Notes managerial communication 3 business correspondence and report writing mba 1st sem by babasab patil (karrisatte)


Published on

1 Like
  • Be the first to comment

No Downloads
Total Views
On Slideshare
From Embeds
Number of Embeds
Embeds 0
No embeds

No notes for slide

Notes managerial communication 3 business correspondence and report writing mba 1st sem by babasab patil (karrisatte)

  1. 1. Business Correspondence and Report writing Page 1 Managerial Communication: Module: 3 Business Correspondence and Report writing: Business Correspondence: Standard parts of a letter: According to Microsoft Office Online, at least one third of all office work is letter writing. A business letter represents both you and your employer so whether the letter comes from you or your administrative staff, should look and sound professional. When the text is clear and simple, and appears balanced on the page, the reader more easily grasps the message. Heading Most companies use letterhead--stationery with the company’s logo, name, address and other contact and identifying information. If the company does not have letterhead, the company’s full name and address should be typed at the top of the page. Date Letters should always include a date. You enter dates two to six lines below the heading, depending on the length of the letter. Use the full month name spelled out, then the day, followed by a comma, and then the four-digit year, for example, June 6, 2010. Reference Include a reference line to identify a file or case number, invoice number or any other internal identifying information, if your company requires one. Some companies have specific reference codes that they place either in a reference line below the date, or at the very bottom of the letter. Addressee Your letter should include the name of the addresses with her title (Ms. J. Jones, Dr. Charlene Price), followed by her company name and full address, including the postal code. Subject Adding a subject line makes it easier for the reader to quickly understand the situation. Normally the subject sentence follows the word ―Subject:‖ or ―Re:‖ (regarding). Place the subject after the addressee’s address and before the greeting. Salutation The salutation is your greeting. Most salutations begin with ―Dear‖ followed by either the recipient’s first name, or title and last name. Endeavor to address all letters to an actual person. However, if you don’t know the person’s name, use Dear Madam/Sir, or the job title, such as Dear Accounting Manager.
  2. 2. Business Correspondence and Report writing Page 2 Body Paragraphs The opening paragraph should always state why you are writing. Then, in a simple and straightforward manner, explain the situation, the solution, the suggestion or whatever other message you need to get across to the recipient. Be as brief as possible since long complicated messages often distract readers. Start a new paragraph whenever you begin a new subject. Close Always use a complimentary close. It is a short, polite closing followed by a comma. When the letter is impersonal, use ―Yours truly.‖ If the letter is to someone above you in rank, use ―Respectfully yours.‖ If you have a personal connection to the addressee, use ―Sincerely‖ or ―Sincerely yours.‖ (Ref. 1, Ref. 2) Signature Four spaces below the close, type your full or business name. In the space in-between, you will hand write your signature in ink. Use black or dark blue ink for your signature. optional parts of a letter: Identifying Notations If you type a letter for someone else, add identifying initials. For example if John Doe types a letter for Jane Smith, the notation would be JS:jd. Then, if you are enclosing items in the envelope, add an enclosure notation (Enc:, Encl: or Enclosures) followed by the title of the enclosures. Add the notation cc: followed by the names of everyone receiving a copy. Postscript To add information not necessarily related to the letter, like a personal note, include a postscript (P.S.) at the bottom. Standard parts of a letter:
  3. 3. Business Correspondence and Report writing Page 3 Types of business letters: The term ―business letters‖ refers to any written communication that begins with a salutation, ends with a signature and whose contents are professional in nature. Historically, business letters were sent via postal mail or courier, although the Internet is rapidly changing the way businesses communicate. There are many standard types of business letters, and each of them has a specific focus. Sales Letters Typical sales letters start off with a very strong statement to capture the interest of the reader. Since the purpose is to get the reader to do something, these letters include strong calls to action, detail the benefit to the reader of taking the action and include information to help the reader to act, such as including a telephone number or website link.
  4. 4. Business Correspondence and Report writing Page 4 Order Letters Order letters are sent by consumers or businesses to a manufacturer, retailer or wholesaler to order goods or services. These letters must contain specific information such as model number, name of the product, the quantity desired and expected price. Payment is sometimes included with the letter. Complaint Letters The words and tone you choose to use in a letter complaining to a business may be the deciding factor on whether your complaint is satisfied. Be direct but tactful and always use a professional tone if you want the company to listen to you. Adjustment Letters An adjustment letter is normally sent in response to a claim or complaint. If the adjustment is in the customer’s favor, begin the letter with that news. If not, keep your tone factual and let the customer know that you understand the complaint. Inquiry Letters Inquiry letters ask a question or elicit information from the recipient. When composing this type of letter, keep it clear and succinct and list exactly what information you need. Be sure to include your contact information so that it is easy for the reader to respond. Follow-Up Letter Follow-up letters are usually sent after some type of initial communication. This could be a sales department thanking a customer for an order, a businessman reviewing the outcome of a meeting or a job seeker inquiring about the status of his application. In many cases, these letters are a combination thank-you note and sales letter. Letters of Recommendation Prospective employers often ask job applicants for letters of recommendation before they hire them. This type of letter is usually from a previous employer or professor, and it describes the sender’s relationship with and opinion of the job seeker. Acknowledgment Letters Acknowledgment letters act as simple receipts. Businesses send them to let others know that they have received a prior communication, but action may or may not have taken place.
