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Organizational Behavior 2 INTRODUCTION <ul><li>Motivation is the result of the interaction of the individual and the situa...
Definition <ul><li>The processes that account for an individual’s intensity, direction, and persistence of effort toward a...
Organizational Behavior 4 What Is Motivation? <ul><li>The individual internal process that energizes, directs, and sustain...
Organizational Behavior 5 Work Motivation <ul><li>Theories of Work Motivation </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Internal (Content) The...
Organizational Behavior 6 Theories of Motivation <ul><li>Content Theories </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Identify internal factors ...
Early Theories of Motivation <ul><li>These early theories may not be valid, but they do form the basis for contemporary th...
Maslow’s Hierarchy of Needs <ul><li>A sequence of human needs (personal requirements) in the order of their importance </l...
Organizational Behavior 9 Maslow’s Hierarchy of Needs
Organizational Behavior 10 Characteristics of a Self-Actualized Person  <ul><li>efficient and accurate in perceiving reali...
Alderfer’s ERG Theory <ul><li>Three groups of core needs: </li></ul><ul><li>Existence  (Maslow: physiological and safety) ...
McGregor’s Theory X and Theory Y <ul><li>Two distinct views of human beings: Theory X (basically negative) and Theory Y (p...
Organizational Behavior 13 Herzberg’s 2 Factor Theory <ul><li>Herzberg’s Motivation-Hygiene Theory </li></ul><ul><ul><li>S...
Organizational Behavior 14 Herzberg’s Two-Factor Theory <ul><li>Effects of Maintenance and Motivational Factors </li></ul>
Organizational Behavior 15 Herzberg’s Motivation-Hygiene Theory
Organizational Behavior 16 McClelland’s Learned Needs <ul><li>Need for Achievement </li></ul><ul><ul><li>a need to accompl...
Performance Predictions for High nAch <ul><li>People with a high need for achievement are likely to: </li></ul><ul><li>Pre...
CONTEMPORARY THEORIES OF MOTIVATION Organizational Behavior 18
Contemporary Theories of Motivation <ul><li>Goal-Setting Theory </li></ul><ul><li>Self-Efficacy Theory </li></ul><ul><li>A...
Locke’s Goal-Setting Theory <ul><li>Basic Premise:  </li></ul><ul><li>That  specific  and  difficult  goals, with  self-ge...
Organizational Behavior 21 Goal Setting Theory  <ul><li>Function of Goals </li></ul><ul><ul><li>basis of motivation </li><...
Organizational Behavior 22 Guidelines for SMART Goals S pecific M easurable A ttainable R esults oriented T ime bound Give...
Organizational Behavior 23 Locke’s Model of Goal Setting Encouraging the development of goal- attainment strategies or act...
Bandura’s Self-Efficacy Theory <ul><li>An individual’s belief that he or she is capable of performing a task.   </li></ul>...
Increasing Self-Efficacy <ul><li>Enactive mastery </li></ul><ul><li>Most important source of efficacy </li></ul><ul><li>Ga...
Adams’ Equity Theory <ul><li>Employees compare their ratios of outcomes-to-inputs of relevant others. </li></ul><ul><li>Wh...
Organizational Behavior 27 Key Factors in Equity Assessment
Equity Theory’s “Relevant Others” <ul><li>Can be four different situations: </li></ul><ul><li>Self-Inside </li></ul><ul><l...
Reactions to Inequity <ul><li>Employee behaviors to create equity: </li></ul><ul><li>Change inputs (slack off) </li></ul><...
Expectancy Theory – Victor Vroom <ul><li>Motivation depends on how much we want something and on how likely we think we ar...
Organizational Behavior 31 Expectancy Theory
Organizational Behavior 32 The Expectancy Theory of Motivation
Organizational Behavior 33 Expectancy Theory (Vroom, 1964) <ul><li>Five Components </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Job outcomes (e.g...
Guidelines for the Use of Expectancy Theory <ul><li>Practical use of the theory by managers: </li></ul><ul><li>Determine t...
