<ul><li>LEADERSHIP  </li></ul><ul><li>I nspirational process that implies willing enthuasiam </li></ul>
Finbarr’s Wisdom <ul><li>Companies are most vulnerable in times of boom. Bad leaders fail to make difficult decisions. </l...
David Irvine <ul><li>Passion </li></ul><ul><li>Self sacrifice </li></ul><ul><li>Courage </li></ul>
<ul><li>Management Leadership </li></ul><ul><li>Leadership Management </li></ul><ul><li>  Leadership   Management </li></ul>
<ul><li>LEADERSHIP: </li></ul><ul><li>R elationship through which one person influences the behaviour of other people </li...
Leading/Managing <ul><li>Wanted:  Corporate Leaders  –  </li></ul><ul><li>Must have vision and ability to build  c orporat...
<ul><li>Leadership is both a process and a property   </li></ul><ul><li>(Griffin, pp504) </li></ul>
Leadership Versus Management
Why Leadership Matters Fortune – March 1998 <ul><li>…  no one factor makes a company admirable, but if you were forced to ...
Types of Power <ul><li>Reward </li></ul><ul><li>Coercive </li></ul><ul><li>Legitimate/Position </li></ul><ul><li>Referent ...
Traits Approach Functional Approach Behavioural Approach Styles Approach Contingency Approach
Traits <ul><li>Initiative Imagination </li></ul><ul><li>Self Assurance Caring </li></ul><ul><li>Enthusiasm Decisiveness </...
F unctions  (KRECH ’62) <ul><li>Executive </li></ul><ul><li>Planner </li></ul><ul><li>Policy Maker </li></ul><ul><li>Exper...
F unctions  -  Continued … <ul><li>Arbitrator & Mediator </li></ul><ul><li>Exemplar </li></ul><ul><li>Symbol of Group </li...
ACTION – CENTRED LEADERSHIP  Adair ’80’s <ul><li>  TASK </li></ul><ul><li>FUNCTIONS </li></ul><ul><li>  TEAM  INDIVIUDUAL ...
A ction –  C entred  L eadership  <ul><li>TASK FUNCTIONS </li></ul><ul><li>Defining tasks; Planning; Allocation of Resourc...
<ul><li>People Production </li></ul>
Behavioural Approaches <ul><li>The Michigan Studies </li></ul><ul><li>Job Centered Person Centered </li></ul>
<ul><li>The Ohio State Studies </li></ul><ul><li>Low Consideration High Consideration </li></ul><ul><li>Behaviour Behaviou...
<ul><li>Styles Approach </li></ul><ul><li>AUTOCRATIC </li></ul><ul><li>DEMOCRATIC </li></ul><ul><li>‘ LAISSEZ-FAIRE’ </li>...
R esistance to autocracy <ul><li>Increased competitiveness </li></ul><ul><li>Value systems of society </li></ul><ul><li>Im...
From behaviour to contingency <ul><li>Tannenbaum and Schmidt’s Leadership Continuum </li></ul>Use of Authority by Manager ...
Fiedler’s LPC Theory <ul><li>Measures leader behaviour (task focused V’s people focused) using the LPC scale </li></ul><ul...
LPC Theory <ul><li>Three factors determine favourableness:  </li></ul><ul><li>- Relationship between the leader  and led <...
LPC Theory <ul><li>When the situation is very favourable or very unfavourable the task focused leader performs best </li><...
Path Goal Theory to Leadership Subordinates ’ personal characteristics • Perceived ability • Locus of control Leader behav...
Path-Goal Theory Work Situation Follower lacks self-confidence Supportive Achievement- oriented Participative Directive Le...
Path Goal Theory <ul><li>Possible leadership styles are: </li></ul><ul><li> - directive </li></ul><ul><li> - supportive </...
E ffective leadership depends on .. <ul><li>Characteristics of Leader </li></ul><ul><li>Type of Power </li></ul><ul><li>Ch...
Alternative views <ul><li>Just  one  function of management </li></ul><ul><li>Substitutes for leadership </li></ul><ul><li...
So what is your point?? <ul><li>I think leadership is critical </li></ul><ul><li>Leadership V’s Management </li></ul><ul><...
