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    Hdfc finance project report Hdfc finance project report Document Transcript

    • SAAB MARFIN MBATable of ContentsS.no Topic Page No.1 Executive Summary2 Company Profile3 Industry Profile I. Introduction II. History of Mutual funds III. Regulatory framework IV. Concept Of Mutual Fund V. Types of Mutual Fund VI. Advantages Of Mutual Fund VII. Terms Used In Mutual Funds VIII. Fund management IX. Risk X. Basis Of Comparisons XI. How to pick right fund4 Systematic Investment Plan and Lump Sum investment5 Rebalancing and its effects.6 Research Methodology I. Problem statement II. Research Objective 2
    • SAAB MARFIN MBA III. Data source IV. Data Anlysis V. Scope of Study VI. Limitations7 Findings and Analysis8 Rankings9 Conclusion1. Executive SummaryThe topic of this project is Mutual Fund Comparison and Analysis. The mutual fundindustry in India has seen dramatic improvements in quantity as well as quality ofproduct and service offerings in recent years and hence here focus is oncomparing schemes of different mutual fund companies on different performanceparametrers. Along with this project also touches on the aspect of SystematicInvestment Plan and Rebalancing.Project analysis past three years data of different mutual fund schemes. Differentmeasures like beta ,Sharpe, Treynor, Jensen etc. have been taken to analyse theperformance.An effort has been made to work on the concepts that have been taught in classalong with other useful parameters so that better study can be done. 3
    • SAAB MARFIN MBA2. Company ProfileVision Statement: 4
    • SAAB MARFIN MBAHDFC Asset Management Company Ltd (AMC) was incorporated under theCompanies Act, 1956, on December 10, 1999, and was approved to act as an AssetManagement Company for the HDFC Mutual Fund by SEBI vide its letter dated July 3,2000.The registered office of the AMC is situated at Ramon House, 3rd Floor, H.T. ParekhMarg, 169, Back bay Reclamation, Churchgate, Mumbai - 400 020.In terms of the Investment Management Agreement, the Trustee has appointed theHDFC Asset Management Company Limited to manage the Mutual Fund. The paidup capital of the AMC is Rs. 25.161 crore.Zurich Insurance Company (ZIC), the Sponsor of Zurich India Mutual Fund, followinga review of its overall strategy, had decided to divest its Asset Managementbusiness in India. The AMC had entered into an agreement with ZIC to acquire thesaid business, subject to necessary regulatory approvals.Following the decision by Zurich Insurance Company (ZIC), the sponsor of ZurichIndia Mutual Fund, to divest its Asset Management Business in India, HDFC AMCacquired the schemes of Zurich India Mutual Fund effective from June 19, 2003.HDFC AMC has a strong parentage – CO Sponsored by Housing DevelopmentFinance Corporation Limited (HDFC Ltd.) and Standard Life Investment Limited, theinvestment arm of The Standard Life Group, UK.The present equity shareholding pattern of the AMC is as follows: Housing Development Finance Corporation Limited was incorporated in 1977 as the first specialized Mortgage Company in India, its activities include 5
    • SAAB MARFIN MBA housing finance, and property related services (property identification, valuation etc.), training and consultancy. HDFC Ltd. contributes the 60% of the paid up equity capital of the AMC. Standard Life Insurance Limited is a leading Asset management company with approximately US$ 282 billion of asset under management as on June 30, 2007. The company operates in UK, Canada, Hong Kong, China, Korea, Ireland and USA to ensure it is able to form a truly global investment view. SLI Ltd. contributes the 40% of the paid up equity capital of the AMC.The AMC is managing 24 open-ended schemes of the Mutual Fund viz. HDFCGrowth Fund (HGF), HDFC Balanced Fund (HBF), HDFC Income Fund (HIF), HDFCLiquid Fund (HLF), HDFC Long Term Advantage Fund (HLTAF), HDFC Childrens GiftFund (HDFC CGF), HDFC Gilt Fund (HGILT), HDFC Short Term Plan (HSTP), HDFCIndex Fund, HDFC Floating Rate Income Fund (HFRIF), HDFC Equity Fund (HEF),HDFC Top 200 Fund (HT200), HDFC Capital Builder Fund (HCBF), HDFC Tax Saver(HTS), HDFC Prudence Fund (HPF), HDFC High Interest Fund (HHIF), HDFC CashManagement Fund (HCMF), HDFC MF Monthly Income Plan (HMIP), HDFC Core &Satellite Fund (HCSF), HDFC Multiple Yield Fund (HMYF), HDFC Premier Multi-CapFund (HPMCF), HDFC Multiple Yield Fund . Plan 2005 (HMYF-Plan 2005), HDFCQuarterly Interval Fund (HQIF) and HDFC Arbitrage Fund (HAF).The AMC is alsomanaging 11 closed ended Schemes of the HDFC Mutual Fund viz. HDFC LongTerm Equity Fund, HDFC Mid-Cap Opportunities Fund, HDFC Infrastructure Fund,HDFC Fixed Maturity Plans, HDFC Fixed Maturity Plans - Series II, HDFC FixedMaturity Plans - Series III, HDFC Fixed Maturity Plans - Series IV, HDFC FixedMaturity Plans - Series V, HDFC Fixed Maturity Plans - Series VI, HFDC Fixed 6
    • SAAB MARFIN MBA- Series V, HDFC Fixed Maturity Plans - Series VI, HFDC Fixed Maturity Plans -Series VII and HFDC Fixed Maturity Plans - Series VIII.The AMC is also providing portfolio management / advisory services and suchactivities are not in conflict with the activities of the Mutual Fund. The AMC hasrenewed its registration from SEBI vide Registration No. - PM / INP000000506dated December 8, 2006 to act as a Portfolio Manager under the SEBI (PortfolioManagers) Regulations, 1993.3. Industry ProfileI. IntroductionThe Indian mutual fund industry has witnessed significant growth in the past fewyears driven by several favourable economic and demographic factors such asrising income levels, and the increasing reach of Asset Management Companiesand distributors. However, after several years of relentless growth ,the industrywitnessed a fall of 8% in the assets under management in the financial year2008-2009 that has impacted revenues and profitability. Whereas in 2009-10 theindustry is on the road of recovery. 7
    • SAAB MARFIN MBAII. History of Mutual FundsThe mutual fund industry in India started in 1963 with the formation of Unit Trustof India, at the initiative of the Government of India and Reserve Bank of India. Thehistory of mutual funds in India can be broadly divided into four distinct phases.First Phase – 1964-87Unit Trust of India (UTI) was established on 1963 by an Act of Parliament. It was setup by the Reserve Bank of India and functioned under the Regulatory andadministrative control of the Reserve Bank of India. In 1978 UTI was de-linked fromthe RBI and the Industrial Development Bank of India (IDBI) took over the regulatoryand administrative control in place of RBI. The first scheme launched by UTI wasUnit Scheme 1964. At the end of 1988 UTI had Rs.6, 700 Crores of assets undermanagement.Second Phase – 1987-1993 (Entry of Public Sector Funds)1987 marked the entry of non- UTI, public sector mutual funds set up by publicsector banks and Life Insurance Corporation of India (LIC) and General InsuranceCorporation of India (GIC). SBI Mutual Fund was the first non- UTI Mutual Fundestablished in June 1987 followed by Canbank Mutual Fund (Dec 87), PunjabNational Bank Mutual Fund (Aug 89), Indian Bank Mutual Fund (Nov 89), Bank ofIndia (Jun 90), Bank of Baroda Mutual Fund (Oct 92). LIC established its mutual fundin June 1989 while GIC had set up its mutual fund in December 1990. 8
    • SAAB MARFIN MBAAt the end of 1993, the mutual fund industry had assets under management ofRs.47, 004 Crores.Third Phase – 1993-2003 (Entry of Private Sector Funds)With the entry of private sector funds in 1993, a new era started in the Indianmutual fund industry, giving the Indian investors a wider choice of fund families.Also, 1993 was the year in which the first Mutual Fund Regulations came into being,under which all mutual funds, except UTI were to be registered and governed. Theerstwhile Kothari Pioneer (now merged with Franklin Templeton) was the firstprivate sector mutual fund registered in July 1993.The 1993 SEBI (Mutual Fund) Regulations were substituted by a morecomprehensive and revised Mutual Fund Regulations in 1996. The industry nowfunctions under the SEBI (Mutual Fund) Regulations 1996.The number of mutual fund houses went on increasing, with many foreign mutualfunds setting up funds in India and also the industry has witnessed several mergersand acquisitions. As at the end of January 2003, there were 33 mutual funds withtotal assets of Rs. 1, 21,805 Crores. The Unit Trust of India with Rs.44, 541 Croresof assets under management was way ahead of other mutual fundsFourth Phase – since February 2003In February 2003, following the repeal of the Unit Trust of India Act 1963 UTI wasbifurcated into two separate entities. One is the Specified Undertaking of the UnitTrust of India with assets under management of Rs.29, 835 crores as at the end ofJanuary 2003, representing broadly, the assets of US 64 scheme, assured returnand certain other schemes. The Specified Undertaking of Unit Trust of India,functioning under an administrator and under the rules framed by Government ofIndia and does not come under the purview of the Mutual Fund Regulations. 9
    • SAAB MARFIN MBAThe second is the UTI Mutual Fund Ltd, sponsored by SBI, PNB, BOB and LIC. It isregistered with SEBI and functions under the Mutual Fund Regulations. With thebifurcation of the erstwhile UTI which had in March 2000 more than Rs.76,000Crores of assets under management and with the setting up of a UTI Mutual Fund,conforming to the SEBI Mutual Fund.The graph indicates the growth of assets over the years:Assets of the mutual fund industry touched an all-time high of Rs639,000 crore(approximately $136 billion) in May, aided by the spike in the stock market by over 50 percent in the last one month and fresh inflows in liquid funds, data released by theAssociation of Mutual Funds in India (AMFI) shows yesterday.The countrys burgeoning mutual fund industry is expected to see its assetsgrowing by 29% annually in the next five years. The total assets under managementin the Indian mutual funds industry are estimated to grow at a compounded annualgrowth rate (CAGR) of 29 per cent in the next five years," the report by global 10
