Strategies, Policies and  Planning Premises
Strategy <ul><li>A company’s strategy consists of the competitive moves, internal operating approaches, and action plans d...
Levels of Strategy
Levels of Strategy <ul><li>Corporate-level Strategy </li></ul><ul><li>The set of strategic alternatives that an  organizat...
Corporate  Strategy Business  Strategies Functional   Strategies Levels  of  Strategy-Making
BCG Matrix* Relative Market Share Market Growth Rate Low High High Low Stars Cash Cows ? Question Marks Dogs
BCG Market Share/Market Growth Matrix
What is Strategic Planning? Strategic planning is a systematic process through which an organization agrees on and builds ...
Strategic Planning vs. Operational Planning <ul><li>Strategic Planning </li></ul><ul><ul><li>formulation </li></ul></ul><u...
Three Big Strategic Questions <ul><li>Where Are We Now? </li></ul><ul><li>Where Do we Want to Go? </li></ul><ul><li>How Wi...
Strategic Planning Process <ul><li>Developing a Vision and a Mission </li></ul><ul><li>Assessment </li></ul><ul><li>Settin...
Strategic Planning <ul><li>First Stage of Strategic Planning may involve: </li></ul><ul><li>Futures Thinking </li></ul><ul...
Strategic Planning <ul><li>The Vision </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Communicating to all staff where the organisation is going and...
Strategic Analysis <ul><li>Constantly evaluate their position </li></ul><ul><li>Strategic analysis includes different meth...
Internal Audits <ul><li>Productivity   </li></ul><ul><li>Efficiency   </li></ul><ul><li>Costs </li></ul><ul><li>Other Inte...
External Audits <ul><li>General business environment  – Inflation, competitiveness, unemployment/employment, growth, consu...
SWOT Analysis <ul><li>Strengths </li></ul><ul><li>Weaknesses </li></ul><ul><li>Opportunities </li></ul><ul><li>Threats </l...
Strength’s <ul><li>Strength’s – Those things that you do well, the </li></ul><ul><li>high value or performance points </li...
Weaknesses <ul><li>Weaknesses – Those things that prevent you from doing what you really need to do </li></ul><ul><li>Sinc...
Opportunities <ul><li>Opportunities – Potential areas for growth and </li></ul><ul><li>higher performance </li></ul><ul><l...
Threats <ul><li>Threats – Challenges confronting the organization, external in nature </li></ul><ul><li>Threats can take a...
Five  Forces Model  of  Competition Substitute Products (of firms in other industries) Suppliers of Key Inputs Buyers Pote...
Porter’s Five Competitive Forces <ul><li>Threat of new entrants </li></ul><ul><li>Competitive rivalry </li></ul><ul><li>Th...
Gap Analysis Vision Assessment Gap = Basis for Long-Term Strategic Plan
Setting Objectives <ul><li>The purpose is to convert the mission into Specific Performance Targets </li></ul><ul><li>Yards...
Crafting a Strategy
Generic  Strategies <ul><li>Porter’s Generic Strategies </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Differentiation strategy </li></ul></ul><ul>...
Types of Strategy <ul><li>Market Dominance </li></ul><ul><li>Achieved through: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Internal growth </li>...
Strategy Implementation <ul><li>Technology </li></ul><ul><li>Human Resource </li></ul><ul><li>Reward System </li></ul><ul>...
Characteristic of the Good Strategy Implementation <ul><li>An ongoing exercise </li></ul><ul><li>Proper Communication </li...
DECISION-MAKING
What is Decision-Making? <ul><li>Decision making </li></ul><ul><ul><li>The process of choosing a course of action for deal...
Types of Decisions <ul><ul><li>Programmed decisions. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Involve routine problems that arise re...
Decision environments <ul><ul><li>Certain environments. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Risk environments. </li></ul></ul><ul><...
Certain environments. <ul><ul><li>Exist when information is sufficient to predict the results of each alternative in advan...
Risk environments <ul><ul><li>Exist when decision makers lack complete certainty regarding the outcomes of various courses...
Uncertain environments. <ul><ul><li>Exist when managers have so little information that they cannot even assign probabilit...
Classical Vs. Behavioral Decision Theory <ul><li>Classical decision theory. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Views the decision maker...
Classical decision theory   <ul><ul><li>The classical decision maker: </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Faces a clearly defin...
Rationality <ul><li>Problem is clear and unambiguous. </li></ul><ul><li>Single goal. </li></ul><ul><li>All alternatives ar...
Behavioral decision theory <ul><ul><li>Recognizes that human beings operate with: </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Cognitive...
Bounded Rationality <ul><li>Behavior that is rational within the parameters of a simplified model that captures the essent...
Bounded Rationality  Limited Search Inadequate Information and Control Decisions Satisficing
Other decision making models <ul><li>The garbage can model </li></ul><ul><ul><li>A model of decision making that views pro...
