knowledge); also a company’s rules, processes, tools, and routines (structured knowledge).
Knowledge management: The process of enhancing company performance by designing and implementing tools, processes, systems, structures, and cultures to improve the creating, sharing, and use of knowledge.
Knowledge workers: Employees who own the means of producing a product or service. These employees have a specialized body of knowledge or expertise, which they use to perform their jobs and contribute to company effectiveness.
Learning: A relatively permanent change in human capabilities that does not result from growth processes.
Learning organization: A company that has an enhanced capacity to learn, adapt, and change; an organization whose employees continuously attempt to learn new things and then apply what they have learned to improve product or service quality.
Opportunity to perform: The chance to use learned capabilities.
Organization development: A planned, systematic change process that uses behavioral sciences knowledge and techniques to improve a company’s effectiveness by improving relationships and increasing learning and problems solving capabilities.
Organizational analysis: Training analysis involving determining the appropriateness of training, considering the context in which training will occur.
Person characteristics: An employee’s knowledge, skill, ability, behavior, or attitude.
Practice: An employee’s demonstration of a learned capability; the physical or mental rehearsal of a task, knowledge, or skill to achieve proficiency in performing the task or skill or demonstrating the knowledge.
Pretest/posttest: An evaluation design in which both pretraining and post training outcomes measures are collected.
Pretraining measure: A baseline measure of outcomes.
Training design process: A systematic approach to development training programs. Its six steps include conducting needs assessment, ensuring employees’ readiness for training, creating a learning environment, ensuring transfer of training, selecting training methods, and evaluating training programs.
Training effectiveness: Benefits that a company and its trainees receive from training.