    • SAAB MARFIN MBA consultancy Celent said. However, the profitability of the industry is expected to remain at its present level mainly due to increasing cost incurred to develop distribution channels and falling margins due to greater competition among fund houses, it said.III. Regulatory Framework Securities and Exchange Board of India (SEBI) The Government of India constituted Securities and Exchange Board of India, by an Act of Parliament in 1992, the apex regulator of all entities that either raise funds in the capital markets or invest in capital market securities such as shares and debentures listed on stock exchanges. Mutual funds have emerged as an important institutional investor in capital market securities. Hence they come under the purview of SEBI. SEBI requires all mutual funds to be registered with them. It issues guidelines for all mutual fund operations including where they can invest, what investment limits and restrictions must be complied with, how they should account for income and expenses, how they should make disclosures of information to the investors and generally act in the interest of investor protection. To protect the interest of the investors, SEBI formulates policies and regulates the mutual funds. MF either promoted by public or by private sector entities including one promoted by foreign entities are governed by these Regulations. SEBI approved Asset Management Company (AMC) manages the funds by making investments in various types of securities. Custodian, registered with SEBI, holds the securities of various schemes of the fund in its custody. According to SEBI Regulations, two thirds of the directors of Trustee Company or board of trustees must be independent. Association of Mutual Funds in India (AMFI) With the increase in mutual fund players in India, a need for mutual fund association in India was generated to function as a non-profit organisation. 11
    • SAAB MARFIN MBAAssociation of Mutual Funds in India (AMFI) was incorporated on 22nd August,1995.AMFI is an apex body of all Asset Management Companies (AMC) which hasbeen registered with SEBI. Till date all the AMCs are that have launched mutual fundschemes are its member. It functions under the supervision and guidelines of itsBoard of Directors.Association of Mutual Funds India has brought down the Indian MutualFund Industry to a professional and healthy market with ethical line enhancingand maintaining standards. It follows the principle of both protecting andpromoting the interests of mutual funds as well as their unit holders.The objectives of Association of Mutual Funds in IndiaThe Association of Mutual Funds of India works with 30 registered AMCs ofthe country. It has certain defined objectives which juxtaposes the guidelines of itsBoard of Directors. The objectives are as follows: This mutual fund association of India maintains high professional and ethical standards in all areas of operation of the industry. It also recommends and promotes the top class business practices and code of conduct which is followed by members and related people engaged in the activities of mutual fund and asset management. The agencies who are by any means connected or involved in the field of capital markets and financial services also involved in this code of conduct of the association. AMFI interacts with SEBI and works according to SEBIs guidelines in the mutual fund industry. 12
    • SAAB MARFIN MBA Association of Mutual Fund of India do represent the Government of India, the Reserve Bank of India and other related bodies on matters relating to the Mutual Fund Industry. It develops a team of well qualified and trained Agent distributors. It implements a program of training and certification for all intermediaries and other engaged in the mutual fund industry. AMFI undertakes all India awareness program for investors in order to promote proper understanding of the concept and working of mutual funds. At last but not the least association of mutual fund of India also disseminate information on Mutual Fund Industry and undertakes studies and research either directly or in association with other bodies.IV. Concept of Mutual Fund A Mutual Fund is a trust that pools the savings of a number of investors who share a common financial goal. The money thus collected is then invested in capital market instruments such as shares, debentures and other securities. The income earned through these investments and the capital appreciations realized are shared by its unit holders in proportion to the number of units owned by them. Thus a Mutual Fund is the most suitable investment for the common man as it offers an opportunity to invest in a diversified, professionally managed basket of securities at a relatively low cost. The flow chart below describes the working of a mutual fund: 13
    • SAAB MARFIN MBAMutual fund operation flow chartMutual funds are considered as one of the best available investments as compareto others. They are very cost efficient and also easy to invest in, thus by poolingmoney together in a mutual fund, investors can purchase stocks or bonds withmuch lower trading costs than if they tried to do it on their own. But the biggestadvantage to mutual funds is diversification, by minimizing risk & maximizingreturns.Organization of a Mutual FundThere are many entities involved and the diagram below illustrates theorganizational set up of a mutual fund 14
    • SAAB MARFIN MBAV. Types of Mutual Fund schemes in INDIAWide variety of Mutual Fund Schemes exists to cater to the needs such as financialposition, risk tolerance and return expectations.Overview of existing schemes existed in mutual fund category: BY STRUCTUREOpen - Ended Schemes: An open-end fund is one that is available for subscriptionall through the year. These do not have a fixed maturity. Investors can convenientlybuy and sell units at Net Asset Value ("NAV") related prices. The key feature ofopen-end schemes is liquidity.Close - Ended Schemes: A closed-end fund has a stipulated maturity period whichgenerally ranging from 3 to 15 years. The fund is open for subscription only duringa specified period. Investors can invest in the scheme at the time of the initialpublic issue and thereafter they can buy or sell the units of the scheme on thestock exchanges where they are listed. In order to provide an exit route to theinvestors, some close-ended funds give an option of selling back the units to theMutual Fund through periodic repurchase at NAV related prices. SEBI Regulationsstipulate that at least one of the two exit routes is provided to the investor. 15
    • SAAB MARFIN MBAInterval Schemes: Interval Schemes are that scheme, which combines the featuresof open-ended and close-ended schemes. The units may be traded on the stockexchange or may be open for sale or redemption during pre-determined intervalsat NAV related prices.Overview of existing schemes existed in mutual fund category: BY NATUREEquity fund: These funds invest a maximum part of their corpus into equitiesholdings. The structure of the fund may vary different for different schemes andthe fund manager’s outlook on different stocks. The Equity Funds aresub-classified depending upon their investment objective, as follows:-Diversified Equity Funds-Mid-Cap Funds-Sector Specific Funds-Tax Savings Funds (ELSS)Equity investments are meant for a longer time horizon, thus Equity funds rankhigh on the risk-return matrix.Debt funds: The objective of these Funds is to invest in debt papers. Governmentauthorities, private companies, banks and financial institutions are some of themajor issuers of debt papers. By investing in debt instruments, these funds ensurelow risk and provide stable income to the investors. Gilt Funds: Invest their corpus in securities issued by Government, popularlyknown as Government of India debt papers. These Funds carry zero Default risk butare associated with Interest Rate risk. These schemes are safer as they invest inpapers backed by Government. 16
    • SAAB MARFIN MBAIncome Funds: Invest a major portion into various debt instruments such as bonds,corporate debentures and Government securities.Monthly income plans ( MIPs): Invests maximum of their total corpus in debtinstruments while they take minimum exposure in equities. It gets benefit of bothequity and debt market. These scheme ranks slightly high on the risk-return matrixwhen compared with other debt schemes. Short Term Plans (STPs): Meant for investment horizon for three to six months.These funds primarily invest in short term papers like Certificate of Deposits (CDs)and Commercial Papers (CPs). Some portion of the corpus is also invested incorporate debentures.Liquid Funds: Also known as Money Market Schemes, These funds provides easyliquidity and preservation of capital. These schemes invest in short-terminstruments like Treasury Bills, inter-bank call money market, CPs and CDs. Thesefunds are meant for short-term cash management of corporate houses and aremeant for an investment horizon of 1day to 3 months. These schemes rank low onrisk-return matrix and are considered to be the safest amongst all categories ofmutual funds.Balanced funds: They invest in both equities and fixed income securities, which arein line with pre-defined investment objective of the scheme. These schemes aim toprovide investors with the best of both the worlds. Equity part provides growth andthe debt part provides stability in returns.Further the mutual funds can be broadly classified on the basis of investmentparameter. It means each category of funds is backed by an investment philosophy,which is pre-defined in the objectives of the fund. The investor can align his owninvestment needs with the funds objective and can invest accordinglyBy investment objective: 17
    • SAAB MARFIN MBAGrowth Schemes: Growth Schemes are also known as equity schemes. The aim ofthese schemes is to provide capital appreciation over medium to long term. Theseschemes normally invest a major part of their fund in equities and are willing tobear short-term decline in value for possible future appreciation.Income Schemes: Income Schemes are also known as debt schemes. The aim ofthese schemes is to provide regular and steady income to investors. These schemesgenerally invest in fixed income securities such as bonds and corporate debentures.Capital appreciation in such schemes may be limited.Balanced Schemes: Balanced Schemes aim to provide both growth and income byperiodically distributing a part of the income and capital gains they earn. Theseschemes invest in both shares and fixed income securities, in the proportionindicated in their offer documents.Money Market Schemes: Money Market Schemes aim to provide easy liquidity,preservation of capital and moderate income. These schemes generally invest insafer, short-term instruments, such as treasury bills, certificates of deposit,commercial paper and inter-bank call money.Other schemesTax Saving Schemes:Tax-saving schemes offer tax rebates to the investors under tax laws prescribedfrom time to time. Under Sec.80C of the Income Tax Act, contributions made to anyEquity Linked Savings Scheme (ELSS) are eligible for rebate. 18