Intuitive Decision Making <ul><li>An unconscious process of making decisions on the basis of experience and accumulated ju...
Too Slow Too Quick <ul><li>Procrastination </li></ul><ul><li>Indecision </li></ul><ul><li>“ Analysis paralysis” </li></ul>...
Cultural and Social Influences Decision-Making Process MOTI  VATION Perception Learning and Memory Attitudes AFFECT Proble...
Group Decision-Making
Forms of Group Decision Making <ul><li>Interacting groups </li></ul><ul><li>Delphi Methods </li></ul><ul><li>Nominal group...
Decision-Making Techniques <ul><li>Marginal Analysis </li></ul><ul><li>Financial Analysis </li></ul><ul><li>Break-Even Ana...
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Opreational & stratergic planning

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Opreational & stratergic planning

  1. 1. Strategies, Policies and Planning Premises
  2. 2. Strategy <ul><li>A company’s strategy consists of the competitive moves, internal operating approaches, and action plans devised by management to produce successful performance. </li></ul><ul><li>Strategy is management’s “game plan” for running the business. </li></ul><ul><li>Managers need strategies to guide HOW the organization’s business will be conducted and HOW performance targets will be achieved. </li></ul>
  3. 3. Levels of Strategy
  4. 4. Levels of Strategy <ul><li>Corporate-level Strategy </li></ul><ul><li>The set of strategic alternatives that an organization chooses from as it manages its operations simultaneously across several industries and several markets. </li></ul><ul><li>2. Business-level Strategy </li></ul><ul><li>How the organization conducts business in a particular industry. </li></ul><ul><li>Functional-level Strategy </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Strategy developed for specific functional areas </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>such as marketing, finance, and so forth. </li></ul></ul>
  5. 5. Corporate Strategy Business Strategies Functional Strategies Levels of Strategy-Making
  6. 6. BCG Matrix* Relative Market Share Market Growth Rate Low High High Low Stars Cash Cows ? Question Marks Dogs
  7. 7. BCG Market Share/Market Growth Matrix
  8. 8. What is Strategic Planning? Strategic planning is a systematic process through which an organization agrees on and builds commitment among key stakeholders to priorities that are essential to its mission and are responsive to the environment. Strategic Planning guides the acquisition and allocation of resources to achieve these priorities.
  9. 9. Strategic Planning vs. Operational Planning <ul><li>Strategic Planning </li></ul><ul><ul><li>formulation </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>What, where </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>ends </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>vision </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>effectiveness </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>risk </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Operational Planning </li></ul><ul><ul><li>implementation </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>how </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>means </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>plans </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>efficiency </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>control </li></ul></ul>
  10. 10. Three Big Strategic Questions <ul><li>Where Are We Now? </li></ul><ul><li>Where Do we Want to Go? </li></ul><ul><li>How Will We Get There? </li></ul>
  11. 11. Strategic Planning Process <ul><li>Developing a Vision and a Mission </li></ul><ul><li>Assessment </li></ul><ul><li>Setting Objectives </li></ul><ul><li>Crafting a Strategy </li></ul><ul><li>Implementing and Executing Strategy </li></ul><ul><li>Evaluating Performance, Reviewing the Situation and Initiating Corrective Action </li></ul>
  12. 12. Strategic Planning <ul><li>First Stage of Strategic Planning may involve: </li></ul><ul><li>Futures Thinking </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Thinking about what the business might need to do 10–20 years ahead </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Strategic Intents </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Thinking about key strategic themes that will inform decision making </li></ul></ul>
  13. 13. Strategic Planning <ul><li>The Vision </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Communicating to all staff where the organisation is going and where it intends to be in the future </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Aims and Objectives: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Aims – long term target </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Objectives – the way in which you are going to achieve the aim </li></ul></ul>
  14. 14. Strategic Analysis <ul><li>Constantly evaluate their position </li></ul><ul><li>Strategic analysis includes different methods of assessing the current position of the business in the market place </li></ul><ul><li>Two basic methods: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Internal </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>External </li></ul></ul>
  15. 15. Internal Audits <ul><li>Productivity </li></ul><ul><li>Efficiency </li></ul><ul><li>Costs </li></ul><ul><li>Other Internal Data </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Labour turnover, absenteeism </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Customer satisfaction surveys </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Quality procedures </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Cash flow statements </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Sales trends </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Skills audit </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Strengths and weaknesses analysis </li></ul><ul><li>Core competencies </li></ul>
