1. Managerial Communication: Module: 5 Interviews
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Managerial Communication: Module: 5 Interviews
An interview is a conversation between two or more people where questions are asked by the interviewer to
elicit facts or statements from the interviewee
Interviews are a standard part of journalism and media reporting, but are also employed in many other
situations, including qualitative research
a meeting of people face to face, especially for consultation
A formal meeting in person, especially one arranged for the assessment of the qualifications of an applicant
A conversation, such as one conducted by a reporter, in which facts or statements are elicited from another.
Types of interviews
Persons due for promotion are interviewed
It is informal & serves as induction into a new team with new responsibilities.
Clarifications about nature of duties & responsibilities & expectations are discussed.
A grievance is a complaint against some injustice
HR personnel conducts interview with individual having complaints
Employee is given opportunity to speak & state his point of view
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Efforts are made to correct any injustice
Interviewer needs lot of patience & empathy to listen to problems.
A Method of Periodical assessment of employees
Annual appraisal Interview is best method of judging the employees attitudes
It is face to face & confidential talk
It is more of discussion
An opportunity to employee(Subordinate) & interviewer(Superior) to discuss several issues like Career
development, training needs, job enrichment & opportunities for promotion.
A problem interview is a meeting with a problem employee
An employee whose performance is unsatisfactory in spite of warning represents a problem
Interview results in giving out solution
Reasons for employee poor performance like ill health, lack of training or job dissatisfaction can be sorted
This is done through proper counseling
Interviewer needs persuasion & negotiating skills
A reprimand is a warning
It is given after efforts have been made to correct the employees work & behavior
Employees are made understood that his performance is not satisfactory
This interview is conducted only after employees explanation are unacceptable
An exit interview is given to the employee who has resigned
By this interview organisation finds out reason for employees resignation
Any misunderstanding or any reason can be traced & opportunity to arrange for
Every organisation has to maintain good relations with past employees which affects the public image
Employees feedback & his opinion is collected
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All the details related to his personal records like salary balance, leavebenefits, PF, Group insurance is
This interview puts the candidate into difficult situations in order to test his/herstress.
This will help to know whether candidate is ready to face difficult situations &how is he handling those
This interview checks qualities like courage, tact, cool temper & self command
Rapid fire questions on several topics, cross questioning, Arguing, creatingstressful situations etc are the
At the candidate is supposed to be informed that it was a stress interview
They includes three or four persons who interview the candidate
They belong to different fields of expertise.
Assessment is made together using rating scales
Candidate has to communicate & respond for whole panel
How to Prepare for interview:
Stage 1 - Preparation
Re-read your resume.
Prepare questions to ask and to be asked
Work out clothes to wear
Anticipate the obvious questions during the interview
Work out a strategy for dealing with stress
Read vacancy details, employer's literature - what they are and what they want
Know where the interview will take place
Stage 2 - First Impressions Count
Arrive in good time
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Make a good entrance
Body language - handshake, posture, eye contact
Stage 3 - The Interview
Be prepared to talk - but not too much
Don't be afraid to ask for clarification
Illustrate your answers with examples
Be ready to sell yourself
Stage 4 - The Final Stage
Know when the interview is over - read employer's body language
Thank him/her for his/her time
Learn from the experience - ask for feedback if necessary
Questions You May Wish To Ask
What do I need to do before an interview?
Give yourself plenty of time to:
research the role and the organisation;
think about how well your experience, interests and skills fit the job and the organisation;
research current affairs and trends in your job sector;
find out what the prospective employer is actually looking for;
anticipate questions you might be asked, then prepare answers to these questions;
find out what form the interview will take, e.g. single, panel, group etc.
You should also:
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plan the day of the interview, especially your journey with an aim to arrive ten minutes early. Take
money in case you need to take a taxi or bus unexpectedly; carry an A-Z street map or put the
postcode of the organisation into Google maps on your mobile to prevent getting lost;
decide what you will wear and set it out the night before. Suits and business wear are the best option
with comfortable, polished shoes;
get an early night - we all perform better when fully awake.
