Stress mgmt

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Stress mgmt

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Stress mgmt

  1. 1. Occupational Stress <ul><li>Definition </li></ul><ul><li>Importance </li></ul><ul><li>Theories of stress </li></ul><ul><li>The model </li></ul><ul><li> - causes </li></ul><ul><li> - consequences </li></ul><ul><li> - solutions </li></ul>
  2. 2. Some Stress Facts <ul><li>Second biggest occupational health problem </li></ul><ul><li>Affects 1 in 3 employees (41.2 million) </li></ul><ul><li>Costs €20 billion per year </li></ul>
  3. 3. Stress <ul><li>… .A force which acts on a body, setting up strains within it according to its load-carrying capacity, flexibility and tolerance . </li></ul>
  4. 4. Stress <ul><li>An adaptive response (moderated by individual </li></ul><ul><li>differences) that is a consequence of any action, </li></ul><ul><li>situation or event which places special demands </li></ul><ul><li>on a person </li></ul><ul><li>MEDIATING FACTORS </li></ul><ul><li>IMPORTANCE </li></ul><ul><li>UNCERTAINTY </li></ul><ul><li>DURATION </li></ul>
  5. 5. <ul><li>PERFORMANCE </li></ul>STRESS *CONTROLABILITY*
  6. 6. P-E FIT <ul><li>Individual Organisational </li></ul><ul><li>Goals Goals </li></ul><ul><li>Never completely compatible because : </li></ul><ul><li>Ineffective selection </li></ul><ul><li>Organisational socialisation </li></ul><ul><li>Both sets of goals change </li></ul><ul><li>Individual unique  complex </li></ul>
  7. 7. GENERAL ADAPTATION SYNDROME <ul><li>‘ Psychophysiological’ response </li></ul><ul><li>STAGE 1 STAGE 2 STAGE 3 </li></ul><ul><li>Alarm Resistance Exhaustion </li></ul><ul><li>normal level </li></ul><ul><li>of resistance </li></ul>Stage 1 Stage 2 Stage 3
  8. 8. Stress C osts €€€€ <ul><li>Industrial accidents </li></ul><ul><li>Illness – lost days </li></ul><ul><li>Poor decision making </li></ul><ul><li>Reduced creativity </li></ul><ul><li>Increased labour turnover </li></ul>
  9. 9. ORGANISATIONAL STRESS MODEL <ul><li>MODERATIONS </li></ul><ul><li>Personality – type A/B – social support </li></ul><ul><li>WORK STRESS CONSEQS </li></ul><ul><li>physical enviro EXPERIENCE - individual </li></ul><ul><li>Individual - organisation </li></ul><ul><li>Group </li></ul><ul><li>Organisation </li></ul><ul><li>PREVENTION & MANAGEMENT </li></ul><ul><li>-P-E fit </li></ul><ul><li>organisation programmes </li></ul><ul><li>Individual approaches </li></ul>
  10. 10. Stress <ul><li>CAUSES CONSEQUENCES </li></ul><ul><li>TASK DEMANDS  INDIVIDUAL </li></ul><ul><li>PHYSICAL DEMANDS  </li></ul><ul><li>ROLE DEMANDS  ORGANISATIONAL </li></ul><ul><li>INTERPERSONAL  </li></ul>
  11. 11. More on causes… <ul><li>Lack of control </li></ul><ul><li>Monotony </li></ul><ul><li>Tight deadlines </li></ul><ul><li>Working at high speed </li></ul><ul><li>Exposure to violence, bullying etc. </li></ul><ul><li>Hazardous working conditions </li></ul>
  12. 12. Underload – Overload Continuum <ul><li>OPTIMAL PERFORMANCE </li></ul><ul><li>Motivation - Energy </li></ul><ul><li>Sharp perception - Calmness </li></ul><ul><li>low performance low performance </li></ul><ul><li>UNDERLOAD OVERLOAD </li></ul><ul><li>Boredom insomnia </li></ul><ul><li>Motivation irritability </li></ul><ul><li>Absenteeism errors </li></ul><ul><li>Apathy indecisiveness </li></ul>