  16. 16. External Audits <ul><li>General business environment – Inflation, competitiveness, unemployment/employment, growth, consumer spending </li></ul><ul><li>Competitors </li></ul><ul><li>PEST factors </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Political – e.g. change of government </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Economic – Trends in economic growth, inflation, etc. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Social-changed outlook, age structure of population, etc. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Technological </li></ul></ul>
  17. 17. SWOT Analysis <ul><li>Strengths </li></ul><ul><li>Weaknesses </li></ul><ul><li>Opportunities </li></ul><ul><li>Threats </li></ul>Vision & Mission An organization’s fundamental purpose Good Strategies SWOT Analysis To formulate strategies that support the mission Those that support the mission and: <ul><li>exploit opportunities and strengths </li></ul><ul><li>neutralize threats </li></ul><ul><li>avoid weaknesses </li></ul>Internal Analysis Strengths (distinctive competencies) Weaknesses Threats External Analysis Opportunities
  18. 18. Strength’s <ul><li>Strength’s – Those things that you do well, the </li></ul><ul><li>high value or performance points </li></ul><ul><li>Strengths can be tangible: Loyal customers, </li></ul><ul><li>efficient distribution channels, very high quality </li></ul><ul><li>products, excellent financial condition </li></ul><ul><li>Strengths can be intangible: Good leadership, </li></ul><ul><li>strategic insights, customer intelligence, solid </li></ul><ul><li>reputation, high skilled workforce </li></ul>
  19. 19. Weaknesses <ul><li>Weaknesses – Those things that prevent you from doing what you really need to do </li></ul><ul><li>Since weaknesses are internal, they are within </li></ul><ul><li>your control </li></ul><ul><li>Weaknesses include: Bad leadership, unskilled </li></ul><ul><li>workforce, insufficient resources, poor product </li></ul><ul><li>quality, slow distribution and delivery channels, </li></ul><ul><li>outdated technologies, lack of planning, . . . </li></ul>
  20. 20. Opportunities <ul><li>Opportunities – Potential areas for growth and </li></ul><ul><li>higher performance </li></ul><ul><li>External in nature – marketplace, unhappy </li></ul><ul><li>customers with competitor’s, better economic </li></ul><ul><li>conditions, more open trading policies, . . </li></ul><ul><li>Timing may be important for capitalizing on </li></ul><ul><li>opportunities </li></ul>
  21. 21. Threats <ul><li>Threats – Challenges confronting the organization, external in nature </li></ul><ul><li>Threats can take a wide range – bad press </li></ul><ul><li>coverage, shifts in consumer behavior, substitute </li></ul><ul><li>products, new regulations, . . . </li></ul><ul><li>The more accurate you are in identifying threats, </li></ul><ul><li>the better position you are for dealing with the </li></ul><ul><li>“ sudden ripples” of change </li></ul>
  22. 22. Five Forces Model of Competition Substitute Products (of firms in other industries) Suppliers of Key Inputs Buyers Potential New Entrants Rivalry Among Competing Sellers
  23. 23. Porter’s Five Competitive Forces <ul><li>Threat of new entrants </li></ul><ul><li>Competitive rivalry </li></ul><ul><li>Threat of substitute products </li></ul><ul><li>Power of buyers </li></ul><ul><li>Power of suppliers </li></ul>
  24. 24. Gap Analysis Vision Assessment Gap = Basis for Long-Term Strategic Plan
  25. 25. Setting Objectives <ul><li>The purpose is to convert the mission into Specific Performance Targets </li></ul><ul><li>Yardsticks for tracking company progress and performance. </li></ul><ul><li>Should be set at levels that require stretch and disciplined effort . </li></ul>
  26. 26. Crafting a Strategy
  27. 27. Generic Strategies <ul><li>Porter’s Generic Strategies </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Differentiation strategy </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>An organization seeks to distinguish itself from competitors through the quality of its products or services. Developing an image perceived as unique </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Overall cost leadership strategy </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>An organization attempts to gain competitive advantage by reducing its costs below the costs of competing firms. </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Focus strategy </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>An organization concentrates on a specific regional market, product line, or group of buyers. </li></ul></ul></ul>
  28. 28. Types of Strategy <ul><li>Market Dominance </li></ul><ul><li>Achieved through: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Internal growth </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Acquisitions – mergers and takeovers </li></ul></ul><ul><li>New product development: to keep ahead of rivals and set the pace </li></ul><ul><li>Contraction/Expansion – focus on what you are good at (core competencies) or seek to expand into a range of markets? </li></ul><ul><li>Global – seeking to expand Global operations </li></ul>
  29. 29. Strategy Implementation <ul><li>Technology </li></ul><ul><li>Human Resource </li></ul><ul><li>Reward System </li></ul><ul><li>Decision Process </li></ul>
  30. 30. Characteristic of the Good Strategy Implementation <ul><li>An ongoing exercise </li></ul><ul><li>Proper Communication </li></ul><ul><li>Contingency Plan </li></ul><ul><li>Emphasis on Organisation Culture </li></ul><ul><li>Regular Review </li></ul><ul><li>Importance of Planning </li></ul>
  31. 31. DECISION-MAKING
  32. 32. What is Decision-Making? <ul><li>Decision making </li></ul><ul><ul><li>The process of choosing a course of action for dealing with a problem or opportunity. </li></ul></ul>
  33. 33. Types of Decisions <ul><ul><li>Programmed decisions. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Involve routine problems that arise regularly and can be addressed through standard responses. </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Nonprogrammed decisions. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Involve nonroutine problems that require solutions specifically tailored to the situation at hand </li></ul></ul></ul>
