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Resource Planning
Lecture Outline <ul><li>Material Requirements Planning (MRP) </li></ul><ul><li>Capacity Requirements Planning (CRP) </li><...
Resource Planning  for  Manufacturing 15-
Material Requirements Planning (MRP) <ul><li>Computerized inventory control and production planning system </li></ul><ul><...
Demand Characteristics 15- 1 2 3 4 5 Week 400 – 300 – 200 – 100 – No. of tables Continuous demand M  T  W  Th  F  M  T  W ...
Material Requirements Planning 15- Material requirements planning Planned order releases Work orders Purchase orders Resch...
MRP Inputs and Outputs <ul><li>Inputs </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Master production schedule </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Product ...
Master Production Schedule <ul><li>Drives MRP process with a schedule of finished products </li></ul><ul><li>Quantities re...
15- Master Production Schedule PERIOD MPS ITEM 1 2 3 4 5 Pencil Case 125 125 125 125 125 Clipboard 85 95 120 100 100 Lapbo...
Product Structure File 15-
Product Structure 15- Top clip (1) Bottom clip (1) Pivot (1) Spring (1) Rivets (2) Finished clipboard Pressboard (1) Clipb...
Product Structure Tree 15- Clipboard Level 0 Level 1 Level 2 Spring  (1) Bottom Clip (1) Top Clip (1) Pivot  (1) Rivets (2...
Multilevel Indented BOM 15- 0 - - - - Clipboard ea 1 - 1 - - - Clip Assembly ea 1 - - 2 - - Top Clip ea 1 - - 2 - - Bottom...
Specialized BOMs <ul><li>Phantom bills </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Transient subassemblies </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Never stoc...
Specialized BOMs <ul><li>Modular bills </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Product assembled from major subassemblies and customer optio...
Modular BOMs 15- 4-Cylinder (.40) Bright red (.10) Leather (.20) Grey (.10) Sports coupe (.20) 6-Cylinder (.50) White line...
Time-phased Bills <ul><ul><li>An assembly chart shown against a time scale </li></ul></ul>15-
Time-phased Bills <ul><ul><li>Forward scheduling </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>start at today‘s date and schedule forward...
Item Master File 15- DESCRIPTION INVENTORY POLICY Item Pressboard Lead time 1 Item no. 7341 Annual demand 5000 Item type P...
15- Item Master File On hand 150 YTD usage/sales 1100 Location W142 MTD usage/sales 75 On order 100 YTD receipts 1200 Allo...
MRP Processes <ul><li>Exploding the bill of material </li></ul><ul><li>Netting out the inventory </li></ul><ul><li>Netting...
15- MRP Matrix
MRP 15- Master Production Schedule 1 2 3 4 5 Clipboard 85 95 120 100 100 Lapdesk 0 60 0 60 0 Item Master File CLIPBOARD LA...
MRP 15- Product Structure Record Clipboard Lapdesk Pressboard (2) Trim (3’) Beanbag (1) Glue (4 oz) Level 0 Level 0 Pressb...
15- MRP - 1 ITEM: CLIPBOARD LLC: 0 PERIOD LOT SIZE: L4L LT: 1 1 2 3 4 5 Gross Requirements 85 95 120 100 100 Scheduled Rec...
15- MRP  - 2 ITEM: CLIPBOARD LLC: 0 PERIOD LOT SIZE: L4L LT: 1 1 2 3 4 5 Gross Requirements 85 95 120 100 100 Scheduled Re...
15- MRP - 3 ITEM: CLIPBOARD LLC: 0 PERIOD LOT SIZE: L4L LT: 1 1 2 3 4 5 Gross Requirements 85 95 120 100 100 Scheduled Rec...
15- MRP - 4 ITEM: CLIPBOARD LLC: 0 PERIOD LOT SIZE: L4L LT: 1 1 2 3 4 5 Gross Requirements 85 95 120 100 100 Scheduled Rec...