How do I make a good impression at a job interview?
Stand out for all the right reasons by ensuring you:
arrive on time or better still early;
are organised. Take your application letter, CV and examples of work (if appropriate) with you;
listen carefully to questions and answer them concisely;
highlight your best attributes in the interview. Before you go, think about what you want the
interviewer to know about you (in relation to the job) during the interviewing process;
pay attention to the way you communicate. There's evidence to suggest that non-verbal
communication overpowers verbal communication so if you describe yourself as confident and
outgoing but speak inaudibly and avoid eye contact, the interviewer will read the latter as indicating
a lack of confidence and disregard what you said about being confident;
practise anything you're concerned about. This could be saying your answers aloud, which builds
confidence in hearing yourself speak, or having a trial run of the journey to the interview.
What techniques can I use to control my nerves?
In interviews, nerves can make you forget to do simple things such as smile and listen, which can result in
being thought of as unfriendly or inattentive. You're more likely to be nervous if you're inadequately
prepared so as well as following our advice above, you should:
give yourself time to think about what unique qualities you will bring to the job/organisation;
think of practical examples to demonstrate what you have achieved and draw upon all aspects of
your working, educational and social life;
write notes and take these along to the interview;
use cues in your notes to highlight examples that you want to draw upon, such as 'cricket team',
'course representative', 'sales job';
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be aware of the structure of the interview. Interviews often begin with topics that are easier to answer
because you need less time to think, such as 'tell us about your studies at university';
pause before answering a difficult question in order to give yourself time to think;
use positive language, as interviewers will be assessing your motivation and enthusiasm;
ask for clarification if, at first, you're unsure of what the question means;
Where can I practise my interview skills?
Your university careers and employability service is likely to provide practice interview sessions.
Alternatively, you could:
practise your answers (to anticipated questions) with someone you trust and seek feedback but don't
be overly self-critical;
use non-job interviews as opportunities to practise and monitor your interview skills, e.g. discussions
with your tutor, doctor etc.;
ask for feedback and advice after unsuccessful interviews and take it as an opportunity to learn and
pay a private company to provide interview practice.
Plan your answers to common interview questions.
What should I take to a job interview?
In general you will not need more than your own letter of application and CV, the job
specification/description and your own notes.
Your invitation to interview should detail everything you need to bring. Often employers request
examination certificates, which can take time to locate, so make sure you check what you need in
plenty of time.
You might wish to impress by reading up on the organisation's literature, e.g. a business plan or
corporate social responsibility strategy, but make sure you have read it in depth and be prepared to
share your views and ideas.
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A pen and notebook are always worth carrying with you and, if giving a presentation, take a copy on
a data stick even if you have emailed it beforehand, along with copies of the slides to use as handouts
for the interview panel.
If you take a mobile phone, make sure it is switched to silent or off before entering the organisation.
What is a competency-based interview?
This type of interview is one where the interviewer seeks evidence that you have the skills and experience
required to do the job.
Interviews that take this form involve questions developed around the job and person specifications, so think
carefully about examples from your own experience that match or complement these specifications.
Remember that you can use examples from contexts other than work, for example, you may never have
worked in a team in the same type of organisation but you have participated in teams elsewhere.
It's important to show an ability or interest in being able to learn new skills; if you are asked about
something that is outside your experience, describe a situation where you learned something new and
suggest you can do so again.
How do I prepare for a phone interview?
Phone interviews are most often used as a preliminary screen. When preparing for the interview it's
important to consider:
tone of voice - ensure you're enthusiastic and use positive language;
battery life - if using your mobile charge it fully before the interview;
location - find a quiet place for the interview, where you will be undisturbed by noise or others.
Phone interviews are often recorded so you may want to find out whether yours will be. It's important to pay
particular attention to getting your key messages across quickly - write key attributes down and have this
available during the phone call. Be willing to repeat these with the use of examples.
More recently, there has been an increase in Skype or video interviews. This is particularly likely if applying
for jobs overseas or where key staff are located overseas.
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Remember to dress as you would for a face-to-face interview and check what else will be in the shot with
you before the interview begins.