    • SAAB MARFIN MBA Index Schemes: Index schemes attempt to replicate the performance of a particular index such as the BSE Sensex or the Nifty 50. The portfolio of these schemes will consist of only those stocks that constitute the index. The percentage of each stock to the total holding will be identical to the stocks index weightage. And hence, the returns from such schemes would be more or less equivalent to those of the Index. Sector Specific Schemes: These are the funds/schemes which invest in the securities of only those sectors or industries as specified in the offer documents. Ex- Pharmaceuticals, Software, Fast Moving Consumer Goods (FMCG), Petroleum stocks, etc. The returns in these funds are dependent on the performance of the respective sectors/industries. While these funds may give higher returns, they are more risky compared to diversified funds. Investors need to keep a watch on the performance of those sectors/industries and must exit at an appropriate time.VI. Advantages of Mutual Funds Diversification – It can help an investor diversify their portfolio with a minimum investment. Spreading investments across a range of securities can help to reduce risk. A stock mutual fund, for example, invests in many stocks .This minimizes the risk attributed to a concentrated position. If a few securities in the mutual fund lose value or become worthless, the loss maybe offset by other securities that appreciate in value. Further diversification can be achieved by investing in multiple funds which invest in different sectors. Professional Management- Mutual funds are managed and supervised by investment professional. These managers decide what securities the fund will buy 19
    • SAAB MARFIN MBA and sell. This eliminates the investor of the difficult task of trying to time the market. Well regulated- Mutual funds are subject to many government regulations that protect investors from fraud. Liquidity- Its easy to get money out of a mutual fund. Convenience- we can buy mutual fund shares by mail, phone, or over the Internet. Low cost- Mutual fund expenses are often no more than 1.5 percent of our investment. Expenses for Index Funds are less than that, because index funds are not actively managed. Instead, they automatically buy stock in companies that are listed on a specific index Transparency- The mutual fund offer document provides all the information about the fund and the scheme. This document is also called as the prospectus or the fund offer document, and is very detailed and contains most of the relevant information that an investor would need. Choice of schemes – there are different schemes which an investor can choose from according to his investment goals and risk appetite. Tax benefits – An investor can get a tax benefit in schemes like ELSS (equity linked saving scheme)VII. Terms used in Mutual Fund Asset Management Company (AMC) An AMC is the legal entity formed by the sponsor to run a mutual fund. The AMC is usually a private limited company in which the sponsors and their associates or joint venture partners are the shareholders. The trustees sign an investment 20
    • SAAB MARFIN MBAagreement with the AMC, which spells out the functions of the AMC. It is the AMCthat employs fund managers and analysts, and other personnel. It is the AMC thathandles all operational matters of a mutual fund – from launching schemes tomanaging them to interacting with investors.Fund Offer documentThe mutual fund is required to file with SEBI a detailed information memorandum,in a prescribed format that provides all the information about the fund and thescheme. This document is also called as the prospectus or the fund offer document,and is very detailed and contains most of the relevant information that an investorwould needTrustThe Mutual Fund is constituted as a Trust in accordance with the provisions of theIndian Trusts Act, 1882 by the Sponsor. The trust deed is registered under theIndian Registration Act, 1908. The Trust appoints the Trustees who are responsibleto the investors of the fund.TrusteesTrustees are like internal regulators in a mutual fund, and their job is to protect theinterests of the unit holders. Trustees are appointed by the sponsors, and can beeither individuals or corporate bodies. In order to ensure they are impartial and fair,SEBI rules mandate that at least two-thirds of the trustees be independent, i.e., nothave any association with the sponsor.Trustees appoint the AMC, which subsequently, seeks their approval for the work itdoes, and reports periodically to them on how the business being run.CustodianA custodian handles the investment back office of a mutual fund. Itsresponsibilities include receipt and delivery of securities, collection of income,distribution of dividends and segregation of assets between the schemes. It alsotrack corporate actions like bonus issues, right offers, offer for sale, buy back and 21
    • SAAB MARFIN MBAopen offers for acquisition. The sponsor of a mutual fund cannot act as a custodianto the fund. This condition, formulated in the interest of investors, ensures that theassets of a mutual fund are not in the hands of its sponsor. For example, DeutscheBank is a custodian, but it cannot service Deutsche Mutual Fund, its mutual fundarm.NAVNet Asset Value is the market value of the assets of the scheme minus its liabilities.The per unit NAV is the net asset value of the scheme divided by the number ofunits outstanding on the Valuation Date.The NAV is usually calculated on a dailybasis. In terms of corporate valuations, the book values of assets less liability.The NAV is usually below the market price because the current value of the fund’sassets is higher than the historical financial statements used in the NAV calculation. Market Value of the Assets in the Scheme + Receivables + Accrued Income - Liabilities - Accrued ExpensesNAV =------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------ No. of units outstandingWhere,Receivables: Whatever the Profit is earned out of sold stocks by the Mutual fund iscalled Receivables.Accrued Income: Income received from the investment made by the Mutual Fund.Liabilities: Whatever they have to pay to other companies are called liabilities.Accrued Expenses: Day to day expenses such as postal expenses, Printing,Advertisement Expenses etc. 22
    • SAAB MARFIN MBACalculation of NAVScheme ABNScheme Size Rs. 5, 00, 00,000 (Five Crores)Face Value of Units Rs.10/-Scheme Size 5, 00, 00,000--------------------------- = ------------------- = 50,00,000Face value of units 10The fund will offer 50, 00,000 units to Public.Investments: Equity shares of Various Companies.Market Value of Shares is Rs.10, 00, 00,000 (Ten Crores) Rs. 10, 00, 00,000 NAV = -------------------------- = Rs.20/- 50, 00,000 unitsThus each unit of Rs. 10/- is Worth Rs.20/-It states that the value of the money has appreciated since it is more than the facevalue.Sale priceIs the price we pay when we invest in a scheme. Also called Offer Price. It mayinclude a sales load.Repurchase price 23
    • SAAB MARFIN MBAIs the price at which units under open-ended schemes are repurchased by theMutual Fund. Such prices are NAV relatedRedemption PriceIs the price at which close-ended schemes redeem their units on maturity. Suchprices are NAV relatedSales loadIs a charge collected by a scheme when it sells the units. Also called, ‘Front-end’load. Schemes that do not charge a load are called ‘No Load’ schemes.Repurchase or ‘Back-end’ LoadIs a charge collected by a scheme when it buys back the units from the unit holdersCAGR (compounded annual growth rate)The year-over-year growth rate of an investment over a specified period of time.The compound annual growth rate is calculated by taking the nth root of the totalpercentage growth rate, where n is the number of years in the period beingconsidered. 24
    • SAAB MARFIN MBAVIII. Fund Management Actively managed funds: Mutual Fund managers are professionals. They are considered professionals because of their knowledge and experience. Managers are hired to actively manage mutual fund portfolios. Instead of seeking to track market performance, active fund management tries to beat it. To do this, fund managers "actively" buy and sell individual securities. For an actively managed fund, the corresponding index can be used as a performance benchmark. Is an active fund a better investment because it is trying to outperform the market? Not necessarily. While there is the potential for higher returns with active funds, they are more unpredictable and more risky. From 1990 through 1999, on average, 76% of large cap actively managed stock funds actually underperformed the S&P 500. (Source - Schwab Center for Investment Research) Actively managed fund styles: 25
    • SAAB MARFIN MBASome active fund managers follow an investing "style" to try and maximize fundperformance while meeting the investment objectives of the fund. Fund stylesusually fall within the following three categories.Fund Styles : Value: The manager invests in stocks believed to be currently undervalued by the market. Growth: The manager selects stocks they believe have a strong potential for beating the market. Blend: The manager looks for a combination of both growth and value stocks.To determine the style of a mutual fund, consult the prospectus as well as othersources that review mutual funds. Dont be surprised if the information conflicts.Although a prospectus may state a specific fund style, the style may change. Valuestocks held in the portfolio over a period of time may become growth stocks andvice versa. Other research may give a more current and accurate account of thestyle of the fund.Passively Managed Funds:Passively managed mutual funds are an easily understood, relatively safe approachto investing in broad segments of the market. They are used by less experiencedinvestors as well as sophisticated institutional investors with large portfolios.Indexing has been called investing on autopilot. The metaphor is an appropriateone as managed funds can be viewed as having a pilot at the controls. When itcomes to flying an airplane, both approaches are widely used.a high percentage of investment professionals, find index investing compelling forthe following reasons: Simplicity. Broad-based market index funds make asset allocation and diversification easy. 26