15- MRP - 5 ITEM: CLIPBOARD LLC: 0 PERIOD LOT SIZE: L4L LT: 1 1 2 3 4 5 Gross Requirements 85 95 120 100 100 Scheduled Rec...
15- MRP - 6 ITEM: LAPDESK LLC: 0 PERIOD LOT SIZE: MULT 50 LT: 1 1 2 3 4 5 Gross Requirements 0 60 0 60 0 Scheduled Receipt...
15- MRP - 7 ITEM: LAPDESK LLC: 0 PERIOD LOT SIZE: MULT 50 LT: 1 1 2 3 4 5 Gross Requirements 0 60 0 60 0 Scheduled Receipt...
15- MRP - 8 ITEM: PRESSBOARD LLC: 0 PERIOD LOT SIZE: MIN 100 LT: 1 1 2 3 4 5 Gross Requirements Scheduled Receipts Project...
15- MRP – 9 ITEM: PRESSBOARD LLC: 0 PERIOD LOT SIZE: MIN 100 LT: 1 1 2 3 4 5 Gross Requirements  100 100 200 100 0 Schedul...
15- MRP – 10 ITEM: PRESSBOARD LLC: 0 PERIOD LOT SIZE: MIN 100 LT: 1 1 2 3 4 5 Gross Requirements  100 100 200 100 0 Schedu...
15- MRP - 11 PERIOD ITEM 1 2 3 4 5 Clipboard 100 100 100 Lapdesk 50 50 Pressboard 100 150 100 Planned Order Report
Lot Sizing in MRP Systems <ul><li>Lot-for-lot ordering policy </li></ul><ul><li>Fixed-size lot ordering policy </li></ul><...
Advanced Lot Sizing Rules: L4L 15- Total cost of L4L = (4 X $60) + (0 X $1) = $240
Advanced Lot Sizing Rules: EOQ 15- minimum order quantity Total cost of EOQ = (2 X $60) + [(10 + 50 + 40) X $1)] = $220
Advanced Lot Sizing Rules: POQ 15- periods worth of requirements  Total cost of POQ = (2 X $60) + [(20 + 40) X $1] = $180
Planned Order Report 15- Item #2740 Date 9 - 25 - 05 On hand 100 Lead time 2 weeks On order 200 Lot size 200 Allocated 50 ...
MRP Action Report 15- ITEM DATE ORDER NO. QTY. ACTION #2740 10-08 7542 200 Expedite SR 10-01 #3616 10-09 Move forward PO 1...
Capacity Requirements Planning (CRP) <ul><li>Creates a load profile </li></ul><ul><li>Identifies under-loads and over-load...
CRP 15- MRP planned order releases Routing file Capacity requirements planning Open orders file Load profile for each proc...
Calculating Capacity <ul><li>Maximum capability to produce </li></ul><ul><li>Rated Capacity </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Theoreti...
Calculating Capacity <ul><li>Utilization </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Percent of available time spent working </li></ul></ul><ul>...
<ul><li>Graphical comparison of load versus capacity </li></ul><ul><li>Leveling underloaded conditions: </li></ul><ul><ul>...
Reducing Over-load Conditions <ul><li>Eliminate unnecessary requirements </li></ul><ul><li>Reroute jobs to alternative mac...
Copy Courier <ul><li>Two high-speed copiers that can be operated by one operator. </li></ul><ul><li>2 shifts per day </li>...
Copy Courier <ul><li>Job  No. of  Setup Time  Run Time </li></ul><ul><li>Copies (min) (min/unit) </li></ul><ul><li>10 500 ...
Load Calculations <ul><li>Job  Setup + Run x No. Copies Job Time </li></ul><ul><li>10 5.2 + (500 X 0.08)  = 45.20 </li></u...
Loading <ul><li>Capacity </li></ul><ul><li>2 copiers * 2 shifts * 8 hrs/day * 7/8 utilization * .90 efficiency </li></ul><...