How do I prepare for a second interview?
A second interview means you have made it through the initial screening and the interviewer is now looking
evidence that you have the skills, abilities and interest to carry out the job;
confirmation that you are able to bring something of value to the organisation.
It's likely that questioning will focus on gathering a deeper understanding of you and your motivations and
how these fit with the role, existing team of staff and organisational ethos. Therefore, in order to prepare:
find out as much as you can about the challenges that face the organisation, its priorities, its markets,
its competitors, any existing or new legislative arrangements, etc.;
think about what you could bring to the organisation and prepare examples of how you have
achieved (or learned) something of relevance;
find ways to demonstrate enthusiasm for the goals of the organisation
HARD VS SOFT SKILLS
The ability to do a task --- hard skills
The ability to manage people – Soft skills or People skills
Hard skills – more along the lines of your resume – education, experience, level of expertise
Soft skills - non-technical, intangible, personality-specific skills that determine your strength as leader,
listener, negotiator, conflict mediator, etc.
Cluster of personal qualities, habits, attitudes, social graces that make someone a good employee and a
Just as important an indicator of job performance as hard skills
Role of the interviewer:
Prepare a welcome
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Unless confidential, brief your front of house to expect the candidates arrival. When the candidate
arrives it is incredibly reassuring and professional for them to hear ―Welcome, Nicole is expecting
you for the interview‖.
Role of interviewer:
Book a room
Allocate the time
If you allow an hour for each interview, is it wise to book three of them back to back at 9, 10 & 11
am? Is it correct to show one candidate out while the next is sat in reception? Does this give the right
impression? And what if they know each other?
Research their background
Thoroughly read the candidate’s CV; not just a cursory glance as you are walking to meet them.
Find out more about them – at least look at their Linkedin profile.
Know a bit about the businesses they have worked for.
Prepare bespoke Qs around their background/experience.
Know your goals
Be clear in your objectives for the interview: This could be to uncover specifics regarding their
skills, management style, motivations or aspirations etc. How will you uncover this information?
Prepare to sell the opportunity
This may not be the only role the candidate is looking at.
Sell your opportunity. Promote the company, the role and the future career opportunities.
Practice – what’s your elevator pitch? Why should someone work for you?
Always make it specific to the candidate’s requirements.
Allocate time for their Qs.
Give the candidate an opportunity to ask Qs.
They will have many and you will answer some throughout the interview, but to make an informed
decision they need time to ask you Qs too.
Conduct of interview: (1)
One of the hardest skills for a young reporter to master is interviewing. It takes preparation and persistence
to conduct a good interview. Follow these steps and learn how to interview like a pro!
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STEP 1: Research, research, research. Then research some more. The only way to come up with good
questions is to know everything there is to know about your subject.
STEP 2: Contact the person you wish to interview. Ask when a good time would be to do the interview.
Be polite! Say "please" and "thank you." Try to set up the interview in person. If this isn't possible, then set
up a phone interview.
STEP 3: Read over your research and brainstorm a list of 15 questions. The more specific your
questions are, the better! And never ask questions that can be answered with a simple yes or no. Make your
Be sure to write all your questions down in a notebook, then practice asking them with a partner. Become
very familiar with your questions before you go into the interview.
STEP 4: Come prepared with:
A list of good questions
A recording device (always ask permission before recording an interview)
STEP 5: Be on time! Arrive at your interview with plenty of time to spare. If you’ve never been to the place
where your interview is taking place, go early and scout it out. There is nothing more unprofessional than a
reporter who is late.
You can also use the time you are waiting to make notes about the surroundings. You won’t remember
details later, so write them down.
STEP 6: Conduct your interview in an organized, timely manner. During the interview:
Be courteous to your subject.
Always take time to ask for an explanation about things you don't understand.
Don’t be afraid of uncomfortable silences and pauses.
Let the interview take its natural course.
Look the person in the eye when asking questions.
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Always listen carefully to the answers. Each answer could lead to more questions or include an
answer to a question you haven’t asked yet. Don't ask a question that has already been answered.