  5. 5. Business Correspondence and Report writing Page 5 Cover Letter Cover letters usually accompany a package, report or other merchandise. They are used to describe what is enclosed, why it is being sent and what the recipient should do with it, if there is any action that needs to be taken. These types of letters are generally very short and succinct. Letters of Resignation When an employee plans to leave his job, a letter of resignation is usually sent to his immediate manager giving him notice and letting him know when the last day of employment will be. In many cases, the employee also will detail his reason for leaving the company. Memoranda; A short note written as a reminder A written record or communication, as in a business office. • Memorandum is the Latin word for ―something to be remembered‖ • Memos are brief in-house correspondence sent up and down the corporate ladder • They can be on paper or sent through e-mail Memos are written messages sent among people working in the same company. Memos can be written for a number of reasons :  Inform staff about decisions/actions/events.  Request information / action /events.  Remind staff of action needed/procedures/changes in policy.  Provide information on work related topics. Format of MEMORANDUM: MEMORANDUM (Heading Segment) TO: The person receiving the memorandum FROM: The person writing the memorandum DATE: Usually a formal manner of writing the date, for example 19 September, 2007
  6. 6. Business Correspondence and Report writing Page 6 SUBJECT: A short title descriptive of the topic in discussion in the memorandum Electronic mail: e-mail messages distributed by electronic means from one computer user to one or more recipients via a network Email is widely used as a form of business communication and overall it is a highly effective communication tool. Email is inexpensive, only requiring an Internet connection that is generally already present in the business. Although a printout of emails is possible, emails often stay as soft copies because archiving and retrieving email communications is easy to do. From the CEO to the janitorial staff and even temporary employees of the business can send and receive email communications. Function Although it cannot and should not replace all face-to-face communication and others forms of communication, internal email usage can cover many areas within the business. Internal emails can function as an effective communication for sharing basic information, such as new cafeteria prices, paper use guidelines or security precautions, for example. Sending simple messages to an entire workforce with just the click of a mouse is fast, easy, convenient and can save the company money. If saved, the email can function as proof of a message sent or received, and is easily accessible to remind the recipient of pertinent information. Many businesses use email as part of its marketing efforts to share information with prospects, customers, vendors. Format Business emails should be concise and to the point. Use plain text and common fonts with a simple signature line. Fancy graphics, fonts, and backgrounds can take up unnecessary storage space in the recipient’s inbox and may load slowly, or not at all. Stick to one topic in a business email and write only the things that are appropriate for anyone to read, as email forwarding makes it possible for originally unintended parties to receive the email. Proper grammar and spelling is very important in business emails because it reflects on you and your abilities. Attachments should be prepared in a format that any recipient can easily access/download Etiquette Whether sending an internal or external email, the subject line should accurately represent the content of the email. Use proper punctuation and capitalization, and use bold, italics and white space to make important
  7. 7. Business Correspondence and Report writing Page 7 information stand out from the rest of the content. Use a salutation to begin the email and only send to individuals that readily need or request to receive information from your business. Business emails should be brief, positive and professional. Considerations Using email in business communication is certainly less personal than face-to-face communication. It can hinder social interaction and lead to less relationship building in the workplace. Misunderstandings are commonplace in written communication simply because the recipient cannot read the writer’s tone and expression, and therefore is left to interpretation. Consider that even though email can be quite informal, it is also a permanent record and should be treated carefully. Effects Email has been revolutionary in the world of business communication because information is quickly passed along with instantaneous efficiency and effectiveness. Employees are able to access information from a