    • SAAB MARFIN MBA Management quality. The passive nature of indexing eliminates any concerns about human error or management tenure. Low portfolio turnover. Less buying and selling of securities means lower costs and fewer tax consequences. Low operational expenses. Indexing is considerably less expensive than active fund management. Asset bloat. Portfolio size is not a concern with index funds. Performance. It is a matter of record that index funds have outperformed the majority of managed funds over a variety of time periods. You make money from your mutual fund investment when: The fund earns income on its investments, and distributes it to you in the form of dividends. The fund produces capital gains by selling securities at a profit, and distributes those gains to you. You sell your shares of the fund at a higher price than you paid for themIX. Risk Every type of investment, including mutual funds, involves risk. Risk refers to the possibility that you will lose money (both principal and any earnings) or fail to make money on an investment. A funds investment objective and its holdings are influential factors in determining how risky a fund is. Reading the prospectus will help you to understand the risk associated with that particular fund. Generally speaking, risk and potential return are related. This is the risk/return trade-off. Higher risks are usually taken with the expectation of higher returns at the cost of increased volatility. While a fund with higher risk has the potential for 27
    • SAAB MARFIN MBAhigher return, it also has the greater potential for losses or negative returns. Theschool of thought when investing in mutual funds suggests that the longer yourinvestment time horizon is the less affected you should be by short-termvolatility. Therefore, the shorter your investment time horizon, the moreconcerned you should be with short-term volatility and higher risk.Defining Mutual fund riskDifferent mutual fund categories as previously defined have inherently differentrisk characteristics and should not be compared side by side. A bond fund withbelow-average risk, for example, should not be compared to a stock fund withbelow average risk. Even though both funds have low risk for their respectivecategories, stock funds overall have a higher risk/return potential than bond funds.Of all the asset classes, cash investments (i.e. money markets) offer the greatestprice stability but have yielded the lowest long-term returns. Bonds typicallyexperience more short-term price swings, and in turn have generated higherlong-term returns. However, stocks historically have been subject to the greatestshort-term price fluctuations—and have provided the highest long-term returns.Investors looking for a fund which incorporates all asset classes may consider abalanced or hybrid mutual fund. These funds can be very conservative or veryaggressive. Asset allocation portfolios are mutual funds that invest in other mutualfunds with different asset classes. At the discretion of the manager(s), securitiesare bought, sold, and shifted between funds with different asset classes accordingto market conditions.Mutual funds face risks based on the investments they hold. For example, a bondfund faces interest rate risk and income risk. Bond values are inversely related tointerest rates. If interest rates go up, bond values will go down and vice versa.Bond income is also affected by the change in interest rates. Bond yields are 28
    • SAAB MARFIN MBAdirectly related to interest rates falling as interest rates fall and rising as interestrise. Income risk is greater for a short-term bond fund than for a long-term bondfund.Similarly, a sector stock fund (which invests in a single industry, such astelecommunications) is at risk that its price will decline due to developments in itsindustry. A stock fund that invests across many industries is more sheltered fromthis risk defined as industry risk.Following is a glossary of some risks to consider when investing in mutual funds. Call Risk. The possibility that falling interest rates will cause a bond issuer to redeem—or call—its high-yielding bond before the bonds maturity date Country Risk. The possibility that political events (a war, national elections), financial problems (rising inflation, government default), or natural disasters (an earthquake, a poor harvest) will weaken a countrys economy and cause investments in that country to decline. Credit Risk. The possibility that a bond issuer will fail to repay interest and principal in a timely manner. Also called default risk. Currency Risk. The possibility that returns could be reduced for Americans investing in foreign securities because of a rise in the value of the U.S. dollar against foreign currencies. Also called exchange-rate risk. Income Risk. The possibility that a fixed-income funds dividends will decline as a result of falling overall interest rates. Industry Risk. The possibility that a group of stocks in a single industry will decline in price due to developments in that industry. 29
    • SAAB MARFIN MBAX. Basis Of Comparison Of Various Schemes Of Mutual FundsBetaBeta measures the sensitivity of the stock to the market. For example if beta=1.5; itmeans the stock price will change by 1.5% for every 1% change in Sensex. It is alsoused to measure the systematic risk. Systematic risk means risks which are externalto the organization like competition, government policies. They arenon-diversifiable risks.Beta is calculated using regression analysis, Beta can also be defined as thetendency of a securitys returns to respond to swings in the market. A beta of 1indicates that the securitys price will move with the market. A beta less than 1means that the security will be less volatile than the market. A beta greater than 1indicates that the securitys price will be more volatile than the market. For example,if a stocks beta is 1.2, its theoretically 20% more volatile than the market.Beta>11thenxaggressivexstocksIf1beta<1xthen1defensive1stocksIf beta=1 then neutralSo, it’s a measure of the volatility, or systematic risk, of a security or a portfolio incomparison to the market as a whole.Many utilities stocks have a beta of less than 1. Conversely, most hi-techNASDAQ-based stocks have a beta greater than 1, offering the possibility of ahigher rate of return but also posing more risk.AlphaAlpha takes the volatility in price of a mutual fund and compares its risk adjustedperformance to a benchmark index. The excess return of the fund relative to the 30
    • SAAB MARFIN MBAreturns of benchmark index is a fundamental ALPHA. It is calculated as a returnwhich is earned in excess of the return generated by CAPM. Alpha is oftenconsidered to represent the value that a portfolio manager adds to or subtractsfrom a funds return. A positive alpha of 1.0 means the fund has outperformed itsbenchmark index by 1%. Correspondingly, a similar negative alpha wouldindicate underperformanceof 1%. .If a CAPM analysis estimates that a portfolio should earn 35% return based on therisk of the portfolio but the portfolio actually earns 40%, the portfolios alpha wouldbe 5%. This 5% is the excess return over what was predicted in the CAPM model.This 5% is ALPHA.Sharpe RatioA ratio developed by Nobel Laureate Bill Sharpe to measure risk-adjustedperformance. It is calculated by subtracting the risk-free rate from the rate ofreturn for a portfolio and dividing the result by the standard deviation of theportfolio returns.The Sharpe ratio tells us whether the returns of a portfolio are because of smartinvestment decisions or a result of excess risk. This measurement is very usefulbecause although one portfolio or fund can reap higher returns than its peers, it isonly a good investment if those higher returns do not come with too muchadditional risk. The greater a portfolios Sharpe ratio, the better its risk-adjustedperformance has been.Treynor Ratio 31
    • SAAB MARFIN MBAThe treynor ratio, named after Jack Treynor, is similar to the Sharpe ratio, exceptthat the risk measure used is Beta instead of standard deviation. This ratio thusmeasures reward to volatility.Treynor Ratio = (Return from the investment – Risk free return) / Beta of theinvestment.The scheme with the higher treynor Ratio offers a better risk-reward equation forthe investor.Since Treynor Ratio uses Beta as a risk measure, it evaluates excess returns onlywith respect to systematic (or market) risk. It will therefore be more appropriate fordiversified schemes, where the non-systematic risks have been eliminated.Generally, large institutional investors have the requisite funds to maintain suchhighly diversified portfolios.Also since Beta is based on capital asset pricing model, which is empirically testedfor equity, Treynor Ratio would be inappropriate for debt schemes.M- SQUAREDModigliani and Modigliani recognized that average investors did not find the Sharperatio intuitive and addressed this shortcoming by multiplying the Sharpe ratio bythe standard deviation of the excess returns on a broad market index, such as theS&P 500 or the Wilshire 5000, for the same time period. This yields therisk-adjusted excess return. This, too, is a significant and useful statistic, as itmeasures the return in excess of the risk-free rate, which is the basis from whichall risky investments should be measured.M–Squared= [ (Ri – Rf)/ Sd. Inv] * Sd. Mkt + RfORM–Squared= Sharpe Ratio* Sd. Mkt + Rf 32
    • SAAB MARFIN MBARi = Return from the investmentRf = Risk free returnSd. Inv= Standard Deviation InvestmentSd. Mkt= Standard Deviation MarketLeverage Factor:It reports the comparison of the total risk in the fund with the total risk in themarket portfolio and can be used in making investment decisions. It is calculatedby dividing market standard deviation by the fund standard deviation.Li = Standard deviation of the market Standard deviation of the fundfor example a leverage factor greater than one implies that standard deviation ofthe fund is less than standard deviation of the market index, and that the investorshould consider levering the fund by borrowing money and invest in that particularfund. while this would tend to increase the risk of investment somewhat ,therewould be an greater than proportional increase in returns. On the other handleverage factor less than one implies that the risk of fund is greater than risk ofmarket index and the investor should consider unlevering the fund by selling of thepart of the holding in the fund and investing the proceeds I a risk free security,such as treasury bill in this way returns on the investment reduce somewhat, therewould be an greater than proportional reduction in risk.Standard Deviation:A measure of the dispersion of a set of data from its mean. The more spread apartthe data is, the higher the deviation. Standard deviation is applied to the annualrate of return of an investment to measure the investments volatility (risk). 33