15- Initial Load Profile Hours of capacity 1 2 3 4 5 6 Time (weeks) Normal capacity 120 – 110 – 100 – 90 – 80 – 70 – 60 – ...
15- Adjusted Load Profile Hours of capacity 1 2 3 4 5 6 Time (weeks) Normal capacity 120 – 110 – 100 – 90 – 80 – 70 – 60 –...
Relaxing MRP Assumptions <ul><li>Material is not always the most constraining resource </li></ul><ul><li>Lead times can va...
Enterprise Resource Planning (ERP) <ul><li>Software that organizes and manages a company’s business processes by </li></ul...
Organizational Data Flows 15-
ERP’s Central Database 15- <ul><li>Copyright 2011 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. </li></ul>
Selected Enterprise Software Vendors 15-
ERP Implementation <ul><li>Analyze business processes </li></ul><ul><li>Choose modules to implement </li></ul><ul><ul><li>...
Customer Relationship Management (CRM) <ul><li>Software that </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Plans and executes business processes <...
Supply Chain Management <ul><li>Software that plans and executes business processes related to supply chains </li></ul><ul...
Product Lifecycle Management (PLM) <ul><li>Software that </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Incorporates new product design and develop...
ERP and Software Systems 15-
Connectivity <ul><li>Application programming interfaces (APIs) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>give other programs well-defined ways...
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Resource planningppt @ DOMS

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  1. 1. Resource Planning
  2. 2. Lecture Outline <ul><li>Material Requirements Planning (MRP) </li></ul><ul><li>Capacity Requirements Planning (CRP) </li></ul><ul><li>Enterprise Resource Planning (ERP) </li></ul><ul><li>Customer Relationship Management (CRM) </li></ul><ul><li>Supply Chain Management (SCM) </li></ul><ul><li>Product Lifecycle Management (PLM) </li></ul>15-
  3. 3. Resource Planning for Manufacturing 15-
  4. 4. Material Requirements Planning (MRP) <ul><li>Computerized inventory control and production planning system </li></ul><ul><li>When to use MRP? </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Dependent demand items </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Discrete demand items </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Complex products </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Job shop production </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Assemble-to-order environments </li></ul></ul>15-
  5. 5. Demand Characteristics 15- 1 2 3 4 5 Week 400 – 300 – 200 – 100 – No. of tables Continuous demand M T W Th F M T W Th F 400 – 300 – 200 – 100 – No. of tables Discrete demand Independent demand 100 tables Dependent demand 100 x 1 = 100 tabletops 100 x 4 = 400 table legs
  6. 6. Material Requirements Planning 15- Material requirements planning Planned order releases Work orders Purchase orders Rescheduling notices Item master file Product structure file Master production schedule
  7. 7. MRP Inputs and Outputs <ul><li>Inputs </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Master production schedule </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Product structure file </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Item master file </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Outputs </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Planned order releases </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Work orders </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Purchase orders </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Rescheduling notices </li></ul></ul></ul>15-