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Leadership

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Leadership

  1. 1. <ul><li>LEADERSHIP </li></ul><ul><li>I nspirational process that implies willing enthuasiam </li></ul>
  2. 2. Finbarr’s Wisdom <ul><li>Companies are most vulnerable in times of boom. Bad leaders fail to make difficult decisions. </li></ul><ul><li>Not necessary to be liked, must be respected. Respect has to be earned. </li></ul><ul><li>Vision, courage, sensitivity. </li></ul><ul><li>Hijack the future and create excitement. </li></ul><ul><li>Prepared to sacrifice themselves for their people. </li></ul>
  3. 3. David Irvine <ul><li>Passion </li></ul><ul><li>Self sacrifice </li></ul><ul><li>Courage </li></ul>
  4. 4. <ul><li>Management Leadership </li></ul><ul><li>Leadership Management </li></ul><ul><li> Leadership Management </li></ul>
  5. 5. <ul><li>LEADERSHIP: </li></ul><ul><li>R elationship through which one person influences the behaviour of other people </li></ul><ul><li>MANAGEMENT: </li></ul><ul><li>A chieving organisational objectives through the manipulation of people </li></ul>
  6. 6. Leading/Managing <ul><li>Wanted: Corporate Leaders – </li></ul><ul><li>Must have vision and ability to build c orporate culture. Mere managers need not apply. </li></ul><ul><li>Change in top exec. Can account for 45% of co. performance (+/-) </li></ul>
  7. 7. <ul><li>Leadership is both a process and a property </li></ul><ul><li>(Griffin, pp504) </li></ul>
  8. 8. Leadership Versus Management
  9. 9. Why Leadership Matters Fortune – March 1998 <ul><li>… no one factor makes a company admirable, but if you were forced to pick the one that makes the most difference, you’d pick leadership </li></ul><ul><li>Direction/vision/dream </li></ul><ul><li>Get your people to believe in it/buy into it </li></ul><ul><li>Energise & Inspire people into action </li></ul><ul><li>Simple, effective economic model </li></ul><ul><li>Passion for the business </li></ul>
  10. 10. Types of Power <ul><li>Reward </li></ul><ul><li>Coercive </li></ul><ul><li>Legitimate/Position </li></ul><ul><li>Referent </li></ul><ul><li>Expert </li></ul><ul><li>Information </li></ul><ul><li>Connection </li></ul>
  11. 11. Traits Approach Functional Approach Behavioural Approach Styles Approach Contingency Approach
  12. 12. Traits <ul><li>Initiative Imagination </li></ul><ul><li>Self Assurance Caring </li></ul><ul><li>Enthusiasm Decisiveness </li></ul><ul><li>Intelligence Determination </li></ul><ul><li>Sociability Energy </li></ul><ul><li>Sex Supportiveness </li></ul><ul><li>Helicopter vision Faith </li></ul><ul><li>Courage Integrity </li></ul>
  13. 13. F unctions (KRECH ’62) <ul><li>Executive </li></ul><ul><li>Planner </li></ul><ul><li>Policy Maker </li></ul><ul><li>Expert </li></ul><ul><li>External Representative </li></ul><ul><li>Controller of Internal Relations </li></ul><ul><li>Purveyor of Rewards and Punishment </li></ul>
  14. 14. F unctions - Continued … <ul><li>Arbitrator & Mediator </li></ul><ul><li>Exemplar </li></ul><ul><li>Symbol of Group </li></ul><ul><li>Substitute for Individual Responsibility </li></ul><ul><li>Ideologist </li></ul><ul><li>Father Figure </li></ul><ul><li>Scapegoat </li></ul>
  15. 15. ACTION – CENTRED LEADERSHIP Adair ’80’s <ul><li> TASK </li></ul><ul><li>FUNCTIONS </li></ul><ul><li> TEAM INDIVIUDUAL </li></ul><ul><li> FUNCTIONS FUNCTIONS </li></ul>
  16. 16. A ction – C entred L eadership <ul><li>TASK FUNCTIONS </li></ul><ul><li>Defining tasks; Planning; Allocation of Resources; </li></ul><ul><li>Delegating; Quality & Performance control </li></ul><ul><li>INDIVIDUAL FUNCTIONS </li></ul><ul><li>Meeting Individual needs; Attending to personal problems; </li></ul><ul><li>Giving praise and status; Training </li></ul><ul><li>TEAM FUNCTIONS </li></ul><ul><li>Maintaining morale & team spirit; Training; </li></ul><ul><li>Cohesiveness; Systems of communication </li></ul>
  17. 17. <ul><li>People Production </li></ul>
  18. 18. Behavioural Approaches <ul><li>The Michigan Studies </li></ul><ul><li>Job Centered Person Centered </li></ul>
  19. 19. <ul><li>The Ohio State Studies </li></ul><ul><li>Low Consideration High Consideration </li></ul><ul><li>Behaviour Behaviour </li></ul><ul><li>Low initiating High initiating </li></ul><ul><li>Structure behaviour structure behaviour </li></ul>
