0
Strategies, Policies and
Planning Premises
Strategy
 A company’s strategy consists of the competitive
moves, internal operating approaches, and action plans
devised...
Levels of Strategy
Levels of Strategy
1. Corporate-level Strategy
The set of strategic alternatives that an organization
chooses from as it m...
Corporate
Strategy
Business
Strategies
Functional
Strategies
Levels of Strategy-Making
BCG Matrix*
Cash
Cows
?Question
Marks
Dogs
Relative Market Share
MarketGrowthRate
Low
High
High Low
Stars
BCG Market Share/Market Growth Matrix
What is Strategic Planning?
Strategic planning is a systematic process
through which an organization agrees on
and builds ...
Strategic Planning
vs. Operational Planning
Strategic Planning
formulation
What, where
ends
vision
effectiveness
risk
Oper...
Three Big Strategic Questions
 Where Are We Now?
 Where Do we Want
to Go?
 How Will We Get
There?
Strategic Planning Process
 Developing a Vision and a Mission
 Assessment
 Setting Objectives
 Crafting a Strategy
 I...
Strategic Planning
First Stage of Strategic
Planning may involve:
Futures Thinking
Thinking about what the business
might ...
Strategic Planning
The Vision
Communicating to all staff where the
organisation is going and where
it intends to be in the...
Strategic Analysis
Constantly evaluate their position
Strategic analysis includes different methods of
assessing the curre...
Internal Audits
Productivity
Efficiency
Costs
Other Internal Data
Labour turnover, absenteeism
Customer satisfaction surve...
External Audits
General business environment – Inflation, competitiveness,
unemployment/employment, growth, consumer spend...
SWOT
Analysis
Strengths
Weaknesses
Opportunities
Threats
Vision & Mission
An organization’s fundamental purpose
Good Strat...
Strength’s
Strength’s – Those things that you do well, the
high value or performance points
Strengths can be tangible: Loy...
Weaknesses
Weaknesses – Those things that prevent you from
doing what you really need to do
Since weaknesses are internal,...
Opportunities
Opportunities – Potential areas for growth and
higher performance
External in nature – marketplace, unhappy
...
Threats
Threats – Challenges confronting the organization,
external in nature
Threats can take a wide range – bad press
co...
Five Forces Model of
Competition
Substitute Products
(of firms in
other industries)
Suppliers
of Key
Inputs
Buyers
Potenti...
Porter’s Five Competitive
Forces
1. Threat of new entrants
2. Competitive rivalry
3. Threat of substitute products
4. Powe...
Gap Analysis
Vision Assessment
Gap = Basis for Long-
Term Strategic Plan
Gap = Basis for Long-
Term Strategic Plan
Setting Objectives
 The purpose is to
convert the mission into
Specific Performance
Targets
 Yardsticks for tracking
com...
Crafting a Strategy
Generic Strategies
Porter’s Generic Strategies
1. Differentiation strategy
An organization seeks to distinguish itself fro...
Types of Strategy
Market Dominance
Achieved through:
Internal growth
Acquisitions – mergers and takeovers
New product deve...
Strategy Implementation
 Technology
 Human Resource
 Reward System
 Decision Process
Characteristic of the Good
Strategy Implementation
 An ongoing exercise
 Proper Communication
 Contingency Plan
 Empha...
DECISION-MAKING
What is Decision-Making?
Decision making
–The process of choosing a course of
action for dealing with a problem or
opport...
Types of Decisions
–Programmed decisions.
»Involve routine problems that arise regularly and
can be addressed through stan...
Decision environments
–Certain environments.
–Risk environments.
–Uncertain environments.
Certain environments.
–Exist when information is sufficient to
predict the results of each alternative in
advance of impl...
Risk environments
–Exist when decision makers lack complete
certainty regarding the outcomes of various
courses of action,...
Uncertain environments.
–Exist when managers have so little information that
they cannot even assign probabilities
.
–Unc...
Classical Vs. Behavioral Decision
Theory
Classical decision theory.
–Views the decision maker as acting in a
world of com...
Classical decision theory
–The classical decision maker:
»Faces a clearly defined problem.
»Knows all possible action alte...
Rationality
Problem is clear and unambiguous.
Single goal.
All alternatives are known.
Clear and constant preferences.
Max...
Behavioral decision theory
–Recognizes that human beings operate with:
»Cognitive limitations.
»Bounded rationality.
–The...
Bounded Rationality
Behavior that is rational within the
parameters of a simplified model that
captures the essential feat...
Bounded Rationality
Limited
Search
Inadequate
Information
and Control
DecisionsSatisficing
Other decision making models
The garbage can model
–A model of decision making that views
problems, solutions, participan...
Intuitive Decision Making
An unconscious process of making decisions on
the basis of experience and accumulated
judgment.
...
Too Slow Too Quick
• Procrastination
• Indecision
• “Analysis paralysis”
• “Ready, fire, aim”
• Impulsive, compulsive
• Ar...
Cultural and Social Influences
Decision-Making Process
M
O
T
I
V
A
T
I
O
N
Perception
Learning and
Memory
Attitudes
A
F
F
...