    • SAAB MARFIN MBA A volatile stock would have a high standard deviation. The standard deviation tells us how much the return on the fund is deviating from the expected normal returns. Standard deviation can also be calculated as the square root of the variance.XI. How To Pick The Right Mutual Fund Identifying Goals and Risk Tolerance Before acquiring shares in any fund, an investor must first identify his or her goals and desires for the money being invested. Are long-term capital gains desired, or is a current income preferred? Will the money be used to pay for college expenses, or to supplement a retirement that is decades away. One should consider the issue of risk tolerance. Is the investor able to afford and mentally accept dramatic swings in portfolio value? Or, is a more conservative investment warranted? Identifying risk tolerance is as important as identifying a goal. Finally, the time horizon must be addressed. Investors must think about how long they can afford to tie up their money, or if they anticipate any liquidity concerns in the near future. Ideally, mutual fund holders should have an investment horizon with at least five years or more. Style and Fund Type If the investor intends to use the money in the fund for a longer term need and is willing to assume a fair amount of risk and volatility, then the style/objective he or she may be suited for is a fund. These types of funds typically hold a high percentage of their assets in common stocks, and are therefore considered to be volatile in nature. Conversely, if the investor is in need of current income, he or she should acquire shares in an income fund. Government and corporate debt are the two of the more common holdings in an income fund. There are times when an investor has a longer term need, but is unwilling or unable to assume substantial 34
    • SAAB MARFIN MBArisk. In this case, a balanced fund, which invests in both stocks and bonds, may bethe best alternative.Charges and FeesMutual funds make their money by charging fees to the investor. It is important togain an understanding of the different types of fees that you may face whenpurchasing an investment.Some funds charge a sales fee known as a load fee, which will either be chargedupon initial investment or upon sale of the investment. A front-end load/fee is paidout of the initial investment made by the investor while a back-end load/fee ischarged when an investor sells his or her investment, usually prior to a set timeperiod. To avoid these sales fees, look for no-load funds, which dont charge afront- or back-end load/fee. However, one should be aware of the other fees in ano-load fund, such as the management expense ratio and other administrationfees, as they may be very high.The investor should look for the management expense ratio. The ratio is simply thetotal percentage of fund assets that are being charged to cover fund expenses. Thehigher the ratio, the lower the investors return will be at the end of the year.Evaluating Managers/Past ResultsInvestors should research a funds past results. The following is a list of questionsthat perspective investors should ask themselves when reviewing the historicalrecord: Did the fund manager deliver results that were consistent with general market returns? Was the fund more volatile than the big indexes (it means did its returns vary dramatically throughout the year)?This information is important because it will give the investor insight into how theportfolio manager performs under certain conditions, as well as what historicallyhas been the trend in terms of turnover and return. Prior to buying into a fund, one 35
    • SAAB MARFIN MBAmust review the investment companys literature to look for information aboutanticipated trends in the market in the years ahead.Size of the FundAlthough, the size of a fund does not hinder its ability to meet its investmentobjectives. However, there are times when a fund can get too big. For example -Fidelitys Magellan Fund. Back in 1999 the fund topped $100 billion in assets, andfor the first time, it was forced to change its investment process to accommodatethe large daily (money) inflows. Instead of being nimble and buying small and midcap stocks, it shifted its focus primarily toward larger capitalization growth stocks.As a result, its performance has suffered.Fund Transactional ActivityPortfolio TurnoverMeasure of how frequently assets within a fund are bought and sold by themanagers. Portfolio turnover is calculated by taking either the total amount of newsecurities purchased or the amount of securities sold -whichever is less - over aparticular period, divided by the total net asset value (NAV) of the fund. Themeasurement is usually reported for a 12-month time periodFund Performance MetricsHistorical PerformanceThe investor should see the past returns of the fund and should compare it withthe peer group fund. Whatever the objective, the mutual fund is an excellent medium to accumulatefinancial assets and grow them over time to achieve any of these goals. 36
    • SAAB MARFIN MBA4. Systematic Investment Plan (SIP)SIP is similar to a Recurring Deposit. Every month on a specified date an amount you chooseis invested in a mutual fund scheme of your choice. The dates currently available for SIPsare the 1st, 5th, 10th, 15th, 20th and the 25th of a month. There are many benefits ofinvesting through SIP.Benefit 1Become A Disciplined InvestorBeing disciplined - It’s the key to investing success. With the Systematic Investment Planyou commit an amount of your choice (minimum of Rs. 500 and in multiples of Rs. 100thereof*) to be invested every month in one of our schemes.Think of each SIP payment as laying a brick. One by one, you’ll see them transform into abuilding. You’ll see your investments accrue month after month. It’s as simple as giving atleast 6 postdated monthly cheques to us for a fixed amount in a scheme of your choice. It’sthe perfect solution for irregular investors.Benefit 2Reach Your Financial GoalImagine you want to buy a car a year from now, but you don’t know where thedown-payment will come from. SIP is a perfect tool for people who have a specific, futurefinancial requirement. By investing an amount of your choice every month, you can plan forand meet financial goals, like funds for a child’s education, a marriage in the family or acomfortable postretirement life.Benefit 3 37
    • SAAB MARFIN MBATake Advantage of Rupee Cost AveragingMost investors want to buy stocks when the prices are low and sell them when prices arehigh. But timing the market is timeconsuming and risky. A more successful investmentstrategy is to adopt the method called Rupee Cost Averaging. We can reap this benefit byinvesting the amounts through a SIP .Benefit 4Grow Your Investment With Compounded BenefitsIt is far better to invest a small amount of money regularly, rather than save up to make onelarge investment. This is because while you are saving the lump sum, your savings may notearn much interest.With HDFC MF SIP, each amount you invest grows through compounding benefits as well.That is, the interest earned on your investment also earns interest. The following exampleillustrates this.Imagine Neha is 20 years old when she starts working. Every month she saves and investsRs. 5,000 till she is 25 years old. The total investment made by her over 5 years is Rs. 3lakhs.Arjun also starts working when he is 20 years old. But he doesn’t invest monthly. Hegets a large bonus of Rs. 3 lakhs at 25 and decides to invest the entire amount.Both of them decide not to withdraw these investments till they turn 50. At 50, Neha’sInvestments have grown to Rs. 46,68,273* whereas Arjun’s investments have grown to Rs.36,17,084*. Neha’s small contributions to a SIP and her decision to start investing earlierthan Arjun have made her wealthier by over Rs. 10 lakhs.*Figures based on 10% p.a. interest compounded monthly.Benefit 5Do All This EffortlesslyInvesting with SIP is easy. Simply give us post-dated cheques or opt for an Auto Debit fromyour bank account for an amount of your choice (minimum of Rs. 500 and in multiples ofRs. 100 thereof*) and we’ll invest the money every month in a fund of your choice. Theplans are completely flexible. You can invest for a minimum of six months, or for as long as 38
    • SAAB MARFIN MBAyou want. You can also decide to invest quarterly and will need to invest for a minimum oftwo quarters.All you have to do after that is sit back and watch your investments accumulateSIP and LUMPSUM Investment in HDFC EQUITY FUNDYEAR 2007-08 NAV SIP UNITS Apr-07 151.6 1000 6.596306 May-07 159.28 1000 6.278173 Jun-07 165.31 1000 6.049131 Jul-07 166.8 1000 5.995175 Aug-07 168.83 1000 5.923223 Sep-07 182.84 1000 5.469323 Oct-07 210.1 1000 4.759638 Nov-07 206.18 1000 4.850225 Dec-07 223.32 1000 4.477819 Jan-08 188.42 1000 5.307292 Feb-08 188.24 1000 5.312367 Mar-08 165.78 1000 6.032091 39
    • SAAB MARFIN MBA 25 20 NA 15 Series 10 5 0 Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec Jan Feb Mar 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 PERIODSIP UNITS : 67.05076AVERAGE UNIT PRICE=178.968LUMPSUM: 12000/151.6= 79.155AVERAGE UNIT PRICE=151.6YEAR 2008-09: NAV SIP UNITS Apr-0 8 178.19 1000 5.611987 May08 169.6 1000 5.896226 Jun-08 143.72 1000 6.958119 Jul-08 151.72 1000 6.591306 Aug-0 8 158.92 1000 6.292316 Sep-0 8 145.72 1000 6.862429 Oct-0 8 110.32 1000 9.064375 Nov-0 8 101.81 1000 9.822411 40
    • SAAB MARFIN MBA Dec-0 8 112.38 1000 8.898618 Jan-09 103.75 1000 9.638183 Feb-0 9 98.163 1000 10.18714 Mar-0 9 108.85 1000 9.186786 20 18 16 14 12 NAV 10 Series 8 0 6 4 2 00 Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec Jan Feb Mar 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 8 8 8 8 8 8 8 8 8 9 9 9 PERIOD SIP UNITS : 95.00989 AVERAGE UNIT PRICE=126.3026 LUMPSUM: 12000/178.19= 67.34385 AVERAGE UNIT PRICE=178.19YEAR 2009-10: NAV SIP UNITS Apr-0 9 127.07 1000 7.869678 May09 169.9 1000 5.885919 Jun-0 172.81 1000 5.786702 41
    • SAAB MARFIN MBA 9 Jul-09 185.35 1000 5.395344 Aug-0 9 193.03 1000 5.180542 Sep-0 9 211.82 1000 4.720923 Oct-0 9 209.02 1000 4.784163 Nov-0 9 224.32 1000 4.457917 Dec-0 9 231.01 1000 4.328817 Jan-1 0 224.93 1000 4.445828 Feb-1 0 223.39 1000 4.476576 Mar10 235.72 1000 4.242375 25 20 15 NAV Series 10 5 0 Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec Jan Feb Mar 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 1 1 PERIODSSIP UNITS : 61.5747 42