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Motivation ppt @ bec doms bagalkot

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Transcript of "Motivation ppt @ bec doms bagalkot "

  1. 1. 1
  2. 2. Organizational Behavior 2 INTRODUCTION <ul><li>Motivation is the result of the interaction of the individual and the situation. </li></ul><ul><li>Individuals differ in their basic motivational drive. </li></ul><ul><li>The level of motivation varies both between individuals and within individuals at different times. </li></ul><ul><li>“ Motivation is a process that starts with a physiological or psychological deficiency or need that activates a behaviour or a drive that is aimed at a goal or incentive. ” </li></ul>
  3. 3. Definition <ul><li>The processes that account for an individual’s intensity, direction, and persistence of effort toward attaining a goal – specifically, an organizational goal. </li></ul><ul><li>Three key elements: </li></ul><ul><li>Intensity – how hard a person tries </li></ul><ul><li>Direction – effort that is channeled toward, and consistent with, organizational goals </li></ul><ul><li>Persistence – how long a person can maintain effort </li></ul>3
  4. 4. Organizational Behavior 4 What Is Motivation? <ul><li>The individual internal process that energizes, directs, and sustains behavior; the personal “force” that causes us to behave in a particular way </li></ul><ul><li>Morale </li></ul><ul><ul><li>An employee’s feelings about his or her job and superiors and about the firm itself </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>High morale results from the satisfaction of needs or as a result of the job and leads to dedication and loyalty </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Low morale leads to shoddy work, absenteeism, and high turnover rates </li></ul></ul>
  5. 5. Organizational Behavior 5 Work Motivation <ul><li>Theories of Work Motivation </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Internal (Content) Theories </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Identify factors within an individual that energize, direct, sustain, and stop behavior. </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>External (Process) Theories </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Describe how personal and situational (environmental) factors interact and influence each other to produce certain kinds of behavior </li></ul></ul></ul>
  6. 6. Organizational Behavior 6 Theories of Motivation <ul><li>Content Theories </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Identify internal factors influencing motivation </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Maslow’s Need Hierarchy </li></ul><ul><li>Alderfer’s ERG </li></ul><ul><li>McClelland’s Need </li></ul><ul><li>Herzberg’s Motivator-Hygiene </li></ul><ul><li>Process Theories </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Identify the process by which internal factors and cognitions influence motivation </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Adam’s Equity </li></ul><ul><li>Vroom’s Expectancy </li></ul><ul><li>Goal Setting Theory </li></ul>
  7. 7. Early Theories of Motivation <ul><li>These early theories may not be valid, but they do form the basis for contemporary theories and are still used by practicing managers. </li></ul><ul><li>Maslow’s Hierarchy of Needs Theory </li></ul><ul><li>Alderfer’s ERG (Existence, Relatedness, and Growth) </li></ul><ul><li>McGregor’s Theory X and Theory Y </li></ul><ul><li>Herzberg’s Two-Factor Theory </li></ul><ul><li>McClelland’s Theory of Needs </li></ul>Organizational Behavior 7
  8. 8. Maslow’s Hierarchy of Needs <ul><li>A sequence of human needs (personal requirements) in the order of their importance </li></ul><ul><li>Physiological needs—survival </li></ul><ul><li>Safety needs—physical and emotional safety </li></ul><ul><li>Social needs—love and affection and a sense of belonging </li></ul><ul><li>Esteem needs—respect, recognition, and a sense of our own accomplishment and worth </li></ul><ul><li>Self-actualization needs—to grow and develop and become all that we are capable of being </li></ul>Organizational Behavior 8
  9. 9. Organizational Behavior 9 Maslow’s Hierarchy of Needs
  10. 10. Organizational Behavior 10 Characteristics of a Self-Actualized Person <ul><li>efficient and accurate in perceiving reality </li></ul><ul><li>are accepting of themselves, of other people and of nature </li></ul><ul><li>are spontaneous in thought and emotion, rather than artificial </li></ul><ul><li>are problem-centered - are concerned with the eternal philosophical questions of humankind </li></ul><ul><li>are independent and autonomous </li></ul><ul><li>have a continued “freshness of appreciation” of ordinary events </li></ul><ul><li>often experience “oceanic feelings” that is a sense of oneness with nature </li></ul><ul><li>identify with all of humanity and are democratic and respectful of others </li></ul><ul><li>form very deep ties but only with a few people </li></ul><ul><li>appreciate for its own sake the process of doing things </li></ul><ul><li>have a philosophical, thoughtful, non-hostile sense of humor </li></ul><ul><li>have a childlike and fresh creativity and inventiveness </li></ul><ul><li>maintain an inner detachment from the culture in which they live </li></ul><ul><li>may appear temperamental or ruthless as they are strong and independent people guided by their own inner visions </li></ul>