Group Decision-Making
Forms of Group Decision
Making
 Interacting groups
 Delphi Methods
 Nominal groups
Decision-Making Techniques
 Marginal Analysis
 Financial Analysis
 Break-Even Analysis
 Ratio Analysis
 OR Technique
...
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Stratergic vs opreating planning

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Stratergic vs opreating planning

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Transcript of "Stratergic vs opreating planning"

  1. 1. Strategies, Policies and Planning Premises
  2. 2. Strategy  A company’s strategy consists of the competitive moves, internal operating approaches, and action plans devised by management to produce successful performance.  Strategy is management’s “game plan” for running the business.  Managers need strategies to guide HOW the organization’s business will be conducted and HOW performance targets will be achieved.
  3. 3. Levels of Strategy
  4. 4. Levels of Strategy 1. Corporate-level Strategy The set of strategic alternatives that an organization chooses from as it manages its operations simultaneously across several industries and several markets. 2. Business-level Strategy How the organization conducts business in a particular industry. 3. Functional-level Strategy Strategy developed for specific functional areas such as marketing, finance, and so forth.
  5. 5. Corporate Strategy Business Strategies Functional Strategies Levels of Strategy-Making
  6. 6. BCG Matrix* Cash Cows ?Question Marks Dogs Relative Market Share MarketGrowthRate Low High High Low Stars
  7. 7. BCG Market Share/Market Growth Matrix
  8. 8. What is Strategic Planning? Strategic planning is a systematic process through which an organization agrees on and builds commitment among key stakeholders to priorities that are essential to its mission and are responsive to the environment. Strategic Planning guides the acquisition and allocation of resources to achieve these priorities.
  9. 9. Strategic Planning vs. Operational Planning Strategic Planning formulation What, where ends vision effectiveness risk Operational Planning implementation how means plans efficiency control
  10. 10. Three Big Strategic Questions  Where Are We Now?  Where Do we Want to Go?  How Will We Get There?
  11. 11. Strategic Planning Process  Developing a Vision and a Mission  Assessment  Setting Objectives  Crafting a Strategy  Implementing and Executing Strategy  Evaluating Performance, Reviewing the Situation and Initiating Corrective Action
  12. 12. Strategic Planning First Stage of Strategic Planning may involve: Futures Thinking Thinking about what the business might need to do 10–20 years ahead Strategic Intents Thinking about key strategic themes that will inform decision making
  13. 13. Strategic Planning The Vision Communicating to all staff where the organisation is going and where it intends to be in the future Aims and Objectives: Aims – long term target Objectives – the way in which you are going to achieve the aim
  14. 14. Strategic Analysis Constantly evaluate their position Strategic analysis includes different methods of assessing the current position of the business in the market place Two basic methods: Internal External
  15. 15. Internal Audits Productivity Efficiency Costs Other Internal Data Labour turnover, absenteeism Customer satisfaction surveys Quality procedures Cash flow statements Sales trends Skills audit Strengths and weaknesses analysis Core competencies
  16. 16. External Audits General business environment – Inflation, competitiveness, unemployment/employment, growth, consumer spending Competitors PEST factors Political – e.g. change of government Economic – Trends in economic growth, inflation, etc. Social-changed outlook, age structure of population, etc. Technological
  17. 17. SWOT Analysis Strengths Weaknesses Opportunities Threats Vision & Mission An organization’s fundamental purpose Good Strategies SWOT Analysis To formulate strategies that support the mission Those that support the mission and: • exploit opportunities and strengths • neutralize threats • avoid weaknesses Internal Analysis Strengths (distinctive competencies) Weaknesses Threats External Analysis Opportunities
  18. 18. Strength’s Strength’s – Those things that you do well, the high value or performance points Strengths can be tangible: Loyal customers, efficient distribution channels, very high quality products, excellent financial condition Strengths can be intangible: Good leadership, strategic insights, customer intelligence, solid reputation, high skilled workforce
  19. 19. Weaknesses Weaknesses – Those things that prevent you from doing what you really need to do Since weaknesses are internal, they are within your control Weaknesses include: Bad leadership, unskilled workforce, insufficient resources, poor product quality, slow distribution and delivery channels, outdated technologies, lack of planning, . . .
  20. 20. Opportunities Opportunities – Potential areas for growth and higher performance External in nature – marketplace, unhappy customers with competitor’s, better economic conditions, more open trading policies, . . Timing may be important for capitalizing on opportunities
  21. 21. Threats Threats – Challenges confronting the organization, external in nature Threats can take a wide range – bad press coverage, shifts in consumer behavior, substitute products, new regulations, . . . The more accurate you are in identifying threats, the better position you are for dealing with the “sudden ripples” of change
  22. 22. Five Forces Model of Competition Substitute Products (of firms in other industries) Suppliers of Key Inputs Buyers Potential New Entrants Rivalry Among Competing Sellers
  23. 23. Porter’s Five Competitive Forces 1. Threat of new entrants 2. Competitive rivalry 3. Threat of substitute products 4. Power of buyers 5. Power of suppliers
  24. 24. Gap Analysis Vision Assessment Gap = Basis for Long- Term Strategic Plan Gap = Basis for Long- Term Strategic Plan
  25. 25. Setting Objectives  The purpose is to convert the mission into Specific Performance Targets  Yardsticks for tracking company progress and performance.  Should be set at levels that require stretch and disciplined effort.