    • SAAB MARFIN MBAAVERAGE UNIT PRICE=194.885LUMPSUM: 12000/127.07= 94.4361AVERAGE UNIT PRICE=127.07In the year 2007-08 when the there is not much change in the opening and endingNAV there is not much difference in the units earned through SIP investment andlump sum investment.There is a constant decrease in the NAV of the fund and there is a noticeablechange in the opening and ending NAV for the year 2008-09. This fall in markethelps the investors in earning more units as the NAV is continuously going down.As the number of units earned increases as the average unit price of the mutualfund scheme decreases.In 2009-10 there continuous increase in the NAV and hence lump sum investmentgives more units compared to SIP investments. Due to low number of units earnedthe average unit price is more compared to lump sum investment.SIP investments are beneficial to investors in obtaining more units when the marketis down. By investing in small amounts but in continuous manner investors canreap benefits of market volatility.SIP investment benefits the investor as smallamount of money can be invested in a systematic manner hence not burdeninghim/her with need to make large investment at one time Hence along withconvenience to the investors it also gives them advantage to reap the benefits ofhaving extra units when the markets are down. 43
    • SAAB MARFIN MBA5. Portfolio RebalancingRebalancing is defined as the periodic adjustment of a portfolio to restore theoriginal asset allocation mix of your mutual fund portfolio. If an investorsinvestment strategy or risk threshold has changed, he can rebalance hisinvestments so that asset classes in the portfolio align with his new asset allocationplan. It is the process of selling assets that are performing well and buying assetsthat are underperforming. Portfolio rebalancing is one of the very few ways togenerate additional returns for a portfolio without incurring any additional risk.Ex-if there is a portfolio with a 50%stocks / 50% bonds policy asset mix.If stocks return 25% return while bonds produce a 5% return, stocks becomeoverweighed at the end of the year (54% vs. 46%). Rebalancing involves selling 4% instocks and buying 4% in bonds to bring the asset mix back to the desired 50/50asset mix. 44
    • SAAB MARFIN MBAOne of a very important step before rebalancing is to assign a strategic asset allocationplan appropriate to risk profile, investment goals and time horizon.Rebalancing in volatile marketIn rising stock markets, people often take on more risk than theyre suited for ,as a resultof which, they ended up with a larger percentage of stocks in their portfolios than their risklevels warranted, Many even added to their already over weighted positions by buyingmore and more, assuming the stellar performance trend would continue indefinitely, butwhen the market began a sharp fall in 2000, their investments were pounded—more thanthey likely expected and more than if had they rebalanced.Rebalancing effectsFinancial Research studied a portfolio of 60% stocks and 40% bonds to see whatwould happen if no rebalancing took place. As the stock market performed well from 1994to 1999, the portfolios 60% stock allocation grew to nearly 80%. This portfolio becameover weighted in stocks just in time for the 2000 bear marketWithout rebalancing, a portfolio in the 1990s became too aggressive 45
    • SAAB MARFIN MBAbut the same mix of 60% stocks and 40% bonds, starting in 2000. This time, the stockmarket was falling. By 2002, the portfolios allocation had flipped, consisting of 40% stocksand 60% bonds.Without rebalancing, a portfolio in the 2000s became too conservative 46
    • SAAB MARFIN MBAThe value of regular rebalancingA regular rebalancing plan helps instill discipline in investing process. In most cases, arebalanced portfolio had lower risk and similar to slightly higher returns. The chart belowshows what happened when we rebalanced a portfolio with a moderate risk profile annuallyfrom 1970 through 2006.Rebalancing lowered risk and increased returnsSource: The Schwab Center for Financial Research with data from Ibbotson Associates, Inc. 47
    • SAAB MARFIN MBARebalancing has proven to be more efficient than a buy and hold strategy over a fullmarket cycle and by rebalancing periodically back to the original weighting of the portfolio,it has also been effective at risk reduction. A buy and hold strategy can be more profitableover the short term as rebalancing sole driving force is to sell off what is up and buy whatis down. Because of this it is possible to reduce your position in an asset class that is stillon the rise thus reducing your potential for short-term gains. Overall, or more precisely,over a full market cycle of (on average) 5-7 years, rebalancing does add value.By rebalancing we can retain control of the overall risk of a portfolio. In a volatile market,rebalancing could add to fees, but it would also keep the portfolio on target for our goalsand in line with our desired level of riskAdvantages of rebalancing1. It keeps portfolio’s risk within tolerable limit.2. It generates stable return.3. It will instill the discipline essential for investment success.4. By rebalancing the portfolio, the investor systematically takes profit in these expenseasset classes and reinvests the proceeds into the underperforming assets.Analysis of investments in Equity and Debt and how rebalancing the portfolio will help in-Risk Management- Stability- Maximize returns 48
    • SAAB MARFIN MBAUnderstanding debt and equityEquityPros - High returns, Low risk in Long term, High LiquidityCons - Risky, not suitable for short term investmentDebtPros - Stable and assured returns, Good investment for short term goalsCons - Low returnsEquity + Debt- When we combine Equity and Debt, returns are better than Debt but lessthan Equity, but at the same time risk is also minimized, and when we apply technique ofPortfolio Rebalancing, both risk and returns are well managed.Each person should concentrate on both returns and risk.Case 1: Equity: Debt goes up.Action: Decrease the Equity part and shift it to Debt so that Equity:Debt is same as earlier.Reason: As our Equity has gone up, we could loose a lot of it if something bad happens; weshift the excess part to Debt so that it is safe and grows at least.Case 2: Equity: Debt Goes Down.Action: Decrease the Debt part and shift it to Equity, so that Equity: Debt is same as earlier.Reason: As out Equity part has decreased, we make sure that it is increased so that wedont loose out on any opportunity. Limitations of this strategy is that, once our equityexposure has gone up, if we rebalance and bring down your Equity Exposure, we will loose 49
    • SAAB MARFIN MBAout on the profits if Equity provides great returns.Case 3: Understanding the Game of Equity and DebtAs we know that the markets are unexpected and they can go in any direction, so its betterto be safe. Many people are confused that if there equity has done very well then shall theybook profits and get out with money and wait for markets to come down so that they canreinvest. Portfolio rebalancing is the same thing but a little different name andmethodology, so once you get good profit in something which was risky you transfer somepart to non-risk Debt.The rebalancing analysis can be done with the help of an example.Eight sensex levels have been selected starting from 1st January 2007 till 1st June 2010semiannually. The sensex levels on the below mentioned dates were:Dates Sensex1st January 07 13942.241st July 07 14664.26 st1 January 08 20300.711st July 08 12961.681st January 09 9903.461st July 09 14645.471st January 10 17558.73 st1 June 10 16572.03 50
    • SAAB MARFIN MBAWorking note:14664.26-13942.24/13942.24*100 = 5.18%20300.71-14664.26/14664.26 * 100 = 38.44%12961.68 – 20300.71/20300.71 * 100 = -36.15%9903.46 – 12961.68/12961.68 * 100 = -23.59 %14645.47 – 9903.46/9903.46*100 = 47.88 %17558.53- 14645.47/14645.47 * 100 = 19.89% and16572.03 -17558.53/17558.53* 100 = -5.62% 51
    • SAAB MARFIN MBA equity + debt equity+debt Return without with Time period s (%) Equity debt@9% rebalancing rebalancing Jan 07- July 105178. 07 5.18 7 109000 107090 107089.4 July 07- Jan 145605. 08 38.44 8 118810 132210.5 132490.9 Jan 08- July 92966.9 08 -36.15 8 129503 111237.8 114504.2 July 08 - Jan 71032.9 10 -23.59 6 141158 106099.3 106148.7 Jan 09- July 105043. 09 47.88 9 153862 129459 136377.4 July 09- Jan 125939. 10 19.89 1 167709 146830 156031.3 Jan 10 - Jun 118873. 10 -5.62 6 182802 150837.8 158668.7Analysis:As we can see clearly from the above table that,Hence if we consistently rebalanceour portfolio we get more returns while reducing risk in our portfolio.Working note:(Assumption: tax has been ignored for calculation purposes)For equity: 1 lack is the amount of investment, we are getting 5.18% returns in thefirst quarter. So it will be 105178.7. Now in the next quarter return is 38.44 %,sothe amount will be 105178.7*1.3844=145605.8Similarly the rest calculations will be;145605.8*0.6385=92966.9892966.98*0.7641=71032.9671032.96*1.4788=105043.9 52
    • SAAB MARFIN MBA105043.9*1.1989=125939.1125939.1*0.9438= 118873.6So at the end the amount becomes 118873.6For debt @ 9%For 1st quarter: 9%*100000=109000For 2nd quarter: 9%*109000=118810For 3rd quarter: 9% 118810=129503For 4th quarter: 9% 129503=141158For 5th quarter: 9% 141158=153862For 6th quarter: 9% 153862=167709For 7th quarter: 9% 167709=182802For equity + debt (50:50) of amount 100000 without rebalancing:(118873.6+182802)/2 = 150837.8For equity + debt (50:50) of amount 100000 with rebalancing:1st quarter: 50*105178.70= 52589.35 50*109000=54500 53
    • SAAB MARFIN MBASo total capital now is =107089.40 .we can see that our 50,000 in equity becomes52589.35 and 50,000 in debt becomes 54500 .so in order to bring it to ouroriginal 50:50 ratio we will now rebalance.2nd quarter: 50*107089.40 =53544.68 and 50*107089.40=53544.68Now this 54175 amount becomes the opening balance for quarter 2.Calculating the returns now,53544.68 *1.3844= 74127.2553544.68 *1.09 =58363.7So the total capital now becomes=132490.9 .Now again 53544.68 amountbecomes 74127.25and 53544.68 becomes 58363.7disrupting our 50:50 ratio. sowe will again rebalance itFor 3rd quarter:50%*132490.9=66245.4750%*132490.9=66245.47Calculating return in these two figures. in equity the return is -36.15% and in debtit is 9%.66245.47*.6385=42296.6866245.47*1.09 =72207.56The total amount now is 114504.2. 54