computer, phone or PDA nearly anywhere, and so are the company’s current and potential customers. The use of email within a business can greatly increase productivity for employees and can be a quick way to increase sales as well. More companies are using email communications as part of the marketing mix to communicate and interact with its target markets. Short Message Service – SMS Abbreviated as SMS, the transmission of short text messages to and from a mobile phone, fax machine and/or IP address. Short Message Service (SMS) is a text messaging service component of phone, web, or mobile communication systems. It uses standardized communications protocols to allow fixed line ormobile phone devices to exchange short text messages.[1] SMS is the most widely used data application, with an estimated 3.5 billion active users, or about 80% of all mobile phone subscribers at the end of 2010.[2] The term "SMS" is used for all types of short text messaging and the user activity itself in many parts of the world. SMS is also employed in direct marketing, known as SMS marketing.[3] SMS as used on modern handsets originated from radio telegraphy in radio memo pagers using standardized phone protocols. These were defined in 1985 as part of the Global System for Mobile
  8. 8. Business Correspondence and Report writing Page 8 Communications (GSM) series of standards[4] as a means of sending messages of up to 160 characters[5][6] to and from GSM mobile handsets.[7] Though most SMS messages are mobile-to-mobile text messages, support for the service has expanded to include other mobile technologies, such as ANSI CDMA networks and Digital AMPS, as well as satellite and landline Making an effective presentation (PowerPoint presentations). TIP DETAILS Minimize the number of slides. To maintain a clear message and to keep your audience attentive and interested, keep the number of slides in your presentation to a minimum. Choose a font style that your audience can read from a distance. Choosing the right font style, such as Helvetica or Arial, helps to get your message across. Avoid narrow fonts, such as Arial Narrow, and avoid fonts that include fancy edges, such as Times. To learn more about how you can use pre-designed theme fonts in your presentation, see All about themes, Quick Styles, cell styles, and background styles. Choose a font size that your audience can read from a distance. Choosing the right font size helps to get your message across. NOTE The following measurements indicate the size of a font on your computer screen, not projected on a screen for your audience in full screen mode. To enable full screen mode, on the View tab, in the Presentation Views group, click Slide Show.  A one-inch letter is readable from 10 feet.  A two-inch letter is readable from 20 feet.  A three-inch letter is readable from 30 feet. To learn more about how you can use pre-designed theme fonts in your presentation, see All about themes, Quick Styles, cell styles, and background styles. Keep your text simple by using bullet points or Use bullets or short sentences, and try to keep each to one line; that is, without text wrapping.
  9. 9. Business Correspondence and Report writing Page 9 short sentences. You want your audience to listen to you present your information, rather than read the screen. Some projectors crop slides at the edges, so long sentences may be cropped. You can remove articles such as "a" and "the" to help reduce the word count on a line. Use art to help convey your message. Use graphics to help tell your story. Don't overwhelm your audience by adding too many graphics to a slide, however. Make labels for charts and graphs understandable. Use only enough text to make label elements in a chart or graph comprehensible. Make slide backgrounds subtle and keep them consistent. Choose an appealing, consistent template or theme that is not too eye- catching. You don't want the background or design to detract from your message. For more information about using themes, see Apply a theme to your presentation. Use high contrast between background color and text color. Themes automatically set the contrast between a light background with dark colored text or dark background with light colored text. To learn more about how you can use themes to automatically set a visually satisfying contrast level, see All about themes, Quick Styles, cell styles, and background styles. Check the spelling and grammar. To earn and maintain the respect of your audience, always check the spelling and grammar in your presentation. Covering letters: What is a cover letter? A cover letter accompanies a CV (and/or completed application form). It's an opportunity to highlight what's in your CV and to provide real examples to support your ability to do the job. Some recruiters place more emphasis on the cover letter than the CV so it pays to take care with it.
