Human resources and job design @ bec doms
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Human resources and job design @ bec doms



Human resources and job design @ bec doms

Human resources and job design @ bec doms



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  • As the objective of human resources strategy is stated, what do the words “effectively” and “efficiently” mean? How does this relate to workers’ need for a reasonable quality of life? What does it say about the employment of people to perform jobs embodying significant risk?
  • Students should be asked to consider: - If one is a manager of a firm the goal of which is to make a profit, does he/she look upon these goals as being in some way incompatible? - How does the increased use of information technology (pagers, computers, cellular phones, etc.) impact an individual’s quality of life?
  • This slide lists some of the constraints within which operations managers must develop human resource policy. One should point out to the students that while these constraints “sound” industrial, they apply to service operations as well.
  • Once the two basic strategies have been introduced, students should be asked to consider how one defines an appropriate balance and then achieves it. Additional issues you might raise include: - What role does the “temporary” employee play? How does he/she relate to the policies outlined above? - What impact does the increased role of information technology have on one’s choice of labor planning policy?
  • It is useful here to ask students which policy they, as workers, prefer. When they have answered, ask which one they, as a manager, would prefer. If there is a difference, ask them to explain. Students should also be asked to consider the benefits to which they believe a part-time worker should be entitled.
  • You should ask students to consider why unions may believe work rules to be necessary. Is the reasoning of the unions justified? In a time where the environment is changing at an increasing rate, what is the effect of work rules on a firm that is trying to be competitive? Is this effect significant?
  • Students may find it obvious that job design involve “what” is to be done, and “how” it is to be done, but why do we need to know the reason (why) the job is being done? You might also ask students how they believe job descriptions will change in the future. (There are those who argue that job descriptions in the future will be more outcome-, and less task- or behavior-based; and that one will have a greater role in writing his/her job description.)
  • You might simply define the meaning of each term at this point - subsequent slides provide an opportunity to expand on their significance.
  • Job specialization certainly has some benefits. As students to suggest some of the drawbacks?
  • The benefits of job specialization may be obvious - students should be asked about the drawbacks. Under what conditions is job specialization the most useful?
  • In discussing job expansion with your students, it is important to distinguish between boredom from performing the same task in the same way over and over again with the same results, and a general lack of challenge. Job enlargement and job rotation attack the boredom; job enrichment and employee empowerment attack the general lack of challenge.
  • Students should be asked which they would prefer - job enlargement or job enrichment - and why. They should also be asked to identify and discuss the negative aspects of the less preferred approach.
  • Students should be asked which they would prefer - job enlargement or job enrichment - and why. They should also be asked to identify and discuss the negative aspects of the less preferred approach.
  • Students should be asked to discuss both the advantages and limitations of job rotation. How is job rotation related to job specialization? Is this another case which suggests that policies or practices which appear to benefit the workers are detrimental to high productivity? Students should be asked to consider the impact of job enrichment/enlargement on necessary employee skills.
  • As previously noted, employee empowerment is one of the basic tenets of process reengineering. It implies moving decision making power as close to the problem as possible. Students should be asked about the benefits of this practice. Students should also be asked to consider under what conditions employee empowerment is not only helpful, but necessary. Finally, what are the pitfalls?
  • One way to get at the psychological components of job design is to ask students why they decided to attend a college or university, and in particular, your college or university. While the initial answers may focus on the expected education or something similar, students will, when pressed, usually begin to raise issues such as the nature of the campus (safety and friendliness), the development of lifelong relationships, the expectation of a challenge, and so on. You can then lead them into a discussion of the psychological characteristics they expect to find in their job and the psychological needs they expect their job to fulfill.
  • This and the next two slides frame a discussion of the famous Hawthorne Studies.
  • Since self-directed teams are gaining in popularity, they do merit some discussion. You might ask students what conditions they believe to be required for the success of such teams.
  • This slide can be used to summarize some of the important issues raised so far in the job design discussion.
  • You should probably begin consideration of this slide by discussing why the limitations occur. Students should be asked to consider if there are means available to alleviate the impact of some of the limitations. They should also be asked under what conditions they believe enlargement and enrichment make good choices.
  • You might begin this discussion by asking your students which they believe to be more important: motivation, ability, or work environment. Ask them to provide examples to support their answers.
  • You might discuss with students to whom these findings apply. Are they believed to apply to everyone? To professionals? To non-professionals? Students might also be asked to list the top ten factors which motivate them. Where does money fall in this list?
  • Ask students which of these policies they prefer and why.
  • Ask students to consider where money would appear in Maslow’s pyramid.