  8. 8. Master Production Schedule <ul><li>Drives MRP process with a schedule of finished products </li></ul><ul><li>Quantities represent production not demand </li></ul><ul><li>Quantities may consist of a combination of customer orders and demand forecasts </li></ul><ul><li>Quantities represent what needs to be produced, not what can be produced </li></ul><ul><li>Quantities represent end items that may or may not be finished products </li></ul>15-
  9. 9. 15- Master Production Schedule PERIOD MPS ITEM 1 2 3 4 5 Pencil Case 125 125 125 125 125 Clipboard 85 95 120 100 100 Lapboard 75 120 47 20 17 Lapdesk 0 50 0 50 0
  10. 10. Product Structure File 15-
  11. 11. Product Structure 15- Top clip (1) Bottom clip (1) Pivot (1) Spring (1) Rivets (2) Finished clipboard Pressboard (1) Clipboard
  12. 12. Product Structure Tree 15- Clipboard Level 0 Level 1 Level 2 Spring (1) Bottom Clip (1) Top Clip (1) Pivot (1) Rivets (2) Clip Ass’y (1) Pressboard (1)
  13. 13. Multilevel Indented BOM 15- 0 - - - - Clipboard ea 1 - 1 - - - Clip Assembly ea 1 - - 2 - - Top Clip ea 1 - - 2 - - Bottom Clip ea 1 - - 2 - - Pivot ea 1 - - 2 - - Spring ea 1 - 1 - - - Rivet ea 2 - 1 - - - Press Board ea 1 LEVEL ITEM UNIT OF MEASURE QUANTITY
  14. 14. Specialized BOMs <ul><li>Phantom bills </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Transient subassemblies </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Never stocked </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Immediately consumed in next stage </li></ul></ul><ul><li>K-bills </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Group small, loose parts under pseudo-item number </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Reduces paperwork, processing time, and file space </li></ul></ul>15-
  15. 15. Specialized BOMs <ul><li>Modular bills </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Product assembled from major subassemblies and customer options </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Modular bill kept for each major subassembly </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Simplifies forecasting and planning </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>X10 automobile example </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>3 x 8 x 3 x 8 x 4 = 2,304 configurations </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>3 + 8 + 3 + 8 + 4 = 26 modular bills </li></ul></ul></ul>15-
  16. 16. Modular BOMs 15- 4-Cylinder (.40) Bright red (.10) Leather (.20) Grey (.10) Sports coupe (.20) 6-Cylinder (.50) White linen (.10) Tweed (.40) Light blue (.10) Two-door (.20) 8-Cylinder (.10) Sulphur yellow (.10) Plush (.40) Rose (.10) Four-door (.30) Neon orange (.10) Off-white (.20) Station wagon (.30) Metallic blue (.10) Cool green (.10) Emerald green (.10) Black (.20) Jet black (.20) Brown (.10) Champagne (.20) B/W checked (.10) X10 Automobile Engines Exterior color Interior Interior color Body (1 of 3) (1 of 8) (1 of 3) (1 of 8) (1 of 4)
  17. 17. Time-phased Bills <ul><ul><li>An assembly chart shown against a time scale </li></ul></ul>15-
  18. 18. Time-phased Bills <ul><ul><li>Forward scheduling </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>start at today‘s date and schedule forward to determine the earliest date the job can be finished. If each item takes one period to complete, the clipboards can be finished in three periods </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Backward scheduling </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>start at the due date and schedule backwards to determine when to begin work. If an order for clipboards is due by period three, we should start production now </li></ul></ul></ul>15-
  19. 19. Item Master File 15- DESCRIPTION INVENTORY POLICY Item Pressboard Lead time 1 Item no. 7341 Annual demand 5000 Item type Purch Holding cost 1 Product/sales class Comp Ordering/setup cost 50 Value class B Safety stock 0 Buyer/planner RSR Reorder point 39 Vendor/drawing 07142 EOQ 316 Phantom code N Minimum order qty 100 Unit price/cost 1.25 Maximum order qty 500 Pegging Y Multiple order qty 1 LLC 1 Policy code 3