  10. 10. Business Correspondence and Report writing Page 10 What should I write in a cover letter? Unless you are asked to apply by letter of application only, a cover letter should be brief and drive home the key aspects of why you are a good candidate. It should summarise what's in your CV, by emphasising your key strengths in relation to the job. A cover letter should include a heading to make it clear which job you're applying for and, following the introductory paragraph, it can take the form of bullet points or short statements. It should also include your own name, address and contact details. For more information, see our example of a cover letter. How do I start and end a cover letter? Make it clear which job you're referring to by using a heading and an opening line such as, 'In response to your advertisement on the Prospects website for the role of XXXXXX, I write to enclose my CV'. If you're given a named person you should address the letter to that person and begin the letter, Dear Ms Jones, and end with Yours sincerely, Justin Smith. If you don't know the name of the person, but have a job title, such as the HR manager, you should address the letter to the HR manager, and include Dear Sir or Madam, and end with Yours faithfully, Justin Smith. A cover letter should always end positively and look ahead to the next stage, for example, 'I would be happy to provide further information at interview' or 'I look forward to hearing from you'. How do I write a cover letter for a job that's not advertised? This kind of letter is sometimes referred to as a 'speculative letter'. This means that you're writing to find out if there are likely to be any vacancies in the future. Your speculative letter should be welcoming and enthusiastic. It's more difficult to write a speculative letter because you're not responding to a specific vacancy but, with some research about the company, you can find out about previous job advertisements and angle your letter accordingly. If you've undertaken work experience at the company, you can draw on your knowledge of that Quotation letter: Dear Sir, Further to your recent enquiry i am able to quote for the work/service you have specified as follows:
  11. 11. Business Correspondence and Report writing Page 11 Goods/service - 100.00 Installation - 25.00 Delivery - 10.00 If you are interested in taking this further please contact us so that we can raise the necessary order processing documentation. This quotation remains valid for the next 30 days. Yours faithfully, AN Other Quotations Manager Tenders and letters for shortfall in material: A business tender is an offer, to provide certain goods or perform a certain job for a specific price and is usually written in response to bids on a project. When writing one, you need to be clear about the products or services your company provides. More importantly, you need to ensure you understand what exactly the project and the client require. Then, you need to determine if the project you hope to secure will be a money maker or not. Then you can now design your tender, demonstrating how your company can fulfil the requirements. Lastly conclude by emphasizing your company’s past successes with other clients who requested similar services. Place the sales pitch at the end. Sample Form of Tender Form of Tender To : [Institution] [address] [Date] Dear [insert Sir/Madam or name]
  12. 12. Business Correspondence and Report writing Page 12 Tender Ref: [insert internal reference number] Tender for [insert short description of requirement and, if appropriate, relevant time period] 1. I/We have read the information provided in your Invitation to Tender and subject to and upon the terms and conditions contained in [Document reference] - Contract Documents, I/We offer to supply the [requirement] described in the contract documents in such manner as may be required. 2. Terms and Conditions. I/We agree that this tender and any contract which may result, shall be based upon the documents listed below, and that the Buyer is the [give the legal entity of your institution (eg the University Senate/Court of the institution)]. 2.1 The contract documents as shown in the Invitation to Tender. 2.2 The prices to be inserted in the Contract shall be those shown in [document name] of our tender; or, if the Institution selects an alternative proposal from [document name], then the prices shown in [document name] pertaining to that proposal. 3. In [document name] - Alternative Proposals, I/We include alternative proposals, together with costings, which we feel might provide better value for money for the Institution than the required proposal. I/We do not wish to submit alternative proposals in Appendix C - Alternative Proposals * * Delete as appropriate 4. The prices quoted in this Tender are valid until [state date given in section 2.3 of Conditions of tender submission] and I/We confirm that the terms of the Tender will remain binding upon me/us and may be accepted by you at any time before that date. 5. I/We note that the contract shall be valid upon acceptance and signature by both parties of the Contract Documents. 6. Law. I/We agree that the construction, validity, performance and execution of any contract that may result from this tender shall be governed by and interpreted in accordance with English [Welsh/Scots /Northern Ireland] Law and shall be subject to the exclusive jurisdiction of the Courts of England and Wales [Scotland /Northern Ireland].* * Delete as appropriate
  13. 13. Business Correspondence and Report writing Page 13 7. I/We agree to bear all cost incurred by me/us in connection with the preparation and submission of this Tender and to bear any further costs incurred by me/us prior to the award of any contract. 8. I/We agree that any other terms or conditions of contract or any general reservation which may be printed on any correspondence emanating from me/us in connection with this tender or with any contract resulting from this tender, shall not be applicable to this tender or to the contract. Dated this ___________________ day of _________________________ Signed _____________________________________ in the capacity of ________________________________________________________________ duly authorised to sign Tenders for and on behalf of _____________________________________________________________ IN BLOCK CAPITALS Registered Address : letters for shortfall in material: This is a sample Letter Complaining of Short Supply of Goods. National Limited 191 / N - Patricia Avenue Liverpool – 600 020 Phone : 0011 - XXXXXXXX Fax : 0011 - XXXXXXXX Your ref : VGT / 0091 Our Ref : SAL / 6 / 1425
  14. 14. Business Correspondence and Report writing Page 14 6 March - 19XX To : Mr. Raymond Lim, Sales Manager, Relish Food Industries Sdn Bhd, 889 Jalan Lazat, 68000 Ampang. Dear Mr. Lim, RE : SHORT SUPPLY OF GOODS We received your supply of assorted goods yesterday. As usual, we checked the goods against the invoice (No. 7389) and we found that one item does not tally with the invoice. Item 3 says that you have supplied 20 dozen KOMO SNACK PACKETS, but my store assistant found only 10 dozen. Could you send us the balance of 10 dozen or give us a C/N? Thank you. Chin Ah Seng Proprietor
  15. 15. Business Correspondence and Report writing Page 15 Letter to Breakages: If you receive a parcel that contains damaged goods, the seller is responsible for replacing them and for covering the cost of return postage. [Your address] [Company/ supplier address] Dear [Reference: contract number] On [date] I [bought/placed an order for] a [item], and this was delivered to me on [date]. I have discovered that the [item] has the following damage: [add details]. The Sale of Goods Act 1979 makes it an implied term of the contract that goods I receive must be of satisfactory quality and for the reasons stated above they are not. As you are in breach of contract I am entitled to [a refund / have the item repaired/ have the item replaced] and I would request that you confirm by [dd/mm/yy] [set a reasonable deadline appropriate to the specific situation] that you will do this.