  34. 34. Decision environments <ul><ul><li>Certain environments. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Risk environments. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Uncertain environments. </li></ul></ul>
  35. 35. Certain environments. <ul><ul><li>Exist when information is sufficient to predict the results of each alternative in advance of implementation. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Certainty is the ideal problem solving and decision making environment. </li></ul></ul>
  36. 36. Risk environments <ul><ul><li>Exist when decision makers lack complete certainty regarding the outcomes of various courses of action, but they can assign probabilities of occurrence. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Probabilities can be assigned through objective statistical procedures or personal intuition. </li></ul></ul>
  37. 37. Uncertain environments. <ul><ul><li>Exist when managers have so little information that they cannot even assign probabilities </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Uncertainty forces decision makers to rely on individual and group creativity to succeed in problem solving. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Also characterized by rapidly changing: </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>External conditions. </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Information technology requirements. </li></ul></ul></ul>
  38. 38. Classical Vs. Behavioral Decision Theory <ul><li>Classical decision theory. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Views the decision maker as acting in a world of complete certainty. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Behavioral decision theory. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Accepts a world with bounded rationality and views the decision maker as acting only in terms of what he/she perceives about a given situation. </li></ul></ul>
  39. 39. Classical decision theory <ul><ul><li>The classical decision maker: </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Faces a clearly defined problem. </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Knows all possible action alternatives and their consequences. </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Chooses the optimum alternative. </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Is often used as a model of how managers should make decisions. </li></ul></ul>
  40. 40. Rationality <ul><li>Problem is clear and unambiguous. </li></ul><ul><li>Single goal. </li></ul><ul><li>All alternatives are known. </li></ul><ul><li>Clear and constant preferences. </li></ul><ul><li>Maximum payoff. </li></ul><ul><li>The decision is in the best interest of the organization—not the manager. </li></ul>
  41. 41. Behavioral decision theory <ul><ul><li>Recognizes that human beings operate with: </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Cognitive limitations. </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Bounded rationality. </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>The behavioral decision maker: </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Faces a problem that is not clearly defined. </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Has limited knowledge of possible action alternatives and their consequences. </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Chooses a satisfactory alternative. </li></ul></ul></ul>
  42. 42. Bounded Rationality <ul><li>Behavior that is rational within the parameters of a simplified model that captures the essential features of the problem. </li></ul><ul><li>Making a decision that is “good enough.” (Satisficing Model) </li></ul>
  43. 43. Bounded Rationality Limited Search Inadequate Information and Control Decisions Satisficing
  44. 44. Other decision making models <ul><li>The garbage can model </li></ul><ul><ul><li>A model of decision making that views problems, solutions, participants, and choice situations as mixed together in the “garbage can” of the organization. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Incremental Model </li></ul>
  45. 45. Intuitive Decision Making <ul><li>An unconscious process of making decisions on the basis of experience and accumulated judgment. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Making decisions on the basis of gut feeling </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>It does play an important role in managerial decision making. </li></ul></ul>
  46. 46. Too Slow Too Quick <ul><li>Procrastination </li></ul><ul><li>Indecision </li></ul><ul><li>“ Analysis paralysis” </li></ul><ul><li>“ Ready, fire, aim” </li></ul><ul><li>Impulsive, compulsive </li></ul><ul><li>Arbitrary </li></ul>Range of decision making
  47. 47. Cultural and Social Influences Decision-Making Process MOTI VATION Perception Learning and Memory Attitudes AFFECT Problem Recognition Search Evaluation Choice Outcomes Ethnicity, Race, and Religion Household and ref. groups Socio-Econ: income,educ. Demographic:Gender, Age Psychographics: Lifestyle, Person. Basic Psychological Processes
  48. 48. Group Decision-Making
  49. 49. Forms of Group Decision Making <ul><li>Interacting groups </li></ul><ul><li>Delphi Methods </li></ul><ul><li>Nominal groups </li></ul>
  50. 50. Decision-Making Techniques <ul><li>Marginal Analysis </li></ul><ul><li>Financial Analysis </li></ul><ul><li>Break-Even Analysis </li></ul><ul><li>Ratio Analysis </li></ul><ul><li>OR Technique </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Linear Programming </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Queuing Method </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Game Theory </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Simulation </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Decision Tree </li></ul></ul></ul>
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