Your subject will know you weren't listening and be insulted.
Don't read through your questions one right after another like you can't wait to be finished. Conduct
your interview like a conversation. One question should lead naturally into another. If you are
LISTENING to the answers this will come naturally!
Also, take notes on what the person looked like, what the person was wearing, where he or she sat. If
the interview is in an office, make notes of what is on the walls and on the desk. The objects people
surround themselves with hold important clues to their personalities. Ask about any object that
interests you. You’ll find some good stories!
STEP 7: Even if you are recording an interview, take notes. Don't try to write every word said. It will
slow down the interview. Just take down the highlights.
After the interview, while the details are still fresh in your mind, write everything down you can remember
about the person you interviewed. Don’t forget to make note of the sounds in the background. Take note of
what was happening around you. Write it all down as soon as possible.
At home, expand your notes by following up on things you learned in your interview with more research!
STEP 8: Review your research and your interview notes. Circle or highlight quotations that you think
will be good for your article. Now you're ready to begin writing!
Conduct of interview: (2)
Before the Interview
Prepare for the interview. As any good surgeon, lawyer, or politician will tell you, it pays to be prepared.
Preparing for your interview will ensure that your questions are on-point, your demeanor is professional, and
your information is solid. Remember that, in a sense, you're being interviewed as much as you're
interviewing the candidate. Keep this in mind.
Review the job description. If you need to revise the duties, skills and responsibilities, do so now.
Make sure they're an accurate representation of what the candidate, if accepted, is expected to do.
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Gather any reasonable information the candidate might ask for, including, but not limited to,
information about the company and company goals, would-be team members, would-be supervisor,
pay scale, etc.
Decide what kind of interview you want to give. There are lots of different types of interview methods,
many of them quite different from the standard "Tell us where you see yourself in 5 years" interviews.
Decide which interview method you want to employ based on the job description and the qualifications of
Behavioral interview. Instead of asking you how you would behave in a given situation, behavioral
interviews ask you how you did behave in the past. Behavioral interviews use — you guessed it —
your past behavior as an indication of future success.
Audition interview. An audition interview requires the candidate to show evidence of his or her skills
by either solving problems or performing a skill in real time. An audition interview, for example,
will look much different for engineers than it will for middle-managers.
Stress interview. Stress interviews are designed to measure the candidates mental fortitude. They
typically involve hurling a bit of verbal abuse at the candidate, staring at them silently, and even
making them wait long times before being seen.
Tag team interview. Tag team interviews involve several of your colleagues sitting in on and
participating in the interview. This gives you more than one perspective off of which to judge the
performance of the candidate.
Understand what kind of candidate you're looking for. Before you develop questions you want to
ask, take some time to think about who your ideal candidate is. Is she no-nonsense, brutally-efficient,
and a results-first person? Or is she a people person who is method-oriented? Is she something in
between? Knowing what you're looking for and being clear with everyone involved in the job
selection process will make your task much, much easier.
Develop questions relating to job knowledge and experience. Your main objective is to ask question that
will allow you to see the personality, skill-set, motivation, history, and problem-solving ability of the
candidate. The type of interview questions you ask will largely depend on the type of interview you are
conduction (see above step).
Ask open-ended questions, leading with "how," "why," "tell me or what."
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Ask about previous experience. For example, you could ask, "While working as the comptroller at
[previous company], what were the steps you took when planning your annual budget?"
Learn about skills. Ask questions or pose statements such as, "Tell me how you would connect an
access database to a tour website."
Find out more about the person's successes. Ask, "What achievement are you most proud of?"
Schedule the interview. Generally, one hour is plenty of time to complete the interview without feeling
rushed. Do your best to stick to the schedule, especially if you have several candidates to interview
during the day.
Familiarize yourself with each applicant by scanning their documents just before the interview. Do
Reading their CV/resume, cover letter, and any tests or performance evaluations they may have filled
out in the initial application process.
Reaching out to any references supplied during the initial application process and asking about past
experience, personal demeanor, professional suitability, etc.