  11. 11. Alderfer’s ERG Theory <ul><li>Three groups of core needs: </li></ul><ul><li>Existence (Maslow: physiological and safety) </li></ul><ul><li>Relatedness (Maslow: social and status) </li></ul><ul><li>Growth (Maslow: esteem and self-actualization) </li></ul><ul><li>Removed the hierarchical assumption </li></ul><ul><li>Can be motivated by all three at once </li></ul><ul><li>Popular, but not accurate, theory </li></ul>Organizational Behavior 11
  12. 12. McGregor’s Theory X and Theory Y <ul><li>Two distinct views of human beings: Theory X (basically negative) and Theory Y (positive). </li></ul><ul><li>Managers used a set of assumptions based on their view </li></ul><ul><li>The assumptions molded their behavior toward employees </li></ul><ul><li>No empirical evidence to support this theory. </li></ul>Organizational Behavior 12
  13. 13. Organizational Behavior 13 Herzberg’s 2 Factor Theory <ul><li>Herzberg’s Motivation-Hygiene Theory </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Satisfaction and dissatisfaction are separate and distinct dimensions </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Motivation factors </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Job factors that increase motivation but whose absence does not necessarily result in dissatisfaction </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Hygiene factors </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Job factors that reduce dissatisfaction when present to an acceptable degree but that do not necessarily result in higher levels of motivation. </li></ul></ul></ul>
  14. 14. Organizational Behavior 14 Herzberg’s Two-Factor Theory <ul><li>Effects of Maintenance and Motivational Factors </li></ul>
  15. 15. Organizational Behavior 15 Herzberg’s Motivation-Hygiene Theory
  16. 16. Organizational Behavior 16 McClelland’s Learned Needs <ul><li>Need for Achievement </li></ul><ul><ul><li>a need to accomplish goals, excel, and strive continually to do things better. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Need for Affiliation </li></ul><ul><ul><li>desire for friendly and close interpersonal relationships </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Need for Power </li></ul><ul><ul><li>the need to influence and lead others and be in control of one’s environment </li></ul></ul>
  17. 17. Performance Predictions for High nAch <ul><li>People with a high need for achievement are likely to: </li></ul><ul><li>Prefer to undertake activities with a 50/50 chance of success, avoiding very low- or high-risk situations </li></ul><ul><li>Be motivated in jobs that offer high degree of personal responsibility, feedback, and moderate risk </li></ul><ul><li>Not necessarily make good managers – too personal a focus. Most good general managers do NOT have a high nAch </li></ul><ul><li>Need high level of nPow and low nAff for managerial success </li></ul>Organizational Behavior 17
  18. 18. CONTEMPORARY THEORIES OF MOTIVATION Organizational Behavior 18
  19. 19. Contemporary Theories of Motivation <ul><li>Goal-Setting Theory </li></ul><ul><li>Self-Efficacy Theory </li></ul><ul><li>Also known as Social Cognitive Theory or Social Learning Theory </li></ul><ul><li>Equity Theory </li></ul><ul><li>Expectancy Theory </li></ul>Organizational Behavior 19
  20. 20. Locke’s Goal-Setting Theory <ul><li>Basic Premise: </li></ul><ul><li>That specific and difficult goals, with self-generated feedback , lead to higher performance </li></ul><ul><li>Difficult Goals: </li></ul><ul><li>Focus and direct attention </li></ul><ul><li>Energize the person to work harder </li></ul><ul><li>Difficulty increases persistence </li></ul><ul><li>Force people to be more effective and efficient </li></ul><ul><li>Relationship between goals and performance depends on: </li></ul><ul><li>Goal commitment (the more public the better!) </li></ul><ul><li>Task characteristics (simple, well-learned) </li></ul><ul><li>Culture </li></ul>Organizational Behavior 20
  21. 21. Organizational Behavior 21 Goal Setting Theory <ul><li>Function of Goals </li></ul><ul><ul><li>basis of motivation </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>direct behavior </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>For goals to be effective </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>individuals must be aware of goals </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>must accept the goals </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Factors that influence effectiveness of goal setting </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>goals must be specific </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>goals should be difficult but attainable </li></ul></ul></ul></ul>
  22. 22. Organizational Behavior 22 Guidelines for SMART Goals S pecific M easurable A ttainable R esults oriented T ime bound Give feedback regularly!