  • Here it is important to help students to distinguish between satisfiers and dissatisfiers. You might ask them how they would work with each to increase a worker’s motivation.
  • Ask student to suggest how each of the job characteristics is related to each of the behavioral elements.
  • Here you might address the point that some people believed Taylor’s work methods were really designed to exploit the worker.
  • If you are looking for examples of ergonomic issues raised by job design, certainly the computer keyboard provides the basis for extensive discussion.
  • At this point you may wish to ask students why methods analysis is important. Why do we not simply let the worker determine how the job is done? The next series of slide illustrates examples of various charts used in methods analysis.
  • The visual workplace provides some obvious benefits. What are some of the drawbacks?
  • Work measurement is covered in much greater detail in the Supplement 10.
  • You might discuss the conditions which suggest the use of one or another of these techniques.

Human resources and job design @ bec doms Presentation Transcript

  • 1. Human Resources and Job Design
  • 2. Outline
      • Constraints on Human Resource Strategy
      • Employment-Stability Policies
      • Work Schedules
      • Job Classifications and Work Rules
  • 3. Outline - Continued
      • Labor Specialization
      • Job Expansion
      • Psychological Components of Job Design
      • Self-Directed Teams
      • Motivation and Incentive Systems
      • Ergonomics and Work Methods
  • 4. Learning Objectives
    • When you complete this chapter, you should be able to :
    • Identify or Define :
      • Job design
      • Job specialization
      • Job expansion
      • Tools of methods analysis
      • Ergonomics
      • Labor standards
      • Andon
  • 5. Learning Objectives - Continued
    • When you complete this chapter, you should be able to :
    • Describe or explain:
      • Requirements of good job design
      • The visual workplace
  • 6. Southwest Airlines
    • Profitable for 26 years while United, Northwest, and USAir lost billions.
    • Strategy: Human resources
      • Culture of caring for people in the totality of their lives, not just at work.
      • Spends more to recruit and train than any other airline
  • 7. Southwest Airlines
    • Empowered employees
    • Wages higher than industry average
    • Stock options for some employees
    • Employees treated like customers
    • Everybody understands what everybody else’s problems are
    • No gimmicks!
  • 8. Objective of Human Resource Strategy
    • To manage labor and design jobs so people are effectively and efficiently utilized
  • 9. People and Work System Goals
      • Use people efficiently within constraints
    Provide reasonable quality of work life © 1995 Corel Corp.
  • 10. Constraints on Human Resource Strategy Product strategy - Skills needed - Talents needed - Materials used - Safety Location strategy - Climate - Temperature - Noise - Light - Air quality Schedule - Time of day - Time of year (seasonal) - Stability of schedules Individual differences - Strength and fatigue - Information processing and response Layout strategy - Fixed position - Process - Assembly line - Work cell - Product Process strategy - Technology - Machinery and equipment used - Safety Human Resource Strategy What Where How Who Procedure When
  • 11. People and Work System Aspects Job Design Labor Standards
  • 12. Labor Planning/Stability Policies
    • Follow demand exactly
      • keeps direct labor costs tied closely to production
      • incurs costs of
        • hiring/firing
        • unemployment insurance
        • labor wage premium
    • Hold employment constant
      • maintains a trained workforce
      • incurs costs of
        • idle time when demand is low
        • meeting increased demand when demand is high
  • 13. Productivity in Relation to Annual Turnover Rate
  • 14. Determining Policies of Labor Stability
    • Employer policies are partly determined by management’s view of labor costs – as a fixed cost , or as a variable cost .
  • 15. Work Schedules
    • Standard work schedule
      • five eight-hour days
    • Flex-time
      • allows employees, within prescribed limits, to determine their own schedules
    • Flexible work week
      • four 10-hour days
    • Part-time
      • less than eight hours per day, or an irregular schedule
  • 16. Job Classifications and Work Rules
    • Specify
      • who can do what
      • when they can do it
      • under what conditions they can do it
    • Often result of union pressure
    • Restricts flexibility in assignments; consequently restricts efficiency of production
  • 17. Job Design
    • Specifying the tasks that make up a job for an individual or group
    • Involves determining
      • What is to be done (i.e., responses)
      • How it is to be done (i.e., tools etc.)
      • Why it is to be done (i.e., purpose)
    • Results in job description
      • Shows nature of job in task-related behaviors
  • 18. Components of Job Design
    • Job specialization
    • Job expansion
    • Psychological components
    • Self-directed teams
    • Motivation and incentive systems
    • Ergonomics and work methods
  • 19. Job Specialization Involves Breaking jobs into small component parts Assigning specialists to do each part First noted by Adam Smith (1776) Observed how workers in pin factory divided tasks into smaller components Found in manufacturing & service industries © 1995 Corel Corp.