    • SAAB MARFIN MBAFor 4th quarter50%* 114504.2=57252.12 and50% 114504.2= 57252.57252.12 *1.3843= 43743.8757252.12*1.09 = 62404.81The final amount will be 106148.7For 5th quarter50%*106148.7 =53074.3450% * 106148.7 =53074.3453074.34*1.4788= 78486.3453074.34*1.09= 57851.03So the total is 136337.4For 6th quarter50% * 136337.4= 68168.6950% * 136337.4= 68168.6968168.69*1.1989 = 81727.4468168.69*1.09 = 74303.87So the total is 156031.3For 7th quarter 55
    • SAAB MARFIN MBA50% 156031.3= 78015.6550% 156031.3= 78015.6578015.65*.9438 = 73631.6278015.65*1.09 = 85037.06So the final total is 158668.7AnalysisComparing the debt+ equity with and without rebalancing. 0.2857Calculating CAGR without rebalancing: (150837.8/100000) - 1 =12.46% p.a 0.2857Calculating CAGR with rebalancing: (158668.7/100000) -1 = 14.09 %p.aSo it can be concluded that with the help of rebalancing we are getting 2.26%higher CAGR while reducing the risk and maintaining our desired portfolioallocation. 56
    • SAAB MARFIN MBA6. Research MethodologyI. Problem Statement Aim of the project is to analyze the performance flagship equity diversifiedschemes of six fund houses by calculating different performance measures for thedata of past three years. Through this we aim to evaluate the performance in termsof risk and the returns of the schemes.II. Research Objective 1. To compare the performance of various 5 star rated equity diversified mutual fund schemes over a period of three years. 2. To compare the schemes with the returns of benchmark for the past three years. 3. To identify the level of risk involved in investing in various equity diversified mutual fund schemes.II. Data SourcesPrimary data 57
    • SAAB MARFIN MBAMost of the data about the schemes of HDFC has been provided by the HDFC AssetManagement Company.My industry mentor helped me obtain monthly portfolios and returns data ofschemes which were available to him and also helped me acquire data fromcompany’s intranet.Secondary dataData collection: Secondary data is collected from various published journals,company fact sheets, books and from Internet.IV. Data analysisThe data that has been collected for this study has been analysed by widely usedperformance parameters as: Treynor Ratio Sharpe Ratio Jensen’s Alpha M Squared Leverage FactorOther analysis are done by using graphs, calculations, tables etc.V Scope Of The StudyThis study calculates different measures to compare equity diversified schemes ofdifferent fund houses . For this study past three years data of the schemes andtheir benchmarks have been taken into consideration. It helps us see how the fundsstand in comparison with each other. 58
    • SAAB MARFIN MBAVI Limitations Of The Study1. Time constraints: Due to shortage or less availability of time it may be possiblethat all the related and concerned aspects may not be covered in the project.2. Only past three year data has been taken in this project which might not givecomplete scheme performance.3. Analysis done is limited to the availability of data.7 Findings And AnalysisHere six funds of different companies are taken which are rated 5 star by ValueResearch Ratings. Value research Funds ratings are a composite measure ofhistorical risk adjusted returns. In the case of equity and hybrid funds this rating isbased on the weighted average monthly returns for the last 3 and 5 – year period.In the case of debt fund this rating is based on the weighted average weeklyreturns for the last 18 months and 3 years period and in case of short term debtfunds –weekly returns for the last 18 months. Each category must have a minimumof 10 funds to be rated. Effective since July 2008,additional qualifying criteria,whereby a fund with less than Rs. 5 crore of average AUM in the past six monthswill not be eligible for rating.Five star indicate that a fund is in the 10% of its category in terms of historical riskadjusted returns Four star indicate that fund is in the next 22.5% ,middle 35%receive 3 star, the next 22.5%are assigned 2 star bottom 10% receive 1 star.For our study here six schemes have been selected: HDFC EQUITY FUND 59
    • SAAB MARFIN MBA ICICI PRUDENTIAL DISCOVERY FUND UTI OPPUTTUNITIES FUND IDFC PREMIER EQUITY PLAN A RELIANCE RSF FUND SUNDARAN BNP PARIBAS S.M.I.L.E REG-SCHEME PROFILE: HDFC EQUITY FUND AMC HDFC Asset Management Company Ltd. Fund Category Equity diversified Scheme Plan Growth Scheme Type Open Ended Launch Date January 01, 1995 Fund Manager Mr. Prashant Jain Benchmark S&P CNX 500 Assets (RS 6355.7 60
    • SAAB MARFIN MBA crore) ICICI PRUDENTIAL DISCOVERY FUND AMC ICICI Prudential Asset Management Co. Ltd.Fund Category Equity diversifiedScheme Plan GrowthScheme Type Open EndedLaunch Date August 16,2004 Benchmark S&P CNX NiftyFund Manager Mr. Sankaren Naren Assets (RS crore) 1088.9 UTI OPPORTUNITIES FUND AMC UTI Asset Management Co. Ltd.Fund Category Equity diversified Scheme Plan Growth Scheme Type Open Ended Launch Date July 16,2005 Benchmark BSE 100Fund Manager Mr. Harsh Upadhyaya Assets (RS crore) 1432.78 61
    • SAAB MARFIN MBA IDFC PREMIER EQUITY PLAN A AMC IDFC Asset Management Company Ltd.Fund Category Equity diversified Scheme Plan Growth Scheme Type Open Ended Launch Date September 28, 2005 Benchmark BSE 500Fund Manager Mr. Kenneth Andrade Assets (RS crore) 1443.25 RELIANCE RSF FUND AMC RELAINCE Asset Management Co. Ltd.Fund Category Equity diversifiedScheme Plan GrowthScheme Type Open EndedLaunch Date June 8,2005 Benchmark BSE 100Fund Manager Mr. Arpit Malaviya Assets (RS crore) 2722.39 62
    • SAAB MARFIN MBA SUNDARAM BNP PARIBAS S.M.I.L.E REG-G AMC ICICI Prudential Asset Management Co. Ltd. Fund Category Equity diversified Scheme Plan Growth Scheme Type Open Ended Launch Date February 15,2005 Benchmark CNX midcap Fund Manager Mr. S Krishna Kumar Assets (RS crore) 695.139For all the above schemes returns of the past three years i.e. 2007-10 , have beenconsidered. Similarly returns are taken for the benchmarks of the respective schemes.Calculation of different parameters like average return , beta, standard deviation,sharpe ratio, treynor ratio have been done for all the schemes for all years separately.AVERAGE MONTHLY RETURN SCHEMES 2007-08 2008-09 2009-10 HDFC EQUITY FUND 1.72 (2.56) 5.95 ICICI PRUDENTIAL DISCOVERY FUND 1.11 (2.86) 7.50 UTI OPPORTUNITIES FUND 3.27 (1.83) 4.14 63
    • SAAB MARFIN MBA IDFC PREMIER EQUITY PLAN A 3.79 (3.31) 5.46 RELIANCE RSF FUND 4.38 (2.9) 5.77 SUNDARAM BNP PARIBAS S.M.I.L.E REG-G 2.65 (3.86) 6.30The table above average monthly returns of the mutual fund schemes for 2007-08,2008-09 and 2009-10. During the period of analysis, it was in the year 2009- 10, that thefunds have yielded the maximum return. Among them, the top return was provided byICICI Prudential Discovery Fund with a value of 7.5%. The lowest return giving fund for theyear was UTI Opportunities Fund and the value was 4.14%.Performance in the year 2008-09 was the least in all the three years. Least returns thisyear was from Sundaram BNP Paribas SMILE REG-G fund with the returns being -3.86% andhighest were of UTI Opportunities Fund with returns of -1.83%. Low returns in this yearwere because of recession that hit the market.In the year 2007-08 highest returns were given by Reliance RSF Fund with returns being4.38% and lowest returns were 1.11% of ICICI Prudential Discovery Fund.STANDARD DEVIATION SCHEMES 2007-08 2008-09 2009-10 HDFC EQUITY FUND 0.08 0.12 0.10 ICICI PRUDENTIAL DISCOVERY FUND 0.09 0.12 0.09 64
    • SAAB MARFIN MBA UTI OPPUTTUNITIES FUND 0.09 0.10 0.08 IDFC PREMIER EQUITY PLANA 0.09 0.11 0.07 RELAINCE RSF FUND 0.10 0.12 0.12 SUNDARAN BNP PARIBAS S.M.I.L.E REG-G 0.10 0.13 0 .11Standard Deviation of a fund depicts, that how much the returns of the fund havedeviated from the mean level. The higher the value of standard deviation, thegreater will be the volatility in the funds returns. In 2007-08 ,standard deviation of10% was highest among all for Reliance RSF Fund and Sundaram BNP Paribas SMILEREG-G meaning that the funds return fluctuated in either direction (up or down)by 10% from its average return ,whereas HDFC Equity fund showed minimumdeviation of 8%.In the year 2008-09 Sundaram BNP Paribas SMILE REG-G showed the maximumvolatility by having standard deviation of 13%. UTI Opportunities Fund had theminimum standard deviation of 10%For the year 2009-10 Reliance RSF Fund was the most volatile fund with standarddeviation of 12%. IDFC Premier Equity Plan A had the least value of 7%BETA 65
    • SAAB MARFIN MBA SCHEMES 2007-08 2008-09 2009-10 HDFC EQUITY FUND 0.87 0.91 0.86 ICICI PRUDENTIAL DISCOVERY FUND 0.84 0.98 0.87 UTI OPPORTUNITIES FUND 0.95 0.82 0.80 IDFC PREMIER EQUITY PLAN A 0.87 0.87 0.71 RELAINCE RSF FUND 0.99 1.00 1.02 SUNDARAM BNP PARIBAS S.M.I.L.E REG-G 0.95 0.97 1.10Beta measures the non- diversifiable risk of a portfolio. Normally, the value of beta liessomewhere between 0.4 and 1.9. In this case, the sample involves only equity diversifiedschemes. Therefore, the beta lies at a range from 0.71 to 1.10. During the financial year2007- 08, Reliance RSF Fund was considered as the highest risky fund as it was havinghighest beta value of 0.99. The lowest risky fund was ICICI Prudential Discovery Fund witha beta of 0.84.In the year 2008- 09, high risky fund was Reliance RSF Fund and the value was 1. The lowrisky fund for this financial year was UTI Opportunities Fund and the value was 0.82.The high risky fund for the financial year 2009- 10 was Sundaram BNP Paribas SMILEREG-G Fund with the Beta value of 1.1 next was Relaince RSF Fund with beta of 1.02.Lowrisk fund for this year was IDFC Equity Plan A with beta value of 0.71.SHARPE RATIO 66
    • SAAB MARFIN MBA SCHEMES 2007-08 2008-09 2009-10 HDFC EQUITY FUND 2.06 (3.40) 11.44 ICICI PRUDENTIAL DISCOVERY FUND 0.63 (3.47) 13.97 UTI OPPUTTUNITIES FUND 4.11 (3.23) 9.94 IDFC PREMIER EQUITY PLAN A 6.11 (3.63) 14.63 RELIANCE RSF FUND 5.24 (3.64) 10.48 SUNDARAM BNP PARIBAS S.M.I.L.E REG-G 3.59 (3.54) 10.87The above table shows the Sharpe ratio of various schemes for the financial years 2007-08,2008-09 and 2009- 10. Sharpe ratio is a measure of the excess return per unit of risk inan investment asset of a trading strategy. The Sharpe ratio is used to characterize how wellthe return of an asset compensates the investor for the risk taken. The selected mutualfund schemes showed the best risk adjusted performance during the financial year 2009-10. Among them, IDFC Equity Plan A was considered as the best one with a ratio of 14.63.The least performance was shown by UTI Opportunities Fund which has a ratio of 9.94.The performance of all selected mutual fund schemes was really low during the financialyear 2008- 09. Funds were even having negative Sharpe ratio. The lowest risk adjustedperformance was shown by Reliance RSF Fund and the value was -3.64. UTI OpportunitiesFund which showed the risk adjusted performance with a Sharpe ratio of -3.23 which wasbest among all. In the year 2007-08, IDFC Premier Equity Plan A is the fund which has shown themaximum Sharpe ratio of 6.11. It means that the fund has provided the maximum riskadjusted return as compared to other funds. The fund having the least Sharpe value is ICICIPrudential Discovery Fund with a value of 0.63. 67