Doing a background check (optional but recommended for certain jobs).
During the Interview
Set the tone. Thank the candidate for coming to talk to you and begin to outline the format of the interview
so that they know what to expect. You can keep it vague — "I'm going to ask you a few questions about
your experience and we'll take it from there" — or you can go more in-depth.
This might also be the time to tell them a little something about yourself and about your role in the
company. Make it brief but informative before turning the focus over to the job candidate.
Start off with a description of what the job entails. Include responsibilities and key duties of the
position. Make sure you go over any additional requirements, like having the ability to sit or stand for
prolonged periods of time, physical strength, dexterity or agility necessary in performing specific tasks.
Some medical conditions may prevent the applicant from meeting these requirements.
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Ask your prepared questions. Remember the types of questions you can ask in an interview. They include:
General or fact-based questions, e.g. "What sort of technical experience do you have after 5 years of
working in IT?"
Situational or hypothetical questions, e.g. "How would you confront a situation in which a boss
consistently took credit for your innovations?"
Behavioral questions, e.g. "How did you handle a recent situation in which you were criticized?"
Take notes while interviewing. You won't remember everything you talked about during the interview,
and the notes will be helpful later when comparing applicants, especially when interviewing many
Periodically ask your gut how it feels about the candidate. Some of the interview will hinge on prior
screening and careful analysis, but a lot of the interview will hinge on whether you feel like the
candidate could perform successfully in the environment for which they are applying. This is mostly
about intuition, so don't be afraid to use it in order to evaluate the candidate.
Bring the interview to a close after your questions are answered or time runs out. Throw a lid on the
interview once you feel you have developed a good sense of the personality of the candidate, gotten good
information, and have adequately discussed the job.
Allow the applicant the opportunity to ask additional questions. While questions are not absolutely
essential to leaving a good impression, many hiring managers believe that candidates who ask
questions are more educated, eager to learn more, and more motivated about the job.
Let applicants know when you expect to complete the interviewing process and when they can
expect to hear from you.
After the Interview
Be honest with yourself about your interview performance when measuring the candidate's own
performance. Interviewing is an art. Asking the right questions in the right way, maintaining the right
demeanor, and being able to weed out fact from fiction are all important skills that you need to hone as
you continue to interview. Did you have them during the interview? If not, could the candidate benefit
from another opportunity to exhibit his or her skills in a different setting?
Develop a rating system with which to judge the candidates. This will help you do several things. For
one, it will help you differentiate candidates who performed well during the interview from candidates
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whom you merely likes. Second, it will keep you from hiring someone who is not qualified for the job but
who's still the best candidate from a particular round of hiring.
The rating system will obviously depend on the job position and whether the previous hiring
manager has developed a similar rating system or not. You might take the following as an example
of which factors to base the system on:
o Proficiency in a certain amount of computer languages
o Years managing other people or total number of people managed
o Number of marketing campaigns launched
Evaluate your applicants based on the criteria first, and against one another second. Why? Certain
candidates may be very strong compared to others but still not meet the criteria established by the needs of
the job. If you are desperate to hire a good candidate, measuring them against one another is acceptable. If,
however, you want to hire the right candidate, it's best to wait until your criteria are met by a candidate.
Upon completion of the interviewing process, two candidates may stand out who meet all the job
requirements. You might consider inviting both candidates back for a second interview and tell the
applicants you are considering them for the position along with one other applicant. Ask each
applicant "Why should I hire you?"
If you do this, you may decide to offer the job to the applicant who best answers the question, has the
best qualifications, and appears to be a good fit with your team.
Negotiate salary, benefits and a start date. You have two goals in negotiating a salary for your would-be
hire: you want to get good value out of the new hire (ensuring that your company remains profitable)
while also making the new hire feel that s/he is happy and being compensated justly for their time and
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Give the applicant you want to hire time to think about your offer. A week is usually the upper limit,
as most hiring managers want a decision within a couple days. If the candidate is especially promising,
you might want to offer him or her any perks, bonuses, or options you or your company can reasonably
afford during this waiting period