  • 20. Job Specialization Often Reduces Cost Greater dexterity & faster learning Less lost time changing jobs or tools Use of more specialized tools Pay only for needed skills
  • 21. Job Expansion
    • Process of adding more variety to jobs
    • Intended to reduce boredom associated with labor specialization
    • Methods
      • Job enlargement
      • Job enrichment
      • Job rotation
      • Employee empowerment
  • 22. Job Enlargement/Job Enrichment Present Job Control Planning Enriched Job Task #3 Task #2 Enlarged Job
  • 23. Job Enlargement/Job Enrichment Present job Manually insert and solder six resistors Task #3 Lock printed circuit into fixture for next operation Task #2 Adhere labels to printed circuit board Control Test circuits after assembly Planning Participate in a cross-function quality-improvement team Enriched job Enlarged job
  • 24. Job Rotation Geriatrics © 1995 Corel Corp. Pediatrics © 1995 Corel Corp. Maternity © 1995 Corel Corp.
  • 25. Employee Empowerment Employee Empowerment Control Decision-Making Planning
  • 26. Psychological Components of Job Design Individuals have values, attitudes, and emotions that affect job results Example: Work is a social experience that affects belonging needs Effective worker behavior comes mostly from within the individual Scientific management argued for external financial rewards First examined in ‘Hawthorne studies’
  • 27. Hawthorne Studies Conducted in late 1920’s Western Electric Hawthorne plant Showed importance of the individual in the workplace Showed the presence of a social system in the workplace
  • 28.
    • Originally intended to examine effects of lighting on productivity
      • Scientific management proposed that physical conditions affect productivity
    • Result: Productivity increased regardless of lighting level
    • Conclusion: Increased productivity was due to workers’ receiving attention
    Hawthorne Studies: Workplace Lighting
  • 29. Hawthorne Studies: Piecework Pay Examined effects of group piecework pay system on productivity Workers under piecework system should produce as much as possible Scientific management assumes that people are motivated only by money Result: Production less than maximum Conclusion: Social pressure caused workers to produce at group-norm level
  • 30. Self-Directed Teams
    • Group of empowered individuals working together for a common goal
    • May be organized for short-term or long-term objectives
    • Reasons for effectiveness
      • Provide employee empowerment
      • Provide core job characteristics
      • Meet psychological needs (e.g., belonging)
  • 31. Job Design Continuum Increasing reliance on employees’ contribution and increasing acceptance of responsibility by employee Specialization Enlargement Enrichment Empowerment Self-directed Teams Job Expansion
  • 32. Core Job Characteristics
    • Skill variety
    • Job identify
    • Job significance
    • Autonomy
    • Feedback
  • 33.
    • Higher capital cost
    • Many individuals prefer simple jobs
    • Higher wages are required since the worker must utilize a higher level of skill
    • A smaller labor pool exists of persons able and willing to perform enriched or enlarged jobs
    • Increased accident rates may occur
    • Current technology in some industries does not lend itself to job enlargement and enrichment
    Limitations to Job Enlargement/Job Enrichment
  • 34. Motivation
    • Worker performance depends on
      • Motivation
      • Ability
      • Work environment
    • Motivation is the set of forces that compel behavior
    • Money may serve as a psychological & financial motivator
  • 35. Motivation and Money
    • Taylor’s scientific management (1911)
      • Workers are motivated mainly by money
      • Suggested piece-rate system
    • Maslow’s theory (1943)
      • People are motivated by hierarchy of needs, which includes money
    • Herzberg (1959)
      • Money either dissatisfies or is neutral in its effect
  • 36. Monetary Incentives
    • Bonuses: Cash & stock options
    • Profit sharing: Distribution of profits
    • Gain sharing: Reward for company performance (e.g., cost reduction)
      • Scanlon plan is most popular (cost reduction.)