  20. 20. <ul><li>Styles Approach </li></ul><ul><li>AUTOCRATIC </li></ul><ul><li>DEMOCRATIC </li></ul><ul><li>‘ LAISSEZ-FAIRE’ </li></ul>
  21. 21. R esistance to autocracy <ul><li>Increased competitiveness </li></ul><ul><li>Value systems of society </li></ul><ul><li>Improvements in education and training </li></ul><ul><li>Advances in scientific/technical knowledge </li></ul><ul><li>Influence of trade unions </li></ul><ul><li>Influence of E.U. </li></ul>
  22. 22. From behaviour to contingency <ul><li>Tannenbaum and Schmidt’s Leadership Continuum </li></ul>Use of Authority by Manager Boss-centered leadership Manager makes decision and announces it Manager permits subordinates to function within limits defined by superior Manager defines limits, asks group to make decision Manager presents problem, gets suggestions, makes decision Manager presents tentative decision subject to change Manager presents ideas and invites questions Manager “sells” decision Area of Freedom for Subordinates Subordinate-centered leadership
  23. 23. Fiedler’s LPC Theory <ul><li>Measures leader behaviour (task focused V’s people focused) using the LPC scale </li></ul><ul><li>Individuals emerge as either task focused or people focused </li></ul><ul><li>Which behaviour is effective depends on the favourableness of the situation </li></ul>
  24. 24. LPC Theory <ul><li>Three factors determine favourableness: </li></ul><ul><li>- Relationship between the leader and led </li></ul><ul><li>- Task structure </li></ul><ul><li>- Position Power </li></ul>
  25. 25. LPC Theory <ul><li>When the situation is very favourable or very unfavourable the task focused leader performs best </li></ul><ul><li>When the situation is moderately favourable the people focused leader performs best </li></ul>
  26. 26. Path Goal Theory to Leadership Subordinates ’ personal characteristics • Perceived ability • Locus of control Leader behaviors • Directive • Supportive • Participative • Achievement- oriented Environmental characteristics • Task structure • Work group Subordinates ’ motivation to perform
  27. 27. Path-Goal Theory Work Situation Follower lacks self-confidence Supportive Achievement- oriented Participative Directive Leadership Style Impact on Followers Expected Results Lack of job challenge Improper procedures and poor decisions Ambiguous job Increases self- confidence to complete task Encourages setting high but attainable goals Clarifies follower need for making suggestions and involvement Clarifies path to get rewards Increased effort. job satisfaction, and performance; fewer grievances Improved performance and greater job satisfaction Improved performance and greater satisfaction; less turnover Improved performance and job satisfaction
  28. 28. Path Goal Theory <ul><li>Possible leadership styles are: </li></ul><ul><li> - directive </li></ul><ul><li> - supportive </li></ul><ul><li> - participative </li></ul><ul><li> - achievement oriented </li></ul><ul><li>Primary functions of a leader are to: </li></ul><ul><li> - make desired rewards available </li></ul><ul><li> - clarify the path to rewards </li></ul>
  29. 29. E ffective leadership depends on .. <ul><li>Characteristics of Leader </li></ul><ul><li>Type of Power </li></ul><ul><li>Characteristics of Led </li></ul><ul><li>Relationship between Leader – Led </li></ul><ul><li>Type of Organisation </li></ul><ul><li>Nature of Task </li></ul><ul><li>Nature and Influence of Environment </li></ul><ul><li>National Culture </li></ul>
  30. 30. Alternative views <ul><li>Just one function of management </li></ul><ul><li>Substitutes for leadership </li></ul><ul><li>- teams </li></ul><ul><li>- intrinsic satisfaction </li></ul><ul><li>- professional norms </li></ul><ul><li>Leader irrelevance </li></ul><ul><li>- other factors make the difference </li></ul>
  31. 31. So what is your point?? <ul><li>I think leadership is critical </li></ul><ul><li>Leadership V’s Management </li></ul><ul><li>The ‘power’ factor </li></ul><ul><li>Theory is influenced by perspective </li></ul><ul><li>Each perspective tells us something about effective leadership </li></ul>

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