  16. 16. Business Correspondence and Report writing Page 16 I also require you to confirm whether you will arrange for the [item] to be collected or that you wish me to return this and that you will reimburse me for the cost of returning the [item] and arranging adequate insurance. I look forward to hearing from you. Yours sincerely late order dispatching: How to Write Complaint Letters Regarding Delay in Delivery of Goods? Dear Sirs, Reference to our order no. ____________ of ____________ (Date) for ____________ meter. of ____________ (Item Name) which has not been received by us till date. We had very much pressed for an urgent delivery as an export order is pending with us but it seems our many requests have had no influence on your tardy working. We shall be glad to know when we may expect delivery. This delay on your part is causing us considerable embarrassment. Please intimate us on the phone the status of your delivery schedule as soon as you receive this letter. We may be forced to cancel the order and buy the required cloth from the local market if you fail to reply and cause any more delay. It is now up to you to salvage our belied expectations. Yours faithfully, (Your Name) Reply to above Dear Sirs, We very much regret the delay and want to assure you that we have done our utmost to expedite the delivery in spite of the recent strike in our factory. We are sorry to have kept you waiting. We are aware of your urgent need and that’s why we have set aside many other orders. This season the demand for our linen has been unprecedentedly high. We trust this will convince you of our sincerity towards our customers. This is for the first time that we have been unable to execute your orders within the stipulated period.
  17. 17. Business Correspondence and Report writing Page 17 We have already dispatched the goods today. In the meanwhile we want to assure you once again of our best cooperation, always. Yours faithfully, (Your Name) What is a dunning letter? An informal term for letter of collection A dunning letter can also be called a letter of collection. It is a notice from creditors demanding payment of debt by a debtor. A dunning letter is a notification sent to a customer, stating that the customer is overdue in paying an account receivable to the sender. Dunning letters typically follow a progression from polite reminders to more strident demands for payment, if the customer continues to be non-responsive in paying. The first few letters that are sent to a customer should be polite, on the theory that the customer has simply overlooked payment, and the company wants to retain its goodwill for future business. However, as more time passes, the company begins to change its assumption of doing further business with the customer, and so tends to downplay the amount of customer goodwill that it wants to retain in favor of being paid now. Irrespective of the tone of the letter, it always states the amount due, the date of the unpaid invoice, the number of the invoice, and any late payment fines or interest penalties. At some point following the normal payment date, the effectiveness of issuing dunning letters will decline, so that a company discontinues their use and relies upon personal contacts, attorneys, and collection agencies instead. A dunning letter can take a variety of physical forms. It was originally a letter that might be sent by regular mail, registered mail, or overnight delivery in order to convey the increasing urgency of the request, as well as to create a record of receipt (in the case of registered mail or overnight delivery). However, a dunning letter can also be sent as a fax, e-mail, or even a text message. These electronic delivery methods can go astray (especially a fax), and may not be as effective as the more traditional paper-based method.
  18. 18. Business Correspondence and Report writing Page 18 Dunning letters are frequently generated by a computer, with no human input at all. The system is configured to use a particular text if payment has not been made within a certain number of days, and to then use a different text for letters generated after a longer time period has passed without payment. The credit department staff may periodically change the timing or content of these automatically-generated letters, if they feel that some variation will improve the rate of collection. This can be accomplished with A- B testing, where two versions of a dunning letter are issued, and the effectiveness of each one monitored; if one version results in more customer payments, that version becomes the new default letter format to be used. There are rules governing the level of threat that can be included in a dunning letter, depending upon the government jurisdiction in which the customer resides, so you need to avoid excessively strident dunning letters. A dunning letter is not the same as a month-end statement. A statement is sent to all customers having unpaid invoices at the end of the month. The statement includes all invoices that have not yet been paid, even if they are not yet due for payment. The statement is not considered to be harassment, but rather a simple statement of account as of a point in time. However, it is still considered a collection tool, since it may result in customer inquiries about invoices that they do not have in their records, and which they therefore would not have paid.
