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    Perciption Perciption Presentation Transcript

    • Chapter 2 Perception
    • Perception is Important
      • Differences in perception are widespread
      • Not all differences are of equal importance
      • Not everyone’s perceptions have equal status
      • What does perception have to do with communication?
        • You communicate your perceptions through language
        • You use your perceptual filters to interpret others’ messages
        • Your communication shapes your perceptions of others
    • Perception Defined 
      • Perception: the way in which an individual gives meaning to an object, messages or event
        • Perception is a process
      • Objective reality: the actual object, message or event
        • You filter this through:
          • Past experiences
          • Prior knowledge
          • Psychological state
    • Perception Defined
      • Subjective reality: Result of filtering
      • Everyone interprets reality differently
      • No two people have the exact same reality
      • You need to communicate your reality to others in a way they understand
      • You need to be open to listening
      • Goal is shared understanding
    • A Perception Model
      • Prior Knowledge
        • Knowledge base you’ve developed over years of experience and education
        • Critical to making sense of what you see and hear
      • Prior Experiences
        • Use to help you make sense of your world
    • A Perception Model
      • Psychological state
        • Identity: your sense of self as a unique individual
        • You interact in relationship to the way you define yourself
        • Ex. Men & women, wealthy & poor, young & elderly
        • Identity includes personality traits
        • Based on external traits: marital status, job, etc.
        • Identity can impact your values and worldviews
    • A Perception Model
        • Values reflect what you see as good/bad, right/wrong
        • World views are group-related value orientations
        • Self-concept: how you view yourself
        • Emotional state: additional filter (ex. Anxiety)
        • Physical variables: health, location, weakened sense
    • A Perception Model Prior Knowledge Prior Experiences Psychological State Perceptual Processes (including selective attention, projection, stereotyping, halo effect, attributions, etc.) = Subjective Reality
    • A Perception Model
      • Selective attention
        • We are bombarded by so many messages
        • Impossible to pay attention to them all
        • You make decisions to pay attention to some more than others
        • We pay attention to message that are:
          • Thrust at us (ex. Loud noises, dazzling colors, pungent smells)
          • Interesting to us
          • Related to us specifically (ex. Name)
    • A Perception Model
      • Self-fulfilling prophecy
        • Role expectations play in your perceptions
        • You see what you want/expect to see
        • People tend to live up to expectations of significant others
          • Positive or negative
        • Stereotype threat : negative cultural stereotypes about a group can create a belief in the stereotypes among members
    • A Perception Model
      • Halo Effect, Attribution Error and Projection
        • Halo effect: occurs when you make assumptions based upon limited information
          • Positive or negative
        • Attribution error : attempt to attribute causes of events to either personalities or external situations
        • Projection : tendency to see your own faults (or strengths) in others and point out those traits
    • A Perception Model
      • Concepts to minimize communication breakdowns resulting from perceptual differences
        • Recognize the distinction between objective and subjective reality
        • Your differences in perception are rooted in individual differences
        • How you look at differences matter
        • Communication is a central skill in the perception process
    • Sharpening Your Perceptions
      • Facts/opinion confusion
        • Statements of fact:
          • Are based on observable sensory data
          • Are only about the past or present, never the future
          • Are objective and free from interpretations, conclusions or assumptions about what has been observed
    • Sharpening Your Perception
        • Statements of opinion:
          • Go beyond what has been observed
          • Are about the past, present or future
          • Include interpretations, conclusions or assumptions about what has been observed and are subjective
        • State your opinions by using an “I” message
          • “ I think,” “To me,” “From my point of view”
    • Sharpening Your Perception
      • Checking Perceptions
        • Responses to someone’s verbal/nonverbal communication
        • They share an impression of the person’s message
        • Open-minded, non-evaluative statements that invite a response
        • Help to verify assumptions or opinions
        • Provide a way to confirm what you are thinking
    • Sharpening Your Perception
      • How to phrase a clear perception check:
        • State your perception of another person’s behavior
        • Present the perception in an open-minded or tentative way
          • “I may be wrong,” “It seems”
        • Express your perception in a non-evaluative way
        • Invite a response
          • Short question
          • Rising inflection
    • Sharpening Your Perception
      • Learning conversations
        • Process for learning about the perceptions of others
        • Debates: attempt to win, convince the other person you are right
        • Dialogue: goal is to understand, not win and requires a curiosity of others
    • Sharpening Your Perception
        • Content messages: describe facts about what happen, often include assumptions
        • Feeling messages: how someone feels, most likely expressed in body language
        • Identity messages: how people see themselves and how they are affected
    • Sharpening Your Perception
        • Purpose of learning conversations:
          • Understanding another person’s point of view
          • Sharing your point of view
          • Understanding/sharing feelings
          • Working together to resolve a problem
          • Move from “convincing” other person to cultivating “curiosity” about others’ views
    • Sharpening Your Perception
        • Phases of learning conversations
          • Invite the person to share his/her different point of view
          • Share the differing points of view
            • Ask for information about his/her experiences
            • Paraphrase the speaker’s message
            • Focus on learning, not winning
          • Problem solving
    • Perception and Technology
      • New technology allows people to change and shape reality
      • Be critical of what you see and hear
      • Call for media literacy awareness
        • Media constructs messages to broadcast
        • Messages use creative language with specific rules
        • Messages are understood differently by different people
        • Decision-makers have their own points of view
        • Goal is usually more money and/or power
    • Perception and Technology
      • 5 Questions for Critical Media Viewing
      • Who created this message?
      • What creative techniques were used to attract my attention?
      • How might other people understand this message differently than I?
      • What values, lifestyles, and points of view are being represented in, or omitted from, this message?
      • Why is this message being sent?