    • SAAB MARFIN MBATREYNOR RATIO SCHEMES 2007-08 2008-09 2009-10 HDFC EQUITY FUND 0.19 (0.43) 1.26 ICICI PRUDENTIAL DISCOVERY FUND 0.07 (0.32) 1.73 UTI OPPORTUNITIES FUND 0.37 (0.38) 0.99 IDFC PREMIER EQUITY PLAN A 0.60 (0.46) 1.46 RELAINCE RSF FUND 0.53 (0.43) 1.01 SUNDARAM BNP PARIBAS S.M.I.L.E REG-G 0.37 (0.47) 1.11Treynor’s ratio measures the fund’s performance in relation to the market’s performance.The table shows the Treynor’s ratio of selected mutual fund schemes for three financialyears 2007-08,2008-09 and 2009-10. .It was during the financial year 2009- 10, that thefunds showed the highest performance among the three years of analysis. All the fundswere having its highest Treynor ratio during this financial year. Among them, the topperforming fund was ICICI Prudential Discovery Fund. The value was 1.73. The lowestperformance was shown by UTI Opportunities Fund. The value was 0.99.The financial year 2008- 09 was a low performance year for almost all mutual fundschemes. The returns reduced significantly as compared to previous financial year. Someschemes showed even a negative Treynor’s ratio. ICICI Prudential Discovery Fund is thefund which showed the maximum Treynor’s ratio during this financial year. The value was-0.32 and the least performing fund was SUNDARAM BNP Paribas SMILE REG- G Fund. Itsvalue was -0.47.In the year 2007-08, IDFC Equity Plan A Fund is having the maximum Treynor’s ratio of0.60. It means that the scheme has a better risk adjustedperformance as compared toother schemes. The scheme having the lowest Treynor ratio is ICICI Prudential DiscoveryFund. The ratio is 0.07. This shows that the fund is having a low risk adjusted performance. 68
    • SAAB MARFIN MBAJENSEN ALPHA SCHEMES 2007-08 2008-09 2009-10 HDFC EQUITY FUND (0.0109) (0.0026) 0.0110 ICICI PRUDENTIAL DISCOVERY FUND (0.0207) (0.0050) 0.0377 UTI OPPORTUNITIES FUND (0.0013) 0.0052 (0.0111) IDFC PREMIER EQUITY PLAN A 0.0693 0.0097 (0.0005) RELAINCE RSF FUND 0.0235 (0.0342) 0.0045 SUNDARAM BNP PARIBAS S.M.I.L.E REG-G (0.0026) (0.0024) (0.0018)Jensen’s performance index is used as a measure of absolute performance of the portfolio.The above table shows the Jensen’s alpha measure for the financial years2007-08,2008-09 and 2009- 10. In the year 2007-08, the highest risk- adjusted performance isshown by IDFC Premier Equity Plan A with a value of 0.0693. The lowest risk- adjustedperformance was shown by ICICI Prudential Discovery Fund and the value was -0.0207.During the financial year 2008- 09, the least value was shown by Relaince RSF Fund andthe value was -0.0342. The highest risk adjusted performance for this financial year wasshown by IDFC Premier Equity Plan A and the value was 0.0097.For the year 2009-10, the highest Jensen’s measure is for ICICI Prudential Discovery Fundand the value is 0.0377. The lowest value is for UTI Opportunities Fund and it is -0.0111. 69
    • SAAB MARFIN MBAM^2(M SQUARE) SCHEMES 2007-08 2008-09 2009-10 HDFC EQUITY FUND 0.2340 (0.3512) 1.1423 ICICI PRUDENTIAL DISCOVERY FUND 0.1033 (0.3309) 1.5213 UTI OPPORTUNITIES FUND 0.4711 (0.3225) 0.9809 IDFC PREMIER EQUITY PLAN A 0.5952 (0.4399) 1.5624 RELIANCE RSF FUND 0.5056 (0.3698) 1.0319 SUNDARAM BNP PARIBAS S.M.I.L.E REG-G 0.4012 (0.4211) 1.124The M-squared is a performance measurement using return per unit of total risk asmeasured by the standard deviation. The table above shows that in the year 2007-08 IDFCPremier Equity Plan A fund scored high on it with a value of 0.5952 and ICICI PrudentialDiscovery Fund showed least value with 0.10.In 2008-09 all the funds showed negative performance as the markets were down too.Among all UTI Opportunities Fund showed best performance with value of -0.3225 andIDFC Equity Plan A gave the minimum value of -0.4399.For the year 2009-10 IFDC Premier Equity Plan A Fund showed highest values of 1.5624among all the funds. And UTI Opportunities Fund had the minimum values of 0.98. 70
    • SAAB MARFIN MBALEVERAGE FACTOR (Li): SCHEMES 2007-08 2008-09 2009-10 HDFC EQUITY FUND 1.14 1.02 1.00 ICICI PRUDENTIAL DISCOVERY FUND 0.89 0.92 0.98 UTI OPPORTUNITIES FUND 1.01 1.20 1.18 IDFC PREMIER EQUITY PLAN A 1.009 1.22 1.45 RELAINCE RSF FUND 0.87 0.96 0.95 SUNDARAM BNP PARIBAS S.M.I.L.E REG-G 1.00 1.02 0.88The above table shows the leverage factor of various schemes for the financial years2007-08, 2008-09 and 2009- 10. In 2007-08 leverage factor is highest for HDFC Equityfund this means that it has low fund standard deviation compared to market standarddeviation and hence investor should consider levering this fund by investing more in it.Similarly for IDFC Premier Equity plan A in 2008-09 and 2009-10 investor should considerto invest more as they are having leverage factor more than one.For year 2007-08, Reliance RSF Fund has the lowest Leverage factor and also less than onemeans fund standard deviation is more than market standard deviation and hence investorshould consider unlevering this fund by selling of part of holding in the fund . Similarly forSundaram BNP Paribas SMILE REG- G fund in 2008-09 and ICICI Prudential Discovery Fundin 2009-10 investor should take similar steps as there leverage factor is less than one. 71
    • SAAB MARFIN MBA8. Rankings2007-08 Leverage Rank Sharpe Treynor Jensen M2 Factor IDFC PREMIER IDFC PREMIER IDFC PREMIER EQUITY PLAN EQUITY PLAN IDFC PREMIER HDFC EQUITY 1 EQUITY PLAN A A A EQUITY PLAN A FUND UTI RELIANCE RSF RELIANCE RELIANCE RSF RELIANCE RSF OPPORTUNITIES 2 FUND RSF FUND FUND FUND FUND SUNDARAM SUNDARAM UTI BNP PARIBAS BNP PARIBAS UTI OPPORTUNITIES S.M.I.L.E S.M.I.L.E OPPORTUNITIES IDFC PREMIER 3 FUND REG-G REG-G FUND EQUITY PLAN ADuring the financial year 2007- 08, Treynor’s ratio, Sharpe, Jensen’s andM-Squared measure rate IDFC Premier Equity Plan A as the best one, whereas,HDFC Equity Fund got the best rating in case of Leverage Factor. Thus, the bestpicks of financial year 2007- 08 include HDFC Equity Fund, IDFC Equity Plan A ,Reliance RSF Fund , UTI Opportunities Fund .2008-09 LeverageRank Sharpe Treynor Jensen M2 Factor 72
    • SAAB MARFIN MBA ICICI UTI PRUDENTIAL UTI OPPORTUNITIES DISCOVERY IDFC PREMIER OPPORTUNITIES IDFC PREMIER 1 FUND FUND EQUITY PLAN A FUND EQUITY PLAN A ICICI UTI UTI PRUDENTIAL UTI HDFC EQUITY OPPUTTUNITIES OPPUTTUNITIES DISCOVERY OPPORTUNITIES 2 FUND FUND FUND FUND FUND ICICI PRUDENTIAL SUNDARAM DISCOVERY HDFC EQUITY BNP PARIBAS HDFC EQUITY HDFC EQUITY 3 FUND FUND S.M.I.L.E REG-G FUND FUNIn the year 2008-09 according to Jensen Alpha and Leverage Factor IDFC EquityPlan A was the best performing fund whereas on the basis of M-Squared andSharpe ratio UTI OpportunitiesFund was the best in performance . ICICI PrudentialDiscovery Fund did best on M-Squared . Amongst the top three ranked fund wereSundaram BNP Paribas SMILE REG and HDFC Equity Fund .2009-10 Leverage Rank Sharpe Treynor Jensen M2 Factor ICICI ICICI PRUDENTIAL PRUDENTIAL IDFC PREMIER DISCOVERY DISCOVERY IDFC PREMIER IDFC PREMIER 1 EQUITY PLAN A FUND FUND EQUITY PLAN A EQUITY PLAN A ICICI IDFC ICICI PRUDENTIAL PREMIER PRUDENTIAL UTI DISCOVERY EQUITY PLAN HDFC EQUITY DISCOVERY OPPORTUNITIES 2 FUND A FUND FUND FUND HDFC EQUITY HDFC EQUITY RELIANCE RSF HDFC EQUITY HDFC EQUITY 3 FUND FUND FUND FUND FUNDIn the year 2009-10, ICICI Prudential Discovery Fund performed well on TreynorRatio and Jensen Alpha whereas IDFC Premier Equity Plan A performed well onSharpe Ratio,M-Squared and Leverage Factor. HDFC Equity Fund, Reliance RSF Fund,UTI Opportunities fund were other funds that were also in the top three performingfunds. 73
    • SAAB MARFIN MBA9. ConclusionIn this study the performance of various mutual fund schemes in the equitydiversified segment was considered. Analysis was based on the risk and returns ofvarious schemes. On analysis, it was revealed that there is a certain amount of riskinvolved, while investing in equity diversified schemes, as the beta values ofschemes falls within a range of 0.71 and 1.10. The study also revealed the fact thatalmost all the equity diversified schemes were affected in the year 2008-09 whenrecession had hit the market. Values for average returns, Sharpe and Treynor werelowest. Whereas in the year 2009-10 when the market were recovering andinvestors were again showing faith in the market schemes showed good riskadjusted performance, as most of the schemes were having positive values in caseof the performance measures. Schemes like IDFC Equity Plan A and HDFC EquityFund were the top performing schemes in different parameters for 2007-08. In2008-09 UTI Opportunities Fund, IDFC Equity Plan A and ICICI Prudential DiscoveryFund were the best of all and in 2009-10 IDFC Equity Plan A and ICICI PrudentialDiscovery Fund performed the best. 74
    • SAAB MARFIN MBAThe study is highly beneficial to the investors as it gives them chance to compareand analyze different scheme. Thus, the it helps the investors of all classes, inseeing how the different five star rated funds stand in comparison with each other.Along with this we are also able to see that in the difference between Systematicand Lump sum investment. We found out that if markets are down then then SIPhelps us in securing more units. In todays time when market movements cannot bepredicted investors tend to go for SIP as it does help them take advantage of thelow market rates. Also it removes the burden of investing large amount of money atone time.Further the effects of rebalancing showed that the returns that were earned whenrebalancing was done was higher compared to the returns that were earned withoutrebalancing. Hence setting rules for rebalancing your mutual fund portfolio andadhering to those rules will ensure that you sell high and buy low in the process ofmaintaining the desired composition. One need to decide up front how oftenhe/she will rebalance their portfolio. One should plan on doing it at least once ayear and possibly quarterly. Also, one should set target ranges and rebalance anyfunds as soon as they blow through the upper or lower end of their ranges. References 1. Naresh Malhotra, Research Methodology 2. Reilly/Brown, Investment Analysis and Portfolio Management. 3. www.valueresearchonline.com 4. www.moneycontrol.com 5. www.nseindia.com 6. www.bseindia.com 7. www.hdfcfund.com. 75