  19. 19. Business Correspondence and Report writing Page 19 Report Writing: Qualities of well-written reports: Virtually all people will have to write a report at some point in their education or career, whether it's a research report, a sales report, a yearly progress report or another kind. Regardless of the type of report you’re writing, there are several qualities common to all reports that are essential to its success. Clear Purpose The purpose of your report must be clear from the opening paragraph. Stating the report's goal clearly and succinctly lets your reader know why you have written the report and what kind of information they can expect to find within it. It also gives the writer a road map to follow when researching and creating the report, keeping the information on track and relevant to the subject. Logical Flow It is crucial that your report flows logically through its subject matter. Good organization allows the reader to move through the information in a way that feels natural and progressive. You do not want your readers to feel as if they are ―jumping around‖ from topic to topic. Depending on the type of report you’re writing, some good organizational options include chronological order, cause and effect, comparison and general to specific ordering. Thorough Research A good report covers all relevant areas of its topic using accurate information from trustworthy sources. Include as much pertinent information as possible within the guidelines of your assignment and the confines of your thesis. Always double-check facts before including them in your report -- look for the same piece of information in more than one reliable source. Use caution when including Internet sources, as content can be
  20. 20. Business Correspondence and Report writing Page 20 added and modified with little accountability. Look for hallmarks of authorial credibility such as association with professional organizations, academic degrees or demonstrated expertise in the subject. Clear Attribution Most reports, whether in academia or the corporate world, use information that did not originate with the report writer. This includes elements like quotes, statistics and definitions as well as broader information on the topic. It is imperative that all non-original information be clearly attributed to its source to avoid accusations of plagiarism and to lend credibility to the information. There are several ways to cite sources in a report, including in-text citation, footnotes and endnotes. Make sure to consult any formatting guidelines for the report, as some citation styles require specific information and formatting 1. It should be factual: Every report should be based on facts, verified information and valid proofs. 2. Clear and Easily understandable: Explained below 3. Free from errors and duplication 4. Should facilitate the decision makers in making the right decision: 5. Result focused and result oriented 6. Well organized and structured 7. Ethical reporting style Reader-Friendly Readers are various stakeholders who receive reports generated by M&E. If reports are reader-friendly, they are likely to be read, remembered and acted upon. Following decisions need to be made by CSOs to make their reports reader-friendly:  What do they need to know?  When do they need to know?  How do they like to know? Easy, Simple Language
  21. 21. Business Correspondence and Report writing Page 21 M&E reports are meant to inform not impress. Using easy, simple language, be it Urdu or English makes the report friendly on reader. To do this, here are some useful tips:  Write only what is necessary  Avoid repetition and redundancy  Give interesting and relevant information  Avoid preaching or lecturing  Compose short and correct sentences Purposeful Presentation Each report has some objective(s) to meet. The ―objective‖ comes from analyzing the needs of the reader. A CSO is working for a project that has several donors, and is channeled through an agency that needs to be informed about some specific things going on in the field. CSOs reports are the main pathways or channels of information to the people who decide to fund this and other such projects. Similarly, field reports are the amin vehicles for the management of the CSOs to make decision regarding the project itself. A good report presents facts and arguments in a manner that supports the purpose of the report. Organized and Well-Structured Each CSO comes up with a format of internal reporting to suit its requirements. Reporting to donors is done on their prescribed formats. The M&E system should be able to generate information that can be organized using different formats. In the annex, this manual provides some useful formats that can be customized by a CSO. Result-Focused In general, all readers are interested in the RESULTS. Therefore, one over-riding principle that CSOs should aim for in all report writing is to report on the results of their activities. This requires some analysis on their part that goes beyond a mere description of their activities. Result-focused means that description of activities is liked with the project objectives. This aspect must be addressed especially in the project progress reports. According to Phil Bartle, ―A good progress report is not merely a descriptive activity report, but must analyze the results of those reported activities. The analysis should answer the question, "How far have the project objectives been reached?"
  22. 22. Business Correspondence and Report writing Page 22 Timely Prepared and Dispatched M&E generate ―Information Products‖, a customized set of information according to needs to a defined group of users. M&E’s information products are time-bound for both internal and external stakeholders. Reports, in suitable formats, need to be timely produced and made available to the readers. It is useful to develop an Information Product Matrix (IPM) like the one described below: Straightforward A good report is straight forward, honest description. It contains no lies, no deception, no fluff. It is neat, readable and to-the-point. It is well spaced, has titles and subtitles and is free of language errors Types of reports: Report: A document that presents information in an organized format for a specific audience and purpose. Types of reports include memos, minutes, lab reports, book reports, progress reports, justification reports, compliance reports, annual reports, and policies and procedures. There are broadly two types of reports Short Report and Long Report. Short report contents  Title page  Introduction  Discussion  Recommendations  References Short formal reports have more in common with long reports than they do with informal reports. A short formal report, in fact, becomes a long report at about ten pages. In addition to this difference in length, short formal reports differ from long reports in that they contain fewer of the formal report parts.
