Human Resource Management The integration of all processes, programs, and systems in an organization that ensure staff are acquired and used in an effective way
Human Resource Management (Contd.)
HR is multidisciplinary: It applies the disciplines of
Economics (wages, markets, resources),
Psychology (motivation, satisfaction),
Sociology (organization structure, culture) and
Law (min. wage, labor contracts)
What HR Professionals Do?
Recruitment & Selection
Training and development
Compensation & Performance review
Human Resource Planning Assessing Future Human Resource Needs Assessing Current Human Resources Developing a Program to Meet Needs
Human Resource Planning The process of systematically reviewing HR requirements to ensure that the required number of employees, with the required skills, are available when they are needed
HR Planning We have found the gap, how do we fill this void? Internal Labour Supply Skill Inventory Succession Planning Replacement Planning Inventory Chart Present & Future staffing situations Helps in retention & expulsion strategy External Labour Supply
Job Analysis (Functional Job Analysis, Position analysis questionnaire) A Basic Human Resource Management Tool Tasks Responsibilities Duties Job Analysis Job Descriptions Job Specifications Knowledge Skills Abilities
Human Resource Planning
Training and Development
Compensation and Benefits
Safety and Health
Employee and Labor Relations
Job Analysis for Teams
Definitions Job - Consists of a group of tasks that must be performed for an organization to achieve its goals Position - Collection of tasks and responsibilities performed by one person; there is a position for every individual in an organization Job analysis - Systematic process of determining the skills, duties, and knowledge required for performing jobs in an organization (functional job analysis , position analysis questionnaire) Job description – document providing information regarding tasks, duties, and responsibilities of job Job specification – minimum qualifications to perform a particular job
Recruitment Process of locating, identifying, and attracting capable candidates Can be for current or future needs Critical activity for some corporations. What sources do we use for recruitment
SELECTION A series of steps from initial applicant screening to final hiring of the new employee. Selection process. Step 1 Completing application materials. Step 2 Conducting an interview. Step 3 Completing any necessary tests. Step 4 Doing a background investigation. Step 5 Deciding to hire or not to hire.
Step 1 Completing application materials.
Gathering information regarding an applicant’s background and experiences.
Typical application materials.
Traditional application forms.
Sometimes tests may be included with application materials.
Step 2 Conducting an interview.
Typically used though they are subject to perceptual distortions.
Interviews can provide rough ideas concerning the person’s fit with the job and the organization.
Step 3 Completing any necessary tests.
Administered before or after the interview.
Common examples of employment tests.
Cognitive, clerical, or mechanical aptitudes or abilities.
Step 4 Doing a background investigation.
Can be used early or late in selection process.
Background investigations include:
Basic level checks.
Step 5 Deciding to hire or not to hire.
Draws on information produced in preceding selection steps.
A job offer is made.
A physical examination may be required if it is relevant to job performance.
Negotiation of salary and/or benefits for some jobs.
Step 6 Socialization.
The final step in the staffing process.
Involves orienting new employees to:
The work units in which they will be working.
The firm’s policies and procedures.
The firm’s organizational culture.
Performance Appraisal The identification, measurement, and management of human performance in organizations.
Why Conduct Performance Appraisals? Make decisions about that person's future with the organization Identify training requirements Employee improvement Pay, promotion, and other personnel decisions Research Validation of selection techniques and criteria
A Model of Performance Appraisal Skills/Activities/Output Performance Appraisal System Reward/Training/Punishment
Techniques for Evaluating Managers Evaluation by superiors Evaluation by colleagues Peer ratings tend to be more favorable for career development than for promotion decisions Self‑evaluation Self‑ratings suffer from leniency Subordinate evaluation Effective in developing leadership Leads to improved performance 360 degree feedback (multi‑source)
360° Feedback The combination of peer, subordinate, and self-review
Key Steps in Implementing 360° Appraisal Top management communicates the goals Employees and managers are involved in the development of the appraisal criteria and process. Employees are trained in giving & receiving feedback. Employees are informed of the nature of the 360° appraisal instrument and process. The 360° system undergoes pilot testing Management continuously reinforces the goals of the 360° appraisal and is ready to change the process when necessary.
Relative and Absolute Judgment An appraisal format that asks supervisors to compare an employee's performance to the performance of other employees doing the same job. Relative Judgment An appraisal format that asks supervisors to make judgments about an employee’s performance based solely on performance standards. Absolute Judgment
Rating Methods Performance rating scales Supervisors indicate how or to what degree a worker possesses a relevant job characteristic Ranking technique Supervisors list the workers in order from highest to lowest Paired‑comparison technique Compares the performance of each worker with that of every other person in the group Forced choice technique Raters are presented with groups of descriptive statements and are asked to select the phrase in each group that is most descriptive of the worker being evaluated
Rating Methods Behaviorally anchored rating scales (BARS) Appraisers rate critical employee behavior Critical‑incident behaviors are established These behaviors are used as standards for appraising effectiveness The BARS items can be scored objectively by indicating whether the employee displays that behavior Behavioral observation scales (BOS) Appraisers rate the frequency of critical employee behaviors The ratings are assigned on a five point scale The evaluation yields a total score Management by objectives (MBO)
Appraising Managers as Managers
Concept of Organizational Change Defined as adoption of a new idea or behavior by an organization. Organizations need to continuously adapt to new situations if they are to survive and prosper
Planned and Unplanned Organizational Changes
Changes in products and services
Changes in administrative systems
Changes in organizational size or structure
Introduction of new technologies
Advances in information processing and communication
Changing employee demographics
Economic competition in the global arena
Forces For Change Workforce Competition World Politics Technology Social Trends Economic Shocks
Resistance to Change - Forms Overt and immediate Voicing complaints, engaging in job actions Implicit and deferred Loss of employee loyalty and motivation, increased errors or mistakes, increased absenteeism
Resistance to Change Selective Information Processing Fear of the Unknown Force of Habit Need for Security Economic Factors Individual
Resistance to Change Structural & Group Inertia Limited Focus Threat to establish resource allocation Threat to Expertise Threat to establish power relationship Organization
Education and Communication Participation Negotiation Facilitation and Support Coercion Manipulation and Cooptation Overcoming Resistance to Change
Unfreezing Changing Refreezing Organizational Change Lewin’s Three-Step Process
Unfreezing the Status Quo Desired State Status Quo Restraining Forces Time Driving Forces
Definition of OD OD is a planned process of change in an organization’s culture through the utilization of behavioral science technology, research, and theory.
Organization Development is... a systemwide application and transfer of behavioral science knowledge to the planned development, improvement, and reinforcement of the strategies, structures, and processes that lead to organization effectiveness.
Organizational Development - The Premises Respect for people Trust and support Power equalization Confrontation Participation
. OD Process Diagnosis Intervention Evaluation
OD Interventions Intergroup development Process consultation Sensitivity training Third Party Intervention Survey feedback Team building Culture Change
Manager Development On the Job Training Planned Progression Job Rotation Creation of “assistant-to” Temporary promotion Committees Off the Job Training Conference MDPs Business Simulations
Sources of Conflict
Competition for scarce resources
Unreasonable standards, policies, rules or procedures