  13. 13. Health implications <ul><li>Heart disease </li></ul><ul><li>Stroke </li></ul><ul><li>Cancer </li></ul><ul><li>Musculoskeletal diseases </li></ul><ul><li>Gastrointestinal diseases </li></ul><ul><li>Anxiety & depressive disorders </li></ul><ul><li>Accidents & suicide </li></ul>
  14. 14. Organisational implications <ul><li>Absenteeism </li></ul><ul><li>Turnover </li></ul><ul><li> turnover </li></ul><ul><li> productivity </li></ul><ul><li>Poor safety </li></ul><ul><li> staff compensation claims </li></ul><ul><li> morale </li></ul><ul><li> creativity </li></ul>
  15. 15. TYPE A/B (Friedman & Rosenman 1950’s) <ul><li>Type A Type B </li></ul><ul><li>Behaviours Competitive Less </li></ul><ul><li>Ambitious Less </li></ul><ul><li>Aggressive Assertive </li></ul><ul><li>High devotion Less </li></ul><ul><li>Time Urgent Relaxed </li></ul><ul><li>Speaks fast Slow/clear </li></ul><ul><li>Anxious Confident </li></ul><ul><li>Consequences I ncidence heart problems </li></ul><ul><li>Blood pressure & Cholesterol </li></ul><ul><li>Concern about health </li></ul>
  16. 16. THE SOCIAL READJUSTMENT RATING SCALE (Holmes & Rahe, 1967) <ul><li>Kobasa (1982) ‘HARDINESS’ (mediating factors) </li></ul><ul><li>Internal Locus Treat change </li></ul><ul><li>of control as challenge </li></ul><ul><li>Highly committed </li></ul>
  17. 17. BURN-OUT <ul><li>Unrelieved work stress  emotional exhaustion, depersonalisation & </li></ul><ul><li>feelings of reduced accomplishment. </li></ul><ul><li>Requires high degree of involvement </li></ul>
  18. 18. Burn-out <ul><li>ORGANISATIONAL CONTRIBUTORY </li></ul><ul><li>FACTORS </li></ul><ul><li>WORK OVERLOAD </li></ul><ul><li>EXCESSIVE BUREAUCRACY </li></ul><ul><li>POOR COMMUNICATION & FEEDBACK </li></ul><ul><li>ROLE CONFLICT/AMBIGUITY </li></ul><ul><li>DEAD-END JOBS </li></ul>
  19. 19. Evaluate the risks <ul><li>Do employees have a say in work </li></ul><ul><li>Relationships </li></ul><ul><li>Managing change </li></ul><ul><li>Employment security </li></ul><ul><li>Clarify roles </li></ul><ul><li>Support & training </li></ul>
  20. 20. Prevention v’s Management <ul><li>Control/eliminate stressors or help cope effectively. </li></ul><ul><li>Maximise P-E Fit through effective: </li></ul><ul><li>- Recruitment </li></ul><ul><li>- Selection </li></ul><ul><li>- Induction </li></ul><ul><li>- Job design </li></ul><ul><li>- Flexible job descriptions </li></ul><ul><li>- Effective communication </li></ul><ul><li>- Fair rewards </li></ul>
  21. 21. 2. Employee Assistance Programs <ul><li>Diagnosis – ‘experts’ define problem </li></ul><ul><li>Treatment – counselling/support </li></ul><ul><li>Screening – monitoring people in highly stressful jobs </li></ul><ul><li>Prevention – education & training </li></ul>
  22. 22. 3. Health Promotion Programs <ul><li>Blood pressure monitor & control </li></ul><ul><li>Smoking cessation </li></ul><ul><li>Physical fitness </li></ul><ul><li>Diet & nutrition </li></ul><ul><li>Relaxation </li></ul>
  23. 23. 4. Individual Approaches <ul><li>Cognitive – response to stress is mediated by cognitive processes (alter cognitive process  alter response) </li></ul><ul><li>Relaxation – e.g Transcendental Mediation </li></ul><ul><li>Biofeedback </li></ul>
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