  20. 20. 15- Item Master File On hand 150 YTD usage/sales 1100 Location W142 MTD usage/sales 75 On order 100 YTD receipts 1200 Allocated 75 MTD receipts 0 Cycle 3 Last receipt 8/25 Last count 9/5 Last issue 10/5 Difference -2 Cost acct. 00754 Routing 00326 Engr 07142 PHYSICAL INVENTORY USAGE/SALES CODES
  21. 21. MRP Processes <ul><li>Exploding the bill of material </li></ul><ul><li>Netting out the inventory </li></ul><ul><li>Netting </li></ul><ul><ul><li>the process of subtracting on-hand quantities and scheduled receipts from gross requirements to produce net requirements </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Lot sizing </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>determining the quantities in which items are usually made or purchased </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>Time-phasing requirements </li></ul>15-
  22. 22. 15- MRP Matrix
  23. 23. MRP 15- Master Production Schedule 1 2 3 4 5 Clipboard 85 95 120 100 100 Lapdesk 0 60 0 60 0 Item Master File CLIPBOARD LAPDESK PRESSBOARD On hand 25 20 150 On order 175 (Period 1) 0 0 (sch receipt) LLC 0 0 1 Lot size L4L Mult 50 Min 100 Lead time 1 1 1
  24. 24. MRP 15- Product Structure Record Clipboard Lapdesk Pressboard (2) Trim (3’) Beanbag (1) Glue (4 oz) Level 0 Level 0 Pressboard (1) Clip Ass’y (1) Rivets (2) Level 1 Level 1
  25. 25. 15- MRP - 1 ITEM: CLIPBOARD LLC: 0 PERIOD LOT SIZE: L4L LT: 1 1 2 3 4 5 Gross Requirements 85 95 120 100 100 Scheduled Receipts 175 Projected on Hand 25 Net Requirements Planned Order Receipts Planned Order Releases
  26. 26. 15- MRP - 2 ITEM: CLIPBOARD LLC: 0 PERIOD LOT SIZE: L4L LT: 1 1 2 3 4 5 Gross Requirements 85 95 120 100 100 Scheduled Receipts 175 Projected on Hand 25 115 Net Requirements 0 Planned Order Receipts Planned Order Releases (25 + 175) = 200 units available (200 - 85) = 115 on hand at the end of Period 1
  27. 27. 15- MRP - 3 ITEM: CLIPBOARD LLC: 0 PERIOD LOT SIZE: L4L LT: 1 1 2 3 4 5 Gross Requirements 85 95 120 100 100 Scheduled Receipts 175 Projected on Hand 25 115 20 Net Requirements 0 0 Planned Order Receipts Planned Order Releases 115 units available (115 - 85) = 20 on hand at the end of Period 2
  28. 28. 15- MRP - 4 ITEM: CLIPBOARD LLC: 0 PERIOD LOT SIZE: L4L LT: 1 1 2 3 4 5 Gross Requirements 85 95 120 100 100 Scheduled Receipts 175 Projected on Hand 25 115 20 0 Net Requirements 0 0 100 Planned Order Receipts 100 Planned Order Releases 100 20 units available (20 - 120) = -100 — 100 additional Clipboards are required Order must be placed in Period 2 to be received in Period 3
  29. 29. 15- MRP - 5 ITEM: CLIPBOARD LLC: 0 PERIOD LOT SIZE: L4L LT: 1 1 2 3 4 5 Gross Requirements 85 95 120 100 100 Scheduled Receipts 175 Projected on Hand 25 115 20 0 0 0 Net Requirements 0 0 100 100 100 Planned Order Receipts 100 100 100 Planned Order Releases 100 100 100 Following the same logic Gross Requirements in Periods 4 and 5 develop Net Requirements, Planned Order Receipts, and Planned Order Releases
  30. 30. 15- MRP - 6 ITEM: LAPDESK LLC: 0 PERIOD LOT SIZE: MULT 50 LT: 1 1 2 3 4 5 Gross Requirements 0 60 0 60 0 Scheduled Receipts Projected on Hand 20 Net Requirements Planned Order Receipts Planned Order Releases
  31. 31. 15- MRP - 7 ITEM: LAPDESK LLC: 0 PERIOD LOT SIZE: MULT 50 LT: 1 1 2 3 4 5 Gross Requirements 0 60 0 60 0 Scheduled Receipts Projected on Hand 20 20 10 10 0 0 Net Requirements 0 40 50 Planned Order Receipts 50 50 Planned Order Releases 50 50 Following the same logic, the Lapdesk MRP matrix is completed as shown
  32. 32. 15- MRP - 8 ITEM: PRESSBOARD LLC: 0 PERIOD LOT SIZE: MIN 100 LT: 1 1 2 3 4 5 Gross Requirements Scheduled Receipts Projected on Hand 150 Net Requirements Planned Order Receipts Planned Order Releases ITEM: CLIPBOARD LLC: 0 PERIOD LOT SIZE: L4L LT: 1 1 2 3 4 5 Planned Order Releases 100 100 100 ITEM: LAPDESK LLC: 0 PERIOD LOT SIZE: MULT 50 LT: 1 1 2 3 4 5 Planned Order Releases 50 50
