Logical reasoning tools


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Logical reasoning tools

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  • The management process consists of four functions: 1. Planning--setting a direction 2. Organizing--bring resources together 3. Leading--creating enthusiasm for work 4. Controlling--ensuring things turn out as desired
  • . Managerial work involves a variety of roles, which vary in emphasis by managerial level. 1. Interpersonal--figurehead, leader, liaison- -working directly with other people. 2. Informational--monitor, disseminator, spokesperson --exchanging information with other people. 3. Decisional--disturbance handler, resource allocator,--making decisions that affect others.
  • . Technical--specialized knowledge to perform specialized tasks. 2. Human--ability to work well with others through interpersonal relationships. 3. Conceptual--ability to solve complex problems and view the organization/situation as a whole. Of the three, only human skills remain important across all managerial levels.
  • Definition: Behavior that is accepted as morally "good/right", as opposed to "bad/wrong" in a setting. 1. Four Views of Ethical Behavior a. Utilitarian--that which delivers the greatest good to the greatest number of people. b. Individualism--that which is best for the individual's long-term self-interest. c. Moral-Rights--that which respects the fundamental rights shared by all human beings. d. Justice--that which is fair and impartial in its treatment of people.
  • Three perspectives on effectiveness: 1. Individual--emphasizes employee task performance, in regards to ability, skill, and knowledge. 2. Group--the sum of all member's contributions, in regards to the effectiveness of the group structure, cohesiveness, and shared norms and values. 3. Organization--a function of both the individual and group effectiveness. A managers task is to identify the causes of multiple levels of effectiveness.
  • Individual Differences 1. Competency Characteristics a. aptitude--a person's capacity to learn b. ability--a person's capacity to perform Managers should strive to match individual competencies to required job skills. 2. Workforce Diversity--demographic differences among members in a given workplace (multiculturalism).
  • Personality--the overall profile of an person 1. problem-solving style--the way a person makes decisions. 2. locus of control--extent a person feels control over his/her own life. 3. authoritarianism/dogmatism--acceptance or disregard for authority. 4. Machiavellianism--the trait of manipulating others for purely personal gains. 5. self-monitoring--a person's ability to adjust to external situational factors. 6. Type A/Type B orientation--obsessive vs. easygoing
  • Values--broad preferences concerning appropriate courses of action. 1. terminal values--goals 2. instrumental values--means for achieving desired outcomes, such as achievement, helping and concern for others, honesty, and fairness
  • Logical reasoning tools

    1. 1. Logical Reasoning Tools
    2. 2. The Structure of Argument <ul><li>Definition: </li></ul><ul><li>Argument – a conclusion about an issue that is supported by reason. </li></ul>
    3. 3. Three Parts to an Argument <ul><li>Issues </li></ul><ul><li>Conclusion </li></ul><ul><li>The Reasons </li></ul>
    4. 4. The Issue <ul><li>Definition: The issue is the question being addressed. </li></ul><ul><li>The issue is often stated in question form making it easier to identify. </li></ul>
    5. 5. The Conclusion <ul><li>The position taken about an issue. It should be supported by evidence statements called reasons or premises </li></ul>
    6. 6. The Reasons <ul><li>Reasons are the statements that provide support for conclusions. Without reasons there is not argument –just opinion. </li></ul>
    7. 7. Values and Ethics <ul><li>Value Assumptions are beliefs about what is good and important that form the basis of opinions on issues. </li></ul><ul><li>Many arguments are primarily based on strongly held values that need to be understood and respected. </li></ul><ul><li>An issue that continues to be unresolved often involves cherished values on both sides. </li></ul>
    8. 8. Ethical Behavior - An Important Dimension of Values <ul><li>Definition: Behavior that is accepted </li></ul><ul><li>as morally &quot;good/right&quot;, as opposed to &quot;bad/wrong&quot; in a setting. </li></ul>
    9. 9. Five Views of Ethics <ul><li>Utilitarianism </li></ul><ul><li>Libertarianism </li></ul><ul><li>Egalitarianism </li></ul><ul><li>Judeo-Christian Principles </li></ul><ul><li>Universal Ethical Norms </li></ul>
    10. 10. Libertarianism <ul><li>Value Assumption: </li></ul><ul><li>The highest value is to promote the liberty of all. </li></ul>
    11. 11. Utilitarianism <ul><li>Value Assumption: </li></ul><ul><li>The highest value is that which promotes the greatest general happiness and minimizes unhappiness. </li></ul>
    12. 12. Egalitarianism <ul><li>Value Assumption: </li></ul><ul><li>The highest value is equality. Justice and fairness are synonymous with equality. </li></ul>
    13. 13. Judeo-Christian Principles <ul><li>Value Assumption: </li></ul><ul><li>The highest values are to love God and to love one’s neighbor. </li></ul>
    14. 14. Universal Ethical Norms <ul><li>Value Assumption: </li></ul><ul><li>Universal ethical principles exist and are self-evident and obvious to rational individuals of every culture. </li></ul>
    15. 15. Ethical Decision Making <ul><li>The Role Exchange Test – empathize with those affected by the action. </li></ul><ul><li>The Universal Consequences Test – focuses on general results – sometimes known as the greatest good for the greatest number of people. </li></ul><ul><li>The New Cases Test – is your action consistent with other actions which are in the same category. </li></ul><ul><li>The Higher Principles Test – is your action consistent with a higher or more general principle you accept. Also sometimes referred to at duty to higher power or concept. </li></ul>