    • Incentive systems
      • Measured daywork: Pay based on standard time
      • Piece rate: Pay based on pieces done
  • 37. Maslow’s Hierarchy of Needs Self-Actualization Use of abilities Self-fulfillment Social Group Interaction Job Status Safety Physical Safety Job Security Physiology Food Shelter Ego Self Respect
  • 38. Herzberg’s Motivation/Hygiene Factors
    • Achievement
    • Recognition
    • Advancement
    • Work itself
    • Responsibility
    • Personal growth
    • Company policies and administration
    • Supervision - technical
    • Working conditions
    • Interpersonal relations - supervision
    • Status
    • Job security
    • Salary
    Job Dissatisfiers (Hygiene) Job Satisfiers (Motivators)
  • 39. Job Characteristics Motivation Satisfaction Job performance Absenteeism & turnover Hackman & Oldham Core Job Characteristics Psychological States Personal & Work Outcomes
  • 40. Ergonomics and Work Methods
    • Worker performance depends on
      • Motivation
      • Ability
      • Work environment
    • Foundation laid by Frederick Taylor
      • Match employees to task
      • Develop work methods
      • Establish work standards
  • 41. Ergonomics
    • Study of work
    • Also called ‘human factors’
    • Involves human-machine interface
    • Examples
      • Mouse
      • Keyboard
  • 42. Recommended Levels of Illumination Good contrast, fairly large objects Task Condition Illumination Level (Ft-C) 100 Normal detail, prolonged periods 20-50 5-10 Large objects 2-5 Type of Task or Area Type of Illumination Overhead ceiling lights and desk lamp Sewing, inspecting dark materials Small detail; Extreme accuracy Recreational facilities Reading, parts assembly, general office work Restaurants, stairways, warehouses Overhead ceiling lights Overhead ceiling lights Overhead ceiling lights
  • 43. Decibel levels for Various Sounds Environmental Noises Common Noise Sources Decibels Jet takeoff (200 ft) 120 Casting shakeout area Riveting machine 110 Electric furnace area Printing press plant Pneumatic peen hammer, textile weaving plant Subway train 100 90 Very annoying Inside sports car (50 mph) Near freeway (auto traffic) Pneumatic drill Freight train Vacuum cleaner (10 ft) Speech (1 ft) 80 70 Ear protection required if exposed 8 hours or more Large store Private business office Light traffic (100ft) Large transformer (200ft) 60 50 Intrusive Quiet Minimum levels, residential areas in Chicago at night Soft whisper 40 30 Very quiet Ear protection required
  • 44. Methods Analysis
    • Focuses on how task is performed
    • Used to analyze
      • Movement of body, people, or material
      • Activities of people & machines
    • Tools
      • Process chart
      • Flow diagram
      • Activity chart
      • Operations chart (right-hand, left-hand)
  • 45. Methods Analysis Used to Study
    • Movement of individuals or materials ( Flow diagrams or process charts )
    • Activity of human and machine and crew activity ( Activity charts )
    • Body movement (primarily hands) ( Micro-motion charts )
  • 46. Process Chart
    •  = operation;  = transport;  = inspect; D = delay;  = storage
    SUBJECT: Request tool purchase Dist (ft) Time (min) Symbol Description Write order On desk 75 To buyer Examine    D     D     D     D 
  • 47. Flow Diagram Buyer You 75 ft.
  • 48. Flow Diagram and Process Chart of Axle-Stand Production Line
  • 49. Activity Chart for Two-Person Oil-Change Crew
  • 50. Operations Chart (Left Hand/Right Hand)
  • 51. Activity Chart Subject: Semi-Auto Machine Operator Machine Time 1 2 3 4 5 6 Load machine Being loaded Idle Run Unload Being Unloaded Present
  • 52. The Visual Workplace
    • Uses low-cost visual devices to share information quickly and accurately.
    • Displays and graphs replace paper
    • Provides real-time information
    • System should focus on improvement, not merely monitoring
    • Can provide both production and financial data
  • 53. The Visual Workplace
  • 54. What is Work Measurement?
    • Determining the amount of worker time required to generate one unit of output
    • Provides labor standards
      • Target amount of time required to perform a job under normal working conditions
  • 55. Uses of Labor Standards
    • Costing labor content of products
    • Planning staffing needs
    • Cost & time estimates for bids
    • Planning production
    • Wage-incentive plans
    • Employee efficiency
  • 56. Sources of Labor Standards
    • Historical experience
    • Time studies
    • Predetermined time standards (MTM)
    • Work sampling
  • 57. Labor Standards - Historical Experience
    • Labor standards are based on how many labor-hours were needed in past
    • Least preferred method
    • Advantages
      • Easy and inexpensive to obtain standard
    • Disadvantages
      • Unknown accuracy due to unusual occurrences, unknown pace etc.
  • 58. A Final Thought © 1995 Corel Corp. Church of the Holy Family (Barcelona) Two stonecutters were asked what they were doing. The first said, ‘I’m cutting this stone into blocks.’ The second one replied, ‘I’m on a team that’s building a cathedral.’ — Old Story