  23. 23. Business Correspondence and Report writing Page 23 Formal short reports are almost always the result of special assignments covering specific problems. They are also more important than informal reports, which tend to be routine parts of a job. They are read by more people with greater care over a longer time. Because they play such an important role in the decision-making process, short formal reports have a physical appearance that corresponds with the serious nature of the report itself. Formal short reports include the following parts: 1. A title page, containing the title of the report, the name and professional title of the person for whom it was prepared, the name and professional title of the person who prepared the report, and the date the report was completed. 2. A letter of transmittal, including the date and reasons the report was assigned, and a brief summary of the important findings and recommendations. 3. Necessary references, tables, and charts inserted within the text itself. Even though the appearance of the report is formal, the language you use should remain natural and conversational. Use active voice and a personal style, for example: NOT: It was determined that . . .BUT: I determined . . . BUT: I determined… NOT: In undertaking this project, the writer . . .BUT: In beginning this project, I . . . BUT: In beginning this project, I … Long Reports can be specific topic related reports like Engineering report, Science report, Business report, Research report, Business reports are used to communicate past work while proposals are used to pitch ideas or future plans. No matter the subject, the content of business reports should be complete, properly documented, objective, written clearly and error-free. Ensuring that the document matches the assigned requirements and careful proofreading can save a report writer time, money and frustration. Annual Reports Annual reports are one of the better known types of business communications. Public companies are required by the Securities and Exchange Commission to draft and distribute an annual report with financial
  24. 24. Business Correspondence and Report writing Page 24 information to stakeholders. Privately held companies or associations may also issue an annual report to employees, stakeholder groups or volunteer boards of directors. In addition to financial information, these reports include an overview of the past year, including new products released, milestones achieved or communication campaigns launched. Project Reports A project report updates management, team members or a client on the status of an assignment or undertaking. Reports may be assigned at regular intervals or conducted by request. Effect report writing requires the author to strike an appropriate balance of "need to know" information with supporting detail. For example, a report on the development of a new website intended for the CEO should be organized with the main points first combined with any calls or requests for action. Including every single detail covering all twists and turns of the project will frustrate the reader and may cause him to question the thinking behind the project. Research Reports Company leadership may ask for a research report from a department or outside firm before embarking on a new venture or to evaluate the effectiveness of programs or products. A research report includes an abstract that summarizes the problem researched and its solutions, a summary of the method used during the research, the results of the research and a conclusion or discussion section that outlines recommendations. The size of the report will depend on the complexity of the research project. Statutory or Required Reports Statutory reports detail a company's compliance with federal, state or local laws. Although filed with a governing agency, some statutory reports may be available to the public. Types of reports required will depend on the size and type of company and its location. Types of statutory reports include how a company is meeting mandated accounting, human resource, health or environmental laws. Long reports are not as common in business today as they on were. Most companies prefer that information be condensed into as few words as possible. But every now and then a company will encounter a problem sufficiently complex to require a lengthy report. Long reports are always presented in a formal way, and they are almost always analytical, containing conclusions and recommendations.
  25. 25. Business Correspondence and Report writing Page 25 Because long reports deal with complex data and contain more information than short reports, they include additional parts to help the reader deal with the large amount of information. Analytical memorandum reports: The word ―analysis‖ is actually very simple in meaning. It means to break something into its component parts, to see how it is put together. Still, for many students, it is a mystery word, a process that is something like an old-fashioned hamburger grinder. You put the meat in one end, and it comes out all chopped up on the other end. What happens in between the ends can sometimes seem mysterious, especially if a student is trying to get a handle on just what it is. Analytical reports call on you to answer questions, to ask why something happens, which product is the best, or is an idea good. Analytical reports call for research, interpretation and recommendation. And when you work within particular professional contexts, analysis often means very specific things involving your particular skill set and expertise. If you are writing a professional analysis from within your profession, you will very likely be called upon to apply a particular methodology to conduct your analysis. That, for you, is your meat grinder. A civil engineer is called on to analyze a situation to properly ventilate a room containing chemical fumes. Federal standards require the room air to change completely X number of times in an hour for the workers who must work in the room. The civil engineer uses certain professional skills to analyze the room dimensions, fan capacity, possible sites for fan placement, etc. Those are the parts that the problem is broken down into according to the expertise of that field. More than any other type of technical writing, analytical reports call on you to use critical thinking skills. They require you to analyze a problem, to analyze the work that has been done before on that problem, and to recommend a solution. Analytical reports also call for self-criticism and objectivity on your part to come to the best possible solution. They also require a frame of reference, if not a full-blown professional research methodology based in a discipline. It is difficult to conduct an analysis without expertise in something. On the other hand, many people have expertise they didn’t know they had. A group of first year students in a laptop computer pilot program were called on to analyze and write a report evaluating the program. They argued that they were only first year students and knew nothing about the program. But they were indeed experts. They had used
  26. 26. Business Correspondence and Report writing Page 26 their laptops and participated in the program for an entire year. They were the people most suited to conduct the analysis of the program. Analytical Reports in Memo Form  Feasibility Reports o Used when decision makers need to assess whether an idea or plan or course of action is realistic and practical  Is this course of action likely to succeed?  What are the assessment criteria (e.g. cost, safety, productivity)?  Do the benefits outweigh the drawbacks or risks?  What are the pros and cons?  What alternatives do we have?  Can we get the funding?  Should we do anything at all? Should we wait?  Recommendation Reports o Interpret data, draw conclusion, and recommend a convincing and realistic course of action  Justification Reports o Recognizes a problem and comes up with a solution  Answers the question: "Why should we?" • Informational Reports in Memo Form  Progress Reports o Used to track activities, evaluate an project o Often performed in a series  How much has been accomplished?  Is the project on schedule?  If not, what went wrong?