  26. 26. Crafting a Strategy
  27. 27. Generic Strategies Porter’s Generic Strategies 1. Differentiation strategy An organization seeks to distinguish itself from competitors through the quality of its products or services. Developing an image perceived as unique 1. Overall cost leadership strategy An organization attempts to gain competitive advantage by reducing its costs below the costs of competing firms. 1. Focus strategy An organization concentrates on a specific regional market, product line, or group of buyers.
  28. 28. Types of Strategy Market Dominance Achieved through: Internal growth Acquisitions – mergers and takeovers New product development: to keep ahead of rivals and set the pace Contraction/Expansion – focus on what you are good at (core competencies) or seek to expand into a range of markets? Global – seeking to expand Global operations
  29. 29. Strategy Implementation  Technology  Human Resource  Reward System  Decision Process
  30. 30. Characteristic of the Good Strategy Implementation  An ongoing exercise  Proper Communication  Contingency Plan  Emphasis on Organisation Culture  Regular Review  Importance of Planning
  31. 31. DECISION-MAKING
  32. 32. What is Decision-Making? Decision making –The process of choosing a course of action for dealing with a problem or opportunity.
  33. 33. Types of Decisions –Programmed decisions. »Involve routine problems that arise regularly and can be addressed through standard responses. –Nonprogrammed decisions. »Involve nonroutine problems that require solutions specifically tailored to the situation at hand
  34. 34. Decision environments –Certain environments. –Risk environments. –Uncertain environments.
  35. 35. Certain environments. –Exist when information is sufficient to predict the results of each alternative in advance of implementation. –Certainty is the ideal problem solving and decision making environment.
  36. 36. Risk environments –Exist when decision makers lack complete certainty regarding the outcomes of various courses of action, but they can assign probabilities of occurrence. –Probabilities can be assigned through objective statistical procedures or personal intuition.
  37. 37. Uncertain environments. –Exist when managers have so little information that they cannot even assign probabilities . –Uncertainty forces decision makers to rely on individual and group creativity to succeed in problem solving. –Also characterized by rapidly changing: »External conditions. »Information technology requirements.
  38. 38. Classical Vs. Behavioral Decision Theory Classical decision theory. –Views the decision maker as acting in a world of complete certainty. Behavioral decision theory. –Accepts a world with bounded rationality and views the decision maker as acting only in terms of what he/she perceives about a given situation.
  39. 39. Classical decision theory –The classical decision maker: »Faces a clearly defined problem. »Knows all possible action alternatives and their consequences. »Chooses the optimum alternative. –Is often used as a model of how managers should make decisions.
  40. 40. Rationality Problem is clear and unambiguous. Single goal. All alternatives are known. Clear and constant preferences. Maximum payoff. The decision is in the best interest of the organization—not the manager.
  41. 41. Behavioral decision theory –Recognizes that human beings operate with: »Cognitive limitations. »Bounded rationality. –The behavioral decision maker: »Faces a problem that is not clearly defined. »Has limited knowledge of possible action alternatives and their consequences. »Chooses a satisfactory alternative.
  42. 42. Bounded Rationality Behavior that is rational within the parameters of a simplified model that captures the essential features of the problem. Making a decision that is “good enough.” (Satisficing Model)
  43. 43. Bounded Rationality Limited Search Inadequate Information and Control DecisionsSatisficing
  44. 44. Other decision making models The garbage can model –A model of decision making that views problems, solutions, participants, and choice situations as mixed together in the “garbage can” of the organization. Incremental Model
  45. 45. Intuitive Decision Making An unconscious process of making decisions on the basis of experience and accumulated judgment. Making decisions on the basis of gut feeling It does play an important role in managerial decision making.
  46. 46. Too Slow Too Quick • Procrastination • Indecision • “Analysis paralysis” • “Ready, fire, aim” • Impulsive, compulsive • Arbitrary Range of decision making
  47. 47. Cultural and Social Influences Decision-Making Process M O T I V A T I O N Perception Learning and Memory Attitudes A F F E C T Problem Recognition Search Evaluation Choice Outcomes Ethnicity, Race, and Religion Household and ref. groups Socio-Econ: income,educ. Demographic: Gender, Age Psychographics: Lifestyle, Person. Basic Psychological Processes
  48. 48. Group Decision-Making
  49. 49. Forms of Group Decision Making  Interacting groups  Delphi Methods  Nominal groups
  50. 50. Decision-Making Techniques  Marginal Analysis  Financial Analysis  Break-Even Analysis  Ratio Analysis  OR Technique  Linear Programming  Queuing Method  Game Theory  Simulation  Decision Tree
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