  33. 33. 15- MRP – 9 ITEM: PRESSBOARD LLC: 0 PERIOD LOT SIZE: MIN 100 LT: 1 1 2 3 4 5 Gross Requirements 100 100 200 100 0 Scheduled Receipts Projected on Hand 150 Net Requirements Planned Order Receipts Planned Order Releases ITEM: CLIPBOARD LLC: 0 PERIOD LOT SIZE: L4L LT: 1 1 2 3 4 5 Planned Order Releases 100 100 100 ITEM: LAPDESK LLC: 0 PERIOD LOT SIZE: MULT 50 LT: 1 1 2 3 4 5 Planned Order Releases 50 50 x1 x1 x1 x2 x2
  34. 34. 15- MRP – 10 ITEM: PRESSBOARD LLC: 0 PERIOD LOT SIZE: MIN 100 LT: 1 1 2 3 4 5 Gross Requirements 100 100 200 100 0 Scheduled Receipts Projected on Hand 150 50 50 0 0 Net Requirements 50 150 100 Planned Order Receipts 100 150 100 Planned Order Releases 100 150 100 ITEM: CLIPBOARD LLC: 0 PERIOD LOT SIZE: L4L LT: 1 1 2 3 4 5 Planned Order Releases 100 100 100 ITEM: LAPDESK LLC: 0 PERIOD LOT SIZE: MULT 50 LT: 1 1 2 3 4 5 Planned Order Releases 50 50 x1 x1 x1 x2 x2
  35. 35. 15- MRP - 11 PERIOD ITEM 1 2 3 4 5 Clipboard 100 100 100 Lapdesk 50 50 Pressboard 100 150 100 Planned Order Report
  36. 36. Lot Sizing in MRP Systems <ul><li>Lot-for-lot ordering policy </li></ul><ul><li>Fixed-size lot ordering policy </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Minimum order quantities </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Maximum order quantities </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Multiple order quantities </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Economic order quantity </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Periodic order quantity </li></ul></ul>15-
  37. 37. Advanced Lot Sizing Rules: L4L 15- Total cost of L4L = (4 X $60) + (0 X $1) = $240
  38. 38. Advanced Lot Sizing Rules: EOQ 15- minimum order quantity Total cost of EOQ = (2 X $60) + [(10 + 50 + 40) X $1)] = $220
  39. 39. Advanced Lot Sizing Rules: POQ 15- periods worth of requirements Total cost of POQ = (2 X $60) + [(20 + 40) X $1] = $180
  40. 40. Planned Order Report 15- Item #2740 Date 9 - 25 - 05 On hand 100 Lead time 2 weeks On order 200 Lot size 200 Allocated 50 Safety stock 50 SCHEDULED PROJECTED DATE ORDER NO. GROSS REQS. RECEIPTS ON HAND ACTION 50 9-26 AL 4416 25 25 9-30 AL 4174 25 0 10-01 GR 6470 50 - 50 10-08 SR 7542 200 150 Expedite SR 10-01 10-10 CO 4471 75 75 10-15 GR 6471 50 25 10-23 GR 6471 25 0 10-27 GR 6473 50 - 50 Release PO 10-13 Key: AL = allocated WO = work order CO = customer order SR = scheduled receipt PO = purchase order GR = gross requirement
  41. 41. MRP Action Report 15- ITEM DATE ORDER NO. QTY. ACTION #2740 10-08 7542 200 Expedite SR 10-01 #3616 10-09 Move forward PO 10-07 #2412 10-10 Move forward PO 10-05 #3427 10-15 Move backward PO 10-25 #2516 10-20 7648 100 De-expedite SR 10-30 #2740 10-27 200 Release PO 10-13 #3666 10-31 50 Release WO 10-24 Current date 9-25-08
  42. 42. Capacity Requirements Planning (CRP) <ul><li>Creates a load profile </li></ul><ul><li>Identifies under-loads and over-loads </li></ul><ul><li>Inputs </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Planned order releases </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Routing file </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Open orders file </li></ul></ul>15-
  43. 43. CRP 15- MRP planned order releases Routing file Capacity requirements planning Open orders file Load profile for each process
  44. 44. Calculating Capacity <ul><li>Maximum capability to produce </li></ul><ul><li>Rated Capacity </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Theoretical output that could be attained if a process were operating at full speed without interruption, exceptions, or downtime </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Effective Capacity </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Takes into account the efficiency with which a particular product or customer can be processed and the utilization of the scheduled hours or work </li></ul></ul>15- Effective Daily Capacity = (no. of machines or workers) x (hours per shift) x (no. of shifts) x (utilization) x ( efficiency)
