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managing groups and teams
managing groups and teams
managing groups and teams
managing groups and teams
managing groups and teams
managing groups and teams
managing groups and teams
managing groups and teams
managing groups and teams
managing groups and teams
managing groups and teams
managing groups and teams
managing groups and teams
managing groups and teams
managing groups and teams
managing groups and teams
managing groups and teams
managing groups and teams
managing groups and teams
managing groups and teams
managing groups and teams
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managing groups and teams

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  • Page 542.
  • Strangers leaving by the same door at a theatre are not a group – they are not interdependent, nor are they interacting and influencing each other collectively or trying to reach the same goal. Teamwork happens when groups work together efficiently and effectively to reach organisational goals. Though groups have always been central to organisations, they are seen increasingly as important assets. Further discussion can be found on Page 546.
  • Pages 546-548.
  • Each organisation work unit (manager and subordinates) is a command group that is linked to higher (in the hierarchy) command groups – in this way supervisors link lower-level and higher-level groups. A task group is a formal group set up to supplement or replace work normally undertaken by a command group — task groups can be permanent or temporary. Further discussion can be found on Pages 546-548.
  • An interest group is an informal group set up to help employees in common concerns. Such concerns can have a wide base, e.g. sport or a desire to have the firm change its policy. A friendship group is an informal group existing because of employee social needs. The groups stem from mutual attraction based on common characteristics such as similar work, backgrounds and/or values. Further discussion can be found on pages 547-548.
  • Page 547 - Figure 15.1, Types of work groups.
  • Page 548-9 and Figure 15.3.
  • Figure 15.4 on Page 549. Several factors affect teamwork and formal work groups’ effectiveness. In analysing these it helps to see groups as systems using inputs, engaging in many processes or transformations, and producing outcomes. Note: important outcomes are not just group performance measures such as quantity, quality and costs, but member satisfaction too. Further discussion can be found on pages 549-553.
  • As work-group composition bears on a group’s ultimate success, managers must consider carefully who will be part of a group. Two crucial selection factors are potential member characteristics and reasons for their attraction to the group. Further discussion can be found on page 550.
  • Roles helping a group develop and accomplish its goals. Further discussion can be found on pages 550-551.
  • Roles not directly addressing a task itself but, instead, helping foster group unity, positive interpersonal relations among group members and development of their ability to work effectively together. Further discussion can be found on page 551.
  • Roles related to the personal needs of group members and often negatively influencing group effectiveness. Further discussion can be found on pages 551-552.
  • Pages 552-553. See also Figure 15.5 on Page 553 for the relationship between group size and group performance.
  • Some groups accomplish more than others, despite the similarity in inputs. The reason for this lies, in part, in group processes , the dynamic inner workings of the group. As group members work, some energy goes into group development and operations. This is diverted from the task and is known as process loss, as it is energy which could have been devoted to the task. Process loss is inevitable, given group members’ normal interdependence. Further discussion can be found on page 553.
  • Page 553.
  • For a behaviour to be a norm, members must see it as expected for group membership. Work groups do not use norms to regulate all behaviour. Rather they develop and enforce norms relating to central matters. For example, group norms develop about production processes. These norms relate to quality and quantity as well as how the job is done. Further discussion can be found on pages 553-555.
  • Pages 556-558.
  • Page 553.
  • New groups, such as work units, committees and task forces form constantly. Even established groups change as members leave and new ones join. It is argued that groups pass through fairly predictable development stages. New groups may progress through these phases but, if membership changes, development may briefly regress to earlier stages. Further discussion can be found on pages 558-560. Also in next slide as graphic.
  • Derived from the work of Tuckman (1965). Pages 558-560 (see Figure 15.7 on Page 559).
  • Transcript