  27. 27. Business Correspondence and Report writing Page 27  How was the problem corrected?  How long will it take to get back on schedule?  What else needs to be done?  What is the next step?  Any unexpected developments?  When do you anticipate completion of the next phase? Periodic Activity Reports  Similar to progress reports in that they summarize activities over time, but PARs summarize general activities over a given period of time • Informational Versus Analytical Reports The reports that offer data,facts, feedback and other types of information without analysis or recommendationsExplanation,Informational Reports provide the information about that employees,managers and others that needs in order to make decisions and take action. Informational reports provide information, while analytical reports go a step beyond by interpreting the information Informational memorandum reports search out and make known to the reader data and evidence. Those reports clarify; they try to omit a recommendation. An analytical memorandum report, now to be discussed, seeks to analyze a situation or problem- it may end with or without a specific recommendation. Our following detailed discussion suggests a step-by-step analysis of a personnel situation, ending with a conclusion without a recommendation II. Informational Memorandum Reports A. Conference Reports B. Progress Reports C. Periodic Reports
  28. 28. Business Correspondence and Report writing Page 28 Documents in Hard-Copy Versus Digital Format  Even as more and more types of communications go "paperless," hard-copy text is unlikely to disappear soon • Formal Versus Informal Reports  While short reports require no extended planning and contain little background information, they do concisely provide the information and analysis that readers need. Short reports most often take the form of a memorandum. • Purpose of Memo Reports  Report ideas and facts to decision makers  A major form of internal communication  Leave a paper (or electronic) trail • Elements of a Usable Memo  Easy to scan, file, retrieve  Header identifies sender, recipient, subject, and date • Interpersonal Considerations in Writing a Memo  What are we doing right, and how can we do it better?  What are we doing wrong, and how can we improve  Who’s doing what, and when, and where? • Survey Reports Used to examine conditions that affect an organization Meeting Minutes  Report what happened during a meeting  Copies are circulated to all members and interested parties o What group held the meeting? When, where, and why? o Who chaired the meeting? Who else was present?
  29. 29. Business Correspondence and Report writing Page 29 o Where the minutes of the last meeting approved (or disproved)? o Who said what? o Was anything resolved? o Who made which motions and what was the vote? • Electronic Mail  Email benefits o Lack of real-time constraints o Efficient filing, retrieval, and forwarding o Attachments o Can be democratic o Can foster creative thinking o Excellent tool for collaboration  Email copyright issues o Any email message you receive is copyrighted by the person who generated it  Email privacy issues o Email is public—anything you send to anyone can potentially be read by anyone o There are no privacy laws regarding email o Everyone on a group list may receive a message automatically whether you intended that or not o Even when deleted from the system, email may still exist in backup files o Anyone with access to your network password can read your documents o Forwarding a message without the original sender’s concept violates her or his privacy • Instant Messaging  allows text-based communication in real time  not useful for any type of communication that requires planning • Corporate Blogs and Wikis  Internal blogs o anyone in the network can either post a message or comment on other messages
  30. 30. Business Correspondence and Report writing Page 30 o especially useful for rapid sharing of information o enhances workflow and moral  Wiki o type of blog in which users can not only comment on earlier posting, but can edit them as well o excellent tool for collaboration  External blogs o facilitate customer feedback, and enhance marketing and public relations  RSS Feeds o Rich Site Summary o a retrieval program that monitors selected sites, identifies the information most relevant to the individual subscriber, and delivers (usually via email) a list of pertinent links