  45. 45. Calculating Capacity <ul><li>Utilization </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Percent of available time spent working </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Efficiency </li></ul><ul><ul><li>How well a machine or worker performs compared to a standard output level </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Load </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Standard hours of work assigned to a facility </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Load Percent </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Ratio of load to capacity </li></ul></ul>15- Load Percent = x 100% load capacity
  46. 46. <ul><li>Graphical comparison of load versus capacity </li></ul><ul><li>Leveling underloaded conditions: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Acquire more work </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Pull work ahead that is scheduled for later time periods </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Reduce normal capacity </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Load leveling </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Process of balancing underloads and overloads </li></ul></ul>15- Load Profiles
  47. 47. Reducing Over-load Conditions <ul><li>Eliminate unnecessary requirements </li></ul><ul><li>Reroute jobs to alternative machines, workers, or work centers </li></ul><ul><li>Split lots between two or more machines </li></ul><ul><li>Increase normal capacity </li></ul><ul><li>Subcontract </li></ul><ul><li>Increase efficiency of the operation </li></ul><ul><li>Push work back to later time periods </li></ul><ul><li>Revise master schedule </li></ul>15-
  48. 48. Copy Courier <ul><li>Two high-speed copiers that can be operated by one operator. </li></ul><ul><li>2 shifts per day </li></ul><ul><li>8 hours/shift , 5 days/week. </li></ul><ul><li>No breaks during the day </li></ul><ul><li>30 minutes for lunch or dinner </li></ul><ul><li>Machine service time = 30 minutes at the beginning of each shift </li></ul><ul><li>Machine efficiency = 90%. </li></ul><ul><li>Capacity </li></ul><ul><ul><li>2 copiers * 2 shifts * 8 hrs/day * 7/8 utilization * .90 efficiency = 1512 minutes/day </li></ul></ul>15-
  49. 49. Copy Courier <ul><li>Job No. of Setup Time Run Time </li></ul><ul><li>Copies (min) (min/unit) </li></ul><ul><li>10 500 5.2 0.08 </li></ul><ul><li>20 1000 10.6 0.10 </li></ul><ul><li>30 5000 3.4 0.12 </li></ul><ul><li>40 4500 11.2 0.14 </li></ul><ul><li>50 2000 15.3 0.10 </li></ul>15-
  50. 50. Load Calculations <ul><li>Job Setup + Run x No. Copies Job Time </li></ul><ul><li>10 5.2 + (500 X 0.08) = 45.20 </li></ul><ul><li>20 10.6 + (1000 X 0.10) = 110.60 </li></ul><ul><li>30 3.4 + (5000 X 0.12) = 603.40 </li></ul><ul><li>40 11.2 + (4500 X 0.14) = 641.20 </li></ul><ul><li>50 15.3 + (2000 X 0.10) = 215.30 </li></ul><ul><li>1,615.70 min </li></ul>15-
  51. 51. Loading <ul><li>Capacity </li></ul><ul><li>2 copiers * 2 shifts * 8 hrs/day * 7/8 utilization * .90 efficiency </li></ul><ul><ul><li>= 1512 minutes/day </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Load percent = 1615.70/1512 = 1.068 X 100% = 106.8% </li></ul><ul><li>Overloaded by 6.8%. </li></ul><ul><li>Extends working day by approximately 36 minutes </li></ul><ul><li>Load percent = 99%. </li></ul><ul><li>Increase efficiency to 97%. </li></ul>15-
  52. 52. 15- Initial Load Profile Hours of capacity 1 2 3 4 5 6 Time (weeks) Normal capacity 120 – 110 – 100 – 90 – 80 – 70 – 60 – 50 – 40 – 30 – 20 – 10 – 0 –
  53. 53. 15- Adjusted Load Profile Hours of capacity 1 2 3 4 5 6 Time (weeks) Normal capacity 120 – 110 – 100 – 90 – 80 – 70 – 60 – 50 – 40 – 30 – 20 – 10 – 0 – Pull ahead Push back Push back Overtime Work an extra shift