    1. 15 –
    2. <ul><li>Foundations of work groups </li></ul><ul><li>Work-group inputs </li></ul><ul><li>Work-group processes </li></ul><ul><li>Promoting innovation: using task forces and teams </li></ul>15 –
    3. <ul><li>What is a group? </li></ul><ul><li>Two or more interdependent individuals interacting and influencing each other in collective pursuit of a common goal. </li></ul><ul><li>Differentiated from a simple gathering of people. </li></ul>15 –
    4. <ul><li>Types of work groups: </li></ul><ul><li>Formal </li></ul><ul><li>Group officially created by an organisation for a specific purpose </li></ul><ul><li>Informal </li></ul><ul><li>Group established by employees (not the organisation) to serve members’ interests or social needs </li></ul>15 –
    5. <ul><li>Formal groups </li></ul><ul><li>Groups officially created by an organisation </li></ul><ul><li>for a specific purpose . </li></ul><ul><li>Command/functional </li></ul><ul><li>Manager & subordinates </li></ul><ul><li>Task groups </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Permanent </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Temporary </li></ul></ul>15 –
    6. <ul><li>Informal groups </li></ul><ul><li>Groups established by employees (not the </li></ul><ul><li>organisation) to serve members’ interests or </li></ul><ul><li>social needs </li></ul><ul><li>Interest groups </li></ul><ul><li>Friendship groups </li></ul>15 –
    7. 15 – Work groups Formal groups Informal groups Command or functional groups Task groups Interest groups Friendship groups Permanent task groups Temporary task groups
    8. <ul><li>How informal groups develop: </li></ul><ul><li>FORMAL GROUPS </li></ul><ul><li>Required activities </li></ul><ul><li>Required interactions </li></ul><ul><li>Required sentiments </li></ul><ul><li>Given sentiments </li></ul><ul><li> ORGANISATIONAL </li></ul><ul><li>INFORMAL GROUPS OUTPUTS (e.g. productivity, </li></ul><ul><li>Emergent activities satisfaction) </li></ul><ul><li>Emergent interactions </li></ul><ul><li>Emergent sentiments </li></ul>15 –
    9. <ul><li>How work groups operate: </li></ul>15 – INPUTS Group composition Member roles Group size PROCESSES Group norms Cohesiveness Development OUTCOMES Performance Need satisfaction Future work group compatibility
    10. <ul><li>Work group composition: </li></ul><ul><li>Two crucial selection factors are potential member characteristics and reasons for their attraction to the group. </li></ul><ul><li>Member characteristics </li></ul><ul><li>Task-relevant skills </li></ul><ul><li>Appropriate interpersonal skills </li></ul><ul><li>Contribution to group diversity </li></ul><ul><li>Attraction to the group </li></ul><ul><li>Identification of reason for wanting to join group as being appropriate to group task </li></ul>15 –
    11. <ul><li>Member roles: </li></ul><ul><li>Group-task roles </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Initiator-contributor </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Information seeker </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Information giver </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Coordinator </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Orienter </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Energiser </li></ul></ul>15 –
    12. <ul><li>Member roles (cont.): </li></ul><ul><li>Group maintenance roles </li></ul><ul><li>Encourager </li></ul><ul><li>Harmoniser </li></ul><ul><li>Gatekeeper </li></ul><ul><li>Standard setter </li></ul><ul><li>Group observer </li></ul><ul><li>Follower </li></ul>15 –
    13. <ul><li>Member roles (cont.): </li></ul><ul><li>Self-oriented roles </li></ul><ul><li>Aggressor </li></ul><ul><li>Blocker </li></ul><ul><li>Recognition seeker </li></ul><ul><li>Dominator </li></ul>15 –
    14. <ul><li>Group size: </li></ul><ul><li>Size and group interaction </li></ul><ul><li>Group size affects interaction </li></ul><ul><li>Size and performance </li></ul><ul><li>Social loafing </li></ul><ul><li>Individualism </li></ul><ul><li>Collectivism </li></ul>15 –
    15. <ul><li>As group members work, some energy goes into group development and operations. This is diverted from the task, and is known as process loss, as it is lost energy which could have been devoted to the task. </li></ul>15 –
    16. <ul><li>Positive Synergy </li></ul><ul><li>Force resulting when combined gains are greater than group-process losses </li></ul><ul><li>Negative synergy </li></ul><ul><li>Force resulting when group-process losses are greater than gains achieved from combining the forces of the group </li></ul>15 –
    17. <ul><li>Group norms: </li></ul><ul><li>Expected behaviours sanctioned by a group that regulate and foster uniform member behaviour . </li></ul><ul><li>Explicit statements </li></ul><ul><li>Critical events </li></ul><ul><li>Primacy </li></ul><ul><li>Carry-over behaviours </li></ul>15 –
    18. <ul><li>Group cohesiveness: </li></ul><ul><li>Degree to which members are attracted to a group, are motivated to remain in it, and are mutually influenced by one another. </li></ul>15 –
    19. <ul><li>Group norms: </li></ul><ul><li>Consequences of group cohesion </li></ul><ul><li>Organisational citizenship behaviours </li></ul><ul><li>Determinants of group cohesiveness </li></ul><ul><li>Similar attitudes and values </li></ul><ul><li>Mutual understandings </li></ul><ul><li>External threats </li></ul><ul><li>Size of group </li></ul>15 –
    20. <ul><li>Group development: </li></ul><ul><li>Forming </li></ul><ul><li>Assess rules for the tasks and interactions </li></ul><ul><li>Storming </li></ul><ul><li>Locate and resolve differences </li></ul><ul><li>Norming </li></ul><ul><li>Develop consensus re norms, task, relationships </li></ul><ul><li>Performing </li></ul><ul><li>Norms support teamwork; energy applied to task </li></ul><ul><li>Adjourning </li></ul><ul><li>Preparation for disengagement </li></ul>15 –
    21. <ul><li>Group development: </li></ul>15 – Forming Storming Norming Performing Adjourning

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