  23. 23. Organizational Behavior 23 Locke’s Model of Goal Setting Encouraging the development of goal- attainment strategies or action plans Increasing one’s persistence Regulating one’s effort Directing one’s attention Goals motivate the individual by... Task performance
  24. 24. Bandura’s Self-Efficacy Theory <ul><li>An individual’s belief that he or she is capable of performing a task. </li></ul><ul><li>Higher efficacy is related to: </li></ul><ul><li>Greater confidence </li></ul><ul><li>Greater persistence in the face of difficulties </li></ul><ul><li>Better response to negative feedback (work harder) </li></ul><ul><li>Self-Efficacy complements Goal-Setting Theory. </li></ul>Organizational Behavior 24 Given Hard Goal Higher Self-Set Goal Increased Confidence Higher Performance
  25. 25. Increasing Self-Efficacy <ul><li>Enactive mastery </li></ul><ul><li>Most important source of efficacy </li></ul><ul><li>Gaining relevant experience with task or job </li></ul><ul><li>“ Practice makes perfect” </li></ul><ul><li>Vicarious modeling </li></ul><ul><li>Increasing confidence by watching others perform the task </li></ul><ul><li>Most effective when observer sees the model to be similar to him- or herself </li></ul><ul><li>Verbal persuasion </li></ul><ul><li>Motivation through verbal conviction </li></ul><ul><li>Arousal </li></ul><ul><li>Getting “psyched up” – emotionally aroused – to complete task </li></ul><ul><li>Can hurt performance if emotion is not a component of the task </li></ul>Organizational Behavior 25
  26. 26. Adams’ Equity Theory <ul><li>Employees compare their ratios of outcomes-to-inputs of relevant others. </li></ul><ul><li>When ratios are equal: state of equity exists – there is no tension as the situation is considered fair </li></ul><ul><li>When ratios are unequal: tension exists due to unfairness </li></ul><ul><li>Under rewarded states cause anger </li></ul><ul><li>Over rewarded states cause guilt </li></ul><ul><li>Tension motivates people to act to bring their situation into equity </li></ul>Organizational Behavior 26
  27. 27. Organizational Behavior 27 Key Factors in Equity Assessment
  28. 28. Equity Theory’s “Relevant Others” <ul><li>Can be four different situations: </li></ul><ul><li>Self-Inside </li></ul><ul><li>The person’s experience in a different job in the same organization </li></ul><ul><li>Self-Outside </li></ul><ul><li>The person’s experience in a different job in a different organization </li></ul><ul><li>Other-Inside </li></ul><ul><li>Another individual or group within the organization </li></ul><ul><li>Other-Outside </li></ul><ul><li>Another individual or group outside of the organization </li></ul>Organizational Behavior 28
  29. 29. Reactions to Inequity <ul><li>Employee behaviors to create equity: </li></ul><ul><li>Change inputs (slack off) </li></ul><ul><li>Change outcomes (increase output) </li></ul><ul><li>Distort/change perceptions of self </li></ul><ul><li>Distort/change perceptions of others </li></ul><ul><li>Choose a different referent person </li></ul><ul><li>Leave the field (quit the job) </li></ul><ul><li>Propositions relating to inequitable pay: </li></ul><ul><li>Paid by time: </li></ul><ul><li>Overrewarded employees produce more </li></ul><ul><li>Underrewarded employees produce less with low quality </li></ul><ul><li>Paid by quality: </li></ul><ul><li>Overrewarded employees give higher quality </li></ul><ul><li>Underrewarded employees make more of low quality </li></ul>Organizational Behavior 29
  30. 30. Expectancy Theory – Victor Vroom <ul><li>Motivation depends on how much we want something and on how likely we think we are to get it </li></ul><ul><li>Implications are that managers must recognize that </li></ul><ul><li>Employees work for a variety of reasons </li></ul><ul><li>The reasons, or expected outcomes, may change over time </li></ul><ul><li>It is necessary to show employees how they can attain the outcomes they desire </li></ul>Organizational Behavior 30
  31. 31. Organizational Behavior 31 Expectancy Theory
  32. 32. Organizational Behavior 32 The Expectancy Theory of Motivation
  33. 33. Organizational Behavior 33 Expectancy Theory (Vroom, 1964) <ul><li>Five Components </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Job outcomes (e.g., pay, promotions) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Valence - attractiveness of the outcomes to employees </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Instrumentality - strength of belief that performance results in outcome attainment </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Expectancy - strength of belief that effort will result in successful performance </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Force - amount of pressure within the person to be motivated </li></ul></ul>
  34. 34. Guidelines for the Use of Expectancy Theory <ul><li>Practical use of the theory by managers: </li></ul><ul><li>Determine the primary outcome each employee wants. </li></ul><ul><li>Decide what levels and kinds of performance are needed to meet organizational goals. </li></ul><ul><li>Make sure the desired levels of performance are possible. </li></ul><ul><li>Link desired outcomes and desired performance. </li></ul><ul><li>Analyze the situation for conflicting expectations. </li></ul><ul><li>Make sure the rewards are large enough. </li></ul><ul><li>Make sure the overall system is equitable for everyone. </li></ul>Organizational Behavior 34
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