  54. 54. Relaxing MRP Assumptions <ul><li>Material is not always the most constraining resource </li></ul><ul><li>Lead times can vary </li></ul><ul><li>Not every transaction needs to be recorded </li></ul><ul><li>Shop floor may require a more sophisticated scheduling system </li></ul><ul><li>Scheduling in advance may not be appropriate for on-demand production. </li></ul>15-
  55. 55. Enterprise Resource Planning (ERP) <ul><li>Software that organizes and manages a company’s business processes by </li></ul><ul><ul><li>sharing information across functional areas </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>integrating business processes </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>facilitating customer interaction </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>providing benefit to global companies </li></ul></ul>15-
  56. 56. Organizational Data Flows 15-
  57. 57. ERP’s Central Database 15- <ul><li>Copyright 2011 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. </li></ul>
  58. 58. Selected Enterprise Software Vendors 15-
  59. 59. ERP Implementation <ul><li>Analyze business processes </li></ul><ul><li>Choose modules to implement </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Which processes have the biggest impact on customer relations? </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Which process would benefit the most from integration? </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Which processes should be standardized? </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Align level of sophistication </li></ul><ul><li>Finalize delivery and access </li></ul><ul><li>Link with external partners </li></ul>15-
  60. 60. Customer Relationship Management (CRM) <ul><li>Software that </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Plans and executes business processes </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Involves customer interaction </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Changes focus from managing products to managing customers </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Analyzes point-of-sale data for patterns used to predict future behavior </li></ul></ul>15-
  61. 61. Supply Chain Management <ul><li>Software that plans and executes business processes related to supply chains </li></ul><ul><li>Includes </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Supply chain planning </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Supply chain execution </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Supplier relationship management </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Distinctions between ERP and SCM are becoming increasingly blurred </li></ul>15-
  62. 62. Product Lifecycle Management (PLM) <ul><li>Software that </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Incorporates new product design and development and product life cycle management </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Integrates customers and suppliers in the design process though the entire product life cycle </li></ul></ul>15-
  63. 63. ERP and Software Systems 15-
  64. 64. Connectivity <ul><li>Application programming interfaces (APIs) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>give other programs well-defined ways of speaking to them </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Enterprise Application Integration (EAI) solutions </li></ul><ul><li>EDI is being replaced by XML, business language of Internet </li></ul><ul><li>Service-oriented architecture (SOA) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>collection of “services” that communicate with each other within software or between software </li></ul></ul>15-
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